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# Chapter 2.

## Magnetohydrodynamic Model Theory

This chapter presents an overview of the theory and the governing equations for the mathematical models used in FLUENT to predict ow in an electromagnetic eld. Section 2.1: Introduction Section 2.2: Magnetic Induction Method Section 2.3: Electric Potential Method

2.1

Introduction
The coupling between the uid ow eld and the magnetic eld can be understood on the basis of two fundamental eects: the induction of electric current due to the movement of conducting material in a magnetic eld, and the eect of Lorentz force as the result of electric current and magnetic eld interaction. In general, the induced electric current and the Lorentz force tend to oppose the mechanisms that create them. Movements that lead to electromagnetic induction are therefore systematically braked by the resulting Lorentz force. Electric induction can also occur in the presence of a time-varying magnetic eld. The eect is the stirring of uid movement by the Lorentz force. Electromagnetic elds are described by Maxwells equations: B =0 B t (2.1-1)

E =

(2.1-2)

D =q D t

(2.1-3)

H =+

(2.1-4)

where B (Tesla) and E (V/m) are the magnetic and electric elds, respectively, and H and D are the induction elds for the magnetic and electric elds, respectively. q (C/m3 ) is the electric charge density, and (A/m2 ) is the electric current density vector.

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## The induction elds H and D are dened as: H= 1 B (2.1-5)

D = E

(2.1-6)

where and are the magnetic permeability and the electric permittivity, respectively. For suciently conducting media such as liquid metals, the electric charge density q and D the displacement current are customarily neglected . t In studying the interaction between ow eld and electromagnetic eld, it is critical to know the current density due to induction. Generally, two approaches may be used to evaluate the current density. One is through the solution of a magnetic induction equation; the other is through solving an electric potential equation.

2.2

## Magnetic Induction Method

In the rst approach, the magnetic induction equation is derived from Ohms law and Maxwells equation. The equation provides the coupling between the ow eld and the magnetic eld. In general, Ohms law that denes the current density is given by: = E (2.2-1)

where is the electrical conductivity of the media. For uid velocity eld U in a magnetic eld B , Ohms law takes the form: = (E + U B ) (2.2-2)

From Ohms law and Maxwells equation, the induction equation can be derived as: 1 2 B + (U )B = B + (B )U t

(2.2-3)

From the solved magnetic eld B , the current density can be calculated using Amperes relation as: = 1 B (2.2-4)

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## 2.2 Magnetic Induction Method

Generally, the magnetic eld B in a MHD problem can be decomposed into the externally imposed eld B0 and the induced eld b due to uid motion. Only the induced eld b needs to be solved. From Maxwells equations, the imposed eld B0 satises the following equation: 2 B0 B0 =0 t

(2.2-5)

where is the electrical conductivity of the media in which eld B0 is generated. Two cases need to be considered.

## 2.2.1 Case 1: B0 Generated in Non-conducting Media

In this case the imposed eld B0 satises the following conditions: B0 = 0 2 B0 = 0 With B = B0 + b, the induction equation (Equation 2.2-3) can be written as: b 1 2 B0 + (U )b = b + ((B0 + b) )U (U )B0 t t The current density is given by: = 1 b (2.2-9) (2.2-6)

(2.2-7)

(2.2-8)

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2.2.2

## Case 2: B0 Generated in Conducting Media

In this case the conditions given in Equations 2.2-6 and 2.2-7 are not true. Assuming that the electrical conductivity of the media in which eld B0 is generated is the same as that of the ow, i.e. = , from Equations 2.2-3 and 2.2-5 the induction equation can be written as: b 1 2 + (U )b = b + ((B0 + b) )U (U )B0 t and the current density is given by: = 1 (B0 + b) (2.2-11)

(2.2-10)

For the induction equation Equations 2.2-8 or 2.2-10, the boundary conditions for the induced eld are given by: b = {bn bt1 bt2 }T = b (2.2-12)

where the subscripts denote the normal and tangential components of the eld and b is specied by the user. For an electrically insulating boundary, as jn = 0 at the boundary, from Amperes relation one has bt1 = bt2 = 0 at the boundary.

2.3

## Electric Potential Method

The second approach for the current density is to solve the electric potential equation and calculate the current density using Ohms law. In general, the electric eld E can be expressed as: A t

E =

(2.3-1)

where and A are the scalar potential and the vector potential, respectively. For a static eld and assuming b << B0 , Ohms law given in Equation 2.2-2 can be written as: = ( + (U B0 )) (2.3-2)

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## 2.3 Electric Potential Method

For suciently conducting media, the principle of conservation of electric charge gives: =0 The electric potential equation is thus given by: 2 = (U B0 ) The boundary condition for the electric potential is given by: = (U B0 )boundary n n (2.3-5) (2.3-4) (2.3-3)

for an insulating boundary, where n is the unit vector normal to the boundary, and = 0 (2.3-6)

for a conducting boundary, where 0 is the specied potential at the boundary. The current density can then be calculated from Equation 2.3-2. With the knowledge of the induced electric current, the MHD coupling is achieved by introducing additional source terms to the uid momentum equation and energy equation. For the uid momentum equation, the additional source term is the Lorentz force given by: F =B (2.3-7)

which has units of N/m3 in the SI system. For the energy equation, the additional source term is the Joule heating rate given by: Q= which has units of W/m3 . 1 (2.3-8)

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## Magnetohydrodynamic Model Theory

For charged particles in an electromagnetic eld, the Lorentz force acting on the particle is given by: Fp = q (E + p B ) (2.3-9)

where q is the particle charge density (Coulomb/m3 ) and p is the particle velocity. The force Fp has units of N/m3 . For multiphase ows, assuming that the electric surface current at the interface between phases can be ignored, the electric conductivity for the mixture is given by: m =
i

i i

(2.3-10)

where i and i are respectively the electric conductivity and volume fraction of phase i . m is used in solving the induction equations.

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