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# Code No: RA221101 RA

## III B.Tech I Semester Regular Examinations, November 2007

PULSE AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS
(Instrumentation & Control Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
All Questions carry equal marks
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1. (a) A 10Hz square wave is fed to an amplifier. Calculate and plot the output wave
form under the following conditions the lower 3dB frequency is
i. .0.3 Hz.
ii. 3.0 Hz,
iii. 30 Hz.
(b) Draw the output waveform of an RC High pass circuit with a square wave
input under different time constants. Explain same. [8+8]

2. (a) Give the circuits of different types of shunt clippers and explain their operation
with the help of their transfer characteristics.
(b) Draw the diode differentiator comparator circuit and explain the operation of
it when ramp input signal is applied. [8+8]

## 3. (a) Explain the terms pertaining to transistor switching characteristics.

i. Rise time.
ii. Delay time.
iii. Turn-on time.
iv. Storage time.
v. Fall time.
vi. Turn-off time.
(b) Give the expression for risetime and falltime in terms of transistor parameters
and operating currents. [6+10]

## (a) Gate width of mono-stable multi.

(b) Astable multivibrator as a voltage to frequency converter with circuit and
waveform. [8+8]

5. (a) Explain the following terms with respect to linearity of sweep in detail
i. Slope speed error
ii. displacement error
iii. transmission error
iv. Derive the relation between the (i), (ii) & (iii).

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Code No: RA221101 RA
(b) Design a relaxation oscillator to have 2 kHz output frequency , using a UJT
and a 20 V supply. Calculate the output amplitude? The specifications for
UJT are as follows η =0.68 to 0.82, Ip = 2µA, Iv = 1mA ,Vr = 0.7 Vand
VEB(sat) = 3 V.

6. (a) Explain the factors which influence the stability of a relaxation divider with
the help of a neat waveforms.
(b) A UJT sweep operates with Vv = 3V, Vp=16V and η=0.5. A sinusoidal
synchronizing voltage of 2V peak is applied between bases and the natural
frequency of the sweep is 1kHz, over what range of sync signal frequency will
the sweep remain in 1:1 synchronism with the sync signal? [8+8]

7. (a) With the help of a neat diagram, explain the working of two-diode sampling
gate.
(b) Derive expressions for gain and minimum control voltages of a bi-directional
two- diode sampling gate. [8+8]

8. (a) With the help of circuit diagram explain the purpose of clamping diode in a
positive diode AND gate.
(b) Explain the effect of and diode capacitance on the output pulse of diode AND
gate. [8+8]

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