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ISLAM
IN BRIEF





Osaid al-Houtary

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WHAT IS ISLAM? ...........................................................................................
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WHAT DOES ISLAM CONSIST OF? ...............................................................
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1. WHAT DO MUSLIMS BELIEVE IN? ...........................................................
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A. Who Is Allah?...............................................................................................
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B. The Belief in Allah`s Books............................................................................
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WHAT IS THE QUR`AN?.................................................................................
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C. Believing In the Angles..................................................................................
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D. Who are The Prophets of Allah?..................................................................


WHO IS MUHAMMAD? ................................................................................
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E. Belief in the Day of 1udgment ......................................................................
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F. Faith in Allah`s Predestination and Fate.......................................................
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2. RIGHTEOUS GOOD DEEDS......................................................................
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B. THE ZAKAH` (Obligatory Alms) ...............................................................
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C. THE FAST.................................................................................................
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D. PILGRIMAGE (Hajj) .................................................................................


E. Good Manners ............................................................................................


HOW DOES SOMEONE BECOME A MUSLIM? ...........................................
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WHAT IS ISLAM?
1. The Arabic word ‘Islam’ simply means ‘submission’, and
derives from a word meaning ‘peace’ (salm). In a religious
context it means complete submission to the will of God. ‘Allah’
is the Arabic name for God, which is used by Arab Muslims and
Christians alike.

2. Islam is not a new religion, but the same truth that God
revealed through all His Prophets to every people. Muslims
believe that there is only one religion which is (al-Hanafivvah)
Monotheism and all the Messengers and the Prophets called for
this religion. And God’s final Message to man, a reconfirmation
of the eternal message and a summing-up of all that has gone
before was revealed to the Prophet Muhammad () through
Gabriel ().

3. Muslims are One billion people which means fifth of the
world's population. Arabs represent only 18% of Muslims.
4. Islam is both a religion and a complete way of life.


WHAT DOES ISLAM CONSIST OF?
Islam Consist of:
1. Belief. (the act of the heart)
2. Doing righteous good deeds. (the acts of the organs)

More than 50 verses in the Qur’an indicate that the way to
Paradise is consist of the aforementioned two steps:
a. And give glad tidings to those who believe and do
righteous good deeds, that for them will be Gardens under
which rivers flow [Paradise]. (Qur’an: 2: 25)

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b. And those who believe [in the Oneness of Allah ()/
Islamic Monotheism] and do righteous good deeds, they
are dwellers of Paradise, they will dwell therein forever.
(Qur’an: 2: 82)
c. But those who believe [in the Oneness of Allah - Islamic
Monotheism] and do deeds of righteousness, We shall
admit them to Gardens under which rivers flow (Paradise),
abiding therein forever. Therein they shall have Azwajun
Mutahharatun [purified mates or wives (having no menses,
stools, urine, etc.)] and We shall admit them to shades
wide and ever deepening. (Qur’an: 4: 58)

1. WHAT DO MUSLIMS BELIEVE IN?
Muslims believe in:
1. One Unique and Incomparable God (Allah).
2. The Angels created by Him.
3. God’s Books.
4. The Prophets through whom His Revelations were brought
to mankind.
5. The Day of Judgment and in life after death.
6. God’s Predestination: complete authority over human
destiny, and Fate: individual accountability for his actions.

A. Who Is Allah?

1. ‘Allah’ is the Arabic name for God, which is used by Arab
Muslims and Christians alike.

2. Allah is only One God, He is the Lord and none has the
right to be worshipped but Him. This is the Islamic
Monotheism. Therefore this God is:

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a. One: He is not three in one, He is not more or less
than that. He is simply One God. He is the Creator
of the universe, its Organizer, Planner, Sustainer,
and the Giver of security, etc. Therefore, this God is
one and is doing a lot of things. He is not only
watching his creation. This is called: Oneness of the
Lordship of God.

b. This God has the right to be worshipped and none
has this right but Him. So worshipping Buda,
Krishna, Moses, Jesus or even Muhammad is not
acceptable. This is called: Oneness of the worship of
God.

c. Nothing like unto Him. Therefore, everything that
we can imagine is not God. “The Hand of Allah is
over their hands.” (Qur’an.48:10). This confirms
two Hands for Allah (), but there is no similarity
for them. This is called: Oneness of the Names and
the Qualities of Allah.


B. The Belief in Allah’s Books
(the Scriptures)

1. Muslims believe in the Books Allah revealed to His Prophets
and Messengers.

2. Allah, Who revealed the Qur’an to Muhammad () had
revealed other books to other Messengers who came before him.
There are Books mentioned in the Qur’an and Books that were
not. The Books mentioned are:

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a. The Torah, which was revealed to Moses (). God ()
said: Verily We did send down the Torah, therein was
guidance and light, by it the Prophets who submitted
themselves to the will of Allah [Muslims], judged the
Jews. And the Rabbis and the priests [too judged the Jews
by, the Torah after those Prophets]. for to them was
entrusted the protection of Allah’s Book, and they, were
witnesses thereto. (Qur’an 5:44)

b. The Bible, which was revealed to Jesus (). God ()
said: We sent Jesus, the son of Mary, confirming the
Torah that had come before hint and We gave him the
Gospel, in which was guidance and light and confirmation
of the Torah that had come before it, and a guidance and
admonition for the pious. ( Qur’an 5:46)
c. David’s Psalms, which were revealed to David ():
We have preferred some of the Prophets above the others,
and to David We gave the Psalms. (Qur’an 17:5 5)

d. The Scriptures, which were revealed to Moses and
Abraham (). Allah () said: Or has he not been
informed of what is in the Scripture of Moses; and
Abraham, who fulfilled his pledge? That no bearer of
burdens can bear the burden of another, and that mankind
shall have only what he has striven for; and that his
striving shall soon be seen; then he will be recompensed
for it with the fullest recompense; and to your Lord is the
final return. (Qur’an 53:36 - 42). God () also said:
Prosperous is he who purifies himself, and glorifies the
Name of his. Lord and the prays. Yet you prefer this life
while the hereafter is better and everlasting. Surely all this
is written in the earlier scriptures of Abraham and Moses.
(Qur’an 87:14 - 19)

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3. Muslims believe that the Qur’an is the last Book revealed from
Allah the Most High, and that Allah distinguished it from the
previous Scriptures in the following manner:

a. It contains all the divine teachings. It also supported the
ideas already established in the previous scriptures such as
conceding the Oneness of Allah, and worshipping and
obeying Him.
The Qur’an is also a comprehensive Book for all the good
deeds and good manners that were scattered in the
previous scriptures. It also functions to expurgate whatever
changes or corruption happened to earlier Scriptures.
And We have sent down to you the Book [Qur’an] in
truth, confirming the Scripture that came before it and
trustworthy in highness and a witness over it. (Qur’an
5:48) The Qur’an is the only divine Book which Allah
promises to keep and preserve:
Verily! We: It is We Who have sent down the Qur’an,
and We will guard it [from corruption]. (Qur’an 15:9)
c. The Qur’an was revealed to reach the whole of humanity
and not a certain people like the earlier Scriptures.
Therefore, Allah preserves it from corruption at the hands
of people in order to provide right guidance till the Day of
Judgment.
4. Muslims believes that the previous Scriptures were distorted
and a lot of evidences prove this event, among such evidences:
a. The original copies of the Scriptures revealed before the
Qur’an have been lost, and what people have now are but
translations. Whereas contrarily, the Qur’an is still

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preserved with its mirahs, ayahs, and grammatical
inflections in the same way the Angel Gabriel recited them
to Muhammad (), and he, in turn, recited them to his
Companions (may Allah be pleased with them).

b. The other Scriptures are a mixture of Allah’s words and
man’s words, which contain interpretations, history, the
stories of the Prophets and their disciples, and the
deductions made by scholars. No one can distinguish
Allah’s words from those of the people’s. The Qur’an is
entirely the word of Allah, it does not include what, the
Prophet () or the Companions said
c. Those Scriptures were not proven, by any reliable
document, to belong to the Messenger. For example, the
Scriptures of the Old Testament known as the Torah, were
written down many centuries after the death of Moses
().
WHAT IS THE QUR’AN?

The Qur'an is a record of the exact words revealed by God
through the Angel Gabriel to the Prophet Muhammad. It was
memorized by Muhammad and then dictated to his Companions,
and written down by scribes, who cross-checked it during his
lifetime. Not one word of its 114 chapters (Suras) has been
changed over the centuries, so that the Qur'an is in every detail
the unique and miraculous text which was revealed to
Muhammad fourteen centuries ago.

The Qur’an, the last revealed Word of God, is the prime source
of every Muslim's faith and practice. It deals with all the subjects

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which concern us as human beings: wisdom, doctrine, worship,
and law, but its basic theme is the relationship between God and
His creatures. At the same time it provides guidelines for a just
society, proper human conduct and an equitable economic
system.

C. Believing In the Angles

Belief in the angels is one of the six pillars of faith. It means to
believe that Allah has angels. Angels:

1. They are created from light.
2. The relationship of the angels to Allah is that of absolute
service, obedience, and submission to His commands.
They are not gods, or as the earlier polytheists claimed,
sons and daughters of God.
3. They never disobey God’s Commands.
4. They carry out certain tasks Allah ordered them to do.

angels are oI diIIerent types according to the diIIerent
tasks they perIorm and the creatures in their charge. There
are angels in charge oI the sun and the moon. galaxies.
mountains. rainIall. wombs (to protect). death. and some
which surround all creatures and every phenomenon taking
place in the universe. etc. Furthermore. the angels have
other duties that Allah relegated to them such as guiding
people and helping them to worship Allah. Allah also
chose an angel. Gabriel. to be His intermediary between
HimselI and His Apostle.

5. The angels are too many to be counted. They are
uncountable to anyone except to Allah.

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Thus, they are one kind of Allah’s creatures. One is not
considered a real believer till one believes in their existence and
in everything the Qur’an and Sunnah mention about them, their
characteristics, and their activities, without additions, omissions,
or change. God () said: Any who denies Allah, His Angles,
His Books, His Messengers, and the Day of Judgment has gone
far astray. (Qur’an 4:136)

D. Who are The Prophets of Allah?

1. Muslims believe in all the Prophets and Messengers
whom Allah named in His Book (al-Qur’an).
2. Muslims believe in a chain of Prophets started with Adam
and ended with Muhammad ().
3. All Prophets and Messenger preached for one
religion which is al-Hanafiyyah: Monotheism but
different laws (Shra’i‘).
4. Muslims believe that Allah sent other Messengers
than those mentioned, though neither their precise
number nor their identities are known to Muslims
except to God (). Allah () said: And indeed
We have sent Messengers before you [O’
Muhammad ()]; some of them We have related to
you their story and some We have not related to you
their story ... (Qur’an 40:78)
5. The Prophets and the Messengers mentioned in the
Qur’an are exclusively twenty-five: Adam, Noah,
ldrïs (Enoch), Sälih, Abraham, Hüd , Lot, Jonah,
Ismail (Ishmael), Isaac, Jacob, Joseph, Job, Shu‘ayb,
Moses, Aaron, Elisha, Dhul-Kifl (Isaiah), David,
Solomon, Zachariah, Elias, John, Jesus, Muhammad
, may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon them
all.

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6. Muslims obey these Prophets and Messengers
because obeying them is a sign of obeying Allah is
stated in Qur’an: He who obeys the Messenger, has
indeed obeyed Allah ... (Qur’an 4:80).
7. Musilms follow Allah’s Messenger, Muhammad
():Allah () said: And whatsoever the Messenger
[Muhammad ()] gives you, take it, and whatsoever
he forbids you, abstain [from it]. (Qur’an 59:7).

WHO IS MUHAMMAD?
Muhammad () was born in Mecca in the year 570. Since his
father died before his birth, and his mother shortly afterwards, he
was raised by his uncle from the respected tribe of Quraysh. At
that time, Arabs worshipped idols, they were pagans.

As he () grew up, he became known for his truthfulness,
generosity and sincerity, so that he was sought after for his
ability to arbitrate in disputes. The historians describe him as
calm and meditative. Muhammad () was of a deeply religious
nature, and had long detested the decadence of his society. It
became his habit to meditate from time to time in the Cave of
Hirä’ near the summit of Jabal an-Nür, the ‘Mountain of Light’
near Mecca. At the age of 40, while engaged in a meditative
retreat, Muhammad received his first revelation from God
through the Angel Gabriel ().
This revelation, which continued for twenty-three years, is
known as the Qur’an. As soon as be began to recite the words he
heard from Gabriel (), and to preach the truth and the Islamic
Monotheism which God () had revealed to him. He () and his
small group of Companions suffered bitter persecution which
grew so fierce so that in the year 622 God () ordered them to

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emigrate. They left Mecca for the city of Medina some 260 miles
to the north.
After several years and several battles with Quraysh and the
pagans of Arabia, the Prophet and his Companions were able to
conquer Mecca, where they forgave their yesterday enemies and
established Islam definitively. Before the Prophet died at the age
of 63, the greater part of Arabia was Muslim, and within a
century of his death Islam had spread to Spain in the West and as
far East as China.

E. Belief in the Day of Judgment
1. Muslims Believe in the Day of Judgment and everything
related to it. Allah () stated in His Book and informed His
Prophet () about concerning what comes after death, i.e. like
the grave and its comfort or torture, Resurrection, the assembling
of scrolls, the account, the Balance, the Bridge of Hell-fire (as-
Sirãt). the cistern, intercession, Paradise and Hell, and what
Allah prepared for the inhabitants thereof.
2. The man was not created absurdly and without wisdom and
that his life on earth is temporal and limited to this very short
time man lives and sins.
3. The man will not be left without any reward-, the oppressor
will not be punished for his oppression, the just will not be
rewarded for his justice, the reformer will not be compensated for
the reformations he has made, the corrupt will not be punished
for his corruption and the wrong doer will not be punished for his
mischief.

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4. Thus belief in Resurrection is conducive to the glory, justice,
and wisdom of Allah (). Any man of sight will admit it and any
unadulterated instinct (fitrah) will be comforted with its belief.
F. Faith in Allah’s Predestination and Fate
Faith in Predestination includes five-grades:

1. Faith in Allah’s prior knowledge that is knowledge of His
servant’s deeds before they do them. Allah ’s Knowledge
is just knowledge without forcing them to do whatever
they do. So who does good deeds Allah will award him
and who does wrong Allah will punish him.
2. The writing that is in the Book of Decrees. Allah wrote His
servant’s deeds in the Book of Decrees.
3. Allah has an ultimate will and a comprehensive capability.
4. The creation of all creatures from nothing by Allah Who is
the Creator and all else being the created.
5. Faith in Predestination Does Not Contradict the Rule of
Cause and Effect:
We should always remember that we are commanded to
believe in the rule of cause and effect, in addition to our
submission to the Almighty Allah, trusting that He

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possesses everything. We trust the causes do not give the
effect except through Allah’s permission. The Creator who
has created the causes is He who creates the consequences
and the fruit. Whoever desires to have good progeny has to
have a cause for that, which is a lawful marriage. But such
a marriage may and may not bear its fruit, which is
progeny, according to Allah’s Will, Allah () said: To
Allah belongs the kingdom of the heavens. and the earth.
He creates what He wills. He bestows female [offspring]
upon whom He wills, and bestows male [offspring] upon
whom He wills. Or He bestows both males and females,
and He renders barren whom He wills. Verily, He is the
All-Knower and is Able to do all things. (Qur’an 42:49-
50)
For that reason, the Muslim is forbidden to abandon the
cause and effect, for if he seeks not his fortune he will be a
sinner, though his fortune is in the hands of Allah.

2. RIGHTEOUS GOOD DEEDS

A. PRAYER
Salh is the name for the obligatory prayers which are performed
five times a day, and are a direct link between the worshipper and
God. There is no hierarchical authority in Islam, and no priests,
so the prayers are led by a learned person who knows the Qur’an,
chosen by the congregation. These five prayers contain verses
from the Qur'an, and are said in Arabic, the language of the
Revelation, but personal supplication can be offered in one’s own
language. Prayers are performed at dawn, noon, mid-afternoon,
sunset and nightfall, and thus determine the rhythm of the entire
day. Although it is preferable to worship together in a mosque, a
Muslim may pray almost anywhere, such as in fields, offices,

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factories and universities. Visitors to the Muslim world are struck
by the centrality of prayers in daily life.

B. THE ‘ZAKAH’ (Obligatory Alms)
The word Zakah means both ‘purification’ and ‘growth’. Our
possessions are purified by setting aside a proportion for those in
need, and, like the pruning of plants, this cutting back balances
and encourages new growth. Each Muslim calculates his or her
own zakat individually. For most purposes this involves the
payment each year of two and a half percent of one’s capital. A
pious person may also give as much as he or she pleases as
sadaqah (voluntary charity)

C. THE FAST

1. Literally:
The Arabic word for “fasting” (sawm) is derived from the
root
säma literally means “to restrain” or “to refrain”, so
‘fasting’
is refraining from normal things, such as eating, drinking,
talking. If any one refrain from these thing, he is
considered
s’im which means the observer of fast.

2. Religiously:
Fasting means to refrain from things that invalidate (break)
the fasting from Morning Prayer time (break dawn), with
intention to please Allah (), till Sunset Prayer time.

Things That Invalidate (Break) the Fasting are:
a. Food and Drink
b. Sexual intercourse

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c. Masturbation (most scholars say this not allowed even
when not fasting).
However, Ramadan is much more than just not eating, not
drinking, and abstaining from other physical needs, it is
also:
d. Refraining of the heart and the mind from evil, thoughts.
e. Refraining of the tongue from evil words.
f. Refraining of other body parts from evil and actions.

D. PILGRIMAGE (Hajj)
Hajj is the annual pilgrimage to Mecca (In Saudi Arabia) Hajj is
an obligation only for those who are physically and financially
able to perform it. Pilgrims wear special clothes: simple garments
which strip away distinctions of class and culture, so that all
stand equal before God. The rites of the Hajj, which are of
Abrahamic origin, include:
1. Circling the Ka’ba seven times,
2. Going seven times between the mountains of Safä and
Marwah as did Hagar during her search for water.
3. The pilgrims stand together on the wide plain of ‘Arafat
and join in prayers for God's forgiveness, in what is often
thought of as a preview of the Last Judgment. In previous
centuries the Hajj was an arduous undertaking. Today,
however, Saudi Arabia provides millions of people with
water, modern transport, and the most up-todate health
facilities. The close of the Hajj is marked by a festival, the
Eid al-Adha, which is celebrated with prayers and the
exchange of gifts in Muslim communities everywhere.
This, and the Eid al-Fitr, a feast-day commemorating the
end of Ramadan, are the main festivals of the Muslim
calendar.

E. Good Manners

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The Prophet () said: “I was sent (a Messenger and
Prophet to all the nations) to complete the good manners.”
[Musnad Ahmad. Musnad Abü Hurayrah. chapter3. hadith
Number 8882 (Arabic version)]
The Prophet () said: “By Him in Whose Hand is my life,
none of you (truly) believes till he likes for his brother, or
he (the Holy Prophet) said: for his neighbour, whatever he
likes for himself.” [Sahh Muslim, Book 1,chapter 18,
hadith Number 0073]

HOW DOES SOMEONE BECOME A
MUSLIM?
Simply by:
1. Believing by his heart and saying by his tongue : 'There is
no god apart from God, and Muhammad is the Messenger
of God.' By this declaration, the believer announces his or
her faith in all God’s Messengers, and the Scriptures they
brought.
2. Doing the aforementioned things.

All pruise be to God the Lord oI
the Worlds.

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Subhãnahu wa Taãlã: 'The Exalted.¨ :

Salla Allahu Alayhi wa Sallam:
'Blessings and Peace be upon him.¨
:
(

)
Alayhis-Salãm: 'May Peace be upon
him.¨
:
(

)
Radiya Allahu Anhu: 'May Allah be
pleased with him.¨
:
(

)

SYMBOLS` DIRECTORY

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