You are on page 1of 35

IslamicUniversityofGazaEnvironmentalEngineeringDepartment

Water Treatment WaterTreatment


EENV4331
Lecture4:Sedimentation
Dr.Fahid Rabah
1
4.SedimentationinwaterTreatment
4.1 Definition of Sedimentation:
It is the process of removing solid particles heavier than water
by gravity force.
Particles that will settle within a reasonable period of time
can be removed using a sedimentation tank (also called
clarifiers).
Sedimentation is used in water treatment at the locations
indicated in Figures 1 through 4.
2
4.SedimentationinwaterTreatment
4.2 Applications of sedimentation in water treatment: pp
1. Plain settling ( or presedimentation) of river surface
water .
2. In filtration treatment plants treating surface water to
removes flocculated solids. The sedimentation tank comes
after the flocculation tank.
3. In Softening treatment plants treating hard water to
removes flocculated solids. The sedimentation tank comes
ft th fl l ti t k after the flocculation tank.
4. In aeration treatment plant removing iron and manganese
from ground water
3
4.SedimentationinwaterTreatment
4.3 Geometry of sedimentation tanks: y
Sedimentation tanks are either rectangular or circular
tanks.
Figures 5 to 10 show typical sedimentation tanks used in
water treatment.
4
River
Screen
River
Water
PreSedimentation
Screen
Coagulation Flocculation
Sedimentation
Distribution Disinfection
Storage
Filtration
Figure1:FiltrationTreatmentPlant (RiverWater)
5
Screen
Surface
water
S di t ti
Coagulation Flocculation
Sedimentation
Distribution Disinfection
Storage
Filtration
Figure2:FiltrationTreatmentPlant
6
Ground
Water Water
RapidMixing Flocculation
Sedimentation
Recarbonation
Distribution Disinfection
Storage
Filtration
Figure3:SofteningTreatmentPlantSinglestagesoftening
7
Ground
Water
well
Filtration Aeration
Distribution
Disinfection
Storage
Figure4:AerationTreatmentPlant
( iron and manganese removal plant) (ironandmanganese removalplant)
8
9
Figure5:RectangularsedimentationTank
10
Figure6:RectangularsedimentationTank
11
Figure7:CircularsedimentationTank
12
Figure8:CircularsedimentationTank
13
Figure9:CircularsedimentationTank
Solidcontacttype
Figure10:CircularsedimentationTank
Solid contact type
14
Solidcontacttype
Figure11:RectangularsedimentationTank
sludge collection system
15
sludgecollectionsystem
Figure12:RectangularsedimentationTank
l d ll ti t
16
sludgecollectionsystem
Figure13:RectangularsedimentationTank
l d ll ti t
17
sludgecollectionsystem
Figure14:RectangularsedimentationTank
l d ll ti t
18
sludgecollectionsystem
4.SedimentationinwaterTreatment
4.3TheoreticalbackgroundonSedimentation
4 3 1 Type of particles : 4.3.1Typeofparticles:
1) Discrete / individual particle
- Size, velocity constant during the settling
D it 2 000 2 200 k /
3
- Density 2,000 2,200 kg/m
3
2) Flocculent particles
- Size, velocity fluctuates during the settling
- Particles flocculate and grow bigger in size
- Density 1,030 1,070 kg/m
3
19
Density 1,030 1,070 kg/m
4.SedimentationinwaterTreatment
4.3.2Threeclassesofparticlessettling:
Type 1 Type1
i) Particlessettlediscretelyataconstantvelocity
ii) Settleasindividualparticlesanddonotflocculate.
iii) E.g. : Sand, grit material iii) E.g.:Sand,gritmaterial
iv) Occursduring:
i) Presedimentationforsandremoval
ii) Settlingofsandduringrapidsandfiltercleaning
v) Concentration:verylow
20
4.SedimentationinwaterTreatment
Type2
i) Flocculate during sedimentation i) Flocculateduringsedimentation
ii) Sizeconstantlychanging
iii) Settlingvelocityischanging
iv) Settlingvelocityincreasewithdepthandextentofflocculation.
v) Occursduring:
i) Alumorironcoagulation
vi) Concentration:low
21
4.SedimentationinwaterTreatment
Type3orZone
i) Settleasmassandformalayer blanket
ii) Concentration high (greater than 1000 mg/L) ii) Concentrationhigh(greaterthan1000mg/L)
iii) Distinctclearzoneandsludgezonearepresent.
iv) Occursduring:
i) Limesofteningsedimentation
ii) Sludgethickenersinwatertreatment.
22
4.SedimentationinwaterTreatment
4.4Sedimentationtheory
23
4.SedimentationinwaterTreatment
Settlingvelocity(v
s
)mustbedeterminedtoassuregoodsedimentationtankdesign.
Overflowrate(v
o
)mustbesetatsomevalueLESSTHANorEQUALtoV
s
t
H
v
s
=
s
s
A
Q
H W l
HQ
V
H
t
H
v = =
(
(

= =
* *
t
s
Q
s
Q
(

s
A
Q
v =
0
But
Where
Q =flowrate(m
3
/h)
f (
2
)
s
v v =
0
So
A
s
=surfacearea(m
2
)
H =depthofwater,m
W=tankwidth,m
L = tank length m
24
L=tanklength,m
t =detentiontime,hr
4.SedimentationinwaterTreatment
4.5DesignofSedimentationtanks
4 5 1 Plain Sedimentation: 4.5.1PlainSedimentation:
Particlessettleseparately:

s
s
C
d g
V
3
) ( 4
=
D C 3
V
s
= settling velocity V
s
settlingvelocity
D=particlediameter
=waterdensity

s
=particledensity
s
p y
C
D
=dragcoefficients
25
4.SedimentationinwaterTreatment
4.5.1PlainSedimentation:
Dragcoefficientiscalculatedas:
R
e
<1,LaminarFlow
e
, a a o
1 < R < 10
4
Transitional Flow
R
C
D
24
=
1<R
e
<10 ,TransitionalFlow
R
e
>10
4
,Turbulent Flow
34 . 0
3 24
+ + =
R
R
C
D
WhereR=Reynoldsnumber
40 . 0 =
D
C
=dynamicviscosity,N.s/m
2

D V
R
s
=
26

4.SedimentationinwaterTreatment
4 5 D i f S di t ti t k 4.5DesignofSedimentationtanks
4.5.1PlainSedimentation:
Atlaminarflow,settlingvelocityequationissimplifiedtoStockslaw:


18
) (
2
D g
v
s
s

=
V
s
= settling velocity
18
V
s
settlingvelocity
D=particlediameter
=waterdensity

s
=particledensity
s
p y
C
D
=dragcoefficients
27
4.SedimentationinwaterTreatment
Example 4 1 : Example4.1:
Findthesettlingvelocity(v
s
)forsandparticleswithadiameterof0.020mm.
=2650kg/m
3
,=1.002X10
3
N.s/m
2
at20
0
C, =0.05,=0.03.whatisvsforparticles
with D = 0 5 mm? withD=0.5mm?
Solution:
AssumefirsttheflowislaminarandcheckforReynoldsnumber:
) 10 * 02 0 )( 1000 2650 ( 80 9
4
2 3

R<1 so its
s m X v
s
/ 10 59 . 3
10 * 002 . 1 * 18
) 10 02 . 0 )( 1000 2650 ( 80 . 9
4
3

= =
00715 0
10 * 20 . 0 * 10 * 58 . 3 * 1000
3 4
= = =

D V
R
s
R<1,soits
laminarflow
00715 . 0
10 * 002 . 1
3
= = =

R
For particles with D = 0.5mm: ForparticleswithD 0.5mm:
s m v
s
/ 22 . 0
10 * 002 . 1 * 18
) 10 * 5 . 0 )( 1000 2650 ( 81 . 9
3
2 3
=

110
10 * 002 . 1
10 * 50 . 0 * 22 . 0 * 1000
3
3
= = =

D V
R
s
R>1,soitstransitionalflow
28

4.SedimentationinwaterTreatment
so
84 . 0 34 . 0
110
3
110
24
= + + =
D
C
110
110
D
3
10 * 5 0 ) 1000 2650 ( 81 9 * 4

s m vs / 11 . 0
1000 * 110 * 3
10 * 5 . 0 ) 1000 2650 ( 81 . 9 * 4
=

=
SolveagainforR
e
:
55 =
e
R
R>1,soitstransitionalflow
O.K
SolveagainfirC
D
:
Solve again for v
s
:
18 . 1 =
D
C
s m v
s
/ 10 . 0 =
Solveagainforv
s
:
s
d m m d m s m v v Take / 31 / 31 / 10 * 59 3
2 3 4
= = = =

29
d m m d m s m v v Take
s
. / 31 / 31 / 10 59 . 3
0
= = = =
4.SedimentationinwaterTreatment
4.5Designtanks
4 5 1 Plain Sedimentation: 4.5.1PlainSedimentation:
Example4.2:
Designpresedimentationtankstobeusedtoremovegritandsandfromariver
h i d d 20000
3
/d d i ki U h fl d waterthatisusedtoproduce20000m
3
/ddrinkingwater.Usetheoverflowrateand
horizontalvelocitiescalculatedinexample4.1.Usetwotanks.
Solution:
3
d m m v v Take
s
. / 31
2 3
0
= =
l w
Q
A
Q
v
s
*
0
= =
*Flow/tank=(Q/2)=20000/2=10000m
3
/dh
As=10000/31=322.5m
2
SelectWidthtolengthratio1:4
A W* 4W 322 5 2 W 8 98 L 35 92 (t k W 9 L 36 ) A=W*4W=322.5m2W=8.98m,L=35.92(takeW=9m,L=36m)
Assumedetentiontime=3hrs
H=t*V
0
=(3*31)/24=3.88m3.90m
V Q/(W*H) 10000/(24*60*9*3 9) 0 198 m/min
30
V
h
=Q/(W*H)=10000/(24*60*9*3.9)=0.198m/min
Takeweirloadingrate=250m
3
/m.d:
L
weir
=Q/W
load
=10000/250=40m,Usesuspendedtroughsinsidethetank.
31
Figure15:
Rectangular
sedimentationTank
4.SedimentationinwaterTreatment
Example4.3:
Repeatexample4.3usingcirculartank.
Note:themaximumtankdiameteris40m
Solution:
d m m v v Take
s
. / 31
2 3
0
= =
s
A
Q
v =
0
*Flow/tank=(Q/2)=20000/2=10000m
3
/d
As=10000/31=322.5m
2
A
s
=D
2
/4=322.5m2D=20.27m20.30m<40m
Assumedetentiontime=3hrs
H=t*V
0
=(3*31)/24=3.88m3.90m
Checkhorizontalvelocityatthebeginningandendofsettlingzones:
V
h
=Q/(D
in
H)=10000/(24*60*3.14*3.9*3.9)=0.145m/min(Endofinletzone)
V
h
=Q/(D
out
H)=10000/(24*60*3.14*24*3.9)=0.024m/min(beginningofoutletzone)
T k i l di t 250
3
/ d Takeweirloadingrate=250m
3
/m.d:
L
weir
=Q/W
load
=10000/250=40m,Usesuspendedtroughsinsidethetank.
AvailableLength=D
total
=(2H+D)=3.14*(2*3.9+20.30)=88.23m>40mO.K
Available W Q/L 10000/88 23 113 34 m
3
/m
2
d < 250 m
3
/m d O K
32
AvailableW
load
=Q/L=10000/88.23=113.34m
3
/m
2
.d<250m
3
/m.d O.K
H=sidewallheight(tankdepth)
D
in
=H
D
total
in
D
out
=H+D
D
total
=3H+D
D=diametercalculatedfrom
D
in
D
out
theOverflowrate
D/2
O tl t H
D
total
Outletzone=H
D
total
D/2
D
in
D
out
H
Figure16:
Circular
sedimentation Tank
inletzone=H
33
sedimentationTank
Dimensionsdefinition
34
Figure17:
Circular
sedimentationTank
4.SedimentationinwaterTreatment
4.5DesignofSedimentationtanks
4 5 2 Flocculent Sedimentation ( type 2 and 3): 4.5.2FlocculentSedimentation(type2and3):
Thedesignprocedureforsedimentationtanksoftype2and3are
thesameastype1.Thedifferenceismainlyintheoverflowrate(v
0
)
. Thefollowingtablegivesthedesigncriteriaofthesetwotypes.
Process Settling type Detention Surface Weir loading Process Settlingtype Detention
time
(h)
Surface
loadingrate
(m
3
/m
2
.d)
Weirloading
rate
(m
3
/m.d)
Coagulation 2 48 2040 250
softening 3 26 4060 250
35