E.C.P.E.

Michigan Proficiency Notes On Writing Topics
These notes can be used as a basis for writing discursive (C2) E.C.P.E. compositions. Αστές οι σημειώσεις μπορούν να τρησιμοποιηθούν ως βάση για τη σσγγραυή λόγοσ (C2) ECPE σσνθέσεις.

Animal Vivisection
The practice of cutting open the bodies of living animals in order to do medical or scientific tests on them. Pros - the importance of studying anatomy for scientific understanding (research into genetic engineering, treatment of diseases such as cancer, training of biology students and so on) - no viable alternative; testing on humans is both morally and ethically wrong and therefore not acceptable. - laboratory animals are bred for that specific purpose Cons - cruelty to animals; many believe that animals have rights and therefore should not be subjected to laboratory tests - a lot of experiments conducted for reasons of little importance such as the testing of cosmetics Solutions - control of unnecessary testing - advanced computer modelling could make the use of so many laboratory animals unnecessary. Terms: guinea-pig, laboratory testing, vital research, cruelty, injustice, inhumane, animal rights

Animal Captivity
Keeping animals in zoos, circuses, or in a domestic environment. Pros - zoos protect endangered species as natural habitats are being destroyed by human activity such as farming, logging, the creation of urban settlements - zoos have initiated breeding programmes to replenish the number of threatened species by releasing bred animals back into the wild - zoos allow scientific study of animals and their behaviour - many animals are bred in captivity, so have never known their natural habitat and thus do not suffer - zoos and circus represent a way by which people can see animals they would never normally have an opportunity to see in real life - domestic animals such as dogs and cats have been specifically bred for the purpose of providing company and comfort and are, by and large, kept well by their owners Cons - zoos and especially circuses only exist as a form of entertainment; e.g. circuses train wild animals to perform tricks - maltreatment of animals (the poor conditions of some zoos and circuses); many zoos and circuses do not have the financial resources to maintain their animals in an appropriate manner - captivity is obviously not a natural state for wild animals and therefore can’t be the best thing for them Terms: animal welfare, be kept in captivity, cages, a life behind bars, breeding programmes, to perform/carry out experiments, be under the
threat of extinction, cruelty and maltreatment

Hunting Animals
To chase animals and birds in order to catch and kill them for food or sport. Pros - hunting provides food, especially for tribal societies - source of income and useful products such as fur for clothing - type of sport or entertainment (e.g. fox hunts) Cons - the cruelty involved when chasing and slaughtering prey - poaching threatened species (e.g. elephants for their ivory tusks) - using animal skins / furs for something as pointless as fashion accessories

crowded beaches). Cons .more uniformity of crops to make harvesting more efficient . Pros .allows/facilitates consumer choice .offers employment opportunities .increased nutritional value of crops / increased flavour .sponsorship of sporting activities etc. influx of tourists . become a household name.the environmental cost. raise a companies profile.allows people to experience different cultures and locations . reach a wide audience. provides jobs and generates income . is morally and ethically wrong (who decides which genetic characteristics should be expressed? are we all to become blonde and blue-eyed?) .encourages compulsive buying / shopping . local residents may also be inconvenienced .manipulation of nature may have unforeseen consequences which are irreversible .allows the creation of crops that are . the artificial manipulation of the genetic pool. increased crop yield . genetic mapping Advertising The promotion and endorsement of manufactured goods Pros .financial gains for farmers due to increased crop yields and efficiency Cons . .the creation of ‘super crops’ which are genetically similar and therefore actually more prone to pests.crop abundance. places for them to stay etc while they are on holiday Pros . . lipstick etc Tourism The business of providing things for people to do. .may lead to cloning or the creation of ‘super humans’ which.tourists often don’t witness any real diversity of culture but predetermined sights and attractions which have little in common with a country’s real heritage Terms: go sightseeing. a guided tour. promote a product / service. a sightseeing tour.can be misleading.disease resistant .popular tourist locations are swamped by tourists which detracts from the holiday experiences (e.genetic research may lead to a cure for several diseases such as cancer . present an upmarket image. as many believe.stimulates local economies.Genetic Engineering The ability to manipulate the genetic content of plants of animals to promote desired characteristics and/or suppress undesirable ones.form of manipulation in that it encourages people to buy products that they may not necessarily need.may result in the creation of replacement organs in the laboratory instead of relying on donors for organ transplants .g.leads to over production as manufacturers vie for consumer interest.is it a case of humans ‘playing God’? there are moral and ethic issues at stake . many advertisements make outrageous claims about the products they promote.the nutritional value of genetically modified food may be questionable Terms: unknown long-term consequences. destruction of local environments and animal habitats with the construction of huge hotel complexes etc. waste of dwindling natural resources . buy/sell at a discount.going on holiday represents an important physiological need to break normal routine Cons . insect attack or disease . genetically modified food.an essential part of our consumer based economy .advertising in the form of packaging of products in order to make them more appealing to prospective buys causes a huge litter / waste problem Terms: boost sales.pesticide resistant (thus leading to a decrease in the use of chemical pesticides and insecticides) . pollution cause by transportation. brand of washing powers. visit historical / archaeological sites.

solar power (solar panels). cause both airborne pollution and industrial waste. Additionally.makes with facilities and amenities (sports centres. contamination of the local environment) . layout. thus creating a more peaceful and less polluted living environment Terms: planning. wind mills). particularly the alarming increase of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere which threatens global warming.the dire consequences of a nuclear accident such as Chernobyl (radioactivity. Toxic chemicals become part of the food chain and are eventually consumed by people. The gaseous carbon dioxide released by the burning of fossil fuels (esp. relief from noise Nuclear Power The use of the nuclear fusion process to create electrical energy as a viable alternative to conventional fuels. theatres. alleviation of bumper-to-bumper traffic. relief from stifling fumes.Urban Planning The deliberate planning of the layout of towns and cities to alleviate some of the problems associated with urban living . Fossil Fuels: Conventional fuels such as coal or oil that is produced by the very gradual decaying of animals or plants over millions of years. forethought. with the exception of hydroelectric power (using falling water to drive turbines in order to create electricity).nuclear energy is virtually limitless and therefore can solve the problem of ever increasing energy demands . urban sprawl.its arguably the most inexpensive source of electricity . tidal and wave power (floating platforms). solar and wind power may not be suitable in many areas as they are climate dependant – it’s difficult to generate electricity if there is no wind or sun! Industrial Waste: Manufacturing processes that have created an increased standard of living. congested roads. In extreme cases this causes deforestation. the hustle and bustle of city living. zoning. and hydroelectric power (hydroelectric dams and power stations) are possible solutions to the problem of rapidly depleting fossil fuels. Global Warming: Is a general increase in world temperatures caused by increased amounts of carbon dioxide around the Earth. especially in developed countries. . used for transportation) traps the energy of the sun’s rays in the atmosphere. Pros . Alternative Energy Sources: Renewable energy sources such as wind power (wind turbines.zoning separates commercial and industrial areas from residential ones. most of these technologies are less efficient and therefore far more expensive than traditional energy producing alternatives. resulting in a rise in global temperature. However.the creation of radio active waste such as plutonium and the problem of its disposal as it remains radioactive for thousands of years Environmental Issues Acid Rain: Acid rain is caused by airborne exhaust pollutants from cars and factories which condense in clouds with water and fall as acidic rain. The use of fossil fuels results in pollution. hospitals and so on) far more accessible for residents .alleviate traffic jams and the difficulty of moving around and parking in crowded cities . resulting in adverse health effects. currently. chaos. Fossil fuels are an exhaustible or finite energy source and supplies are rapidly being depleted. Possible long-term consequences include the melting of polar ice and the resultant flooding of low-lying coastal areas. geothermal power (underground pipes). Their main advantages are that they are insexhaustible and pollution free energy sources.nuclear power plants are far cleaner than conventional fuel power plants as they don’t require the combustion of fossil fuels Cons . in the internal combustion engine.

Logging: Incessant logging and the wholesale destruction of the world’s forests has dire effects. infertile land.medical care and longevity . e. harmful toxins may be released into the air by this process and cause environmental damage including deforestation. This. far more efficient method of storage as it is space saving (an entire encyclopaedia can be stored on a single DVD-ROM. polluting water and effecting the marine ecosystem. Additionally. in turn. chemical.makes communication easier. and the depletion of atmospheric oxygen. Residue also makes its way to the sea. Pros . thus plants can not re-establish themselves and forests cannot be rejuvenated. therefore. It. Liquid hydrogen is combined with oxygen extracted from the air to produce energy to power an electric motor which propels the vehicle. even more on Blueray) and easier to access material (computer search engines) . dumping it in landfill sites or incinerating it. harmless water is the by-product of the chemical reaction.the misuse of technology to make conventional. biological and nuclear weapons Computers An electronic machine that can store information and do things with it according to a set of instructions called a program. animals and plants are becoming increasingly exposed to damaging UV rays. Pros . the topsoil (the upper level of soil in which most plants have their roots) is wasted away by rain. which is in the upper atmosphere.computers are an important educational tool for both students and researchers alike . who uses a typewriter to write a letter anymore? .allow and encourage the free exchange of information on a global basis.improves comfort and standard of living from housing to the ability to keep food cold in refrigerators) . Technology Knowledge about scientific or industrial methods or the use of these methods . serves as natural protection from harmful UV (Ultra Violet) radiation from the sun. Rubbish Disposal: The disposal of rubbish is an on going problem. the creation of barren. CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons). which are gases used in fridges and aerosol cans. the use of calculators to work out even the simplest mathematical sums / use of spell-checkers in word processing programs. becomes a part of the food chain. .g.make work processes faster and far more efficient. global reach .allows scientific research and consequent advancement of human knowledge (e.store vast amounts of information in the form of digital data.industrialisation has caused pollution .technology is the foundation stone of our economy . Incineration: The burning of rubbish produces large amounts of carbon dioxide.g.machinery and equipment used or developed as a result of this knowledge. may lead to increased mutation in living organisms and an increased incidence of skin cancer in humans. Each method has serious environmental consequences. This may result in mudslides.people become too dependant on computers. Landfill Sites: Toxic residues from industrial effluence and domestic rubbish seep into the ground water under landfill sights and is carried away to agricultural areas. Current solutions include dumping rubbish at sea. are responsible for damaging the ozone layer. thus adding to the global warming problem. the dissemination of news and opinion via the internet Cons . space exploration etc) Cons .Depletion of the Ozone Layer: The ozone layer. The main advantages is that there are zero emissions as normal. Fuel Cells: Fuel cells are a promising alternative to vehicles with petrol or diesel internal combustion engines. When trees are removed. Thus.

. community service.there is always the possibility of a cure.Search engines make finding and comparing prices for products easy Cons .isolate dangerous individuals from the rest of society .when a terminally-ill patient is suffering unbearably. assault.would allow individuals to achieve more during their lives (e. and illicit activities. This can lead to overspending (and even addiction) . even addictive (e. Euthanasia The painless killing of people who are very ill or very old in order to stop them suffering: mercy killing. however slim Longevity Lengthening the natural term of a person’s life.Delivery can be slow and sometimes unreliable. murder. shoplifting. computer games) and normal communication between friends and family can suffer Internet Shopping Using the internet to browse and shop for products.g. it is more compassionate to agree to the request for a quick end . are made readily available . corporal (physical) punishment etc. effective deterrents.re-educate and rehabilitate criminals .Delivery charges and/or shipping insurance often apply. lenient punishments.imposing harsher punishments .0n-line shopping quick and easy – all done with a simple click of a mouse. harsh punishments. capital punishment. stand trial for. Pros .Deceptively easy to shop and websites attractive and encourage spending.act as a deterrent to would-be criminals Solutions to the Crime Problem . .setting up neighbourhood watch schemes (where neighbours have a proactive role in detecting crime in local areas) Terms: prohibited. arson. Pros .if pain and depression are adequately treated in a dying person.improving education and social services for everyone in society .it is difficult to define the term ‘terminally-ill’ – some people who have been diagnosed as such have lived on for years .establishing better rehabilitation systems for reforming offenders . he may .relatives often put pressure of depressed or financially-dependant people to accept euthanasia . convicted of. under age.Credit card fraud risk Crime & Punishment Retribution for illegal. restricted.installing CCTV (Closed Circuit Television) cameras in public places which act as a deterrent .relief for family and friends who witness suffering Cons .punishment for the crime committed . police brutality. illegal. manslaughter.having more police patrols and officers on the beat to deter criminal activity . fraud.g.no-one wants to die and medical science should be used to delay death . rather than going to regular stores on the High Street. sentenced to. Purpose of Prison . accuse of.Vast array of products. if Einstein had lived longer. the desire to commit suicide disappears . including those from other countries.the internet has become a forum for illicit material including pornography. the criminal justice system. Pros . drug trafficking. advice on how to construct explosive devices at home and so on . Can be done from anywhere with an internet connection at any time (24/7) .it can be argued that everyone has the right to control the destiny of his or her life . Risk of products lost during shipment. burglary. making products more expensive than they seem to be .computers can be overused.

class and wealth discrimination. unfair treatment towards intellectually challenged people or those with physical impediments or disabilities. different racial groups being treated as second-class citizens in a multicultural society .gender discrimination. should all women be housewives? . either to improve their appearance or to repair injuries. not all Germans are cool and efficient.Decreases manufacturing costs as multinational companies establish factories in countries such as Taiwan and China which have low labour costs. leads to more self confidence and self-esteem . not all stereotypes are accurate. Pros . Longevity would certainly increase the world’s population at any given time and would therefore place a heavier burden already dwindling natural resources. Types: .g. . impoverished people are not treated with the same respect as the rich and powerful . Plastic Surgery: The medical practice of changing the appearance of people's faces or bodies.e. police brutality Discrimination The practice of treating one particular group in society in an unfair way because they are not seen as fitting into the mould.have contributed even more to human knowledge) .many operations only for the sake of vanity or self-image .old people would become a burden. probably for psychological reasons. Globalisation Manufacturing including and affecting the whole world.re-constructive surgery for car accident victims or people who are born with abnormalities is justifiable Cons .the discrimination towards mentally or physically handicapped people. . the medical establishment should be focused on more serious problems and afflictions Terms: cosmetic surgery.it could be argued that the replacement of people with succeeding generations is a natural process and longevity would upset this balance.corruption in government circles (bribery) . middle-aged adults Cons .stereotypes result in stigmatisation (to be treated by society as if you should be ashamed of your situation or actions) Authority The power you have because of your official position or because people respect your knowledge and experience.unfair treatment and/or persecution of minority groups. even to the extent of persecution .appearance and self-image very important for people. old people treated unfairly by younger members of society .would allow grandparents to experience their grandchildren become mature. doesn’t mean that your health and general abilities will not diminish with age) . stigmatisation and expected roles . not all Italians are warm and friendly) . the inequality of the sexes.racial discrimination.generalisation.is there anything wrong with trying to improve on nature? .religious discrimination. e.stereotypes are often discriminatory.those in authority may abuse the power they wield . plastic surgeon.nepotism (treating family (and friends) with favouritism) . Pros: . a nose job / facial reconstruction Stereotypes A fixed idea or image of what a particular type of person or thing is like.debasement or misuse of medical technology.age discrimination. an ageing population will depend more on youth to support them both financially and emotionally (just because you live longer. people being intolerant of the religious beliefs of others. racial stereo types are particularly inaccurate (i. .

chain smoking.While manufacturing in Asian countries stimulates local economies. They may also not be able to contribute to the needs of their families and therefore become both a burden to both their relatives and society as a whole. alcoholics and gamblers become unreliable and ineffective at work.Lower manufacturing costs increase profits for companies. uncontrolled computer gaming etc. many forms of addiction have detrimental effects on health. drug addition. . compulsive gambling. Cons: . alcoholism. especially a drug / Liking to do or have something so much you do not want to stop .Obviously. They can also have physiological and social effects.Globalisation results in a loss of local culture and traditions as products and the behaviour associated with the use of such products become truly global. . it robs countries such as America and Germany of employment in the production sector. that is their bottom line but also decreases the costs to the consumer (resulting in an increased standard of living) due to increased manufacturing volume and competition.Addiction comes in many forms.. . Addictions Unable to stop taking a harmful substances.

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