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Source: Oliver, A., Osa, J., & Walker, T. (2012). Using Instructional Technologies to Enhance Teaching and Learning for the 21st Century Pre-K 12 Students. International Journal of Instructional Media, 39(4), 283-295. EBSCOhost. How the application of the designs differ The research was designed to investigate how prospective teachers can use teachers’ preparative programs to efficiently create needed skills to enable integration of instructional technology into their instructional curriculum with aim of enhancing teaching and learning for Pre-K 12 students (Oliver, Osa, & Walker, 2012). By using a quantitative research method, a survey was design to collect data in order to answer the research questions that was created to guide the research (Oliver, Osa, & Walker, 2012). Quasi-experimental research design involves a large range of nonrandomized intervention studies (Harris, McGregor, & Perencevich, 2006).The design is frequently used when it is not logically realistic or proper to carry out in a randomized controlled trial (Harris, McGregor, & Perencevich, 2006). The sampling: rationale and techniques The participant of the study comprises of all the faculty members of the Professional Education Program (PEP) Unit (Oliver, Osa, & Walker, 2012). By using an online survey program known as Qualtrics software a twenty two item survey was generated and administered to the participating faculty that are involved in delivery of instructions in the selected PEP Units in order to collect data to answer the research questions (Oliver, Osa, & Walker, 2012). According to Oliver, Osa, and Walker (2012) a pilot experiment was carried out using a representative sample from the faculty members to establish the reliability and validity of the research.
followed by educational administration and supervision department (20%). 2012). it is used for describing sample group from collected data and enables close examination of data in order to provide the silent features (Delaney. 2012). Types of statistics used to analyze the data and generate results A descriptive statistics was used to analyze the data and generate results. Levels of measurement of the variables Faculty demographic information such as position and department in PEP Unit was obtained. To ensure full participation and integrity of the research. administration and organizational leadership department (13%). Osa. Osa. 2012). the feedbacks were represented using pie charts and histograms (Oliver. & Walker. & Walker. 2012). 2012).Data collection techniques A survey link was created and email sent to the participants. The designated gender shows that there were 20% male and 80% female. Osa. the largest respondent came from the teaching and learning department (60%). & Walker. The feedbacks from the survey respondent provided the information on the technological strategies for development of skills that can enhance effective preparation of prospective teachers’ instructional curriculum (Oliver. & Walker. & Walker. Osa. . assuring their confidentiality would be protected (Oliver. Descriptive statistical analyses is the simplest form of statistical analyses available. and school and community counseling (7%) (Oliver. 2010). Out of the four departments. a follow up email message was sent to the faculty PEP Unit participant regularly (Oliver. Osa.
2010). reliability. Osa. (2011). Osa. Osa. W. 2011. Ex Post Facto Study Source: Rausher. Special considerations: validity. 291-305. 2012). & Walker. T. 2012). 291). According to What engineers know and how they know it. p. The survey was via internet by emailing participants as a result a large response was generated (Oliver. (2012) the result shows that most educators believe that new technologies have the ability to develop a reform in educational system.. to be able to describe the nature of technological knowledge. The results revel that students will find learning more interesting and inspired to learn better if technology is integrated in the learning process (Oliver. J. & Walker. the conceptual framework was developed mainly by Vincenti’s types of knowledge based on his study into historical aeronautic engineering cases (as cited by Rausher 2011).. John Hopkins University Press.Inferences that can be drawn from the results According to Oliver. EBSCOhost How the application of the designs differ The research study was designed to “investigate the usefulness of an epistemology conceptual framework chiefly derived from engineering. Sharma (2012) stated that Ex-post facto research is methodical empirical . The Technological Knowledge used by Technology Education Students in Capability Tasks. The Ex Post Facto Study tends to leverage on an established philosophy in engineering to gain insight into technological knowledge (Rausher. A. 2011). International Journal Techno Des Educ. 21(). & Walker. in attempt to contribute towards the understanding of this relatively new learning area” (Rausher. generalizability Descriptive statistics have an advantage of clarity in the representation of data but it cannot be generalize (Delaney.
the survey questions was derived from the categories of knowledge that are listed in the conceptual framework.inquiry where by the scientist have no direct control of independent variables because their manifestations is in existences or because they are naturally not manipulated. one set is 22 students of the system and control module (JOT 353) and the second set is 21 students of structures module (JOT 354). gender. Types of statistics used to analyze the data and generate results The Pearson product moment correlation coefficient (r) was used to establish if a relationship does exist in the extent that student made the choice of technologies between two different areas. The sampling: rationale and techniques The researcher used a non-random or non-probability convenient sample that consist two sets of students. Student were required to respond to rating scale questions by selecting from the options (1) Not at all (2) To a limited extent (3) To a fairly large extent. . and (4) Extensively. and age range 20 to 23 years. Data collection techniques Data collected by using questionnaires. culture. The variation of their response forms the bases of the variables. The students found the questionnaire easier and understood the terminologies. Both sets are equally distributed in terms of languages. Levels of measurement of the variables The questionnaires were then simplified by making the survey questions easier and retested on five students that were previously interviewed.
According to Lomax and Li (2013) correlational research is used to determine the relationship between two or more variables. 303). p. How the application of the designs differ The research design was a descriptive quantitative correlational research study carried out at a University Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) program in Midwestern city (Lacobucci. T. Correlational Study Source: Lacobucci. generalizability The research validity was achieved by generating question for the questionnaire directly from the different categories of knowledge already listed in the conceptual framework. Survey questionnaires was created and administered to participants in order “to explore the relationships between professional nursing values.Inferences that can be drawn from the results The result from the analyses does “indicate that the epistemological conceptual framework chiefly derived from and used by professional engineers. Professional Values. Nursing Ethics. 479). Special considerations: validity. (2012). 2012). Self-esteem. 2011. 20(4). and ethical Confidence of Baccalaureate Nursing Students. self-esteem. and ethical decision making among senior baccalaureate nursing students” (Lacobucci. These variables form the bases for comparison. The research work was designed such that the opinion and perception of the respondent forms the variables for correlational comparison. . 479-490. 2012. EBSCOhost. reliability. is useful to technology education” (Rausher. p.
2012). 2012).Revised (NPVS-R) to find the strength of professional nursing student among the sampled students (Lacobucci. Anonymity of data was preserved by requesting participant not to include personal information in the survey packet (Lacobucci. According to Lacobucci (2012) one hundred Participation was percent of the qualified participant agree to participate (Lacobucci. 2012). The first variable was assessed using the Nurses Professional Value Scale. . 2012). 2012). 2012). Researchers ensure that course faculty was not present during recruitment and collection of data (Lacobucci. The second variable was evaluated using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) to find the level of self-esteem among nursing students (Lacobucci. voluntary and was not a compulsory requirement for their courses(Lacobucci. The criteria for inclusion are as follows: (1) must be 18 years and above (2) must be a senior level BSN student (3) must be registered for either an ethic course or public health course (Lacobucci. 2012). 2012). 2012). Data collection techniques The researchers used the first day to explain the purpose and expectation of the research work (Lacobucci. 2012). 2012). The third variable was measured using Perceived Ethical Confidence Scale (PECS) to find the perceived confidence making ethical decision among nursing students (Lacobucci. Levels of measurement of the variables The researcher provided 47-item survey questionnaires with three instruments and demographical survey packets (Lacobucci. 2012). Researchers remained in the classroom to ensure completion of survey questionnaires in exchange of a raffle entry of to win $50 gift card (Lacobucci.The sampling: rationale and techniques Nursing students were surveyed by using a non-probability convenience sampling method (Lacobucci.
The demographical characteristics and scores from questionnaires from the sample were analyzed by using a descriptive statistics (Lacobucci. 2012). Special considerations: validity. 2012). Inferences that can be drawn from the results Demographic characteristics of the groups were measured using central tendency and dispersion. 2012). 2012). The relationship among studied variables was explored using correlation coefficient the result shows moderate positive relationship among participant (Lacobucci. .1) shows a low level power that is an indication of limitation of the study. generalizabilit According to Lacobucci (2012) the study design Power analysis (G* Power 3. 2012). 2012). independent samples shows no significant differences in the mean score (Lacobucci. Another limitation was as a result of internal validity associated with using untested instrument the PECS (Lacobucci. The researcher used Pearson’s r to examine relationship among variables (Lacobucci.Types of statistics used to analyze the data and generate results The Statistical package of social Science (SPSS) was used to analyze the collected data (Lacobucci. 2012). Also the use of convenience sample and almost all the participant were White female students limiting the generalizability of the study (Lacobucci. The final result shows that the values of the professional nursing students do not necessarily affect the participant perception of confidence in making ethical decision (Lacobucci. reliability. 2012).
The Use and Interpretation of Quasi-Experimental Studies in Medical Informatics.. (2006. & Perencevich.nih. . A. R. 39(4). 21(). (). African Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health. A. 291-305. E. International Journal of Instructional Media. Retrieved from http://www.. 20(4). Osa. Correlational Research. 43-48. International Journal Techno Des Educ. L. J. 4(1). T.ncbi.. J. 13(1).Reference Oliver. January). Nursing Ethics. 479-490. J. EBSCOhost.education.. & Li. Lacobucci. EBSCOhost. (2013. 16-23.com/reference/article/correlational-research/#C Rausher. EBSCOhost . 283-295. Descriptive statistics: simply telling a story. (2012).. W. (2010. & Walker.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1380192/ Delaney. Professional Values. July). The Technological Knowledge used by Technology Education Students in Capability Tasks. and ethical Confidence of Baccalaureate Nursing Students. Harris. January). Self-esteem. T. EBSCOhost. J Am Med Inform Assoc.nlm. (2012). McGregor. Using Instructional Technologies to Enhance Teaching and Learning for the 21st Century Pre-K 12 Students. . (2011). Retrieved from http://www. Lomax.
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