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• Charlemagne was the undisputed leader • From Conquest to Defense o Charlemagne began to have invasions from the Vikings, Magyars, Saracens • Their economy went down because the economy was based on conquest o their money dried up pretty quickly trying to defend themselves • Divided Kingdom o Charlemagne’s son (Louis the Pious) He was the ruler, yet, he shared his power His three sons did not want to share power o Treaty of Verdun, 843 [Lothair, Louis, Charles] Divide the kingdom in three parts • Weak Central Authority o Very weak
o the system of nobles and kingships granted a great deal of local autonomy but did not have a central control o when they were attacked they did not have a central system to defend so the locals had to defend themselves • New Royalty o Hugh Capet, Western Kingdom Decided that his prestige entitled him to a bigger cut He and his predecessors began to alternate the thrown with the descendents of the Carolingian By his time the Carolingian were gone o Otto The Great, Eastern Kingdom By the 10th century Carolingian cease to be a political force Population Growth
• Doubles between 1000 – 1300 o From 38 million to 74 million o part of this is the decline of slavery after the collapse of the roman empire slaves could marry whom they wanted o agricultural technology a lot more food, with only slightly less work more farms pop up throughout the continent o the climate at the time improved for farming and growing crops Feudalism • Fief o Partial of land called a 3Fief o collection of farms with their own serfs o the privilege or ruling a small farm • Vassals
o Take an oath of service and take control of a Fief o Vassals often time had Vassals of their own o Vassalage implied military service • Serfs o Those living on these Fief were serfs o cultivate crops and have a place to live • Kinship, Alliance, Heritage o Like the Mafia o central authority is fairly limited • Decline of autonomy o The autonomy of local rulers begin to decline o beginnings of a hierarchy Peasantry • Homogonous group living under equal conditions • Serfs o Land for labor
o Giving a plot of land by a vassal in exchange of demesne o Demesne A portion of crop to the land owner that he could either eat of sell o Living in small houses o Eavesdropping lifting the eaves to hear neighbors’ gossip o Terrible dark Could light fires but localized to one room they had fire pits and left the smoke go out through a whole in the room small, dark, sooty o Manor Better than the alternative of living without land Fortification farming plots surrounded by a wall
bandits were kept out, lived in relative safety Farming Essentials Shared across the serfs, bought by the land holders sharing plows, draft animals Church Each manor had their own church a source of comfort the land holders received income from the church as well o Communal Farming Shared pastures for animals farming equipment helped each other farm the land strong sense of community amongst the serfs
alleviated the loss of crops because of weather o Agricultural Innovation Farming improved by the invention of the plow Expensive so generally owned by land owner It reinforced the feudal system Crop rotation Instead of one field with one crop they had the land split into three fields and had one empty, one with a crop that would increase the nutrients of the field and then rotate them Little bit more work, but much greater output of crops o Women
Cared for children, fields, and clothing Negotiating Freedom • Labor shortage o Greater farming technology created a labor shortage • Collective Bargaining o Travel from manner to manner with someone to negotiate on their behave to see which land owner would give them a better deal o land owners were also part of a greater group • Cash Crop Market o Specialization Allowed farmers to become specialized in specific crops broader market for the trade of crops Germany became known for its grain France had grapes with vineyards • Cheap Labor
o Land lords were able to bypass the bargaining power of the serfs by hiring cheaper labor o they worked under a cash system instead of a barter system • Paying for Freedom o Those that were above the barter system had certain benefits o Marriage & Movement you could marriage who you wanted now, and if they did not like their land lord then they come move to another one. A certain sense of freedom o Land & Rent the sense of cash/rent comes from here o Kings & Towns strengthened the nobility
if a vassal owner had 20 farms and was collecting rent from all of them then the dukes said they were in power and took a share as well • New Dangers o if there was a bad crop then it would be disastrous for the whole manner o no longer the protection of the manner o there were people who made a living off robbery and farmers became much more vulnerable now o the crops were not guaranteed so you could have a crop that produced just enough for themselves but not enough to sell o a lot of farmers went to town for jobs and when they could not find jobs then they just begged Aristocracy & Church
• Aristocracy o Knights neither aristocrat or serfs warrior elite new class secular group of warriors they served land owners in exchange for a part of the spoils and nobility they wanted to become nobility Education chivalry • a sense of honor and duty youth • jousting • to prove themselves marriage
• the hope is to marry into a good family, acquire some land, and get some real power o Women Marriage & Breeding To marry into another family to form an alliance or to acquire a new land and have children “Courtliness” placing a woman so high on a pedestal that nothing was within their reach next to no social power Foul Temptress when they married into a family they were often seen suspicious because she might want their land • Church
o Saints: Divine Protectors became widespread around this period saints were favored by God preserved in death protection by the saints could be petitioned by prayer o Monks: Spiritual Elites saints were preserved through relics and they were maintained by monasteries monasteries had great power in the community and the church as a whole o Monastic Culture nobility monks and nuns came from nobles dedicated their lives in the pursuit of God learned scripture Lectio Divina
scriptures Professional Prayers monks became professional prayers expected not only the souls of the people in their community but also of those that were dead o Monastic Reforms Cistercians Worried that the monks were becoming too powerful they moved the monasteries to the wilderness they lived very simple. Did they own maintenance and work still became very wealthy Peace of God and the Truce of God Christians would not fight Christians on certain days
Medieval Towns • Introduction o Centers of Commerce centering around markets where people sold their crops and other goods o Repulsed & Attracted Rural Dwellers nobles did not like them because they were new forms of power that were being shaped and developed within towns clergy viewed them with suspicion perverse and immoral places they were also attracted to towns • towns liked their icons and could preach peasants came looking for work o New legal & Social Structures • Italian Cities o Urban Traditions of Antiquity
o Gate to East offered access to good from the Byzantine world and Persian kingdoms o Powerful Fleets owned by merchants merchants of Venice become powerful both economically and militarily • Merchants & Capitalists o Go-Betweens common ground where people could come together and trade o New Practices double-entry book keeping limited liability partnership and commercial insurance development of credit and loans in towns Christian doctrine forbid the charging of interest on loans
Jews, however, did not have a ban on interest of credit. They could not own land, though, because of their doctrine o Challenge to Aristocratic Values honorable commerce they frown on the selling and buying things the prestige came from owning land they saw commerce as second grade merchants, however, began to rise • they commanded a certain prestige like aristocracy social mobility this is a scary things to nobles the changes of going from peasant to business mogul was next to none.
however, through a couple generations your family could have a certain wealth Northern Towns • New Markets, New Practices o Northern traffic northern Europe “countries” o cloth Ghent, Cypress, Bruges, London all over England, Belgium, and Germany clothing market was the first large scale market since the collapse of the empire textile industry arose because it required a great amount of centralization you need looms to spin the wool into cloth, and sheep quality control
London had a great ability to trade textiles o new social order Drapers (patricians) master drapers to purchase looms, wool, dyes, and coordinate the business end of the industry wealthiest and most powerful of this social order artisans oversaw the operation of the looms learning about the production and craft of the industry laborers (Blue Nails) the dye turned their nails blue paid very little no recourse, no bargaining power
whenever they got together to demand more power and pay the bosses would hire mercenaries and crush them o Guilds Where the artisans and the patricians could regulate the industry • Cathedral Schools o Revision of curriculum o development to schools to meet the demand of the urban economy o religious schools with secular training o attended by the wealthy and the elite o they would learn law, rhetoric and logic • Universities o From the cathedral schools we have the modern development of universities
o University of Bologna was one of the first and specialized in the study of law it was student run they chose the faculty and curriculum o the professors were regulated by a guild they maintained the standards of professors o Paris Not student run chartered by the French king in 1200 administration did it's own hiring students living in the university border were immune from local law o University Life Rowdy many brothels close to the university this led to many incidents
closed down at one point because a group of students refused to pay their tab after 6 years of studying you had a degree after 3 more years you had a master of the arts Invention of the State • German Kingdoms o Otto the Great invades Italy and ceases Rome gets crowned as emperor by the pope o Imperial Church control of Rome he elects the Pope papal legitimacy he then uses the pope to make him Emperor
“western eunuchs” the church bureaucracy becomes its own bureaucracy since the church people could not reproduce they would not pass down their power o the kingdom had a great deal of local autonomy o the position of emperor continued but only with the cooperation of the lesser nobility o Magnates election the lesser nobles were given the power to elect an heir to the thrown if there was no male heir by the emperor expansion
the emperor did not currently have the power to check the military power of the magnates which lead to the expansion of magnate’s power o German knights: serfs up, lords down the emperor devised a system of knights unlike the other knights, the German knights were serfs given military commands in service of the emperor in exchange for land and greater political power you know have a class of serfs that have royal authority that compete with the aristocracy and overtake the aristocracy that are dying out o Papacy resisting imperial influence pope start questioning their authority
pope Leo the 9th he takes power away from the kings reducing lay control moral reform • the elimination of married priests • and forbid priests to marry lay investiture • he stops the ability for the emperor to appoint people to the church positions assertion of sovereignty bitter conflict legal debate • between the pope and kings of Europe • both sides scourge legal law to see who had the power propaganda
• there are speeches, pamphlets to sway the common people the conflict resolves itself this is an ongoing problem for several hundred years Concordat of Worms (1122) Acknowledges the separation between the kingdoms and churches this weakened both authorities the emperor becomes a symbolic leader that loses his legitimacy by being crowned by the pope the pope loses a tremendous political power Calixtus II & Henry V • they convened the Concordat of Worms Nation-States
a beginning of national unity France • biology o male heirs o divorce they would divorce if they wife could not provide a male heir until they got a male son o son crowned before death of father greater legitimacy because the king passed down the thrown himself o uninterrupted for several generations o the Capetian Dynasty • bureaucracy o Basillis salaried agents from commoners that work in the royal bureaucracy to bypass noble authority
they collect taxes, draft laws, collecting census they are salaried so are not influenced by other parties o King Louis VIIII Establishes a nationwide court that enables anyone to travel to Paris and could plead their case • with the central form of government they were able to weakened French nobles England • Royal Court o a system like the Basillis • Henry II o Strengthened the royal court o uses his army to curb his authority over barons o maintains his authority over the Church
• he does this by the establishment of common law o takes the law out of the hands of the church and barons o anyone could purchase a rit that allowed them to appear before court and express their grieves. It was heard by the court and the dispute settled • Magna Carta (1215) o Uniform rights and privileges o Confers the uniform rights and says the king himself is not above the law • Parliament o Created by Edward I o He summoned local authorities to come to him and debate the course of the kingdom and hear grievances by local rulers o the beginnings of the parliament
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