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EUH2001 – High Middle Ages 09/07/2007 10:21:00

Carolingian Eclipse

• Charlemagne was the undisputed leader

• From Conquest to Defense

o Charlemagne began to have invasions from

the Vikings, Magyars, Saracens

• Their economy went down because the economy

was based on conquest

o their money dried up pretty quickly trying to

defend themselves

• Divided Kingdom

o Charlemagne’s son (Louis the Pious)

 He was the ruler, yet, he shared his power

 His three sons did not want to share

power

o Treaty of Verdun, 843 [Lothair, Louis, Charles]

 Divide the kingdom in three parts

• Weak Central Authority

o Very weak
o the system of nobles and kingships granted a

great deal of local autonomy but did not have

a central control

o when they were attacked they did not have a

central system to defend so the locals had to

defend themselves

• New Royalty

o Hugh Capet, Western Kingdom

 Decided that his prestige entitled him to a

bigger cut

 He and his predecessors began to

alternate the thrown with the

descendents of the Carolingian

 By his time the Carolingian were gone

o Otto The Great, Eastern Kingdom

 By the 10th century Carolingian cease to

be a political force

Population Growth
• Doubles between 1000 – 1300

o From 38 million to 74 million

o part of this is the decline of slavery after the

collapse of the roman empire

 slaves could marry whom they wanted

o agricultural technology

 a lot more food, with only slightly less

work

 more farms pop up throughout the

continent

o the climate at the time improved for farming

and growing crops

Feudalism

• Fief

o Partial of land called a 3Fief

o collection of farms with their own serfs

o the privilege or ruling a small farm

• Vassals
o Take an oath of service and take control of a

Fief

o Vassals often time had Vassals of their own

o Vassalage implied military service

• Serfs

o Those living on these Fief were serfs

o cultivate crops and have a place to live

• Kinship, Alliance, Heritage

o Like the Mafia

o central authority is fairly limited

• Decline of autonomy

o The autonomy of local rulers begin to decline

o beginnings of a hierarchy

Peasantry

• Homogonous group living under equal conditions

• Serfs

o Land for labor


o Giving a plot of land by a vassal in exchange

of demesne

o Demesne

 A portion of crop to the land owner that

he could either eat of sell

o Living in small houses

o Eavesdropping

 lifting the eaves to hear neighbors’ gossip

o Terrible dark

 Could light fires but localized to one room

 they had fire pits and left the smoke go

out through a whole in the room

 small, dark, sooty

o Manor

 Better than the alternative of living

without land

 Fortification

 farming plots surrounded by a wall


 bandits were kept out, lived in

relative safety

 Farming Essentials

 Shared across the serfs, bought by

the land holders

 sharing plows, draft animals

 Church

 Each manor had their own church

 a source of comfort

 the land holders received income

from the church as well

o Communal Farming

 Shared pastures for animals

 farming equipment

 helped each other farm the land

 strong sense of community amongst the

serfs
 alleviated the loss of crops because of

weather

o Agricultural Innovation

 Farming improved by the invention of the

plow

 Expensive so generally owned by

land owner

 It reinforced the feudal system

 Crop rotation

 Instead of one field with one crop

they had the land split into three

fields and had one empty, one with a

crop that would increase the

nutrients of the field and then rotate

them

 Little bit more work, but much

greater output of crops

o Women
 Cared for children, fields, and clothing

Negotiating Freedom

• Labor shortage

o Greater farming technology created a labor

shortage

• Collective Bargaining

o Travel from manner to manner with someone

to negotiate on their behave to see which land

owner would give them a better deal

o land owners were also part of a greater group

• Cash Crop Market

o Specialization

 Allowed farmers to become specialized in

specific crops

 broader market for the trade of crops

 Germany became known for its grain

 France had grapes with vineyards

• Cheap Labor
o Land lords were able to bypass the bargaining

power of the serfs by hiring cheaper labor

o they worked under a cash system instead of a

barter system

• Paying for Freedom

o Those that were above the barter system had

certain benefits

o Marriage & Movement

 you could marriage who you wanted now,

and if they did not like their land lord then

they come move to another one. A certain

sense of freedom

o Land & Rent

 the sense of cash/rent comes from here

o Kings & Towns

 strengthened the nobility


 if a vassal owner had 20 farms and was

collecting rent from all of them then the

dukes said they were in power and took a

share as well

• New Dangers

o if there was a bad crop then it would be

disastrous for the whole manner

o no longer the protection of the manner

o there were people who made a living off

robbery and farmers became much more

vulnerable now

o the crops were not guaranteed so you could

have a crop that produced just enough for

themselves but not enough to sell

o a lot of farmers went to town for jobs and

when they could not find jobs then they just

begged

Aristocracy & Church


• Aristocracy

o Knights

 neither aristocrat or serfs

 warrior elite

 new class

 secular group of warriors

 they served land owners in exchange for a

part of the spoils and nobility

 they wanted to become nobility

 Education

 chivalry

• a sense of honor and duty

 youth

• jousting

• to prove themselves

 marriage
• the hope is to marry into a good

family, acquire some land, and

get some real power

o Women

 Marriage & Breeding

 To marry into another family to form

an alliance or to acquire a new land

and have children

 “Courtliness”

 placing a woman so high on a

pedestal that nothing was within their

reach

 next to no social power

 Foul Temptress

 when they married into a family they

were often seen suspicious because

she might want their land

• Church
o Saints: Divine Protectors

 became widespread around this period

 saints were favored by God

 preserved in death

 protection by the saints could be

petitioned by prayer

o Monks: Spiritual Elites

 saints were preserved through relics and

they were maintained by monasteries

 monasteries had great power in the

community and the church as a whole

o Monastic Culture

 nobility

 monks and nuns came from nobles

 dedicated their lives in the pursuit of

God

 learned scripture

 Lectio Divina
 scriptures

 Professional Prayers

 monks became professional prayers

 expected not only the souls of the

people in their community but also of

those that were dead

o Monastic Reforms

 Cistercians

 Worried that the monks were

becoming too powerful

 they moved the monasteries to the

wilderness

 they lived very simple. Did they own

maintenance and work

 still became very wealthy

 Peace of God and the Truce of God

 Christians would not fight Christians

on certain days
Medieval Towns

• Introduction

o Centers of Commerce

 centering around markets where people

sold their crops and other goods

o Repulsed & Attracted Rural Dwellers

 nobles did not like them because they

were new forms of power that were being

shaped and developed within towns

 clergy viewed them with suspicion

 perverse and immoral places

 they were also attracted to towns

• towns liked their icons and could

preach

 peasants came looking for work

o New legal & Social Structures

• Italian Cities

o Urban Traditions of Antiquity


o Gate to East

 offered access to good from the Byzantine

world and Persian kingdoms

o Powerful Fleets

 owned by merchants

 merchants of Venice become powerful

both economically and militarily

• Merchants & Capitalists

o Go-Betweens

 common ground where people could

come together and trade

o New Practices

 double-entry book keeping

 limited liability partnership

 and commercial insurance

 development of credit and loans in towns

 Christian doctrine forbid the charging

of interest on loans
 Jews, however, did not have a ban on

interest of credit. They could not own

land, though, because of their

doctrine

o Challenge to Aristocratic Values

 honorable commerce

 they frown on the selling and buying

things

 the prestige came from owning land

 they saw commerce as second grade

 merchants, however, began to rise

• they commanded a certain

prestige like aristocracy

 social mobility

 this is a scary things to nobles

 the changes of going from peasant to

business mogul was next to none.


 however, through a couple

generations your family could have a

certain wealth

Northern Towns

• New Markets, New Practices

o Northern traffic

 northern Europe “countries”

o cloth

 Ghent, Cypress, Bruges, London

 all over England, Belgium, and Germany

 clothing market was the first large scale

market since the collapse of the empire

 textile industry arose because it required

a great amount of centralization

 you need looms to spin the wool into

cloth, and sheep

 quality control
 London had a great ability to trade

textiles

o new social order

 Drapers (patricians)

 master drapers

 to purchase looms, wool, dyes, and

coordinate the business end of the

industry

 wealthiest and most powerful of this

social order

 artisans

 oversaw the operation of the looms

 learning about the production and

craft of the industry

 laborers (Blue Nails)

 the dye turned their nails blue

 paid very little

 no recourse, no bargaining power


 whenever they got together to

demand more power and pay the

bosses would hire mercenaries and

crush them

o Guilds

 Where the artisans and the patricians

could regulate the industry

• Cathedral Schools

o Revision of curriculum

o development to schools to meet the demand

of the urban economy

o religious schools with secular training

o attended by the wealthy and the elite

o they would learn law, rhetoric and logic

• Universities

o From the cathedral schools we have the

modern development of universities


o University of Bologna was one of the first and

specialized in the study of law

 it was student run

 they chose the faculty and curriculum

o the professors were regulated by a guild

 they maintained the standards of

professors

o Paris

 Not student run

 chartered by the French king in 1200

 administration did it's own hiring

 students living in the university border

were immune from local law

o University Life

 Rowdy

 many brothels close to the university

 this led to many incidents


 closed down at one point because a

group of students refused to pay their

tab

 after 6 years of studying you had a

degree

 after 3 more years you had a master of

the arts

Invention of the State

• German Kingdoms

o Otto the Great

 invades Italy and ceases Rome

 gets crowned as emperor by the pope

o Imperial Church

 control of Rome

 he elects the Pope

 papal legitimacy

 he then uses the pope to make him

Emperor
 “western eunuchs”

 the church bureaucracy becomes its

own bureaucracy

 since the church people could not

reproduce they would not pass down

their power

o the kingdom had a great deal of local

autonomy

o the position of emperor continued but only

with the cooperation of the lesser nobility

o Magnates

 election

 the lesser nobles were given the

power to elect an heir to the thrown if

there was no male heir by the

emperor

 expansion
 the emperor did not currently have

the power to check the military power

of the magnates which lead to the

expansion of magnate’s power

o German knights: serfs up, lords down

 the emperor devised a system of knights

 unlike the other knights, the German

knights were serfs given military

commands in service of the emperor in

exchange for land and greater political

power

 you know have a class of serfs that have

royal authority that compete with the

aristocracy and overtake the aristocracy

that are dying out

o Papacy

 resisting imperial influence

 pope start questioning their authority


 pope Leo the 9th he takes power away

from the kings

 reducing lay control

 moral reform

• the elimination of married priests

• and forbid priests to marry

 lay investiture

• he stops the ability for the

emperor to appoint people to the

church positions

 assertion of sovereignty

 bitter conflict

 legal debate

• between the pope and kings of

Europe

• both sides scourge legal law to

see who had the power

 propaganda
• there are speeches, pamphlets to

sway the common people

 the conflict resolves itself

 this is an ongoing problem for several

hundred years

 Concordat of Worms (1122)

 Acknowledges the separation

between the kingdoms and churches

 this weakened both authorities

 the emperor becomes a symbolic

leader that loses his legitimacy by

being crowned by the pope

 the pope loses a tremendous political

power

 Calixtus II & Henry V

• they convened the Concordat of

Worms

Nation-States
a beginning of national unity

France

• biology

o male heirs

o divorce

 they would divorce if they wife could not

provide a male heir until they got a male

son

o son crowned before death of father

 greater legitimacy because the king

passed down the thrown himself

o uninterrupted for several generations

o the Capetian Dynasty

• bureaucracy

o Basillis

 salaried agents from commoners that

work in the royal bureaucracy to bypass

noble authority
 they collect taxes, draft laws,

collecting census

 they are salaried so are not

influenced by other parties

o King Louis VIIII

 Establishes a nationwide court that

enables anyone to travel to Paris and

could plead their case

• with the central form of government they were

able to weakened French nobles

England

• Royal Court

o a system like the Basillis

• Henry II

o Strengthened the royal court

o uses his army to curb his authority over

barons

o maintains his authority over the Church


• he does this by the establishment of common law

o takes the law out of the hands of the church

and barons

o anyone could purchase a rit that allowed them

to appear before court and express their

grieves. It was heard by the court and the

dispute settled

• Magna Carta (1215)

o Uniform rights and privileges

o Confers the uniform rights and says the king

himself is not above the law

• Parliament

o Created by Edward I

o He summoned local authorities to come to him

and debate the course of the kingdom and

hear grievances by local rulers

o the beginnings of the parliament


09/07/2007 10:21:00
09/07/2007 10:21:00