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Question 1 Define the following terms (a) Aeration period YANGON TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY (b) BOD loading (c)

F/M ration (d) !olution (a) Aeration period Aeration period in an acti"ated sludge process is e#ual to "olume of the aeration basin di"ided b$ flow of raw water% !ince biological filters do not contain a li#uid "olume& h$draulic loading is presented as the amount of waste water applied per unit of surface area& for e'ample& cubic meters per s#uare meter per da$% (b) BOD loading Organic loading on biological treatment units are stated in terms of (ilograms of applied ) da$ BOD% *oading on an aeration basin is commonl$ e'pressed as grams BOD applied per cubic meter of tan( "olume per da$% A biological filter loading uses the same units e'cept the "olume CE 5018 refers to the #uantit$ of media rather than li#uid "olume% ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING (II) (c) F/M ration SAMPLE QUESTIONS AND SOLUTION +he food to micro,organism ration (F/M) is a wa$ of e'pression BOD loading with regard to the microbial mass in the s$stem% +he F/M "alue as grams of BOD applied per da$ per gram of M*!! in the aeration tan(% F/M ration as an e'pression of BOD loading relates to the metabolic state of the biological s$stem rather than to the "olume of aeration basin% (d) eturn sludge rate +he rate of return studge from the final clarifier to the aeration basin is e'pressed in percentage of the raw waste water influent% -f the return acti"ated sludge rate is ./ percent and the raw waste water flow into the plant is 1%/ m
.

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING eturn sludge rate

/s& the recirculated flow e#ual /%. m . /s& BOD remo"ed

in aeration and subse#uent setting b$ the raw BOD entering% 000000000000000000000000000

Question 1 2'plain briefl$ the effects of organic pollution on stream% !olution Man$ waste discharges from municipalities and industries contain organic compound that decompose using dissol"ed o'$gen% +he rate of biological stabili3ation is a time,temperature function with deo'$genation increasing as the temperature rises% O'$gen is replenished in the stream water primaril$ b$ reaeration from the atmosphere% +hus& #uantit$ of flow& time of passage down the ri"er& water temperature and reaeration and reaeration are the four ma4or factors that go"ern self,purification from organic wastes% A stream polluted from a substantial point source of organic matter e'hibits four fairl$ well defined 3ones% +he 3one of degradation& immediatel$ following the sewer outfall& has a progressi"e reduction of dissol"ed o'$gen used up in satisf$ing BOD% +he 3one of acti"e decomposition e'hibits the characteristics of significant pollution% Dissol"ed o'$gen is at a minimum le"el and often anaerobic decomposition of bottom mud results in offensi"e odors% 5igher forms of life& particularl$ fishes& find the en"ironment of these polluted ones undesirable% Bacteria and fungi thri"e on the decomposition of organic decreasing the BOD and increasing ammonia nitrogen% -n the 3one of reco"er$& reaeration e'ceeds the rate of deo'$genation and the le"el of dissol"ed o'$gen increases slowl$% Ammonia nitrogen is con"erted biologicall$ to nitrate% otifer crustaceans and tolerant fish species reappear% Algae thri"e on the increase in inorganic nutrients that result from the stabili3ation of the matter% +he 3one of clean water supports a wide "ariet$ of a#uatic plants and animals and more sensiti"e fishes% Dissol"ed o'$gen returns to its original "alue& and the BOD has been nearl$ eliminated% +he permanent changes in water #ualit$ prior to the waste discharge and the clear water 3one include an increase in inorganic compounds& such as nitrate& phosphates& and dissol"ed salts% +hese nutrient produce and support higher algal population other en"ironmental conditions of sunlight& p5 and temperature are ade#uate% 00000000000000000000000

Question . 6hat is waste stabili3ation pond7 2'plain briefl$ about facultati"e ponds% !olution !tabili3ation ponds& also called lagoons or o'idation ponds are generall$ emplo$ed as secondar$ treatment in rural areas% 8onds are classified as facultati"e& tertiar$& aerated& and anaerobic according to the t$pe of biological acti"it$ that ta(es place in them% Facultati"e 8onds are the most common lagoons emplo$ed for stabili3ing municipal waste water% +he bacterial reactions include both aerobic and anaerobic decomposition and& hence& the term facultati"e pond% 6aste organics in suspension are bro(en down b$ bacteria releasing nitrogen and phosphorus nutrients& and carbon dio'ide% Algae use these inorganic compounds for growth& along with energ$ from sunlight& releasing o'$gen to solution% Dissol"ed o'$gen is in turn ta(en up b$ the bacteria& thus closing the s$mbiotic c$cle% O'$gen is also introduced b$ reaeration through wind action% !ettleable solids decomposed under anaerobic conditions on the bottom $ield inorganic nutrients and odorous compounds& for instance& h$drogen sulfide and organic acids% +he latter are generall$ o'idi3ed in the aerobic surface water thus pre"enting their emission to the atmosphere% Bacterial decomposition and algal growth are both se"erel$ retarded b$ cold temperature% During winter when pond water is onl$ a few degrees abo"e free3ing& the entering waste organics accumulate in the frigid water% Microbial acti"it$ is further reduced b$ ice and snow co"er that pre"ents sunlight penetration and wind reaeration% 9nder this en"ironment& the water can become anaerobic causing odorous conditions during the spring thaw& until algae become reestablished% +his ma$ ta(e se"eral wee(s depending on climatic conditions and the amount of waste organics accumulated during the cold weather% Operating water depths range from /%: to 1%) m& with /%;m of di(e freeboard abo"e the high water le"el% +he minimum /%: m depth is needed to pre"ent growth of rooted a#uatic weeds& but e'ceeding a depth of 1%) m ma$ create e'cessi"e odors because of anaerobiosis on the bottom% Facultati"e ponds treating onl$ domestic waste water normall$ operate odor free e'cept for a short period of time in the spring of the $ear% On the other hand& lagoons treating municipal waste water that include industrial wastes can produce persistent obno'ious odors% Often this is the result of organic o"erload from food,processing industries or a result of the odorous nature of the industrial wastes itself or both% +he best solution is to re#uire pretreatment of the offending waste waters prior to discharge to the sewer s$stem% Facultati"e ponds are best suited for small towns that do not anticipate industrial e'pansion& and where e'tensi"e land area is a"ailable for construction and effluent disposal% +he ad"antages of low initial cost and ease of operation& as compared to a mechanical plant& can be offset b$ operational difficulties% +he (e$ problems are poor assimilati"e capacit$ for industrial wastes& odorous emission& and meeting the minimum effluent standards for disposal in surface waters%

Question <% 2'plain briefl$ about e'tended aeration% !olution +he most popular application of this process is in treating small flows from schools& subdi"isions& trailer par(s& and "illages% Aeration basins ma$ be cast,in,place concrete or steel tan(s fabricated in a factor$% =ontinuous complete mi'ing is either b$ diffused air or mechanical aerators& and aeration periods are 1< to .: h% Because of these conditions& as well as low BOD loading& the biological process is "er$ stable and can accept intermittent loads without upset% For e'ample& a unit ser"ing a school ma$ recei"e waste water during a 1/ h period each da$& for onl$ fi"e da$s a wee(% =larifiers for small plants are conser"ati"el$ si3ed with low o"erflow rates& ranging from > to 1<m. /m1% d& and long detention times% !ludge ma$ be returned to the aeration chamber through a slot opening b$ emplo$ing an air,lift pump% A slot return re#uires periodic cleaning to pre"ent plugging b$ settled solids% Although satisfactor$ performance can be achie"ed& returning settled solids b$ pumping pro"ides a more positi"e process control% !ludge that floats to the surface of the sedimentation chamber is returned to the aeration tan( b$ either h$draulic action or through a s(imming de"ice attached to the air,lift pump return% +here is usuall$ no pro"ision for wasting of e'cess acti"ated sludge from small e'tended aeration plants% -nstead& the mi'ed li#uor is allowed to increase in solids concentration o"er a period of se"eral months and then is discharged directl$ from the aeration basin% +his is performed b$ allowing the suspended solids to settle in the tan( with the aerators off& and then pumping the concentrated sludge from the bottom into a "ehicle for hauling awa$% +he M*!! operating range "aries from a minimum of 1&/// mg/l to a ma'imum of about 1/&/// mg/l% -n treating domestic waste water under normal loading& the mi'ed li#uor concentration increases at the rate of appro'imatel$ )/ mg/l suspended solids per da$% *arger e'tended aeration plants consisting of an aeration basin& clarifier and aerobic digester are used b$ small municipalities% +he basin ma$ be a concrete tan( with diffused aeration& a lined earth basin with mechanical aerators& or a race,trac(,shaped o'idation ditch% Final clarifiers are generall$ separate circular concrete tan(s with mechanical sludge collectors% -n most cases& the BOD loading of these s$stems is at the upper limit of )// g/m
.

, d of BOD for e'tended aeration& and the

aeration period is as low as 11h% +he treatment plants& in addition to lighter loading& are distinguished from con"entional and step aeration processes b$ appl$ing unsettled waste water directl$ to aeration without primar$ settling% 000000000000000000000000000000000

Question ) 6hat is eutrophication7 2'plain briefl$ the process of eutrophication% !olution 2utrophication is the process whereb$ la(es become enriched with nutrients that result in water #ualit$ characteristics undesirable for man?s use of the water& both for water supplies and recreation% *imnologists categori3e la(es according to their boilogical producti"it$% Oligotropic la(es are nutrient poor% +$pical e'amples are a cold,water mountain la(e and a sand,bottomed& spring,fed la(e characteri3e b$ transparent water& "er$ limited plant growth& and low fish production% A slight increase in fertilit$ results in a mesotrophic& la(e with some a#uatic plant growth& greenish water& and moderate production of game fish% 2utrophic la(es are nutrient rich% 8lant growth& in the forms of microscopic algae and rooted a#uatic weeds& produces a water #ualit$ undesirable for bod$, contact reaeration% +he process of eutrophication is directl$ related to the a#uatic food chain% Algae use carbon dio'ide& inorganic nitrogen& orthophosphate& and trace nutrients for growth and reproduction% +hese plants ser"e as food for microscopic animals (3ooplan(ton)% !mall fishes feed on 3ooplan(ton& an d large fishes consume small ones% 8roducti"it$ of the a#uatic food chain is (e$ed to the a"ailabilit$ of nitrogen and phosphorus& often in short suppl$ in natural waters% +he amount of plant growth and normal balance of the food chain are controlled b$ the limitation of plant nutrient% Abundant nutrients unbalance the normal succession and promote blooms of blue,green algae that are not easil$ utili3ed as food b$ 3ooplan(ton% +hus the water becomes turbid and under e'treme conditions ta(es on the appearance of @pea soup%A Floating masses of algae are windblown to the shore where the$ decompose producing malodors% Deca$ing algae also settle to the bottom reducing dissol"ed o'$gen% !horelines and shallow ba$s become weed,cho(ed with the prolific growth of rooted a#uatics% 8referred food,fishes cannot sur"i"e in these unfa"orable increasingl$ tolerant fishes% +rout are succeeded b$ warm,water fishes such as perch& walle$e& and bass& and these in turn are succeeded b$ coarse fishes li(e bullheads and carp% elati"el$ mild algal bloom can result in accumulation of substantial deca$ing scum along the windward shoreline because of the la(e?s "ast surface area% Bentle winds passing o"er the la(e can pic( up fish$ odors from algae blooms% Algal growth de"eloped in the sunlit epilimnion can settle into the h$polimnion& which is dar( and stagnant during la(e stratification% Bacterial decomposition of these cells and organic bottom muds deplete dissol"ed o'$gen in the bottom 3one% educed dissol"ed o'$gen has been associated with the reduction of commercial fishing in some eutrophic la(es& and treatment of water supplies is complicated b$ remo"al of tastes and odors created b$ algal blooms in the epilimnion and anaerobic conditions in the h$polimnion% 8erhaps the most de"astating aspect of eutrophication is that process appears to be difficult to retard& e'pect in unusual cases% Once a la(e has become eutrophic it remains so& at an$ rate for a "er$ long time& e"en

if nutrients from point sources are reduced% -n part& this results from the long turno"er time (detention time) which reduces the rate of flushing% Macronutrients for plant growth are carbon dio'ide& inorganic nitrogen& and phosphateC a "ariet$ of trace elements& such as iron& are also needed for growth% +he (e$ to controlling rate of la(e eutrophication lies in limiting plantnutrients% Datural waters contain sufficient carbon in the bicarbonate al(alinit$ s$stem to pro"ide carbon dio'ide in e'cess of growth needs% At present& emphasis is being placed on phosphorus reduction to control the e'tent of plant growth in la(es% emo"al of algae has been suggested as a means for reducing nuisance species and withdrawing nutrients% =opper sulfate is commonl$ used for control of algae in water suppl$ reser"oirs% +his algicide has se"eral shortcomings as a eutrophication control de"ice% =opper sulfate poisons fish when used in e'cessi"e concentrations and has been demonstrated to accumulate in bottom muds of la(es following application o"er a period of se"eral $ears% -n fertile la(es& the copper sulfate must be applied at inter"als throughout the growing season to ensure effecti"e algal controlCblooms must be anticipated and treated before the$ occur% +his process is "er$ e'pensi"e in both man,power and chemical costs% A large number of herbicides are a"ailable to pro"ide relief from a#uatic weeds& both preemergent and emergent% 00000000000000000000000000000

Question : 5ow to determine the performance e"aluation of treatment plants7 !olution =omprehensi"e studies are needed to determine treatment efficienc$ and economical operation in waste,water processing% As,built drawings of all treatment units pro"ide dimensions of tan(s and interconnecting piping% From these& a process flow diagram can be s(etched showing normal plant operation% =hanges in plant operation to meet unusual flow and load conditions should be noted% 8h$sical facilities for flow,measuring and sampling at "arious points are essential% +he influent par shall flume should be chec(ed accurac$& since significant error in raw waste,water flows precludes satisfactor$ results% Flow measuring at "arious points within the plant ma$ be accomplished b$ calibrating pump discharges& or b$ installing temporar$ weirs in flow channels% !ampling points must be carefull$ selected to insure collection of representati"e portions for composting% Often& a lac( of ade#uate flow,measuring facilities and accessibilit$ for sampling in, plant 4eopardi3es or pre"ents the stud$ of indi"idual unit operations% 8h$sical modifications ma$ be needed in some plants to permit e"aluation% Finall$& a laborator$ facilit$ is needed to perform at least routine tests& such as total and suspended solids& BOD& p5& fecal coliforms& and chlorine residual% Metropolitan plants re#uire additional e#uipment for anal$ses of =OD& grease& al(alinit$& phosphates& "arious forms of nitrogen& sulfides& "olatile acids& gas anal$sis& sludge filterabilit$& and biological o'$gen upta(e% -n addition it ma$ be desirable to ha"e testing facilities for hea"$ metals and total organic carbon% +he person super"ising a plant e"aluation must be thoroughl$ familiar with each unit operation and how it fits into the o"erall plant process% =haracteristics of the raw waste water must be completel$ defined b$ flow patterns& waste strength parameters& t$pes of industrial waste& and infiltration,inflow #uantities% Bathering these data relies on a $ear,round testing and sampling program of influent waste water and monitoring of industrial wastes discharged to the sewer s$stem% +o insure that the degree of treatment is satisfactor$& the superintendent should be familiar with local& state& and federal water #ualit$ and effluent standards% A complete stud$ also includes a re"iew of maintenance procedures and accurate records of operating costs% +he process diagram for a t$pical treatment plant in figure indicates the minimum testing program for e"aluation% 2ffluent standards re#uire dail$ monitoring of a"erage BOD and suspended solids concentrations& p5& and fecal coilform counts% -n some locations& tests for chlorine residual& presence of hea"$ metals& phosphates& and ammonium nitrogen content ma$ also be specified b$ regulator$ agencies% 8ercentage of organic matter remo"al is traditionall$ calculated b$ comparing influent and effluent BOD and suspended solids%

2'amination of indi"idual unit operations within a treatment plant re#uires testing of all influent and effluent flow streams% Also& loading parameters should be calculated for each unit process to determine whether the s$stem is being stressed be$ond its intended design capacit$% =omplete and accurate records of all phases of plant operation and maintenance are essential% 00000000000000000000000000

Question E Define the terms of solid waste& municipal waste& ha3ardous waste and its source% !olution !olid wastes are all the wastes arising from human and animal acti"ities that are normall$ solid and that are discarded as useless or unwanted . -ndustrial wastes are those wastes arising from industrial acti"ities and t$picall$ include rubbish& ashes& demolition and construction wastes& special wastes& and ha3ardous wastes% 6astes that pose a substantial danger immediatel$ of o"er a period of time to human& plant& or animal life are classified as ha3ardous wastes% A waste is classified as ha3ardous it if e'hibits an$ of the following characteristicsF (1) ignitabilit$& (1) corrosi"it$& (.) reacti"it$& or (<) to'icit$% -n the past& ha3ardous wastes were often grouped into the following categories F(1) radioacti"e substances& (1) chemicals& (.) biological wastes% (<) Flammable wastes& and ()) e'plosi"es% +he chemical categor$ includes wastes that are corrosi"e reacti"e& or to'ic% One lie principal sources of ha3ardous biological wastes are hospitals and biological research facilities% 5a3ardous wastes are generated in limited amounts throughout most industrial acti"ities% -n terms of generation& the concern is with the identification of the amounts and t$pes of ha3ardous wastes de"eloped at each source& with emphasis on those sources where significant waste #uantities are generated% 9nfortunatel$& "er$ little information is a"ailable on the #uantities of ha3ardous wastes generated in "arious industries% +he spreading of ha3ardous wastes b$ spillage must also be considered% +he #uantities of ha3ardous wastes that are in"ol"ed in spillages usuall$ are not (nown% After a spill& the wastes re#uiring collection and disposal are often significantl$ greater than the amount of spilled wastes& especiall$ where an absorbing material& such as straw& is used to soa( up li#uid ha3ardous wastes or where the soil into which a ha3ardous li#uid waste has percolated must be e'ca"ated% Both the straw and (lie li#uid and the soil and the li#uid are classified as ha3ardous wastes)% 0000000000000000000000000000

Question > 6rite down the sampling procedure for anal$3ing solid waste% !olution 8erhaps the most difficult tas( facing an$one concerned with the design and operation of solid,waste management s$stems is to predict the composition of solid wastes that will be collected now and in the future% +he problem is complicated because of the heterogeneous nature of waste materials and the fact that unpredictable e'ternalities such as world oil prices can affect the long, term abundance of the indi"idual waste components% +he load,count and the mass,"olume methods of anal$sis are recommended% +he following techni#ue is recommended to assess the indi"idual components within a gi"en waste categor$ (e%g%& domestic wastes)% 1% 1% .% <% )% 9nload a truc(load of wastes in a controlled area awa$ from other operations% Quarter the waste load% !elect one of (lie #uarters and #uarter that #uarter%) !elect one of the #uartered #uarters and separate all of the indi"idual components of the waste into pre,selected components% 8lace the separated components in a container of (nown "olume and tarce mass and measure the "olume and mass of each component% +he separated components should be compacted tightl$ to simulate the conditions in the storage containers from which the$ were collected% 6. Determine the percentage distribution of each component b$ mass and the discarded densit$% +$picall$& from 1// to 1// (g (1// to <// lb) of waste should be sorted to obtain a representati"e sample% +o obtain a more representati"e distribution of components& samples should be collected during each season of the $ear% =learl$& no matter how man$ samples are anal$3ed& common sense is needed in selecting the loads to be sorted& in anal$3ing the data& and in preparing pro4ections% 00000000000000000000000000

Question ; 6rite down the sources of air pollutant% !olution All air contains natural contaminants such as pollen& fungi spores& salt spra$& and smo(e and dust particles from forest fires and "olcanic eruptions% -t contains also naturall$ occurring carbon mono'ide (=O) from the brea(down of methane (=5 pine treesC and h$drogen sulfide (5 organic matter% -n contrast to the natural sources of air pollution there are contaminants of anthropogenic origin% +he use of fossil fuels for heating and cooling& for transportation& for industr$& and for energ$ con"ersion& and the incineration of the "arious forms of industrial& municipal& and pri"ate waste all contribute to the pollution of the atmosphere% !o do the handling and processing operations of "arious and sundr$ industries% +he sources of these pollutants are so numerous and "aried that the$ ha"e been categori3ed into four main groups,mobile transportation% (i%e%& motor "ehicles& aircraft& railroads& ships& and the handling and/or e"aporation of gasoline) stationar$ combustion (i%e%& residential& commercial& and industrial power and heating& including steam,powered electric power plants)& industrial processes (i%e%& chemical& metallurgical& and pulp,paper industries and petroleum refineries)& and solid,waste disposal (i%e%& household and commercial refuse& coal refuse& and agricultural burning)% -t will be noted that while transportation was the single largest source of air pollution& fuel combustion in stationar$ sources (for power and heating) was the second ma4or contributor% 8ower generation and heating accounted for about >/ percent of the o'ides of sulfur and )1 percent of the o'ides of nitrogen emitted to the ambient air& while industrial processes contributed )/ percent of the h$drocarbons% 000000000000000000000
1 <

)C h$drocarbons in the form of trepans from


<

!) and methane (=5

) from the anaerobic decomposition of

Question 1/ 2'plain the effect of acid rain% !olution +he effects of acid deposition "ar$ according to the sensiti"it$ of the ecos$stems upon which the deposits fall% -n some highl$ buffered areas acidic compounds could be deposited for $ears without causing an$ appreciable increase in Gsoil or surface,water acidit$& but the same deposition could cause sharp increases in acidit$ in poorl$ buffered areas% Acid rain has cause considerable damaged to buildings and monuments in highl$ industriali3ed areas& but damage is not limited to the immediate area of industriali3ation% +all stac(s disperse pollutants into the upper reaches of the troposphere where the$ ma$ remain for da$s& often being carried long distances% 8ollutants that are generated in one countr$ and deposited in another ha"e become a matter of international concern and of international negotiation% Other changes in the atmosphere as a whole ma$ not be #uite so ob"ious% For e'ample& the twentieth centur$ has seen side spread use of radioacti"e materials& and concern o"er the long,range effects of release of these substances into the atmosphere has led to in"estigation of possible methods of safe disposal b$ deep burial in the earth or ocean% +he o3one (O
.

) la$er in the stratosphere is being depleted as o3one reacts with chlorine


.

released from the fluorocarbons used as aerosol spra$ propellants% !ince the O

in the atmosphere

reduces the ultra"iolet radiation that reaches the earth ?s surface& and since ultra"iolet radiation at high le"els can damage plants and animals& loss of O . represents a potentiall$ serious problem% -n light of this danger& some industriali3ed nations ha"e banned the use of fluorocarbons% +he amount of tropospheric carbon dio'ide (=O
. 1

) is reported to be increasing at a rate of 1%> )% =urrentl$& there is more than

mg/m per $ear& a process that ma$ not be re"ersible% Furthermore& this increase has been accompanied b$ an e#ui"alent decrease in atmospheric o'$gen (O E// billion tons of carbon in the form of =O
1 1

in the atmosphere% 2ach $ear this figure increases b$

1%. billion tons& the e#ui"alent of a . percent increase e"er$ decade% Fossil fuel consumption and agricultural& forestr$ and land use practices of "arious t$pes contribute to the =O build up% =O strongl$ absorbs long wa"e (infrared) terrestrial radiation& and continued =O1 buildup could lead to a significant enough rises in earth ?s surface temperatures to melt the Arctic ice pac(% -f the warming trend can be confirmed and positi"el$ lin(ed to =O then global action such as reforestation ma$ e"entuall$ ha"e to be pursued to remo"e =O atmosphere% 000000000000000000000000000
1 1

buildup& from the

Question 11 6rite down the carbon mono'ide in air and discuss the sources of carbon mono'ide% !olution =olorless& tasteless& and odorless& carbon mono'ide gas is chemicall$ inert under normal conditions and has an estimated atmospheric mean life of about 1 pollutants% =arbon mono'ide at present ambient le"els has little if an$ effect on propert$& "egetation& or materials% At higher concentrations& it can seriousl$ affect human aerobic metabolism& owing to its high affinit$ for hemoglobin& the component of the blood responsible for the transport of o'$gen% =arbon mono'ide reacts with the hemoglobin (5b) of blood to gi"e carbo'$hemoglobin(=O5b)% +hus reducing the capabilit$ of the blood to carr$ o'$gen% !ince the affinit$ of hemoglobin for carbon mono'ide is more than 1// times as great as its affinit$ for o'$gen& =O can seriousl$ impair the transport of O 1 & e"en when present at low concentrations% As =O5b le"els increase& effects become more and more se"ere% +he absorption of =O b$ the bod$ increases with =O concentration& e'posure duration& and the acti"it$ being performed% =arbon mono'ide concentrations are especiall$ high in congested urban areas where traffic is hea"$ and slow,mo"ing% =arbon mono'ide sources are both natural and anthropogenic% . Hbillion tones of =O are produced in nature $earl$ b$ the o'idation of methane gas from deca$ing "egetation% !till another source is human metabolism% +he e'halations of a resting person contain appro'imatel$ 1 ppm =O% Applied to the entire nation& this would total about 1%; tones of =O produced each da$% Iet this production is still a great deal less than the estimated :;%1 million tones produced in 1;>/ b$ transportation sources primaril$ gasoline,powered internal combustion engines% +he #uantities of =O emission from the four ma4or groups transportation& fuel combustion in stationar$ sources (power& heating)& industrial purposes and solid waste disposal% On a weight basis& the total estimated emission of =O from transportation in 1;:>& 1;E/& 1;E)& 1;EE& and 1;>/ was about E>%. percent of the total =O emitted b$ all sources combined% -n 1;>/& the ne't largest source of anthropogenic carbon mono'ide was solid,waste disposal and miscellaneous causes& which included forest fires& structural fires& coal refuse& and agricultural burning% On a mass basis& the emissions of carbon mono'ide from anthropogenic sources ha"e dropped from 1.E million tones in 1;:> to >) million tones in 1;>/% +his reduction has ta(en place mainl$ in the automoti"e area& owing to the initiation in 1;:> of pollution control de"ices% 2"en at present le"els of emission& were it not for the natural processes of remo"al& the =O content of the atmosphere would be increasing at the rate of about /%) ppm $earl$% 0000000000000000000000000 Hmonths% +he total emission of =O on a mass basis in 1;EE accounted for slightl$& o"er all (). percent) of all the anthropogenic air

Question 11 Discuss con"entional and step aeration briefl$% !olution +hese processes are similar to the acti"ated sludge s$stems that were constructed for secondar$ treatment of municipal waste water% +he aeration basin is a long rectangular tan( with air diffusers along one side for o'$genation and spiral flow mi'ing% -n a con"entional basin& the air suppl$ is tapered along the length of the tan( to pro"ide greatest aeration at the head end where raw wastewater and return acti"ated sludge are introduced% Air is pro"ided uniforml$ in step aeration while wastewater is introduced at inter"als& or steps& along the first portion of the tan(% Fine,bubble air diffusers are set at a depth of 1%)m or more to pro"ide deep mi'ing and ade#uate o'$gen transfer% +he air header is connected to a 4ointed arm so that diffusers can be swung out of the tan( for cleaning and maintenance% A "ariet$ of diffusers are mar(etedC two popular t$pes are s$nthetic cloth tubes& easil$ remo"ed for laundering& and diffuser no33les that can be detached from the air header pipe% 8lug,flow pattern of long rectangular tan(s produces an oscillating biological growth pattern% +he relati"el$ high food ,to,microorganism ratio at the head of the tan( decreases as mi'ed li#uor flows through the aeration basin% !ince the aeration period& is : to > h& and can be considerabl$ greater during low flow& the microorganisms mo"e into the endogenous growth phase before their return to the head of the aeration basin% +his wea( star"ing microbial population must #uic(l$ adapt to a renewed suppl$ of waste organics% +he process has few problems of instabilit$ where waste, water flows are greater than 1&/// m . /dC howe"er& because of wide hourl$ "ariations in waste loads from small cities& the con"entional plug,flow s$stem can e'perience serious problems of biological instabilit$% +his phenomenon was a ma4or factor contributing to the de"elopment of complete mi'ing aeration for handling small flows% 0000000000000000000000000000

Question 1.(a) +wo rapid sludge return final clarifiers following high rate aeration are 1>m in diameter with a 1%E m side water depth% +he effluent weir is an inboard channel set on a diameter of 1:%) m% For a total flow of 1./// m. /d& calculate the o"erflow rate& detention time& and weir loading% !olution O"erflow rate

V J
/

Q A

Q pd 1 < K1

1./// p K 1>1 < K1

J 1)%)< m. / m 1 , d

pd1

Detention time t J 1< K 6eir loading J +ric(ling Filter *ow rate +/F 7 no Q !ingle stage +/F

L Q

J 1< K

<

K 5K 1 Q J 1< K

p K 1>1 <

K 1%E K 1 J 1%)< h

1.///

Q Q 1./// J J J )E%<E m. / m,d weir length 1pd K 1 1K p K1>K 1

& BOD loading J 1)/ g/ m . ,d

5igh rate +/F 7 Allow Q +wo stage +/F 5igh BOD loading E)/ g/ m. ,d

Question 1.(b) 6hat is 5$drocarbons7 6rite down the t$pes of 5$drocarbons% !olution Organic compounds containing onl$ carbon and h$drogen are classified as h$drocarbons% Most of the ma4or chemicals in gasoline and other petroleum products are h$drocarbons& which are di"ided into two ma4or classifications, aliphatic and aromatic% 00000000000000000000

Question 1< A tric(ling filter plant has the followingF a primar$ clarifier with a 1:%> m diameter& 1%1 m side water depth& and single peripheral weirC a 1:%/ m diameter tric(ling filter with a 1%1 m deep roc(,fill setting tan( with a 1)%1 m diameter& 1%1 m side water depth& and single peripheral weir% +he normal operating recirculation ratio is /%) with return to the wet well from the bottom of the final during periods of low influent flow% +he dail$ waste,water flow is )11/ m anticipated effluent BOD at 1/M = and 1:M =% !olution 8rimar$ !ettling +an( O"erflow rate V/ J Q Q )11/ J J J 1.%)) m. / m1 , d (6ithout Q ) A pd1 p K1:%>1 < < QNQ )11/ N )11/ K /%) J J .)%.1 m. / m1 , d (6ith Q ) A p K1:%>1 <
pd1 L Q < K5 Q J 1< K p K 1: %>1 < )11/ K 1%1 J 1%1< h
.

/d with a"erage BOD of

1>/ mg/l& essentiall$ all domestic waste% =alculate the loadings on all of the units& and the

V/ J

Detention time t J 1< K 6eir loading J

J 1< K

Q Q )11/ J J J ;>%; m. / m , d weir length p d p K1:%>

BOD remo"al efficienc$ J .)O emaining BOD J :)O of 1>/ mg/l J /%:) ' 1>/ J 11E mg/l +ric(ling Filter BOD loading J
Q K !ettled BOD )11/ K11E J J )<E%EE g/m . , d p Lol 1 K 1: K 1%1 <

5$draulic loading J

QNQ )11/ N )11/ K /%) J J 1<%E) m. / m1 , d A p K 1:1 <

BOD remo"al efficienc$ at 1/M = J E> O (+able 1,1E) BOD remo"al efficienc$ at 1:M = J :> O (+able 1,1;) emaining BOD at 1/M = J 11O of 11E mg/l J /%11 ' 11E J 1)%E< mg/l emaining BOD at 1:M = J .1O of 11E mg/l J /%.1 ' 11E J .E%<< mg/l

Final =larifier O"erflow rate V/ J Q Q )11/ J J J 1>%<< m. / m1 , d (6ithout Q ) 1 A pd p K1)%11 < < QNQ )11/ N )11/ K /%) J J <.%1) m. / m1 , d (6ith Q ) A p K 1)%11 <
pd1 L Q < K5 Q J 1< K p K1) %1 1 < )11/ K 1%1 J 1%E) h

V/ J

Detention time t J 1< K 6eir loading J

J 1< K

Q Q )11/ J J J1/;%.1 m. / m , d weir length p d p K1)%1

O"erall +reatment 8lant efficienc$ at 1/M =&


2J 1>/ , 1)%E< 1>/ K1// J >)%EO (O )

2 J1// ,1//

1,

.) 2 1, 1 1// 1//

J 1// ,1// 1 ,

.) 1//

1,

E>%/ 1//

J >)%EO

O"erall +reatment 8lant efficienc$ at 1:M =&


2J 1>/ , .E%<< 1>/ K1// J E;%1O (O )

2 J1// ,1//

1,

.) 2 1, 1 1// 1//

J 1// ,1// 1 ,

.) 1//

1,

:>%/ 1//

J E;%1O

0000000000000000000000000

Question 1) +he design flow for a two,stage tric(ling filter process is <<// m temperature of 1EM =% 8rimar$ tan( surface area J 11/ m First,stage filter area J <)/ m Lolume J >./ m -ntermediate clarifier area J 1</ m Final clarifier area J 1</ m
1 1 . 1 .

/d with an a"erage BOD

concentration of <// mg/l% =alculate the unit loadings and treatment plant efficienc$ of waste,water

!econd,stage filter is identical to first stage%


1 .

ecirculation pattern return to wet well is 11// m

/d under flow of each clarifier for total

Q J11//m. /d direct recirculation around each filter QP is 1;./ m . /d%

!olution 8rimar$ =larifier O"erflow rate V J /


Q A J <<// 11/ J 1/ m . / m 1 , d

BOD remo"al J .)O emaining BOD J :)O of <// mg/l J /%:) ' <// J 1:/ mg/l First,stage +/F BOD loading J
Q K !ettled BOD Lol Q N 1Q A J <<// K 1:/ >./ J J 1.E>%. g/m . , d J 11%1> m . / m 1 , d

5$draulic loading J

N QP

<<// N 11// N 1;./ <)/

ecirculation atio J 1%1E J

1 Q N QP 11// N 1;./ J J Q <<//

BOD remo"al efficienc$ at 1/M = J E1 O BOD remo"al efficienc$ at 1EM = J :) O emaining BOD J .)O of 1:/ mg/l J /%.) ' 1:/ J ;1 mg/l -ntermediate =larifier O"erflow rate V J / !econd,stage +/F BOD loading J
Q K !ettled BOD <<// K ;1 J J <>1%<1 g/m . , d Lol >./ QNQ A J <<// N11// 1</ J .; m . / m 1 , d

5$draulic loading J

QNQ A

N QP

<<// N 11// N 1;./ <)/

J1>%E. m . / m 1 , d

ecirculation atio J /%;1 J Ad4usted BOD loading J

Q N QP 11// N 1;./ J J Q <<//


J <>1%<1 1// , :) 1//
1

Actual BOD loading 1// , 2 1//


1 1

J .;.>%/<

BOD remo"al efficienc$ at 1/M = J )> O BOD remo"al efficienc$ at 1EM = J ). O emaining BOD J <EO of ;1 mg/l J /%<E ' ;1 J <1%EE mg/l Final =larifier O"erflow rate V J /
Q A J <<// 1</ J .1%<. m . / m 1 , d

O"erall +reatment 8lant efficienc$ at 1EM =&


2J <// , <1%EE 1>/ K1// J >;%.O (O )

2 J1// ,1//

1,

.) 2 1, 1 1// 1//

1,

21 1//

J 1// ,1//

1,

.) :)%/ ). 1, 1, 1// 1// 1//

J >;%.O

0000000000000000000000000000

Question 1: +he design flow for a two,stage tric(ling filter process is <<// m temperature of 1EM =% 8rimar$ tan( surface area J 11/ m First,stage filter area J <)/ m Lolume J >./ m -ntermediate clarifier area J 1</ m Final clarifier area J 1</ m
1 1 . 1 .

/d with an a"erage BOD

concentration of 1>/ mg/l% =alculate the unit loadings and treatment plant efficienc$ of waste,water

!econd,stage filter is identical to first stage%


1 .

ecirculation pattern return to wet well is 11// m

/d under flow of each clarifier for total

Q J11//m. /d direct recirculation around each filter QP is 1;./ m . /d%

!olution 8rimar$ =larifier O"erflow rate V J /


Q A J <<// 11/ J 1/ m . / m 1 , d

BOD remo"al J .)O emaining BOD J :)O of 1>/ mg/l J /%:) ' 1>/ J 1>1 mg/l First,stage +/F BOD loading J
Q K !ettled BOD Lol Q N 1Q A J <<// K1>1 >./ J J ;/<%>1 g/m . , d J 11%1> m . / m 1 , d

5$draulic loading J

N QP

<<// N 11// N 1;./ <)/

ecirculation atio J 1%1E J

1 Q N QP 11// N 1;./ J J Q <<//

BOD remo"al efficienc$ at 1/M = J E) O BOD remo"al efficienc$ at 1EM = J :> O emaining BOD J .1O of 1>1 mg/l J /%.) ' 1>1 J )>%1< mg/l -ntermediate =larifier O"erflow rate V J / !econd,stage +/F BOD loading J
Q K !ettled BOD <<// K )>%1< J J ./>%E< g/m . , d Lol >./ QNQ A J <<// N11// 1</ J .; m . / m 1 , d

5$draulic loading J

QNQ A

N QP

<<// N 11// N 1;./ <)/

J1>%E. m . / m 1 , d

ecirculation atio J /%;1 J Ad4usted BOD loading J

Q N QP 11// N 1;./ J J Q <<//


J <>1%<1 1// , :> 1//
1

Actual BOD loading 1// , 2 1//


1 1

J ./1)%/<

BOD remo"al efficienc$ at 1/M = J :1 O BOD remo"al efficienc$ at 1EM = J ): O emaining BOD J <<O of )>%1< mg/l J /%<E ' )>%1< J 1)%:. mg/l Final =larifier O"erflow rate V J /
Q A J <<// 1</ J .1%<. m . / m 1 , d

O"erall +reatment 8lant efficienc$ at 1EM =&


2J <// , 1)%:. 1>/ K1// J >;%.O

00000000000000000000000000000000

Question 1E(a) A high,rate tric(ling filter is a 11 m diameter and 1%1 m depth% +he raw waste,water flow is ./// m. /d with 1./ mg/l BOD% -ndirect recirculation is during low flow period is 1)// m remo"al efficienc$ and effluent BOD at a temperature of 1:M =% !olution
.

/d and

direct recirculation is .> l/s% =alculate the BOD and h$draulic loadings& recirculation ratio& BOD

Q K !ettled BOD
BOD loading J

Lol

..// K 1./ p K 111 < K 1%1

J ).:%1; g/m . , d

5$draulic loading J

Q N Q N Q P ./// N 1)// N .1>.%1 J J 11%<E m. / m1 , d A p K 111 < Q N QP 1)// N .1>.%1 J J Q .///

ecirculation atio J 1%); J

BOD remo"al efficienc$ at 1/M =& FJ


2J 1 N /%<..

1N 1N 1%); J J1%;. (1 N /%1 )1 (1N /%1K 1%);)1


1// BOD load F
/ %)

1// 1 N /%<.. /%).: 1%;.


/%)

J >1O

BOD remo"al efficienc$ at 1:M = J 2 1/M = ' 1%/.) J 21:M = ' 1%/.)

+,1/ 1:,1/

J >1%/E ' 1%/.) 1:,1/ J E/%:<O

emaining BOD effluent J 1; O of 1./ mg/l J /%1; ' 1./ J .E%E mg/l

Question 1E(b) Dame the four ma4or la$ers of the atmosphere% !olution Four ma4or la$ers of the atmosphere areF (i) troposphere (ii) stratosphere (iii) mesosphere (i") thermosphere 000000000000000000000000000

Question 1>(a) +wo rapid sludge return final clarifier following high rate +/F are 1> m diameter and 1%E m side water depth% +he effluent weir is inboard channel set on a diameter of 1:%) m for raw w/w flow of 1./// m. /d& with 11/ mg/l BOD% =alculate the loading on both +/F and F/=% (a) ecirculation J /%) (b) BOD emo"al effluent in primar$ clarifier J .)O (c) BOD emo"al efficienc$ in +/F J >)O (d) Area of +/F J :)/ m1 and depth is 1%) m !olution +ric(ling Filter !ettled BOD J :)O of 11/ mg/l J /%:) ' 11/ J 1.:%) BOD loading J
Q K !ettled BOD Lol QNQ A J J 1./// K1.:%) :)/ K 1%) :)/ J 1/;1 g/m . , d J ./ m . / m 1 , d

5$draulic loading J

1./// N 1./// K /%)

emaining BOD J 1)O of 1.:%) mg/l J /%1) ' 1.:%) J 1/%<> mg/l Final =larifier O"erflow rate V d/ J Q 1./// J J 1)%)< m. / m1 , A p K 1>1 <
1K pd1 p K1> 1 K5 1K K 1%E < < J 1< K J 1%)< h Q 1.///

L Detention time t J 1< K J 1< K Q

6eir loading J

Q Q 1./// J J J :1%E m. / m ,d weir length 1pd K 1 1K p K1)%1K 1

O"erall +reatment 8lant efficienc$ at 1/M =&


2J 11/ , 1/%<> 11/ K 1// J ;/%1)O

Question 1>(b) 6hat are the ma4or components of the troposphere7 !olution -n troposphere the air which we breathe& consists b$ "olume of about E>O of nitrogen& 11O of o'$gen& 1O of argon and /%.O of carbon dio'ide% 0000000000000000000000000

Question 1;(a) 2stimate the design flow and BOD load for a high,rate filled tric(ling filter plant with the following si3ed units% Diameter (m) Area (m 8rimar$ =larifier 1> 1)< 1%< +ric(ling Filter 1E )E. 1%1 Final =larifier 1< 1)< 1%1 !olution Final =larifier
1 Assume L/ J .1 m . /m ,d 1

) Depth (m)

L QJL

J Q/A
/

' A J .1 ' 1)< J <;1> m . /d

=hec(ing in 8rimar$ !edF tan( (without Q ) O"erflow rate V J /


Q A J <;1> 1)< J J 1;%1 m . / m 1 , d (1: Q .1 m . /m1 ,d) <;1> N <;1> K /%) 1)<
1 ,d) J 1;%1 m . / m 1 , d (1: Q .1 m. /m

V J
/

QNQ A

Detention time t J h 1<K +a(e Q J <;1> m. /d

L 1)< K 1%< J 1<K J 1%;E Q <;1>

(R1%/ hrs)

BOD loading on +ric(ling Filter J E)/ g/m . ,d BOD loading J


Q K !ettled BOD Lol

E)/ K Lol E)/ K )E. K 1%1 BOD (mg/l) J mg/l J J1>.%1. Q <;1> BOD in aw w/w J
1>. %1. /%:) J 1>1%E< mg/l

Question 1;(b) 6hat is acid deposition7 !olution Acid rain or acid deposition results when gaseous emissions of sulfur o'ide& nitrogen o'ide interact with water "apor and sunlight are chemicall$ con"erted to strong compounds such as sulfuric acid and nitric acid% +hose compounds along with other organic chemicals are deposited on the earth as aerosols and particulates (dr$ deposition) or are carried to the earth b$ raindrops& snowfla(es& fog or dew (wet deposition)% 0000000000000000000000000

Question 1/ +he following are a"erage operating data from a con"entional acti"ated sludge secondar$% 6aster,water flow J 1;// m L J >)// m -nfluent total solid J );; mg/l -nfluent suspended solids J 1// mg/l -nfluent BOD 2ffluent !%! 2ffluent BOD M*!! !olution Aeration 8eriod t J h 1< K BOD loading J L >)// J 1< K J E%/. Q 1;///
J 1;/// K1E. >)// J );/%1< g/m . , d
. .

/d

ecirculated sludge flow J 1//// m 6aste sludge #uantit$ J 1/ m tJ7 BOD loading J 7
F M J7
.

/d

/d

!uspended solids in waste sludge J ;>// mg/l

J 1E. mg/l J 11 mg/l J 1/ mg/l

2ffluent total solids J <;E mg/l

!%!& BOD remo"al efficienc$ J 7

J 1)// mg/l

Q K !ettled BOD Lol );; 1// , 11 1// 1E.

+/! remo"al efficienc$ J !/! remo"al efficienc$ J

);; , <;E

K1// J 1E%/.O

K1// J E>O K 1// J >>%<<O

BOD remo"al efficienc$ J

1E. , 1/

F Q K BOD 1;/// K1E. g/d of BOD J J J /%1.: M L K M*!! >)// K 1)// g of M*!! BOD sludge age J
F M J 1 /%1.: J <%1< da$s

g M*!! !%! sludge age J sludge) g/d (!! in effluent N !! in waste g M*!! J 1)// ' >)// J 11%1) ' 1/ : g !%! in effluent J 11 ' 1;/// J :.%> ' 1/ < g/d !%! in waste sludge J ;>// ' 1// J 1%;: ' 1/ : g/d !%! sludge age J 11%1)K1/: ( ) K1/< K1%;: K1/: :.%> Q 1//// J /%.)J J Q 1;/// J >%1> da$s

eturn sludge ratio

00000000000000000000000

Question 11 2stimate the design flow and BOD loading for a step aeration acti"ated,sludge plant based on the following data% 8rimar$ clarifier A J 1>// m1 & Depth J 1%< m Aeration basins& L J 1E/// m . Aeration capacit$& L J 11 m . of air per second N stand b$ compressor Final =larifiers A J 1/;/ m 1 & Depth J 1%< m !olution Final =larifier +r$ L/ J 1< m . /m1 ,d (S.1 m. /m1 ,d) L QJL QJL QJL
/

J Q/A
/

' A J 1< ' 1/;/ J )/1:/ m . /d (1/// m. /d) Dot OT ' A J 1> ' 1/;/ J )>)1/ m . /d (1/// m. /d to :/// m. /d) Dot OT ' A J .1 ' 1/;/ J ::>>/ m . /d (R :/// m. /d) O(

+r$ L/ J 1> m . /m1 ,d


/

+r$ L/ J .1 m . /m1 ,d
/

=hec( detention time L 1/;/ K 1%< t J 1< hr K J 1< K J1%> hr U 1 Q ::>>/ -n aeration tan( =hec(

L 1E/// Aeration period t J commmon) 1< K J 1<K J :%1 hr (:, E%) Q ::>>/ 8rimar$ !edimentation O"erflow rate V J /
Q A J ::>>/ 1>// J 1.%>; m . / m 1 , d

O(

Detention time t J hr) 1<K

L 1>// K 1%< J 1< K J 1%<1 hr ( R1 Q ::>>/

Design flow Q J ::>>/ m. /d BOD loading in Aeration +an( J 7 ;) m. of air 7 1(g BOD 11 m. /s 11 11 m. /s of air 7 BOD 1K J (g/s ;) m. ;) BOD loading (g/m. ,d) J
K11 K1/ . K 1< ;) .:// K 1 1E/// J :<1%;> g/m . , d

BOD concentration (mg/l) J

1 K11 K1/ . K 1< .:// K J 1:.%1> g/m . J mg/l ;) ::>>/

i%e% :)O of raw BOD (.)O remo"al in primar$ sedimentation) raw BOD J 1:.%1>//%:) J 1)1%/) mg/l

Question 11(a) A con"entional acti"ated,sludge basin is E%. m wide& ./ m long and has < m li#uid depth% +he influent flow is .<<o m
.

/d containing <)/ (g BOD% =ompute the BOD loading and aeration

period% +he operating M*!! is 11// mg/l and the settled sludge "olume in the !L- test is 1./ ml/l% =ompute the F/M ratio& !L-& recommended sludge recirculation rate and solids concentration in the return sludge% !olution BOD loading J <)/ K1/. . (./ ) K E%. K < J )1.%E g/m , d

Aeration period t J hr 1< K

L E%. K ./ K < J 1<K J :%11 Q .<</

F Q K BOD <)/ K1/. g/d of BOD J J J /%1.. ( ) M L K M*!! 11// E%. K ./ K < g of M*!! !L- J
L K 1/// M*!! J 1./ K1/// 11// J 1/<%)) ml/gm LK Q 1/// , L J 1./ K Q 1/// , 1./ J 1/1E%). m . /d

ecommended sludge recirculation rate Q J Q 1/1E%). atio /%1;; J J J Q .<</

1/: 1/: !olid concentration return sludge J ;):<%> J J !L- 1/<%)) Question 11(b) 6hat are primar$ and secondar$ pollutants7 !olution According to their origin& pollutants are considered as either primar$ or secondar$ contaminants% 8rimar$ pollutants such as sulfur o'ide& nitrogen o'ide and h$drocarbons are those emitted directl$ to the atmosphere and found there in the form in which the$ were emitted% !econdar$ pollutants such as o3one and pero'$acet$l (8AD) nitrate are those formed in the atmosphere b$ a photochemical reaction of h$drol$sis or o'idation% 000000000000000000000000000000

Question 1.(a) A step,aeration acti"ated,sludge secondar$ is operating under the following conditionsF influent waste,water flow J 1/>// m . /d& a"erage influent BOD J 11: mg/l& "olume of aeration basin is <1)/ m . and M*!! concentration 1)//mg/l% Determine the following% BOD loading& aeration period& F/M ratio& and estimated effluent BOD assuming good operation% !olution BOD loading J
Q K !ettled BOD Lol J 1/>// K11: <1)/ J :1:%:: g/m . , d

Aeration period t J hr 1< K

L <1)/ J 1<K J <%; Q 1/>//

F Q K BOD 1/>// K11: g/d of BOD J J J /%1) M L K M*!! <1)/ K 1)// g of M*!!

For good operation BOD remo"al efficienc$ J >)O to ;)O 2ffluent BOD J )O to 1)O of raw BOD J /%/) ' 11: J :%. mg/l to /%1) ' 11: J 1>%; mg/l

Question 1.(b) 6hat are the important factors that to be considered in the solid waste management7 !olution +o access the management possibilities it is important to considerF (i) materials flow in societ$ (ii) reduction in raw materials usage (iii) reduction in solid waste #uantities (i") reuse of materials (") materials reco"er$ ("i) energ$ reco"er$ ("ii) da$,to,da$ solid waste management 00000000000000000000000000

Question 1<(a) A 1E/ m. complete mi'ing aeration basin treats 1../ m . /d with an a"erage BOD of 1// mg/l% +he operating M*!! is </// mg/l& the effluent suspended solids concentration e#uals </ mg/l& and waste sludge solids a"erage >/ (g/da$% =ompute the BOD loading& aeration period& F/M ratio& BOD and !! sludge age% !olution BOD loading J
Q K !ettled BOD Lol J 1../ K 1// 1E/ J1):<%E1 g/m . , d

Aeration period t J hr 1< K

L 1E/ J 1<K J .%/E Q 1../

F Q K BOD 1../ K 1// g/d of BOD J J J /%.;1 M L K M*!! 1E/ K </// g of M*!! BOD sludge age J
M F J 1 /%.;1 J 1%): da$s

g M*!! !%! sludge age J sludge) g/d (!! in effluent N !! in waste g M*!! J </// ' 1E/ J :>/ ' 1/ . g !%! in effluent J </ ' 1../ J ).1// g/d !%! in waste sludge J >/ ' 1/// J >/ ' 1/ . g/d !%! sludge age J

( ) K >/ K1/ ).1//

:>/ K 1/.

J )%1 da$s

Question 1<(b) Describe the effect of sulfur o'ide on human health% !olution !ulfuric acid& sulfur o'ide and sulfate salts tend to irritate the mucous membranes of the respirator$ tract and foster the de"elopment of chronic respirator$ diseases particularl$ bronchitis and pulmonar$ emph$sema% -n a dust$ atmosphere& !O
1

is particularl$ harmful because both sulfur

dio'ide and sulfuric acid molecules paral$3e the hairli(e cilia which line the respirator$ tract% 6ithout the regular sweeping action of the cilia& particulates are able to penetrate to the lungs and settle there% +hese particulates usuall$ carr$ with them concentrated amounts of !O this irritant into direct& prolonged contact with delicate lung tissues% +he !O has been cited as cause of death in se"eral air pollution tragedies% 000000000000000000000000
1 1

thus bringing

particulate combination

Question 1)(a) 2stimate the design flow and BOD loading for an e'tended aeration s$stem with floating mechanical aerators% +he units si3es are "olume of aeration basins J ;)// m
.

& O'$gen transfer

capacit$ of aerators J 1)/ (g/h at 1%/ mg/l DO and .%/ m deep final clarifiers with a surface area of .1/ m1 %

!olution Final =larifier +r$ L/ J 11 m . /m1 ,d L/ J Q/A QJL QJL


/

' A J 11 ' .1/ J .E1: m . /d (to 1// m. /d) (1// Q ://) ' A J 1< ' .1/ J E<</ m . /d (R :// m. /d) O( L .1/ K . J 1< K J . hr R 1 Q E<</

+r$ L/ J 1< m . /m1 ,d


/

=hec( detention time t J 1< hr K O(

=hec( aeration period Aeration period t J hr 1< K L ;)// J 1<K J ./%:) Q E<</ (1< Q.:hr) O(

Design flow J E<</ m. /d BOD loading J 1)/ (g/hr 1 (g O1 J 1(g BOD 1)/ (g O1 J 1)/ (g BOD BOD loading J 1)/ (g/hr K 1/. K
1 ;)// K 1< J .E>%;) g/m . , d 1 E<</ J <>.%>E mg/l

( ) (g/hr K1/. K 1< K BOD concentration J 1)/


Question 1)(b)

6hat are the ma4or components of the troposphere7 !olution -n troposphere the air which we breathe& consists b$ "olume of about E>O of nitrogen& 11O of o'$gen& 1O of argon and /%.O of carbon dio'ide% 0000000000000000000000000

Question 1: A waste,water effluent of ):/ l/s with a BOD J )/ mg/l& DO J .mg/l and temperature of 1.V= enters a ri"er where the flow is 1%> m . /s with BOD of <%/ mg/l& DO J >%1 mg/l and temperature of 1EV=% From laborator$ BOD testing& ( 1 of the waste is /%1 per da$ 1/V=% +he ri"er downstream has an a"erage "elocit$ of /%1>m and depth of 1%1 m% =alculate the minimum dissol"ed o'$gen le"el and its distance downstream b$ using the o'$gen sag e#uation% !olution At discharging pt& BOD& = J DO& = J +& = J
= Q N= Q
1 1 1 1

Q NQ
1

< K 1%> N )/ K /%): 1%> N /%):

J11%:E mg/l

>%1 K 1%> N . K /%): J E%..E mg/l 1%> N /%):

1E K 1%> N 1. K /%): J 1> V= 1%> N /%): 1 log


1

t J
c

1 1

( ,(
1

1, D

( ,(
1

( *
1

DO J DO sat G DO mi' J ;%) G E%.. J 1%1E mg/l BOD) J * / (1, 1/ ,(1t ) 11%:E J */ (1, 1/ ,/%1 ' ) ) */ J 1E%1 mg/l (1 & + J ( 1 & 1/V= ' 1%/<E+,1/ (1 & 1>V= J /%1 ' 1%/<E1>,1/ J /%/;1 /da$ (1 & + J ( 1 & 1/V= ' 1%/1)+,1/ (1 & 1>V= J /%.11 ' 1%/1)1>,1/ J /%./1 /da$
( J 1%1 K
1

L 5
1 %. .

J 1%1 K (

/%1> 1%11% . .
1

J /%.11/da$ 1 /%./1 , /%/;1 /%./1 /%/;1 /%./1 , /%/;1 /%/;1 K 1E%1

t J
c

1 ( ,(
1 1

log

1 1

1, D

( ,( ( *
1 /

log

1 , 1%1E

J 1%E) da$s

Q1%> Dc J J (1 */ (1 , (1

( ) 1/) ( ,1/
, (1 tc

, (1 tc

N DO 1/, (

1 c

/%/;1 K1E%1 ( ) ( K1%> ) ,1/,/%./1 K1%> N 1%1E 1/,/%./1 K1%> J .%)E mg/l 1/,/%/;1 /%./1 , /%/;1
,.

Min DO concF J DO sat G Dc J ;%) G .%)E J )%;. mg/l 7c J L ' t c J /%1> ' 1%> ' 1< ' .:// ' 1/ J 1E%;; (m 0000000000000000000000000000000000

Question 1E(a) +he following treated effluent is discharged to a streamC Q J ./ l/s& DO J 1%/ mg/l& ) da$ BOD J </%/ mg/l& ( 1 J /%1/da$ and + J 1/V=% 9pstream from the outfall the water course has the following characteristicsC Q J /%1E m . /s& DO J >%/ mg/l& ) da$ BOD J 1%/ mg/l and + J 1/V=% +he stream channel has a (
1

J /%.//da$% =alculate the critical dissol"ed o'$gen concentration

downstream and the distance from the outfall to this point assuming a mean "elocit$ of /%:/ m/s in the ri"er% !aturation DO at 1/V= is ;%1 mg/l% !olution At mi'ing pt& DO& = J
= Q N= Q
1 1 1 1

Q NQ
1

> K /%1E N 1 K /%/. /%1E N /%/. J )%> mg/l

J E%< mg/l

BOD& = J

1 K /%1E N </ K /%/. /%1E N /%/.

+& = J 1/V= DO J DO sat G DO mi'ing J ;%1 G E%< J 1%> mg/l BOD) J * / (1, 1/ ,( 1t ) )%> J *
/

(1, 1/ ,/%1 ' ) )

*/ J >%<> mg/l
t J
c

1 ( ,(
1 1

log

1 1

(
1 c

1, D

( ,(
1

( *
1

1 /%. , /%1
1 c

log

/%. /%1

1 , 1%>

/%. , /%1 /%1 K >%<>

J1%1; da$s

Dc J J

/%1K >%<> ( ) ) ,1/,/%. K 1%1; N 1%> 1/,/%. K1%1; J 1%1) mg/l K1%1; 1/,/%1 ( /%. , /%1
,.

(1 */ ( ,) ) ,( 1/ ( t ( ,1/ (1 , (1

1 c

N DO 1/, (

Min DO concF J DO sat G Dc J ;%1 G 1%1) J E%/) mg/l 7c J L ' t c J 1%1; ' /%: ' 1< ' .:// ' 1/ Question 1E(b) 6hat are primar$ and secondar$ pollutants7 !olution According to their origin& pollutants are considered as either primar$ or secondar$ contaminants% 8rimar$ pollutants such as sulfur o'ide& nitrogen o'ide and h$drocarbons are those emitted directl$ to the atmosphere and found there in the form in which the$ were emitted% !econdar$ pollutants such as o3one and pero'$acet$l (8AD) nitrate are those formed in the atmosphere b$ a photochemical reaction of h$drol$sis or o'idation% J :1%:; (m

Question 1> +he following treated effluent is discharged to a streamC Q J <) l/s& DO J 1%/ mg/l& ) da$ BOD J </%/ mg/l and + J 1/V=% 9pstream from the outfall the water course has the following characteristics with saturated DOC Q J . m . /s& ) da$ BOD J .%/ mg/l and + J 1;V=% From laborator$ BOD testing ( 1 of the waste is /%1/da$ at 1/V=% +he ri"er downstream has an a"erage "elocit$ of /%:m/s and depth of 1%) m% =alculate the minimum dissol"ed o'$gen le"el and its distance downstream b$ using the o'$gen sag e#uation% !at DO at 1;V= J ;%. mg/l% !olution BOD& = J
= Q N= Q
1 1 1 1

Q NQ
1

. K . N </ K /%/<) . N /%/<)

J .%)) mg/l

DO& = J

;%. K . N 1 K /%/<) J ;%1; mg/l . N /%/<) J1; V=

+& = J

1; K . N 1/ K /%/<) . N /%/<)

DO J DO sat G DO mi' J ;%. G ;%1; J /%11 mg/l BOD) J * / (1, 1/ ,( 1t ) .%)) J * / (1, 1/ ,/%1 ' ) ) */ J )%1; mg/l (1 & + J ( 1 & 1/V= ' 1%/<E+,1/ (1 & 1;V= J /%1 ' 1%/<E1;,1/ J /%/;: /da$ (1 & + J ( 1 & 1/V= ' 1%/1)+,1/ (1 & 1;V= J /%E: ' 1%/1)1;,1/ J /%E)> /da$
( J 1%1 K
1

L 51 % ..

J 1%1 K

/%: 1%)1% ..

J /%E:/da$

t J
c

1 ( ,(
1 1

log

1 1

1, D

( ,(
1

( *
1

1 /%E: , /%/;:

log

/%E: /%/;:

1 , /%11

/%E: , /%/;: /%/;: K )%1;

J 1%1) da$s

Dc J J

/%/;: K )%1; ( ) ( K1%1) ) ,1/, /%E: K1%) N /%11 1/, /%E: K1%1) J /%<; mg/l : 1/,/%/;: /%E: , /%/;1

(1 */ ( ,) ) ,( 1/ ( t ( ,1/ (1 , (1
1 c

1 tc

N DO 1/, (

1 tc

Min DO concF J DO sat G Dc J ;%. G /%<; J >%>1 mg/l 7c J L ' t c J /%: ' 1%1) ' 1< ' .:// ' 1/
,.

J :<%> (m

Question 1; A stream with BOD . mg/l and saturated with DO has a normal flow of 1%> m a sewage effluent also saturated with DO of /%; m
. .

/s and recei"e

/s with BOD .) mg/l% Determine the DO deficit

o"er the ne't ) da$s and hence plot the DO sag cur"e% =alculate the critical DO deficit throughout saturation DO at 1<V= >%< mg/l% (1 at 1/V= is /%1 per da$& ( 1 at 1/V= is /%. per da$% !olution BOD& = J
= Q N= Q
1 1 1 1

Q NQ
1

. K 1%> N .) K /%; 1%> N /%;

J1/%E> mg/l

DO& = J sat& >%< mg/l +& = J 1<V= DO J / mg/l


BOD 1/
)

J * / (1, 1/ ,(1t )

1/%E> J */ (1, 1/ ,/%1 ' ) ) */ J 1)%EE mg/l


D J
t

( *
1 1

/ 1

( ,(

1/ ,( t , 1/ ,(
1

()()

N D 1/ ,(

(1 & + J ( 1 & 1/V= ' 1%/<E+,1/ (1 & 1<V= J /%1 ' 1%/<E1<,1/ J /%11 /da$ (1 & + J ( 1 & 1/V= ' 1%/1)+,1/ (1 & 1<V= J /%. ' 1%/1)1<,1/ J /%.1 /da$ Dt J J (1 */ ( ) ) ,( 1/,( t (,1/ (1 , (1
1 1

N DO 1/, (

/%11 K 1)%EE ( ,) : 1/ /%11 K ) ,1/, /%.1 K ) N / J 1%1< mg/l /%.1 , /%11


1 log
1

tc J

1 1

( ,(
1

1, D

( ,(
1

( *
1

1 /%.1 , /%11

log

/%.1 /%11

( )/ 1,

J 1%1. da$s

Dc J J

/%11 K1)%EE ( ,) : 1/ /%11 K 1%1. ,1/,/%.1 K 1%1. N / J .%1> mg/l /%.1 , /%11

(1 */ ( ,) ) ,( 1/ ( t ( ,1/ (1 , (1
1 c

1 c

N DO 1/, (

1 c

Dt J J

(1 */ (1 , (1

( ) 1/) (,1/
,(1 t

,(1 t

N DO 1/, (

(for table)

/%11 K 1)%EE ( ,) : 1/ /%11 Kt ,1/, /%.1 Kt /%.1 , /%11

DO concF J DO sat G Dt J >%< , D t +ime (da$s) DO deficit DO conc / / >%< 1 1%:) )%E) 1 .%1> )%11 . .%/; )%.1 < 1%:< )%E: ) 1%1< :%1: : 1%:; :%E1 E 1%.1 E%/; > 1%/1 E%.; ; /%EE E%:. 1/ /%); E%>1 11 /%<) E%;) 11 /%.< >%/: 1. /%1: >%1< 1< /%1 >%1 1) /%1) >%1)

DO conc ; > E : ) < . 1 1 / 1 1 . < ) : E > ; 1/11111.1<1)1:

O'$gen sag cur"e


DO conc

Question ./ 6h$ sewer maintenance and program is necessar$% !olution !ewer maintenance re#uires a through (nowledge of the la$out and appurtenances used in collection s$stems& waste water flows& infiltration& and inflow% 8rere#uisite information regarding the function of "arious unit operations and how the$ relate to each other is re#uired% !erious and e'pensi"e sewer problems can result from improper design or poor construction% Ade#uate slopes to maintain self cleaning "elocit$ is essential to minimi3ing maintenance% !election of a suitable pipe 4oint is "ital to pre"ent penetration of roots and e'cessi"e infiltration% =utting of tree roots from sewer lines can be an e'pensi"e and reoccurring cleaning process% Bround water entering 4oints carries with it soil from around the pipe which ultimatel$ causes structural failure% -n addition to re"iew of new design and super"ision of construction& building permits should re#uire careful inspection of all ser"ice connections before bac(filling% -t is important to ma(e certain that unused ser"ice lines are properl$ capped when buildings are demolished% A successfull$ maintenance program operates on a planned schedule and re#uires (eeping effecti"e records% Maps are used to show location of manholes& flushing inlets& ser"ice connections and the appurtenances% ecords should be (ept on maintenance performed with particular stress on troublesome lines that are (nown to re#uire more fre#uent inspection or cleaning% 6hile large sewer on ade#uate slopes ma$ ne"er re#uire flushing or cleaning& others must be placed on regular schedule that ma$ range e"er$ month to once a $ear% +he number of emergenc$ sewer bloc(ages can be materiall$ reduced b$ such pre"enti"e maintenance% !ewer stoppages are caused chiefl$ b$ sand& grease materials& stic(s& stones and tree roots% +he latter are most troublesome% =ommon cleaning techni#ues are flushing with water& scraping with mechanical tools& h$draulic scoring with high pressure 4ets and addition of chemicals% 8eriodic flushing helps to (eep lines clear and is often performed in association with inspection% +he usual procedure for de"eloping scouring "elocit$ is to inert a fire hose into the sewer through manhole% +his is most ad"antageous in cleaning lines in residual sections that do not ha"e sufficient connections to pro"ide cleaning flow of waste water% Flushing has limitations& since it merel$ mo"es debris from one section of a sewer into anotherC it is assumed that flows in downstream pipes are sufficient to suspend the solids and (eep them mo"ing% 000000000000000000000000000000000