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PLAXIS 3D Tutorial Manual 2013

Build 6448

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 Foundation in overconsolidated clay 1.1 Case A: Rigid foundation 1.2 Case B: Raft foundation 1.3 Case C: Pile-Raft foundation Excavation in sand 2.1 Geometry 2.2 Mesh generation 2.3 Performing calculations 2.4 Viewing the results Loading of a suction pile 3.1 Geometry 3.2 Mesh generation 3.3 Performing calculations 3.4 Viewing the results Construction of a road embankment 4.1 Geometry 4.2 Mesh generation 4.3 Performing calculations 4.4 Viewing the results 4.5 Safety analysis 4.6 Using drains Phased excavation of a shield tunnel 5.1 Geometry 5.2 Mesh generation 5.3 Performing calculations 5.4 Viewing the results Rapid drawdown analysis 6.1 Geometry 6.2 Mesh generation 6.3 Performing calculations 6.4 Viewing the results Dynamic analysis of a generator on an elastic foundation 7.1 Geometry 7.2 Mesh generation 7.3 Performing calculations 7.4 Viewing the results Free vibration and earthquake analysis of a building 8.1 Geometry 8.2 Mesh generation 8.3 Performing calculations 8.4 Viewing the results 7 8 20 27 33 34 39 39 42 47 47 50 51 52 53 53 57 58 61 64 67 69 69 78 79 86 87 87 89 90 95 97 97 100 101 104 107 107 113 113 115

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Appendix A - Menu tree Appendix B - Calculation scheme for initial stresses due to soil weight

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INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION PLAXIS is a nite element package that has been developed specically for the analysis of deformation and stability in geotechnical engineering projects. The simple graphical input procedures enable a quick generation of complex nite element models, and the enhanced output facilities provide a detailed presentation of computational results. The calculation itself is fully automated and based on robust numerical procedures. This concept enables new users to work with the package after only a few hours of training. Though the various tutorials deal with a wide range of interesting practical applications, this Tutorial Manual is intended to help new users become familiar with PLAXIS 3D. The tutorials should therefore not be used as a basis for practical projects. Users are expected to have a basic understanding of soil mechanics and should be able to work in a Windows environment. It is strongly recommended that the tutorials are followed in the order that they appear in the manual. The Tutorial Manual does not provide theoretical background information on the nite element method, nor does it explain the details of the various soil models available in the program. The latter can be found in the Material Models Manual, as included in the full manual, and theoretical background is given in the Scientic Manual. For detailed information on the available program features, the user is referred to the Reference Manual. In addition to the full set of manuals, short courses are organised on a regular basis at several places in the world to provide hands-on experience and background information on the use of the program.

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FOUNDATION IN OVERCONSOLIDATED CLAY

FOUNDATION IN OVERCONSOLIDATED CLAY

In this chapter a rst application of PLAXIS 3D is considered, namely the settlement of a foundation in clay. This is the rst step in becoming familiar with the practical use of the program. The general procedures for the creation of a geometry, the generation of a nite element mesh, the execution of a nite element calculation and the evaluation of the output results are described here in detail. The information provided in this tutorial will be utilised in the following tutorials. Therefore, it is important to complete this rst tutorial before attempting any further tutorial examples.
18.0 m 75.0 m

Building z=0 z = -2

75.0 m

Clay

40.0 m

z = -40

Figure 1.1 Geometry of a square building on a raft foundation

GEOMETRY This exercise deals with the construction and loading of a foundation of a square building in a lightly overconsolidated lacustrine clay. Below the clay layer there is a stiff rock layer that forms a natural boundary for the considered geometry. The rock layer is not included in the geometry; instead an appropriate boundary condition is applied at the bottom of the clay layer. The purpose of the exercise is to nd the settlement of the foundation. The building consists of a basement level and 5 oors above the ground level (Figure 1.1). To reduce calculation time, only one-quarter of the building is modelled, using symmetry boundary conditions along the lines of symmetry. To enable any possible

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mechanism in the clay and to avoid any inuence of the outer boundary, the model is extended in both horizontal directions to a total width of 75 m. The model is considered in three different cases: Case A: The building is considered very stiff and rough. The basement is simulated by means of non-porous linear elastic volume elements. Case B: The structural forces are modelled as loads on a raft foundation. Case C: Embedded piles are included in the model to reduce settlements.

1.1

CASE A: RIGID FOUNDATION

In this case, the building is considered to be very stiff. The basement is simulated by terms of non-porous linear elastic volume elements. The total weight of the basement corresponds to the total permanent and variable load of the building. This approach leads to a very simple model and is therefore used as a rst exercise, but it has some disadvantages. For example it does not give any information about the structural forces in the foundation. Objectives: Starting a new project. Creation of soil stratigraphy using a single borehole. Creation of material data sets. Creation of volumes using Create surface and Extrude tools. Assigning material. Local mesh renement. Generation of mesh. Generating initial stresses using the K0 procedure. Dening a Plastic calculation. GEOMETRY INPUT

1.1.1

Start the PLAXIS 3D program. The Quick select dialog box will appear in which you can select an existing project or create a new one (Figure 1.2). Click Start a new project. The Project properties window appears, consisting of Project and Model tabsheets.

Project properties
The rst step in every analysis is to set the basic parameters of the nite element model. This is done in the Project properties window. These properties include the description of the problem, the basic units and the size of the draw area.

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Figure 1.2 Quick select dialog box

To enter the appropriate properties for the foundation calculation follow these steps: In the Project tabsheet, enter "Tutorial 1" as the Title of the project and type "Settlements of a foundation" in the Comments box (Figure 1.3).

Figure 1.3 Project tabsheet of the Project properties window

Proceed to the Model tabsheet by clicking either the Next button or the Model tab (Figure 1.4). Keep the default units in the Units box (Length = m; Force = kN ; Time = day ). The General box indicates a xed gravity of 1.0 G, in the vertical direction downward (-z). The value of the acceleration of gravity (1.0 G) can be specied in the Earth gravity box. This should be kept to the default value of 9.810 m/s2 for this exercise. In the water box the unit weight of water can be dened. Keep this to the default value of 10 kN/m3 . Dene the limits for the soil contour as xmin = 0, xmax = 75, ymin = 0 and ymax = 75 in the Contour group box. Click the OK button to conrm the settings. Hint: In case of a mistake or for any other reason that the project properties need to be changed, you can access the Project properties window by selecting the corresponding option in the File menu.

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Figure 1.4 Model tabsheet of the Project properties window

Denition of soil stratigraphy


When you click the OK button the Project properties window will close and the Soil mode view will be shown. Information on the soil layers is entered in boreholes. Boreholes are locations in the draw area at which the information on the position of soil layers and the water table is given. If multiple boreholes are dened, PLAXIS 3D will automatically interpolate between the boreholes, and derive the position of the soil layers from the borehole information. Hint: PLAXIS 3D can also deal with layers that are discontinuous, i.e. only locally present in the model area. See Section 4.2.2 of the Reference Manual for more information.

In the current example, only one soil layer is present, and only a single borehole is needed to dene the soil stratigraphy. In order to dene the borehole, follow these steps: Click the Create borehole button in the side toolbar to start dening the soil stratigraphy. Click on position (0 0 0) in the geometry. A borehole will be located at (x , y ) = (0 0). The Modify soil layers window will appear. In the Modify soil layers window add a soil layer by clicking on the Add button. Keep the top boundary of the soil layer at z = 0 and set the bottom boundary to z = 40 m. Set the Head value in the borehole column to 2 m (Figure 1.5).

The creation of material data sets and their assignment to soil layers is described in the following section. 1.1.2 MATERIAL DATA SETS

In order to simulate the behaviour of the soil, a suitable material model and appropriate material parameters must be assigned to the geometry. In PLAXIS soil properties are collected in material data sets and the various data sets are stored in a material database. From the database, a data set can be assigned to one or more clusters. For structures (like beams, plates, etc.) the system is similar, but different types of structures

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Figure 1.5 Modify soil layers window

have different parameters and therefore different types of data sets. PLAXIS 3D distinguishes between material data sets for Soils and interfaces, Plates, Geogrids, Beams, Embedded Piles and Anchors. Before the mesh can be generated material data sets have to be assigned to all soil volumes and structures. Open the Material sets window by clicking the Materials button in the Modify soil layers window. Hint: In the case that the Modify soil layers window was closed by mistake, it can be re-opened by double-clicking the borehole in the draw area or by selecting the Modify soil layers option from the Soil menu.

Click the New button in the lower part of the Material sets window. The Soil window will appear. It contains ve tabsheets: General, Parameters, Flow parameters, Interfaces and Initial. In the Material set box of the General tabsheet (Figure 1.6), write "Lacustrine Clay" in the Identication box. Select Mohr-Coulomb as the material model from the Material model drop-down menu and Drained from the Drainage type drop-down menu. Enter the unit weights in the General properties box according to the material data as listed in Table 1.1. Keep the unmentioned Advanced parameters as their default values. Click the Next button or click the Parameters tab to proceed with the input of model parameters. The parameters appearing on the Parameters tabsheet depend on the selected material model (in this case the Mohr-Coulomb model). The Mohr-Coulomb

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Figure 1.6 General tabsheet of the Soil and interfaces data set window Table 1.1 Material properties
Parameter General Material model Drainage type Unit weight above phreatic level Unit weight below phreatic level Parameters Young's modulus (constant) Poisson's ratio Cohesion (constant) Friction angle Dilatancy angle Initial Model Type Mohr-Coulomb Drained Linear elastic Non-porous Name Lacustrine clay Building Unit

unsat sat E' ' c 'ref ' K0

17.0 18.0 1 104 0.3 10 30.0 0.0


Automatic

50 3 107 0.15
Automatic

kN /m3 kN /m3 kN /m2 kN /m2


K0 determination
Lateral earth pressure coefcient

0.5000

1.000

model involves only ve basic parameters (E ', ', c ', ', '). See the Material Models Manual for a detailed description of the different soil models and their corresponding parameters. Enter the model parameters E ', ', c 'ref , ' and of Lacustrine clay according to Table 1.1 in the corresponding boxes of the Parameters tabsheet (Figure 1.7).

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Figure 1.7 Parameters tabsheet of the Soil and interfaces data set window

No consolidation will be considered in this exercise. As a result, the permeability of the soil will not inuence the results and the Flow parameters window can be skipped. Since the geometry model does not include interfaces, the Interfaces tab can be skipped. Click the Initial tab and check that the K0 determination is set to Automatic. In that case K0 is determined from Jaky's formula: K0 = 1 sin . Click the OK button to conrm the input of the current material data set. The created data set appears in the tree view of the Material sets window. Drag the set Lacustrine clay from the Material sets window (select it and hold down the left mouse button while moving) to the graph of the soil column on the left hand side of the Modify soil layers window and drop it there (release the left mouse button). Hint: Notice that the cursor changes shape to indicate whether or not it is possible to drop the data set. Correct assignment of the data set to the soil layer is indicated by a change in the colour of the layer.

The building is modelled by a linear elastic non-porous material. To dene this data set, follow these steps: Click the New button in the Material sets window. In the Material set box of the General tabsheet, write "Building" in the Identication box. Select Linear elastic as the material model from the Material model drop-down menu and Non-porous from the Drainage type drop-down menu.

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Enter the unit weight in the General properties box according to the material data set as listed in Table 1.1. This unit weight corresponds to the total permanent and variable load of the building. Click the Next button or click the Parameters tab to proceed with the input of the model parameters. The linear elastic model involves only two basic parameters (E ', '). Enter the model parameters of Table 1.1 in the corresponding edit boxes of the Parameters tabsheet. Click the OK button to conrm the input of the current material data set. The created data set will appear in the tree view of the Material sets window, but it is not directly used. Click the OK button to close the Material sets window. Click the OK button to close the Modify soil layers window. Hint: PLAXIS 3D distinguishes between a project database and a global database of material sets. Data sets may be exchanged from one project to another using the global database. The global database can be shown in the Material sets window by clicking the Show global button. The data sets of all tutorials in the Tutorial Manual are stored in the global database during the installation of the program.

1.1.3

DEFINITION OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS

The structural elements are created in the Structures mode of the program. Click the Structures button to proceed with the input of structural elements. To model the building: Click the Create surface button. Position the cursor at the coordinate (0 0 0). Check the cursor position displayed in the cursor position indicator. As you click, the rst surface point of the surface is dened. Dene three other points with coordinates (0 18 0), (18 18 0), (18 0 0) respectively. Press the right mouse button or <Esc> to nalize the denition of the surface. Note that the created surface is still selected and displayed in red. Click the Extrude object button to create a volume from the surface. Change the z value to -2 in the Extrude window (Figure 1.8). Click the Apply button to close the window. Click the Select button. Select the created surface using the right mouse button. Select Delete from the appearing menu. This will delete the surface but the building volume is retained. The building volume, as well as the corresponding material data sets have now been created.

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Figure 1.8 Extrude window

1.1.4

MESH GENERATION

The model is complete. In order to proceed to the Mesh mode click the Mesh tab. PLAXIS 3D allows for a fully automatic mesh generation procedure, in which the geometry is divided into volume elements and compatible structure elements, if applicable. The mesh generation takes full account of the position of the geometry entities in the geometry model, so that the exact position of layers, loads and structures is accounted for in the nite element mesh. A local renement will be considered in the building volume. To generate the mesh, follow these steps: Click the Rene mesh button in the side toolbar and click the created building volume to rene the mesh locally. It will colour green.

Figure 1.9 The indication of the local renement in the model

Click the Generate mesh button in the side toolbar or select the Generate mesh option in the Mesh menu. Change the Element distribution to Coarse in the Mesh options window (Figure 1.10) and click OK to start the mesh generation. As the mesh is generated, click the View mesh button. A new window is opened displaying the generated mesh (Figure 1.11). Click the Close button to go back to the Mesh mode of the Input program.

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Figure 1.10 Mesh options window

Figure 1.11 Generated mesh in the Output window

Hint: By default, the Element distribution is set to Medium. The Element distribution setting can be changed in the Mesh options window. In addition, options are available to rene the mesh globally or locally (Section 7.1 of Reference Manual). The nite element mesh has to be regenerated if the geometry is modied. The automatically generated mesh may not be perfectly suitable for the intended calculation. Therefore it is recommended that the user inspects the mesh and makes renements if necessary.

1.1.5

PERFORMING CALCULATIONS

Once the mesh has been generated, the nite element model is complete. Click Staged construction to proceed with the denition of calculation phases.

Initial conditions
The 'Initial phase' always involves the generation of initial conditions. In general, the initial conditions comprise the initial geometry conguration and the initial stress state, i.e. effective stresses, pore pressures and state parameters, if applicable. The initial water level has been entered already in the Modify soil layers window. This level is taken into account to calculate the initial effective stress state. It is therefore not needed to enter the Water levels mode.

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When a new project has been dened, a rst calculation phase named "Initial phase", is automatically created and selected in the Phases explorer (Figure 1.12). All structural elements and loads that are present in the geometry are initially automatically switched off; only the soil volumes are initially active.

Figure 1.12 Phases explorer

In this tutorial lesson the properties of the Initial phase will be described. This part of the tutorial gives an overview of the options to be dened even though the default values of the parameters are used. The Phases window (Figure 1.13) is displayed by clicking the Edit phase button or by double clicking on the phase in the Phases explorer.

Figure 1.13 The Phases window for Initial phase

By default the K0 procedure is selected as Calculation type in the General subtree of the Phases window. This option will be used in this project to generate the initial stresses. The Staged construction option is selected as the Loading type. This is the only option available for the K0 procedure. The Phreatic option is selected by default as the Pore pressure calculation type. The other default options in the Phases window will be used as well in this tutorial. Click OK to close the Phases window. In the Model explorer extend the Model conditions subtree. Extend the Water subtree. The water level generated according to the Head value assigned to boreholes in the Modify soil layers window (BoreholeWaterLevel_1) is automatically assigned to GlobalWaterLevel. Make sure that all the soil volumes in the project are active and the material assigned to them is Lacustrine clay.

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Hint: The K0 procedure may only be used for horizontally layered geometries with a horizontal ground surface and, if applicable, a horizontal phreatic level. See Section 7.3 of the Reference Manual for more information on the K0 procedure.

Construction stage
After the denition of the initial conditions, the construction of the building can be modelled. This will be done in a separate calculation phase, which needs to be added as follows: Click the Add button in the Phases explorer. A new phase, named Phase_1 will be added in the Phases explorer. Double-click Phase_1 to open the Phases window. In the ID box of the General subtree, write (optionally) an appropriate name for the new phase (for example "Building"). The current phase starts from Initial phase, which contains the initial stress state. The default options and values assigned are valid for this phase (Figure 1.14).

Figure 1.14 The Phases window for Building phase

Click OK to close the Phases window. Right-click the building volume as created in Section 1.1.3. From the Set material option in the appearing menu select the Building option. The 'Building' data set has now been assigned to the building volume. Hint: Calculation phases may be added, inserted or deleted using the Add, Insert and Delete buttons in the Phases explorer or in the Phases window.

Execution of calculation
All calculation phases (two phases in this case) are marked for calculation (indicated by a blue arrow). The execution order is controlled by the Start from phase parameter.

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Click the Calculate button to start the calculation process. Ignore the warning that no nodes and stress points have been selected for curves. During the execution of a calculation, a window appears which gives information about the progress of the actual calculation phase (Figure 1.15).

Figure 1.15 Active task window displaying the calculation progress

The information, which is continuously updated, shows, amongst others, the calculation progress, the current step number, the global error in the current iteration and the number of plastic points in the current calculation step. It will take a few seconds to perform the calculation. When a calculation ends, the window is closed and focus is returned to the main window. The phase list in the Phases explorer is updated. A successfully calculated phase is indicated by a check mark inside a green circle. Save the project before viewing results.

Viewing calculation results


Once the calculation has been completed, the results can be displayed in the Output program. In the Output program, the displacement and stresses in the full three dimensional model as well as in cross sections or structural elements can be viewed. The computational results are also available in tabular form. To view the current results, follow these steps: Select the last calculation phase (Building ) in the Phases explorer tree. Click the View calculation results button in the side toolbar to open the Output program. The Output program will, by default, show the three dimensional deformed mesh at the end of the selected calculation phase. The deformations are scaled to ensure that they are clearly visible.

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Select Total Displacements |u | from the Deformations menu. The plot shows colour shadings of the total displacements (Figure 1.16). A legend is presented with the displacement values at the colour boundaries. When the legend is not present, select the Legend option from the View menu to display it. In the Output window click the Iso surfaces button to display the areas having the same displacement.

Figure 1.16 Shadings of Total displacements at the end of the last phase

Hint: In addition to the Total displacements, the Deformations menu allows for the presentation of Incremental displacements and Phase displacements. The incremental displacements are the displacements that occurred in one calculation step (in this case the nal step). Incremental displacements may be helpful in visualising failure mechanisms. Phase displacements are the displacements that occurred in one calculation phase (in this case the last phase). Phase displacements can be used to inspect the impact of a single construction phase, without the need to reset displacements to zero before starting the phase.

1.2

CASE B: RAFT FOUNDATION

In this case, the model is modied so that the basement consists of structural elements. This allows for the calculation of structural forces in the foundation. The raft foundation consists of a 50 cm thick concrete oor stiffened by concrete beams. The walls of the basement consist of 30 cm thick concrete. The loads of the upper oors are transferred to the oor slab by a column and by the basement walls. The column bears a load of

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11650 kN and the walls carry a line load of 385 kN/m, as sketched in Figure 1.17.
385 kN/m 11650 kN 5.3 kN/m2

385 kN/m

12.0 m 6.0 m 6.0 m

12.0 m

Figure 1.17 Geometry of the basement

In addition, the oor slab is loaded by a distributed load of 5.3 kN/m2 . The properties of the clay layer will be modied such that stiffness of the clay will increase with depth. Objectives: Saving project under a different name. Modifying existing data sets. Dening a soil stiffness that increases with depth. Modelling of plates and dening material data set for plates. Modelling of beams and dening material data set for beams. Assigning point loads. Assigning line loads. Assigning distributed loads to surfaces. Deleting phases. Activation and deactivation of soil volumes. Activation and deactivation of structural elements. Activation of loads. Zooming in Output. Drawing cross sections in Output. Viewing structural output.

Geometry input
The geometry used in this exercise is the same as the previous one, except that additional elements are used to model the foundation. It is not necessary to create a new model; you can start from the previous model, store it under a different name and modify it. To perform this, follow these steps: Start the PLAXIS 3D program. The Quick select dialog box will appear in which the project of case A should be selected. Select the Save project as option in the File menu to save the project under a

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different name (e.g. "Tutorial 1b"). The material set for the clay layer has already been dened. To modify this material set to take into account the stiffness of the soil increasing with depth, follow these steps: Open the Material sets window by clicking the Show materials button. Make sure that the option Soil and interfaces is selected as Set type. Select the Lacustrine clay material set and click the Edit button. In the Parameters tabsheet, change the stiffness of the soil E ' to 5000 kN/m2 . Enter a value of 500 in the E 'inc box in the Advanced parameters. Keep the default value of 0.0 m for zref . Now the stiffness of the soil is dened as 5000 kN/m2 at z = 0.0 m and increases with 500 kN/m2 per meter depth. Click OK to close the Soil window. Click OK to close the Material sets window.

Denition of structural elements


Proceed to the Structures mode to dene the structural elements that compose the basement. Click the Selection button. Right-click the volume representing the building. Select the Decompose into surfaces option from the appearing menu. Delete the top surface by selecting it and pressing the <Delete> key. Select the volume representing the building. Click the visualisation toggle in the Selection explorer to hide the volume. Right-click the bottom surface of the building. Select the Create plate option from the appearing menu. Assign plates to the two vertical basement surfaces that are inside the model. Delete the remaining two vertical surfaces at the model boundaries. Hint: Multiple entities can be selected by holding the <Ctrl> button pressed while clicking on the entities. A feature can be assigned to multiple similar objects the same way as to a single selection.

Open the material data base and set the Set type to Plates. Create data sets for the basement oor and for the basement walls according to Table 1.2. Drag and drop the data sets to the basement oor and the basement walls accordingly. It may be needed to move the Material sets window by clicking at its header and dragging it. Click the OK button to close the Material sets window.

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Figure 1.18 Location of plates in the project Table 1.2 Material properties of the basement oor and basement walls
Parameter Thickness Weight Type of behaviour Young's modulus Poisson's ratio Name Basement oor Basement wall Unit

d
Type

0.5 15
Linear, isotropic

0.3 15.5
Linear, isotropic

E1 12

3 107 0.15

3 107 0.15

m kN /m3 kN /m2

Hint: When specifying a unit weight, please consider the fact that the element itself does not occupy any volume and overlaps with the soil elements. Hence, it might be considered to subtract the unit soil weight from the real unit weight of the plate, beam or embedded pile material in order to compensate for the overlap. For partially overlapping plates, beams or embedded piles the reduction of the unit weight should be proportional.

Right-click the bottom of the surface of the building volume and select the Create surface load option from the appearing menu. The actual value of the load can be assigned in the Structures mode as well as when the calculation phases will be dened (Phase denition mode). In this example, the value will be assigned in the Phase denition modes. Click the Create line button in the side toolbar. Select the Create line load option from the additional tools displayed.

Click the command input area, type "0 18 0 18 18 0 18 0 0 " and press <Enter>. Line loads will now be dened on the basement walls. The dened values are the coordinates of the three points of the lines. Click the right mouse button to stop drawing line loads. Click the Create line button in the side toolbar. Select the Create beam option from the additional tools displayed.

Click on (6 6 0) to create the rst point of a vertical beam. Keep the <Shift> key pressed and move the mouse cursor to (6 6 -2). Note that while the <Shift> key is pressed the cursor will move only vertically. As it can be seen in the cursor position indicator, the z coordinate changes, while x and y coordinates will remain the same. Click on (6 6 -2) to dene the second point of the beam. To stop drawing click the

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right mouse button. Create horizontal beams from (0 6 -2) to (18 6 -2) and from (6 0 -2) to (6 18 -2). Hint: By default, the cursor is located at z=0. To move in the vertical direction, keep the <Shift> key pressed while moving the mouse.

Open the material data base and set the Set type to Beams. Create data sets for the horizontal and for the vertical beams according to Table 1.3. Assign the data set to the corresponding beam elements by drag and drop.
Parameter Cross section area Volumetric weight Type of behaviour Young's modulus Moment of Inertia Name Basement column Basement beam Unit

Table 1.3 Material properties of the basement column and basement beams
A
Type

0.49 24.0
Linear

0.7 6.0
Linear

E I3 I2

3 107 0.020 0.020

3 107 0.058 0.029

m2 kN /m3 kN /m2 m4 m4

Click the Create load button in the side toolbar. Select the Create point load option from the additional tools displayed. Click at (6 6 0) to add a point load at the top of the vertical beam. Proceed to the Mesh tabsheet to generate the mesh.

Mesh generation
Click the Generate mesh. Keep the Element distribution as Coarse. Inspect the generated mesh.

As the geometry has changed, all calculation phases have to be redened. 1.2.1 PERFORMING CALCULATIONS

Proceed to the Staged construction mode.

Initial conditions
As in the previous example, the K0 procedure will be used to generate the initial conditions. All the structural elements should be inactive in the Initial Phase. No excavation is performed in the Initial Phase. So, the basement volume should be active and the material assigned to it should be Lacustrine clay.

Construction stages
Instead of constructing the building in one calculation stage, separate calculation phases will be used. In Phase 1, the construction of the walls and the excavation is modelled. In Phase 2, the construction of the oor and beams is modelled. The activation of the loads

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is modelled in the last phase (Phase 3). The calculation type for the phases representing the construction stages is set by default to Plastic. Rename the Phase_1 to "Excavation". Deactivate the soil volume located over the foundation by selecting it and by clicking on the checkbox in front of it in the Selection explorer. In the Model explorer click the checkbox in front of the plates corresponding to the basement walls to activate them. In the Phases explorer click the Add phase button. A new phase (Phase_2) is added. Double-click Phase_2. The Phases window pops up. Rename the phase by dening its ID as "Construction". Keep the default settings of the phase and close the Phases window. In the Model explorer click the checkbox in front of the plate corresponding to the basement oor to activate it. In the Model explorer click the checkbox in front of the beams to activate all the beams in the project. Add a new phase following the Construction phase. Rename it to "Loading". In the Model explorer click the checkbox in front of the Surface loads to activate the surface load on the basement oor. Set the value of the z component of the load to 5.3. This indicates a load of 5.3 kN/m2 , acting in the negative z direction. In the Model explorer, click the checkbox in front of Line loads to activate the line loads on the basement walls. Set the value of the z component of each load to 385. This indicates a load of 385 kN/m, acting in the negative z direction. In the Model explorer click the checkbox in front of Point loads to activate the point load on the basement column. Set the value of the z component of the load to 11650. This indicates a load of 11650 kN, acting in the negative z direction. Click the Preview phase button to check the settings for each phase. As the calculation phases are completely dened, calculate the project. Ignore the warning that no nodes and stress points have been selected for curves. Save the project after the calculation.

Viewing calculation results


Select Construction option in the Phases explorer. Click the View calculation results button to open the Output program. The deformed mesh at the end of this phase is shown. Select the last phase in the Displayed step drop-down menu to switch to the results at the end of the last phase. In order to evaluate stresses and deformations inside the geometry, select the Vertical cross section tool. A top view of the geometry is presented and the Cross section points window appears. As the largest displacements appear under the column, a cross section here is most interesting.

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Enter (0.0 6.0) and (75.0 6.0) as the coordinates of the rst point (A) and the second point (A') respectively in the Cross section points window. Click OK. A vertical cross section is presented. The cross section can be rotated in the same way as a regular 3D view of the geometry. Select Total displacements uz from the Deformations menu (Figure 1.19). The maximum and minimum values of the vertical displacements are shown in the caption. If the title is not visible, select this option from the View menu.

Figure 1.19 Cross section showing the total vertical displacement

Press <CTRL><+> and <CTRL><> to move the cross section. Return to the three dimensional view of the geometry by selecting this window from the list in the Window menu. Double-click the oor. A separate window will appear showing the displacements of the oor. To look at the bending moments in the oor, select M11 from the Forces menu. Click the Shadings button. The plot in Figure 1.20 will be displayed. To view the bending moments in tabulated form, click the Table option in the Tools menu. A new window is opened in which a table is presented, showing the values of bending moments in each node of the oor.

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Figure 1.20 Bending moments in the basement oor

1.3

CASE C: PILE-RAFT FOUNDATION

As the displacements of the raft foundation are rather high, embedded piles will be used to decrease these displacements. These embedded piles represent bored piles with a length of 20 m and a diameter of 1.5 m. Objectives: Using embedded piles. Dening material data set for embedded piles. Creating multiple copies of entities.

Geometry input
The geometry used in this exercise is the same as the previous one, except for the pile foundation. It is not necessary to create a new model; you can start from the previous model, store it under a different name and modify it. To perform this, follow these steps: Start the PLAXIS 3D program. The Quick select dialog box will appear in which the project of Case B should be selected. Select the Save project as option in the File menu to save the project under a different name (e.g. "Tutorial 1c").

Denition of embedded pile


Proceed to the Structures mode. Click the Create line button at the side tool bar and select the Create embedded pile from the additional tools that appear.

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Dene a pile from (6 6 -2) to (6 6 -22). Open the material data base and set the Set type to Embedded piles. Create a data set for the embedded pile according to Table 1.4. The value for the cross section area A and the moments of inertia I2 , I3 and I23 are automatically calculated from the diameter of the massive circular pile. Conrm the input by clicking OK.
Parameter Young's modulus Unit weight Pile type Predened pile type Diameter Skin resistance Maximum traction allowed at the top of the embedded pile Maximum traction allowed at the bottom of the embedded pile Base resistance Name Pile foundation Unit

Table 1.4 Material properties of embedded pile


E
-

3 107 6.0 Predened


Massive circular pile

Diameter Type Ttop,max Tbot ,max Fmax

1.5 Linear 200 500 1 104

kN /m2 kN /m3 m kN /m kN /m kN

Drag and drop the Pile data to the embedded pile in the draw area. The embedded pile will change colour to indicate that the material set has been assigned successfully. Click the OK button to close the Material sets window. Hint: A material set can also be assigned to an embedded pile by right-clicking it either in the draw area or in the Selection explorer and the Model explorer and selecting the material from the Set material option in the displayed menu.

Click the Select button and select the embedded pile. Click the Create array button. In the Create array window, select the 2D, in xy plane option for shape. Keep the number of columns as 2. Set the distance between the columns to x = 12 and y = 0. Keep the number of rows as 2. Set the distance between the rows to x = 0 and y = 12 (Figure 1.21). Press OK to create the array. A total of 2x 2 = 4 piles will be created.

Mesh generation
As the geometry model is complete now, the mesh can be generated. Create the mesh. Keep the Element distribution as Coarse. View the mesh. Click the eye button in front of the Soil subtree in the Model explorer to hide the soil. The embedded piles can be seen (Figure 1.22).

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Figure 1.21 Create array window

Close the mesh preview.

Figure 1.22 Partial geometry of the model in the Output

Performing calculations
After generation of the mesh, all construction stages must be redened. Even though in practice the piles will be constructed in another construction stage than construction of the walls, for simplicity both actions will be done in the same construction stage in this tutorial. To redene all construction stages, follow these steps: Switch to the Staged construction mode. Check if the K0 procedure is selected as Calculation type for the initial phase. Make

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sure that all the structural elements are inactive and all soil volumes are active. The material assigned to it is Lacustrine clay. Select the Excavation phase in the Phases explorer. Make sure that the basement soil is excavated and the basement walls are active. Activate all the embedded piles. In the Phases explorer select the Construction phase. Make sure that all the structural elements are active. In the Phases explorer select the Loading phase. Make sure that all the structural elements and loads are active. Calculate the project. Save the project after the calculation is nished. Select the Loading phase and view the calculation results. Double-click the basement oor. Select the M11 option from the Forces menu. The results are shown in Figure 1.23.

Figure 1.23 Bending moments in the basement oor

Select the view corresponding to the deformed mesh in the Window menu. Click the Hide soil button in the side toolbar. To view the embedded piles press <Shift> and keep it pressed while clicking on the soil volume in order to hide it. Click the Select structures button. To view all the embedded piles, press <Ctrl>+<Shift> keys and double click on one of the piles.

Select the option N in the Forces menu to view the axial loads in the embedded piles. The plot is shown in Figure 1.24.

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Figure 1.24 Resulting axial forces (N) in the embedded piles

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EXCAVATION IN SAND

This tutorial describes the construction of an excavation pit in soft clay and sand layers. The pit is a relatively small excavation of 12 by 20 m, excavated to a depth of 6.5 m below the surface. Struts, walings and ground anchors are used to prevent the pit to collapse. After the full excavation, an additional surface load is added on one side of the pit.

5.0 m

5.0 m

5.0 m

5.0 m

(30 32) 4.0 m 4.0 m 50.0 m 4.0 m (30 20) (34 19) (41 19) Strut

(50 32)

Ground anchors

(50 20)

(34 12)

(41 12)

80.0 m

Figure 2.1 Top view of the excavation pit

The proposed geometry for this exercise is 80 m wide and 50 m long, as shown in Figure 2.1. The excavation pit is placed in the center of the geometry. Figure 2.2 shows a cross section of the excavation pit with the soil layers. The clay layer is considered to be impermeable. Objectives: Using the Hardening Soil model Modelling of ground anchors Using interface features Dening over-consolidation ratio (OCR) Prestressing a ground anchor Changing water conditions Selection of stress points to generate stress/strain curves Viewing plastic points

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z=0 z = -1 z = -4

Fill Sand Sheet pile walls

(18 24 -9) z = -9.5 z = -11 Soft clay

(62 24 -9)

Sand z = -20

Figure 2.2 Cross section of the excavation pit with the soil layers

2.1

GEOMETRY

To create the geometry model, follow these steps:

Project properties
Start a new project. Enter an appropriate title for the project. Dene the limits for the soil contour as xmin = 0, xmax = 80, ymin = 0 and ymax = 50. DEFINITION OF SOIL STRATIGRAPHY

2.1.1

In order to dene the soil layers, a borehole needs to be added and material properties must be assigned. As all soil layers are horizontal, only a single borehole is needed. Create a borehole at (0.0 0.0). The Modify soil layers window pops up. Add 4 layers with bottom levels at -1, -9.5, -11, -20. Set the Head in the borehole column to -4 m. Open the Material sets window. Create a new data set under Soil and interfaces set type. Identify the new data set as "Fill". From the Material model drop-down menu, select Hardening Soil model. In contrast with the Mohr-Coulomb model, the Hardening Soil model takes into account the difference in stiffness between virgin-loading and unloading-reloading. For a detailed description of the Hardening Soil model, see the Chapter 6 in the Material Models Manual. Dene the saturated and unsaturated unit weights according to Table 2.1.
ref ref ref In the Parameters tabsheet, enter values for E50 , Eoed , Eur , m, c 'ref , 'ref , and 'ur according to Table 2.1. Note that Poisson's ratio is an advanced parameter.

As no consolidation will be considered in this exercise, the permeability of the soil will not inuence the results. Therefore, the default values can be kept in the Flow parameters tabsheet.

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Table 2.1 Material properties for the soil layers


Parameter General Material model Drainage type Unit weight above phreatic level Unit weight below phreatic level Parameters Secant stiffness for CD triaxial test Tangent oedometer stiffness Unloading/reloading stiffness Power for stress level dependency of stiffness Cohesion Friction angle Dilatancy angle Poisson's ratio Interfaces Interface strength Interface reduction factor Initial
ref E50 ref Eoed ref Eur m

Name Model Type

Fill Hardening Soil model Drained

Sand Hardening Soil model Drained

Soft Clay Hardening Soil model Undrained A

Unit

kN /m3 kN /m3 kN /m2 kN /m2 kN /m2 kN /m2


unsat sat

16.0 20.0 2.2 104 2.2 104 6.6 104 0.5 1 30.0 0.0 0.2
Manual

17.0 20.0 4.3 104 2.2 104 1.29 105 0.5 1 34.0 4.0 0.2
Manual

16.0 17.0 2.0 103 2.0 103 1.0 104 1.0 5 25.0 0.0 0.2
Manual

c 'ref ' 'ur Rinter K0 OCR POP

0.65
Automatic

0.7
Automatic

0.5
Automatic

K0 determination
Lateral earth pressure coefcient Over-consolidation ratio Pre-overburden pressure

0.5000 1.0 0.0

0.4408 1.0 0.0

0.7411 1.5 0.0

In the Interfaces tabsheet, select Manual in the Strength box and enter a value of 0.65 for the parameter Rinter . This parameter relates the strength of the interfaces to the strength of the soil, according to the equations:

ci = Rinter csoil and tani = Rinter tani tansoil


Hence, using the entered Rinter -value gives a reduced interface friction and interface cohesion (adhesion) compared to the friction angle and the cohesion in the adjacent soil. Hint: When the Rigid option is selected in the Strength drop-down, the interface has the same strength properties as the soil (Rinter = 1.0). Note that a value of Rinter < 1.0, reduces the strength as well as the stiffness of the interface (Section 6.1.4 of the Reference Manual).

In the Initial tabsheet, dene the OCR -value according to Table 2.1. Click OK to close the window. In the same way, dene the material properties of the "Sand" and "Soft Clay" materials as given by Table 2.1. After closing the Material sets window, click the OK button to close the Modify soil layers window. In the Soil mode right click on the upper soil layer. In the appearing right hand

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mouse button menu, select the Fill option in the Set material menu. In the same way assign the Soft Clay material to the soil layer between y = 9.5 m and y = 11.0 m. Assign the Sand material to the remaining two soil layers. Proceed to the Structures mode to dene the structural elements. Hint: The Tension cut-off option is activated by default at a value of 0 kN /m2 . This option is found in the Advanced options on the Parameters tabsheet of the Soil window. Here the Tension cut-off value can be changed or the option can be deactivated entirely.

2.1.2

DEFINITION OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS

The creation of sheet pile walls, walings, struts and surface loads and ground anchors is described below. Create a surface between (30 20 0), (30 32 0), (50 32 0) and (50 20 0). Extrude the surface to z = 1, z = 6.5 and z = 11. Right-click on the deepest created volume (between z = 0 and z = 11) and select the Decompose into surfaces option from the appearing menu. Delete the top surfaces (2 surfaces). An extra surface is created as the volume is decomposed. Hide the excavation volumes (do not delete). The eye button in the Model explorer and the Selection explorer trees can be used to hide parts of the model and simplify the view. A hidden project entity is indicated by a closed eye. Click the Create structure button. Create beams (walings) around the excavation circumference at level z = 1m. Press the <Shift> key and keep it pressed while moving the mouse cursor in the z direction. Stop moving the mouse as the z coordinate of the mouse cursor is 1 in the cursor position indicator. Note that as you release the <Shift> key, the z coordinate of the cursor location does not change. This is an indication that you can draw only on the xy -plane located at z = 1. Click on (30 20 -1), (30 32 -1), (50 32 -1), (50 20 -1), (30 20 -1) to draw the walings. Click on the right mouse button to stop drawing walings. Create a beam (strut) between (35 20 -1) and (35 32 -1). Press <Esc> to end dening the strut. Create data sets for the walings and strut according to Table 2.2 and assign the materials accordingly. Copy the strut into a total of three struts at x = 35 (existing), x = 40, and x = 45.

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Table 2.2 Material properties for the beams


Parameter Cross section area Unit weight Material behaviour Young's modulus Moment of Inertia Name Strut Waling Unit

A
Type

0.007367 78.5
Linear

0.008682 78.5
Linear

E I3 I2

2.1 108 5.073 105 5.073 105

2.1 108 1.045 104 3.66 104

m2 kN /m3 kN /m2 m4 m4

Modelling ground anchors


In PLAXIS 3D ground anchors can be modelled using the Node-to-node anchor and the Embedded pile options as described in the following: First the ungrouted part of the anchor is created using the Node-to-node anchor feature. Start creating a node-to-node anchor by selecting the corresponding button in the options displayed as you click on the Create structure button. Click on the command line and type "30 24 -1 21 24 -7 " . Press <Enter> and <Esc> to create the ungrouted part of the rst ground anchor. Create a node-to-node anchor between the points (50 24 -1) and (59 24 -7). The grouted part of the anchor is created using the Embedded pile option. Create embedded piles between (21 24 -7) and (18 24 -9) and between (59 24 -7) and (62 24 -9). Create a data set for the embedded pile and a data set for the node-to-node anchor according to Table 2.3 and Table 2.4 respectively. Assign the data sets to the node-to-node anchors and to the embedded piles.
Table 2.3 Material properties for the node-to-node anchors
Parameter Material type Axial stiffness Name Type Node-to-node anchor Elastic 6.5105 Unit

EA

kN

Table 2.4 Material properties for the embedded piles (grout body)
Parameter Young's modulus Unit weight Pile type Predened pile type Diameter Skin friction distribution Skin resistance at the top of the embedded pile Skin resistance at the bottom of the embedded pile Base resistance Name Grout Unit

E Diameter Type Ttop,max Tbot ,max Fmax

3 107 24 Predened
Massive circular pile

0.14 Linear 200 0.0 0.0

kN /m2 kN /m3 m kN /m kN /m kN

Hint: The colour indicating the material set assigned to the entities in project can be changed by clicking on the Colour box of the selected material set and selecting a colour from the Colour part of the window.

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The remaining grouted anchors will be created by copying the dened grouted anchor. Click on the Select button and click on all the elements composing both of the ground anchors keeping the <Ctrl> key pressed. Use the Create array function to copy both ground anchors (2 embedded piles + 2 node-to-node anchors) into a total of 4 complete ground anchors located at y = 24 and y = 28 by selection the 1D, in y direction option in the Shape drop-down menu and dene the Distance between columns as 4 m. Multi-select all parts of the ground anchors (8 entities in total). While all parts are selected and the <Ctrl> key is pressed, click the right mouse button and select the Group from the appearing menu. In the Model explorer tree, expand the Groups subtree by clicking on the (+) in front of the groups. Click the Group_1 and rename it to "GroundAnchors". Hint: The name of the entities in the project should not contain any space or special character except "_" .

To dene the sheet pile walls and the corresponding interfaces, follow these steps: Select all four vertical surfaces created as the volume was decomposed. Keeping the <Ctrl> key pressed, click the right mouse button and select the Create plate option from the appearing menu. Create a data set for the sheet pile walls (plates) according to Table 2.5. Assign the data sets to the four walls. As all the surfaces are selected, assign both positive and negative interfaces to them using the options in the right mouse button menu. Hint: The term 'positive' or 'negative' for interfaces has no physical meaning. It only enables distinguishing between interfaces at each side of a surface.

Table 2.5 Material properties of the sheet pile walls


Parameter Thickness Weight Type of behaviour Young's modulus Poisson's ratio Shear modulus Name Sheet pile wall Unit

d
Type

0.379 2.55
Linear, non-isotropic

E1 E2 G12 G13 G23

1.46 107 7.3 105 0.0 7.3 105 1.27 106 3.82 105

m kN /m3 kN /m2 kN /m2 kN /m2 kN /m2 kN /m2

Non-isotropic (different stiffnesses in two directions) sheet pile walls are dened. The local axis should point in the correct direction (which denes which is the 'stiff' or the 'soft' direction). As the vertical direction is generally the stiffest direction in sheet pile walls,

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local axis 1 shall point in the z direction. In the Model explorer tree expand the Surfaces subtree, set AxisFunction to Manual and set Axis1z to 1. Do this for all the pile wall surfaces. Create a surface load dened by the points: (34 19 0), (41 19 0), (41 12 0), (34 12 0). The geometry is now completely dened. Hint: The rst local axis is indicated by a red arrow, the second local axis is indicated by a green arrow and the third axis is indicated by a blue arrow. More information related to the local axes of plates is given in the Reference Manual.

2.2

MESH GENERATION Proceed to the Mesh mode. Create the mesh. Set the Element distribution to Coarse. View the mesh. Hide the soil in the model to view the embedded piles.

2.3

PERFORMING CALCULATIONS

The calculation consists of 6 phases. The initial phase consists of the generation of the initial stresses using the K0 procedure. The next phase consists of the installation of the sheet piles and a rst excavation. Then the walings and struts will be installed. In phase 3, the ground anchors will be activated and prestressed. Further excavation will be performed in the phase after that. The last phase will be the application of the additional load next to the pit. Click on the Staged construction tab to proceed with denition of the calculation phases. The initial phase has already been introduced. Keep its calculation type as K0 procedure. Make sure all the soil volumes are active and all the structural elements are inactive. Add a new phase (Phase_1). The default values of the parameters will be used for this calculation phase. Deactivate the rst excavation volume (from z = 0 to z = 1). In the Model explorer, activate all plates and interfaces by clicking on the checkbox in front of them. The active elements in the project are indicated by a green check mark in the Model explorer. Add a new phase (Phase_2). The default values of the parameters will be used for this calculation phase. In the Model explorer activate all the beams. Add a new phase (Phase_3). The default values of the parameters will be used for

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this calculation phase. In the Model explorer activate the GroundAnchors group. Select one of the node-to-node anchors. In the Selection explorer expand the node-to node anchor features. Click Adjust prestress and change this into True. Enter a prestress force of 200 kN (Figure 2.3). Do the same for all the other node-to-node anchors.

Figure 2.3 Node-to-node anchor in the Selection explorer

Add another phase (Phase_4). The default values of the parameters will be used for this calculation phase. Proceed to the Water levels mode. Select the soil volume to be excavated in this phase (between z = 1 and z = 6.5). In the Selection explorer expand the soil entity and subsequently expand the WaterConditions feature. Click on the Conditions and select the Dry option from the drop-down menu.

Figure 2.4 Water conditions in the Selection explorer

Hide the soil around the excavation. Select the soil volume below the excavation (between z = 6.5 and z = 9.5). In Selection explorer expand the soil entity and subsequently expand the WaterConditions feature.

Click Conditions and select Head from the drop-down menu. Enter zref = 6.5 m. Select the soft clay volume below the excavation.

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Set the water conditions to Interpolate. Proceed to Staged construction mode. Deactivate the volume to be excavated (between z = 1 and z = 6.5). Preview this calculation phase. Click the Vertical cross section button in the Preview window and dene the cross section by drawing a line across the excavation.

Select the psteady option from the Stresses menu. Display the contour lines for steady pore pressure distribution. Make sure that the Legend option is checked in View menu. The steady state pore pressure distribution is displayed in Figure 2.5. Scroll the wheel button of the mouse to zoom in or out to get a better view.

Figure 2.5 Preview of the steady state pore pressures in Phase_4 in a cross section

Click on the Close button to return to the Input program. Add another phase (Phase_5). The default values of the parameters will be used for this calculation phase.

Activate the surface load and set z = 20kN /m2 .

Dening points for curves


Before starting the calculation process, some stress points next to the excavation pit and loading are selected to plot a stress strain curve later on. Click the Select points for curves button. The model and Select points window will be displayed in the Output program. Dene (37.5 19 -1.5) as Point-of-interest coordinates. Click the Search closest button. The number of the closest node and stress point will be displayed. Click the checkbox in front of the stress point to be selected. The selected stress point will be shown in the list. Select also stress points near the coordinates (37.5 19 -5), (37.5 19 -6) and (37.5 19 -7) and close the Select points window.

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Click the Update button to close the Output program. Start the calculation process. Save the project when the calculation is nished. Hint: Instead of selecting nodes or stress points for curves before starting the calculation, points can also be selected after the calculation when viewing the output results. However, the curves will be less accurate since only the results of the saved calculation steps will be considered. To plot curves of structural forces, nodes can only be selected after the calculation. Nodes or stress points can be selected by just clicking them. When moving the mouse, the exact coordinates of the position are given in the cursor location indicator bar at the bottom of the window.

2.4

VIEWING THE RESULTS

After the calculations, the results of the excavation can be viewed by selecting a calculation phase from the Phases tree and pressing the View calculation results button. Select the nal calculation phase (Phase_5) and click the View calculation results button. The Output program will open and will show the deformed mesh at the end of the last phase. The stresses, deformations and three dimensional geometry can be viewed by selecting the desired output from the corresponding menus. For example, choose Plastic points from the Stresses menu to investigate the plastic points in the model. In the Plastic points window, Figure 2.6, select all the options except the Elastic points and the Show only inaccurate points options. Figure 2.7 shows the plastic points generated in the model at the end of the nal calculation phase.

Figure 2.6 Plastic points window

Start selecting structures. Click at a part of the wall to select it. Press <Ctrl + A> simultaneously on the keyboard to select all wall elements. The selected wall elements will colour red.

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Figure 2.7 Plastic points at the end of the nal phase

While holding the <Ctrl> key or <Shift> key on the keyboard, double click at one of the wall elements to see the deformations plane of the total displacements |u| in all wall elements. To generate a curve, select the Curves manager option from the Tools menu or click the corresponding button in the toolbar.

All pre-selected stress points are shown in the Curve points tabsheet of the Curves manager window. Create a new chart. Select point K from the drop-down menu for x axis of the graph. Select Total strains.
1

under

Select point K from the drop-down menu for y axis of the graph. Select '1 under Principal effective stresses (Figure 2.8). Invert the sign of both axis by checking the corresponding boxes. Click OK to conrm the input.

The graph will now show the major principal strain against the major principal stress. Both values are zero at the beginning of the initial conditions. After generation of the initial conditions, the principal strain is still zero whereas the principal stress is not zero anymore. To plot the curves of all selected stress points in one graph, follow these steps: Select Add curve From current project from right mouse button menu. Generate curves for point L, M and N in the same way.

The graph will now show the stress-strain curves of all four stress points (Figure 2.9). To see information about the markers, make sure the Value indication option is selected from the View menu and hold the mouse on a marker for a while. Information about the coordinates in the graph, the number of the point in the graph, the number of the phase and the number of the step is given. Especially the lower stress points show a considerable increase in the stress when the load is applied in the last phase.

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Figure 2.8 Curve generation window

Figure 2.9 Stress - Strain curve

Hint: To re-enter the Curve generation window (in the case of a mistake, a desired regeneration or a modication), the Curve settings option from the Format menu can be selected. As a result the Curves settings window appears, on which the Regenerate button should be clicked. The Chart settings option in the Format menu may be used to modify the settings of the chart.

To create a stress path plot for stress point K follow these steps: Create a new chart. In the Curves generation window, select point K from the drop-down menu of the x axis of the graph and 'yy under Cartesian effective stresses.

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Select point K from the drop-down menu of the y axis of the graph. Select 'zz under Cartesian effective stresses. Click OK to conrm the input (Figure 2.10).

Figure 2.10 Vertical effective stress ( 'zz ) versus horizontal effective stress ( 'yy ) at stress point K located near (37.5 19 -1.5)

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LOADING OF A SUCTION PILE

LOADING OF A SUCTION PILE

In this tutorial a suction pile in an off-shore foundation will be considered. A suction pile is a hollow steel pile with a large diameter and a closed top, which is installed in the seabed by pumping water from the inside. The resulting pressure difference between the outside and the inside is the driving force behind this installation. In this exercise, the length of the suction pile is 10 m and the diameter is 4.5 m. An anchor line is attached on the side of the pile, 7 m from the top. To avoid local failure of the pile, the thickness of the tube where the anchor line acts on the pile is increased. The soil consists of silty sand. To model undrained behaviour, an undrained stress analysis with undrained strength parameters will be performed (Section 6.2 of the Reference Manual). This exercise will investigate the displacement of the suction pile under working load. Four different angles of the working load will be considered. The installation process itself will not be modelled. The geometry for the problem is sketched in Figure 3.1. Objectives: Importing volumes Undrained effective stress analysis with undrained strength parameters Soil cohesion increases with depth Copying material data sets Changing settings in Output Selecting a node after calculation to generate a curve with structural forces
z

z = -6.5 m z = -7.5 m z = -10 m 4.5 m

z = -7.0 m

Figure 3.1 Geometry of the suction pile

3.1

GEOMETRY

An area of 60 m wide and 60 m long surrounding the suction pile will be modelled. With these dimensions the model is sufciently large to avoid any inuence from the model boundaries.

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Project properties
To dene the geometry for this exercise, follow these steps: Start the Input program and select New project from the Create/Open project dialog box. Enter an appropriate title for the exercise. Keep the standard units and set the model dimensions to xmin = 30 m, xmax = 30 m, ymin = 30 m, ymax = 30 m. Click OK. DEFINITION OF SOIL STRATIGRAPHY

3.1.1

In the current example only one horizontal soil layer is present. A single borehole is sufcient to dene it. Add a borehole to the geometry. In the Modify soil layers window add a soil layer with top boundary at z = 0 m and bottom boundary at z = 30 m. The Head value is 50.0 m, which means 50 m depth above the soil. Open the Material sets window and create the data sets given in Table 3.1. In the Parameters tabsheet deselect the Tension cut-off option in the advanced parameters for strength. In this exercise, the permeability of the soil will not inuence the results. Instead of using effective strength properties, the cohesion parameter will be used in this example to model undrained shear strength. Advanced parameters can be entered after expanding the Advanced data tree in the Parameters tabsheet. Hint: The Interface data set can be quickly created by copying the 'Sand' data set and changing the Rinter value.

Assign the 'Sand' material data set to the soil layer and close the Material sets window. DEFINITION OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS

3.1.2

The suction pile is modelled in the Structures mode using predened volumes. To model a suction pile: Import the standard cylinder. The standard cylinder is saved in the <example_cylinder_vertical_D1h1_centered.3ds> le in the Importables folder of the installation directory of PLAXIS 3D. The imported volume is edited in the Import structure volumes window. Import solid is a PLAXIS VIP feature. Modify the scale such that the diameter is 4.5 m and the height is 10 m.

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Table 3.1 Material properties of the sand layer and its interface
Parameter General Material model Drainage type Soil weight Parameters Young's modulus Poisson's ratio Shear strength Friction angle Dilatancy angle Increase in stiffness Reference level Increase in cohesion Reference level Interfaces Interface strength Interface strength reduction Initial Model Type Mohr-Coulomb Undrained B Mohr-Coulomb Undrained B Name Sand Interface Unit

unsat , sat E' ' su ,ref u E 'inc zref su ,inc zref Rinter K0,x , K0,y

20 1000 0.35 1.0 0.0 0.0 1000 0.0 4.0 0.0


Manual

20 1000 0.35 1.0 0.0 0.0 1000 0.0 4.0 0.0


Rigid

kN /m3 kN /m2 kN /m2


kN /m2 /m m kN /m2 /m m

0.7
Manual

1.0
Manual

K0 determination
Lateral earth pressure coeff.

0.5

0.5

Dene the coordinates of the insertion point such that the top of the anchor is at the sea bottom level (z = 0) and the bottom of the anchor is at z = 10 (Figure 3.2).

Figure 3.2 Import structure volumes window

Decompose the imported volume into surfaces by right-clicking it and selecting the Decompose into surfaces option from the appearing menu.

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Hint: As an alternative for the import of a cylinder, the corresponding cylinder command can be used to create the suction pile. Information about the commands available in the program is displayed when the Command reference option is selected in the Help menu.

Make the cylinder mantle into a plate, positive interface and negative interface by right-clicking on it and selecting the corresponding options from the appearing menu. Open the material data base. Select Plates as set type. Create three data sets according to the information in Table 3.2.

Table 3.2 Material properties for the suction pile


Parameter Thickness Weight Type of behaviour Young's modulus Poisson's ratio Shear modulus Name Thin wall Thick wall Top Unit

d Type E G

0.05 58.5
Linear, isotropic

0.15 58.5
Linear, isotropic

0.05 68.5
Linear, isotropic

m kN /m3 kN /m2 kN /m2

2.1 108 0.1 9.545 107

2.1 108 0.1 9.545 107

2.1 108 0.1 9.545 107

Assign Thin wall to the anchor tube and close the Material data set window. Hide the anchor tube and the original volume object using the Hide option in the right mouse button menu. Note that the top and the bottom surfaces are visible. Select the top surface and click on the Create array button in the side tool bar. Select the 1D, in z direction option for Shape. Keep the number of columns as 2 and dene z as 6.5 for the Distance between columns.

Repeat the previous step to create surfaces at z = 7.0 and z = 7.5. Make the top surface into a plate. Assign Top material data set to it. Assign a positive interface to the bottom surface (z= -10 m). Assign the 'Interface' data set to the bottom interface. Right-click on the surface located at z = 7.0 m and select the Decompose into outlines option from the appearing menu. Right-click on the point near (2.25 0.0 -7.0) and select the Create point load option from the appearing menu. The actual load values will be assigned when the calculation phases are dened.

The geometry of the project is dened.

3.2

MESH GENERATION

In order to generate the mesh: The mesh is automatically rened near the plates and load. Select the point load by clicking on it in the model. In the Selection explorer note that the Fineness factor

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value is 0.5 and it is displayed in a lighter shade of green in the model. Generate the mesh. Set the element distribution to Coarse. Proceed to the Staged construction mode.

3.3

PERFORMING CALCULATIONS

The calculation for this exercise will consist of 6 phases. These are the determination of initial conditions, the installation of the suction pile and four different load conditions. The effect of the change of the load direction while keeping the magnitude unchanged will be analysed. Click on the Staged construction tab to proceed with the denition of the calculation phases. Keep the calculation type of the Initial phase to K0 procedure. Ensure that all the structures and interfaces are switched off. Add a new calculation phase and rename it as 'Install pile'. Activate all the plates and interfaces in the project. Assign the Thick wall material to the plate sections just above and just below the point load. It may be necessary to hide (NOT deactivate) the positive interface around the anchor. Load is not active. Add a new phase and rename it as 'Load pile 30 degrees'. Open the Phases window and check the Reset displacements to zero checkbox in the Deformation control parameters subtree. Activate the point load and set Fx = 3897 kN, Fz = 2250 kN. Dene the remaining phases according to the information in Table 3.3. For each phase the Reset displacements to zero option is to be selected. Calculate and save the project.
Phase Load pile 30 degrees [Phase_2] Load pile 40 degrees [Phase_3] Load pile 50 degrees [Phase_4] Load pile 60 degrees [Phase_5] Reference phase Phase_1 Phase_1 Phase_1 Phase_1

Table 3.3 Load information


Fx 3897 kN 3447 kN 2893 kN 2250 kN Fz 2250 kN 2893 kN 3447 kN 3897 kN

The order of the phases is indicated in the Phases explorer (Figure 3.3). Calculation of Phase_1 starts after the calculation of Initial phase is completed. The calculation of the remaining phases starts after the calculation of the pile installation phase is completed.

Figure 3.3 Phases explorer

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3.4

VIEWING THE RESULTS

To view the results: View the results of the last calculation phase. The deformed mes of the whole geometry will be shown. In particular, the displacements of the suction pile itself are of interest. To make the suction pile visible deselect the Soil and the Interfaces option in Model explorer. Click on the Select structures button and select the pile wall. This will select only a part of the wall. Press <Ctrl + A> to select all the wall elements of the suction pile. Keeping the <Ctrl> key pressed, double click the pile walls. The results for the wall of the suction pile are displayed in a new window. Select the shadings representation and rotate the model such that the x axis is perpendicular to the screen. If the axes are not visible, select this option from the View menu. It is quite clear that the point force acting on the pile does not disturb the displacement eld locally indicating that the pile is sufciently thick here. In the same manner, the total displacements of the suction pile under a different direction of the load can be inspected by selecting the appropriate phase from the drop-down menu. In particular, <Phase_2> is of interest, as in this phase the horizontal part of the load will have the largest value (Figure 3.4).

Figure 3.4 Total displacement of the suction pile at the end of Phase_2

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CONSTRUCTION OF A ROAD EMBANKMENT

The construction of an embankment on soft soil with a high groundwater level leads to an increase in pore pressure. As a result of this undrained behaviour, the effective stress remains low and intermediate consolidation periods have to be adopted in order to construct the embankment safely. During consolidation the excess pore pressures dissipate so that the soil can obtain the necessary shear strength to continue the construction process. This tutorial concerns the construction of a road embankment in which the mechanism described above is analysed in detail. In the analysis two new calculation options are introduced, namely a consolidation analysis and the calculation of a safety factor by means of a safety analysis (phi/c-reduction). It also involves the modelling of drains to speed up the consolidation process.
12 m 16 m 12 m

road embankment peat clay dense sand

4m 3m 3m

Figure 4.1 Situation of a road embankment on soft soil

Objectives: Modelling drains Consolidation analysis Change of permeability during consolidation Safety analysis (phi-c reduction)

4.1

GEOMETRY

Figure 4.1 shows a cross section of a road embankment. The embankment is 16 m wide. The slopes have an inclination of 1: 3. The problem is symmetric, so only one half is modelled (in this case the right half is chosen). A representative section of 2 m is considered in the project. The embankment itself is composed of loose sandy soil. The subsoil consists of 6 m of soft soil. The upper 3 m of this soft soil layer is modelled as a peat layer and the lower 3 m as clay. The phreatic level is located 1 m below the original ground surface. Under the soft soil layers there is a dense sand layer of which 4 m are considered in the model. Start the Input program and select Start a new project from the Quick select dialog box. In the Project tabsheet of the Project properties window, enter an appropriate title. Keep the default units and set the model dimensions to xmin = 0, xmax = 60, ymin = 0 and ymax = 2.

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4.1.1

DEFINITION OF SOIL STRATIGRAPHY

The soil layers comprising the embankment foundation are dened using a borehole. The embankment layers are dened in the Structures mode. Create a borehole at (0 0). The Modify soil layers window pops up. Dene three soil layers as shown in Figure 4.2. The water level is located at z = -1 m. In the borehole column specify a value of -1 to Head. Open the Material sets window. Create soil material data sets according to Table 4.1 and assign them to the corresponding layers in the borehole (Figure 4.2). Close the Modify soil layers window and proceed to the Structures mode to dene the structural elements.

Figure 4.2 Soil layer distribution

Hint: The initial void ratio (einit ) and the change in permeability (ck ) should be dened to enable the modelling of a change in the permeability due to compression of the soil. This option is recommended when using advanced models.

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Table 4.1 Material properties of the road embankment and subsoil


Parameter General Material model Drainage type Soil unit weight above phreatic level Soil unit weight below phreatic level Initial void ratio Parameters Secant stiffness in standard drained triaxial test Tangent primary loading stiffness for oedometer
ref E50

Name Model Type

Embankment Hardening soil Drained 16 19 0.5 2.5 104 2.5 104 7.5 104 0.5 1.0 30.0 0.0 Yes

Sand Hardening soil Drained 17 20 0.5 3.5 104 3.5 104 1.05 105 0.5 0.0 33.0 3.0 Yes

Peat Soft soil Undr. (A) 8 12 2.0 -

Clay Soft soil Undr. (A) 15 18 1.0 -

Unit kN/m3 kN/m3 kN/m2

unsat sat einit

ref Eoed

kN/m2

Unloading / reloading stiffness Power for stress-level dependency of stiffness Modied index Cohesion Friction angle Dilatancy angle Advanced: Set default Flow parameters Data set Model Soil type to compression

ref Eur

0.15 0.03 2.0 23.0 0.0 Yes

0.05 0.01 1.0 25.0 0.0 Yes

kN/m2 kN/m2

m cref ' '


-

Modied swelling index

USDA Van Genuchten Loamy sand 6.0 11.0 83.0 Yes 3.499 3.499 3.499 1 1015 Rigid 1.0

USDA Van Genuchten Sand 4.0 4.0 92.0 Yes 7.128 7.128 7.128 1 1015 Rigid 1.0

USDA Van Genuchten Clay 70.0 13.0 17.0 No 0.1 0.1 0.02 1.0 Rigid 1.0

USDA Van Genuchten Clay 70.0 13.0 17.0 Yes 0.04752 0.04752 0.04752 0.2 Rigid 1.0

< 2m 2m 50m 50m 2mm


Set to default Horizontal permeability (x-direction) Horizontal permeability (y-direction) Vertical permeability Change in permeability Interfaces Interface strength Strength factor Initial reduction

% % %
m/day m/day m/day -

kx ky kz ck Rinter

K0 determination
Over-consolidation ratio Pre-overburden pressure

OCR POP

Automatic 1.0 0.0

Automatic 1.0 0.0

Automatic 1.0 5.0

Automatic 1.0 0.0

kN/m2

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4.1.2

DEFINITION OF EMBANKMENT AND DRAINS

The embankment and the drains are dened in the Structures mode. To dene the embankment layers: Reorientate the model such that the front view is displayed by clicking the corresponding button in the toolbar. Create a surface by dening points at (0 0 0), (0 0 4), (8 0 4) and (20 0 0). Create a line passing through (0 0 2) and (14 0 2) to dene the embankment layers. Select both the created line and surface by keeping the <Ctrl> key pressed while clicking them in the model. Click the Extrude object button. Assign a value of 2 to the y -component of the extrusion vector as shown in Figure 4.3 and click Apply.

Figure 4.3 Extrusion window

Delete the surface and the line created before the extrusion. Right-click the volume created by extrusion and point to the Soil_4 option in the appearing menu. A new menu is displayed. Point to the Set material option and select Embankment.

In this project the effect of the drains on the consolidation time will be investigated by comparing the results with a case without drains. Drains will only be active for the calculation phases in the case with drains. Drains are arranged in a square pattern, having a distance of 2 m between two consecutive drains in a row (or column). Only one row of drains will be considered in this tutorial. To create the drain pattern: Click the Create hydraulic conditions button in the side toolbar. Click the Create line drain button in the appearing menu. Dene a line drain in the model between points (1 1 0) and (1 1 -6). Click the Create array button to dene the drain pattern. In the Create array window select the 1D, in x direction in the Shape drop-down menu and specify the pattern as shown in Figure 4.4.

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Figure 4.4 Settings of the drain pattern

The model geometry is shown in Figure 4.5.

Figure 4.5 Model geometry

4.2

MESH GENERATION Proceed to the Mesh mode. Click the Generate mesh button. Set the element distribution to Coarse. View the generated mesh. The resulting mesh is shown in Figure 4.6.

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Figure 4.6 The generated mesh

4.3

PERFORMING CALCULATIONS

The embankment construction process will be considered twice. In the rst calculation the drains will not be considered.

Initial phase
In the initial situation the embankment is not present. Therefore, the corresponding soil volumes are deactivated in the initial phase. The K0 procedure can be used to calculate the initial stresses. The initial water pressures are fully hydrostatic and based on a general phreatic level dened by the Head value assigned to the boreholes. For the Initial phase, the Phreatic option is selected for the pore pressure calculation type and the Global water level is set to BoreholeWaterlevel_1 corresponding to the water level dened by the heads specied for the boreholes. The boundary conditions for ow can be specied in the Model conditions subtree in the Model explorer. In the current situation the left vertical boundary (Xmin) must be closed because of symmetry, so horizontal ow should not occur. The bottom is open because the excess pore pressures can freely ow into the deep and permeable sand layer. The upper boundary is obviously open as well. The view of the GroundwaterFlow subtree after the denition is given in Figure 4.7.

Figure 4.7 Boundary conditions for groundwater ow

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4.3.1

CONSOLIDATION ANALYSIS

A consolidation analysis introduces the dimension of time in the calculations. In order to correctly perform a consolidation analysis a proper time step must be selected. The use of time steps that are smaller than a critical minimum value can result in stress oscillations. The consolidation option in PLAXIS allows for a fully automatic time stepping procedure that takes this critical time step into account. Within this procedure there are three main possibilities for the Loading type parameter: 1. 2. 3. Consolidate for a predened period, including the effects of changes to the active geometry (Staged construction). Consolidate until all excess pore pressures in the geometry have reduced to a predened minimum value (Minimum pore pressure). Consolidate until the soil has reached a specied degree of consolidation (Degree of consolidation).

Consolidation process - No drains


The embankment construction is divided into two phases. After the rst construction phase a consolidation period of 30 days is introduced to allow the excess pore pressures to dissipate. After the second construction phase another consolidation period is introduced from which the nal settlements may be determined. Hence, a total of four calculation phases have to be dened besides the initial phase. To dene the calculation phases, follow these steps: Phase 1: Click the Add phase button to introduce the rst construction phase. In the General subtree select the Consolidation option in the Calculation type drop-down menu. The Loading type is by default set to Staged construction. This option will be used for this phase. The Phreatic option is automatically selected for the pore pressure calculation type. Note that the global water level for a calculation phase can be dened in the Water subtree available under the Model conditions in the Model explorer. Specify a value of 2 days to the Time interval and click OK to close the Phases window. In the Staged construction mode activate the rst part of the embankment. Click the Add phase button to introduce the next calculation phase. Phase 2: The second phase is also a Consolidation analysis. In this phase no changes to the geometry are made as only a consolidation analysis to ultimate time is required. Dene the calculation type as Consolidation. Specify a value of 30 days to the Time interval. The default values of the other parameters are used for this phase. Click the Add phase button to introduce the next calculation phase.

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Phase 3: Dene the calculation type as Consolidation. Specify a value of 1 day to the Time interval. The default values of the other parameters are used. In the Staged construction mode activate the second part of the embankment. Click the Add phase button to introduce the next calculation phase. Phase 4: The fourth phase is a Consolidation analysis to a minimum pore pressure. Dene the calculation type as Consolidation. Select the Minimum pore pressure option in the Loading type drop-down menu. The default value for the minimum pressure (|P-stop| = 1.0 kN/m2 ) as well as the default values for other parameters are used. The denition of the calculation phases is complete. Before starting the calculation, click the Select points for curves button and select the following points: As Point A, select the toe of the embankment. The second point (Point B) will be used to plot the development (and decay) of excess pore pressures. To this end, a point somewhere in the middle of the soft soil layers is needed, close to (but not actually on) the left boundary. Start the calculation. During a consolidation analysis the development of time can be viewed in the upper part of the calculation info window (Figure 4.8). In addition to the multipliers, a parameter Pmax occurs, which indicates the current maximum excess pore pressure. This parameter is of interest in the case of a Minimum pore pressure consolidation analysis, where all pore pressures are specied to reduce below a predened value.

Figure 4.8 Calculation progress displayed in the Active tasks window

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4.4

VIEWING THE RESULTS

After the calculation has nished, select the third phase and click the View calculation results button. The Output window now shows the deformed mesh after the undrained construction of the nal part of the embankment (Figure 4.9). Considering the results of the third phase, the deformed mesh shows the uplift of the embankment toe and hinterland due to the undrained behaviour.

Figure 4.9 Deformed mesh after undrained construction of embankment (Phase 3, true scale)

In the Deformations menu select the Incremental displacements |u |. Select the Arrows option in the View menu or click the corresponding button in the toolbar to display the results arrows.

On evaluating the total displacement increments, it can be seen that a failure mechanism is developing (Figure 4.10).

Figure 4.10 Displacement increments after undrained construction of embankment

Click <Ctrl> + <7> to display the developed excess pore pressures (see Appendix C of Reference Manual for more shortcuts). They can be displayed by selecting the corresponding option in the side menu displayed as the Pore pressures option is selected in the Stresses menu. Click the Center principal directions. The principal directions of excess pressures are displayed at the center of each soil element. The results are displayed in Figure 4.11. It is clear that the highest excess pore pressure occurs under the embankment centre.

Select Phase 4 in the drop down menu.

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Figure 4.11 Excess pore pressures after undrained construction of embankment

Dene a vertical cross section passing through (0 1) and (60 1). Click the Contour lines button in the toolbar to display the results as contours. In the View menu select the Viewpoint option. The corresponding window pops up. In the Viewpoint window select the Front view option as shown in Figure 4.12.

Figure 4.12 Viewpoint window

Use the Draw scanline button or the corresponding option in the View menu to dene the position of the contour line labels.

Figure 4.13 Excess pore pressure contours after consolidation to Pexcess < 1.0 kN/m2

It can be seen that the settlement of the original soil surface and the embankment increases considerably during the fourth phase. This is due to the dissipation of the excess pore pressures (= consolidation), which causes further settlement of the soil. Figure 4.13 shows the remaining excess pore pressure distribution after consolidation. Check that the maximum value is below 1.0 kN/m2 .

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The Curves manager can be used to view the development, with time, of the excess pore pressure under the embankment. In order to create such a curve, follow these steps: Click the Curves manager button in the toolbar. The corresponding window pops up. In the Charts tabsheet click New. The Curve generation window pops up For the x -axis, select the Project option from the drop-down menu and select Time in the tree. For the y -axis select the point in the middle of the soft soil layers (Point B) from the drop-down menu. In the tree select Stresses Pore pressure pexcess . Select the Invert sign option for y-axis. Click the Ok to generate the curve. Click the Settings button in the toolbar. The Settings window will appear displaying the tabsheet of the created curve. Click the Phases button and select the phases 1 to 4 in the appearing window. Rename the curve by typing 'Phases 1 - 4' in the Curve title cell. Click Apply to update the plot. Save the chart. Hint: To display the legend inside the chart area right-click on the name of the chart, point to the View option and select the Legend in chart option in the appearing menu.

Figure 4.14 Development of excess pore pressure under the embankment

Figure 4.14 clearly shows the four calculation phases. During the construction phases the excess pore pressure increases with a small increase in time while during the consolidation periods the excess pore pressure decreases with time. In fact, consolidation already occurs during construction of the embankment, as this involves a small time interval.

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4.5

SAFETY ANALYSIS

In the design of an embankment it is important to consider not only the nal stability, but also the stability during the construction. It is clear from the output results that a failure mechanism starts to develop after the second construction phase. It is interesting to evaluate a global safety factor at this stage of the problem, and also for other stages of construction. In structural engineering, the safety factor is usually dened as the ratio of the collapse load to the working load. For soil structures, however, this denition is not always useful. For embankments, for example, most of the loading is caused by soil weight and an increase in soil weight would not necessarily lead to collapse. Indeed, a slope of purely frictional soil will not fail in a test in which the self weight of the soil is increased (like in a centrifuge test). A more appropriate denition of the factor of safety is therefore:

Smaximum available (4.1) Sneeded for equilibrium Where S represents the shear strength. The ratio of the true strength to the computed minimum strength required for equilibrium is the safety factor that is conventionally used in soil mechanics. By introducing the standard Coulomb condition, the safety factor is obtained: c n tan Safety factor = (4.2) cr n tan r Where c and are the input strength parameters and n is the actual normal stress component. The parameters cr and r are reduced strength parameters that are just large enough to maintain equilibrium. The principle described above is the basis of a Safety analysis that can be used in PLAXIS to calculate a global safety factor. In this approach the cohesion and the tangent of the friction angle are reduced in the same proportion: c tan = Msf (4.3) = cr tan r The reduction of strength parameters is controlled by the total multiplier Msf . This parameter is increased in a step-by-step procedure until failure occurs. The safety factor is then dened as the value of Msf at failure, provided that at failure a more or less constant value is obtained for a number of successive load steps.
Safety factor = The Safety calculation option is available in the Calculation type drop-down menu in the Phases window. To calculate the global safety factor for the road embankment at different stages of construction, follow these steps: We rst want to calculate the safety factor after the rst construction stage. In the Calculations program introduce a new calculation phase (Phase_5) and select Phase 1 in the Start from phase drop-down menu. In the General subtree, select Safety as calculation type. The Loading type is automatically changed to Incremental multipliers. This is the only option available for the Safety calculation type. The rst increment of the multiplier that controls the strength reduction process, Msf,

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is set automatically to 0.1. This value will be used in this tutorial. Note that the Use pressures from the previous phase option in the Pore pressure calculation type drop-down menu is automatically selected and grayed out indicating that this option cannot be changed In order to exclude existing deformations from the resulting failure mechanism, select the Reset displacements to zero option in the Deformation control parameters subtree. The default values of all the remaining parameters will be used. The rst safety calculation has now been dened. Follow the same steps to create new calculation phases that analyse the stability at the end of each consolidation phase. In addition to selecting Safety as calculation type, select the corresponding consolidation phase as the Start from phase parameter. The Phases explorer displaying the Safety calculation phases is shown in Figure 4.15. Calculate the safety phases. Hint: The default value of Max steps in a Safety calculation is 100. In contrast to an Staged construction calculation, the number of additional steps is always fully executed. In most Safety calculations, 100 steps are sufcient to arrive at a state of failure. If not, the number of steps can be increased to a maximum of 10000. For most Safety analyses Msf = 0.1 is an adequate rst step to start up the process. During the calculation process, the development of the total multiplier for the strength reduction, Msf , is automatically controlled by the load advancement procedure.

Figure 4.15 Phases explorer displaying the Safety calculation phases

4.5.1

EVALUATION OF THE RESULTS - SAFETY

Additional displacements are generated during a Safety calculation. The total displacements do not have a physical meaning, but the incremental displacements in the nal step (at failure) give an indication of the likely failure mechanism.

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In order to view the mechanisms in the three different stages of the embankment construction: Select the last Safety phase and click the View calculation results button. From the Deformations menu select Incremental displacements |u |. Change the presentation from Arrows to Shadings. The resulting plots give a good impression of the failure mechanisms (Figure 4.16). The magnitude of the displacement increments is not relevant.

Figure 4.16 Shadings of the total displacement increments indicating the most applicable failure mechanism of the embankment in the nal stage

The safety factor can be obtained from the Calculation info option of the Project menu. The value of Msf represents the safety factor, provided that this value is indeed more or less constant during the previous few steps. The best way to evaluate the safety factor, however, is to plot a curve in which the parameter Msf is plotted against the displacements of a certain node. Although the displacements are not relevant, they indicate whether or not a failure mechanism has developed. In order to evaluate the safety factors for the three situations in this way, follow these steps: Click the Curves manager button in the toolbar. Click New in the Charts tabsheet. In the Curve generation window, select the embankment toe (Point A) for the x -axis. Select Deformations Total displacements |u |. For the y -axis, select Project and then select Multipliers Msf . The Safety phases are considered in the chart. As a result, the curve of Figure 4.17 appears.

The maximum displacements plotted are not relevant. It can be seen that for all curves a more or less constant value of Msf is obtained. Hovering the mouse cursor over a point on the curves, a box showing the exact value of Msf can be obtained.

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Figure 4.17 Evaluation of safety factor

4.6

USING DRAINS

In this section the effect of the drains in the project will be investigated. The embankment constructions will be redened by introducing four new phases having the same properties as the rst four consolidation phases. The differences in the new phases are: The drains should be active in all the new phases. The Time interval in the rst three of the consolidation phases (1 to 3) is 1 day. The last phase is set to Minimum pore pressure and a value of 1.0 kN/m2 is assigned to the minimum pressure (|P-stop|).

After the calculation is nished, select the last phase and click the View calculation results button. The Output window now shows the deformed mesh after the drained construction of the nal part of the embankment. In order to compare the effect of the drains, the excess pore pressure dissipation in node B can be used. Open the Curves manager. In the Chart tabsheet double click Chart 1 (pexcess of node B versus time). The chart is displayed. Close the Curves manager. Click the Settings button in the toolbar. The Settings window pops up. Click the Add curve button and select the Add from current project option in the appearing menu. The Curve generation window pops up. Hint: Instead of adding a new curve, the existing curve can be regenerated using the corresponding button in the Curves settings window.

Select the Invert sign option for y-axis. Click OK to accept the selected options and close the Curve generation window. In the chart a new curve is added and a new tabsheet corresponding to it is opened in the Settings window. Click the Phases button. From the displayed window select the Initial phase and the last four phases (drains) and click OK.

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In the Settings click Apply to preview the generated curve. Click OK to close the Settings window. The chart (Figure 4.18) gives a clear view of the effect of drains in the time required for the excess pore pressures to dissipate.

Figure 4.18 Effect of drains

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PHASED EXCAVATION OF A SHIELD TUNNEL

The lining of a shield tunnel is often constructed using prefabricated concrete ring segments, which are bolted together within the tunnel boring machine to form the tunnel lining. During the erection of the tunnel lining the tunnel boring machine (TBM) remains stationary. Once a tunnel lining ring has been fully erected, excavation is resumed, until enough soil has been excavated to erect the next lining ring. As a result, the construction process can be divided in construction stages with a length of a tunnel ring, often about 1.5 m long. In each of these stages the same steps are repeated over and over again. In order to model this, a geometry consisting of slices each 1.5 m long can be used. The calculation consists of a number of Plastic phases, each of which models the same parts of the excavation process: the support pressure at the tunnel face needed to prevent active failure at the face, the conical shape of the TBM shield, the excavation of the soil and pore water within the TBM, the installation of the tunnel lining and the grouting of the gap between the soil and the newly installed lining. In each phase the input for the calculation phase is identical, except for its location, which will be shifted by 1.5 m each phase.
contraction of shield

nal lining

grout pressure

TBM

C = 0.5%

Cref = 0.5% Cinc ,axial = 0.0667%

Figure 5.1 Construction stages of a shield tunnel model

5.1

GEOMETRY

In the model, only one symmetric half is included. The model is 20 m wide, it extends 80 m in the y direction and it is 20 m deep. These dimensions are sufcient to allow for any possible collapse mechanism to develop and to avoid any inuence from the model boundaries. When starting PLAXIS 3D set the proper model dimensions in the Project properties window, that is xmin = -20, xmax = 0, ymin = 0 and ymax = 80. 5.1.1 DEFINITION OF SOIL STRATIGRAPHY

The subsoil consists of three layers. The soft upper sand layer is 2 m deep and extends from the ground surface to Mean Sea Level (MSL). Below the upper sand layer there is a clay layer of 12 m thickness and this layer is underlain by a stiff sand layer that extends to a large depth. Only 6 m of the stiff sand layer is included in the model. Hence, the bottom of the model is 18 m below MSL. Soil layer is assumed to be horizontal throughout the

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model and so just one borehole is sufcient to describe the soil layers. The present groundwater head corresponds to the MSL. Press the Create borehole button and click at the origin of the system of axis to create a borehole at (0 0 0). The Modify soil layers window will open. Dene 3 layers: Upper sand with the top at 2 m and the bottom at 0 m, Clay with the bottom at -12 m and Stiff sand with the bottom at -18 m. Open the materials database by clicking the Materials button and create the data sets for the soil layers and the nal concrete lining in the tunnel as specied in Table 5.1.
Table 5.1 Material properties for the soil layers
Parameter General Material model Drainage type Unit weight above phreatic level Unit weight below phreatic level Parameters Young'modulus Poisson's ratio Cohesion Friction angle Dilatancy angle Interfaces Interface strength Initial Model Type Mohr-Coulomb Drained Mohr-Coulomb Drained Mohr-Coulomb Drained Linear elastic Non porous Name Upper sand Clay Stiff sand Concrete Unit

unsat sat

17.0 20.0

16.0 18.0

17.0 20.0

27.0 3.1 107 0.1


Rigid Automatic

kN /m3 kN /m3

E' ' c 'ref '

1.3 104 0.3 1.0 31 0


Rigid Automatic

1.0 104 0.35 5.0 25 0


Rigid Automatic

7.5 104 0.3 1.0 31 0


Rigid Automatic

kN /m2 kN /m2

K0 determination

Assign the material data sets to the corresponding soil layers (Figure 5.2) and close the Modify soil layers window. The concrete data set will be assigned later.

Figure 5.2 Soil layer distribution

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5.1.2

DEFINITION OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS

The tunnel excavation is carried out by a tunnel boring machine (TBM) which is 9.0 m long and 8.5 m in diameter.

Create tunnel surfaces


In Structures mode both the geometry of the tunnel and the TBM will be dened. This is done by creating a polycurve contouring the outside of the tunnel at the inlet of the tunnel: Click the Create polycurve button in the side toolbar. Click anywhere on the draw area to dene the insertion point. The Shape designer window pops up. In the General tabsheet the default option for shape, (Free) is valid for this polycurve. The polycurve is drawn in the xz-plane. Select the Z-axis option in the drop-down menu for the Orientation axis 2 (Section 5.2.3 of Reference Manual). A screenshot of the General tabsheet after the proper assignment is given in Figure 5.3.

Figure 5.3 General tabsheet of the Shape designer

Proceed to the Segments tabsheet. Click Add to introduce a new segment. Change the segment type by selecting the Arc option in the Segment type drop-down menu. Assign a value of 180 to the Relative start angle. Assign a value of 4.25 m to the Radius. Dene a Segment angle of 180 . The Discretisation angle is by default set to 5 . This value will be used in this tutorial. A screenshot of the Sections tabsheet after the proper assignment is given in Figure 5.4. Click OK to complete the denition of the polycurve and close the Shape designer

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Figure 5.4 Sections tabsheet of the Shape designer

Hint: An arc is discretized into line segments (cords). The angle subtended by each cord along the discretized arc is called the Discretization angle.

window. In the Selection explorer set the coordinates of the insertion point to (0 0 -4.75) (Figure 5.5).

Figure 5.5 Polycurve in the Selection explorer

The next step is to create the contour representing the inner diameter of the nal lining. Taking into account the thickness of the nal lining of 0.25 m, the insertion point will be at z = -5 and the radius of the arc will be 4 m. To create the corresponding polycurve: Click the Create polycurve button in the side toolbar. In the General tabsheet the default option for shape is valid for this polycurve. The polycurve is drawn in the xz-plane. Select the Z-axis option for the Orientation axis 2.

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Proceed to the Segments tabsheet and add a new Arc section. Assign a value of 180 to the Relative start angle. Assign a value of 4 m to the Radius. Dene a Segment angle of 180 . The Discretisation angle is by default set to 5 . This value will be used in this tutorial. Click OK to complete the denition of the polycurve and close the Shape designer window. Figure 5.6 displays the dened polycurves in the model. Select the created polycurve and set the coordinates of its insertion point to (0 0 -5) in the Selection explorer.

Figure 5.6 Polycurves in the model (front view)

To create the left half of the tunnel: Multi-select the polycurves and click the Extrude object button in the side toolbar. Assign a value of 41.5 to the y-direction. To have a preview of the extrusion click on one of the input cells in the Extrude window (Figure 5.7). Click Apply to nish the extrusion. To create the tunnel volume the nal intersection plane needs to be dened. Right-click the inner polycurve and select the Create surface option from the appearing menu. In the same way create a surface for the outer polycurve. Reorientate the model by clicking the Front view button. Click the Select multiple objects button in the side toolbar.

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Figure 5.7 Preview of the extrusion

Select the Select surfaces option in the appearing menu. Select the surfaces created from the polycurves (Figure 5.8).

Figure 5.8 Selection of the surfaces in the model

Right-click and select the Intersect and recluster option from the appearing menu. The created surfaces will be referred to as A (inner surface) and B (outer surface), as shown in Figure 5.9. Note that the outer surface B corresponds to the lining and the inner surface A to the interior of the tunnel. Multi-select the surfaces created after the intersection. Click the Create array button. In the Array window set Shape to 1D, y-direction. Keep the default number of columns (2) and set the Distance between the columns option to y = 41.5.

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Figure 5.9 Inner and outer surfaces

Delete the initial surfaces at y = 0.

Creating excavation levels for the TBM advancement


Different levels of excavation are considered in order to model the advancement of the TBM. In the calculation 5 phases will be simulated, these being the initial position of the TBM and a forward movement of 4 x 1.5 meters. Therefore vertical planes representing the initial position of the TBM and nal tunnel lining as well as the front and back of the TBM and nal tunnel lining in the 4 phases where the TBM moves forward should be dened. This gives a total of 12 planes varying from y = 25 to y = 41.5 with an intermediate distance of 1.5 m. Multi-select the surfaces (A and B) at y = 41.5. Click the Create array button. In the Array window set the Shape to 1D, y-direction. Set the number of columns to 12 and the distance between the columns to y = -1.5.

Creating tunnel face pressures


The tunnel face pressure is a bentonite pressure that increases linearly with depth. For the initial position of the TBM and the successive 4 positions when simulating the advancement of the TBM a tunnel face pressure (bore front pressure) has to be dened. From the 12 surfaces inside the tunnel that were created before, select both the parts A and B of the surfaces located at y = 35.5 to y = 41.5 (a total of 10) (Figure 5.10). Right-click on one of the selected surfaces and select the Create surface load option from the appearing menu. In the Selection explorer, click the plus sign (+) in front of SurfaceLoad to extend the tree. The tunnel face pressure is a bentonite pressure that increases linearly with depth. Set the Distribution of the load to Perpendicular, vertical increment. Assign a value of 90 kN/m2 to n,ref and 14 kN/m2 /m to n,inc . Assign (0 0 -4.75) to the coordinates of the reference point of the load. Note that only the z-coordinate of the reference point is of importance.

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Figure 5.10 Tunnel face pressures in the model

Creating jack forces


In order to move forward during the boring process, the TBM has to push himself against the existing tunnel lining. This is done by hydraulic jacks. The force applied by the jacks on the nal tunnel lining has to be taken into account. Select all B parts (Figure 5.9) of the 5 rear most tunnel planes, located at y = 25 to y = 31 as shown in Figure 5.11. Right-click on one of the selected surfaces and select the Create surface load option in the appearing menu. In the Selection explorer, click the plus sign (+) in front of SurfaceLoad to extend the tree. Jack forces are uniform, therefore set the Distribution to Perpendicular and assign in a load of n = 635.4 kN/m2 . Note that this load is negative as it is directed backwards, in the opposite direction of the face pressure.

Figure 5.11 Selected surfaces for jack forces in the model

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Dening the TBM, contraction and grout pressure


After dening the geometry of the tunnel and the TBM, the plate element for the TBM needs to be dened. To dene the TBM: Right-click on the outer circular surface and select the Create plate option from the appearing menu to assign a plate element to the surface representing the TBM. Create a plate material dataset for the TBM according to the Table 5.2 and assign it to the created plate. Note that only a total length of 9.0 m of plates will be active in each phase to represent the TBM.
Table 5.2 Material properties of the plate representing the TBM
Parameter Thickness Material weight Material behaviour Youngs modulus Poissons ratio Shear modulus Name d TBM 0.35 120 Linear; Isotropic 23.0106 0 11.5106 Unit m

kN /m3
-

E1 12 G12

kN /m2
-

kN /m2

To dene the contraction: Right-click the same surface and select the Create surface contraction option from the appearing menu. The distribution type and value of the contraction will be specied when the phases are dened.

The surface load representing the grout pressure will be constant during the building process and therefore it is possible to dene it in the Structures mode so that it is not needed to change it when the construction phases are dened. In the specications of the tunnel boring process it is given that the grout pressure should be 100 kN/m2 at the top of the tunnel (z = -4.75) and should increase with 20 kN/m2 /m depth. To dene the grout pressure: Similarly, right-click the same surface again and select the Create surface load to add the surface load that will be used as grout pressure. In the Selection explorer, click the plus sign (+) in front of SurfaceLoad to extend the tree. Select the Perpendicular, vertical increment option in the Distribution drop-down menu. Set the n,ref to 100 and n,inc to 20. Hint: When a perpendicular load is applied, the sign of the load depends on the local perpendicular axis of the surface. A negative sign of the load indicates a load applied in the direction opposite to the local perpendicular axis.

Dene (0 0 -4.75) as reference point for the load by assigning the values to xref , yref and zref in the Selection explorer. Right-click the outer circular surface once more and select the Create positive

Finally, a soil-structure interaction has to be added on the outside of the tunnel.

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interface option from the appearing menu to add the interface.

Figure 5.12 TBM, contraction and grout pressure in the model

Hint: For drawing purposes it may be practical to hide the interface and the volume representing the lining, so that it will not block the view on the tunnel. This can be done in the Model explorer by clicking on the small "eye" in front of the selection (interface of volume) to toggle between showing and hiding it.

This concludes the model creation in Structures mode.

5.2

MESH GENERATION

In the Mesh mode it is possible to specify global and local renements and generate the mesh. In order to generate more accurate results a renement of the mesh around the walls and oor should be applied. When entering the mesh mode the total geometry is shown as dark grey. Click the Generate mesh button in order to generate the mesh. The Mesh options window appears. The default option (Medium) will be used to generate the mesh. Click the View mesh button to inspect the generated mesh (Figure 5.13). After inspecting the mesh the output window can be closed. Mesh generation has now been nished and so creating all necessary input for dening the calculation phases has been nished.

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Figure 5.13 The generated mesh

5.3

PERFORMING CALCULATIONS

The excavation of the soil and the construction of the tunnel lining will be modelled in the Staged construction mode. Since water levels will remain constant the Water levels mode can be skipped. It should be noted that due to the mesh generation the tunnel effectively has been split in an upper part, located in the clay, and a lower part located in the stiff sand. As a result, both the lower and the upper part of the tunnel should be considered. The soil in front of the TBM will be excavated, a support pressure will be applied at the tunnel face, the TBM shield will be activated and the conicity of the shield will be modelled, at the back of the TBM the pressure due to the back ll grouting will be modelled as well as the force the hydraulic jacks driving the TBM exert on the already installed lining, and a new lining ring will be installed. The rst phase differs from the following phases, as in this phase the tunnel is activated for the rst time. This phase will model a tunnel that has already advanced 25 m into the soil. Subsequent phases will model an advancement by 1.5 m each. 5.3.1 INITIAL PHASE

The initial phase consists of the generation of the initial stresses using the K0 procedure. The default settings for the initial phase are valid. 5.3.2 FIRST PHASE - INITIAL POSITION OF THE TBM

In the rst phase it is assumed that the TBM has already advanced 25 m. In order to consider the conicity of the TBM in the rst 25 m, the plates representing TBM are activated and 0.5% contraction is applied. The nal lining will be activated in the following phase. Add the rst calculation phase. Select the right view to reorientate the model in order to obtain a clearer view of the inside of the tunnel. In the draw area select the soil volumes corresponding to the inside of the tunnel and the lining in the rst 25 m (Figure 5.14). Note that in the gures representing the model only the part of the model surrounding the tunnel is displayed. In the Selection explorer deactivate the soil. The soil is switched off, but the wireframe representing the deactivated soil is still coloured red as the deactivated

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Figure 5.14 Selection of soil volumes (0 m - 25 m)

soil is still selected. In the Selection explorer extend the Soil subtree and set WaterConditions to Dry. Hint: An object that is deactivated will automatically be hidden as a volume or surface, but a wireframe representing the hidden object will remain. The visibility of the object not active in a calculation phase can be dened in the corresponding tabsheet of the Visualization settings window (Section 3.5.3 of the Reference Manual).

To activate the interface, the plate and the contraction in the rst 25 m of the tunnel: Select the Select plates option in the appearing menu. Select the surfaces between 0 m and 25 m in the model to which plates are assigned (Figure 5.15).

Figure 5.15 Selection of plate (0 m - 25 m)

In the Selection explorer activate plate, positive interfaces and contraction by checking the corresponding boxes. In the Selection explorer extend the Contraction subtree and specify a uniform contraction of 0.5%.

The section next to the rst 25 m (section 25 m - 26.5 m), will represent the area directly behind the TBM were grout is injected in the tail void. The soil inside the tunnel and the lining will be deactivated whereas the surface load representing the grout pressure will be

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activated. Select the volumes corresponding to the lining and the inside of the tunnel between 25 m and 26.5 m (Figure 5.16). In the Selection explorer deactivate the selected soil volumes and set WaterConditions to Dry.

Figure 5.16 Selection of soil volumes (25 m - 26.5 m)

In this section, the plate, the positive interface and the contraction will not be activated. In order to differentiate among the surface loads dened in the model, the Select plate option will be used to select only the surfaces where plate, interface, contraction and grouting pressure is assigned. Select the surfaces between 25 m and 26.5 m in the model by dening a rectangle as shown in Figure 5.17. In the Selection explorer activate the load corresponding to the grouting. Note that the proper settings were already dened in the Structures mode.

Figure 5.17 Selection of plates (25 m - 26.5 m)

In the next 6 sections (26.5 m - 35.5 m) the TBM will be modelled. Select the soil volumes corresponding to the lining and the soil inside the tunnel for the next 6 sections lying between y = 26.5 m and y = 35.5 m (Figure 5.18). In Selection explorer deactivate the soil and set WaterConditions to Dry. Select the surfaces between 26.5 m and 35.5 m in the model to which plates are assigned.

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Figure 5.18 Selection of soil volumes (26.5 m - 35.5 m)

In the Selection explorer activate the positive interface, the plate and the contraction.

The TBM has a slight cone shape. Typically, the cross sectional area at the tail of the TBM is about 0.5% smaller than the front of the TBM. The reduction of the diameter is realized over the rst 7.5 m length of the TBM (35.5 m to 28 m) while the last 1.5 m to the tail (28 m to 26.5 m) has a constant diameter. This means that the section (28 m to 26.5 m) has a uniform contraction of 0.5% and the remaining 5 sections have a linear contraction with a reference value cref = 0.5%, and increment cinc ,axial = -0.0667% and a reference point with y -coordinate equal to 28. Select the surfaces between 26.5 m and 28 m. Assign a Uniform contraction of 0.5%. Select the surfaces between 28 m and 35.5 m. In the Selection explorer select the Axial increment option for the contraction distribution and dene Cref = 0.5% and Cinc ,axial = -0.0667%/m. The increment must be a negative number, because the contraction decreases in the direction of the positive local 1-axis. The reference location is (0 28 0).

The last part of this rst calculation phase that has to be dened is the tunnel phase pressure to keep the tunnel phase stable: Select the surface load corresponding to the phase pressure at y = 35.5. An overall view of the model and a local detail is shown in Figure 5.19. In the Selection explorer activate the surface load. The distribution of the load is already set to Perpendicular, vertical increment and the value is specied as n,ref = 90 and n,inc = 14 when the geometry was dened in the Structures mode. The reference location is (0 0 -4.75). Click the Preview button to get a preview of everything that has been dened (Figure 5.20). Make sure that both grout pressure and tunnel face pressure are applied and that both increase from top to bottom.

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Figure 5.19 Tunnel phase pressure selection at y = 35.5

Figure 5.20 Preview of the Phase 1

5.3.3

SECOND PHASE - TBM ADVANCEMENT 1

In this phase the advancement of the TBM by 1.5 m will be modelled. Add a new phase. Hide the soil outside the tunnel, so that the TBM, lining, surface loads and contraction can be accessed from both the outside and the inside of the tunnel. Select the plates between 0 m and 25 m and deactivate the assigned plate and contraction. Select volumes corresponding to the tunnel lining between 0 m and 25 m. In the Selection explorer extend the Soil subtree. Activate the soil. Click the material and select the Concrete option from the drop-down menu. Select the load assigned between 25 m and 26.5 m by directly clicking the model and deactivate it. Activate the positive interface between 25 m and 26.5 m. Select volumes between 25 m and 26.5 m and follow the same steps as previous to dene the nal lining. Select the jack force at y = 26.5 m (Figure 5.21) and activate it. As the TBM has advanced by 1.5 m, only grouting is applied to the section between y = 26.5 and y = 28. In this section the plate, the interface and the contraction will be deactivated. Select the surfaces between 26.5 m and 28 m in the model and deactivate the

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Figure 5.21 Jack force at y = 26.5 m

interface, the plate and the contraction. Activate the load corresponding to the grouting. The section between y = 28 m and y = 29.5 m, is the tail of the TBM. Select the two parts of the plate element that form the TBM and modify the assigned contraction to Uniform and assign a value of Cref = 0.5%. Deactivate the tunnel pressure (y = 35.5 m) for Phase 1. The section between y = 35.5 m and y = 37 m is excavated in this phase. Deactivate the soil in the volumes inside the tunnel and the ones corresponding to the tunnel lining and set the WaterConditions to Dry. Activate the interfaces, plate and contraction in the section between y = 35.5 m and y = 37 m. Select the surfaces corresponding to the TBM between y = 29.5 m and y = 37 m and dene the contraction as done in the Phase 1 for the contraction in the sections between y = 28 m and y = 35.5 m. Activate the tunnel phase pressure at y = 37 m. This completes the denition of the rst step of TBM advance. THIRD PHASE - TBM ADVANCEMENT 2 The following 6 sections (28 m to 37 m) correspond to the TBM.

5.3.4

The third phase implies another advance of the TBM. Hence in principle the same actions as done in the previous phase have to be applied, but one section further forward. Add a new phase. The section between 0 m and 25 m is the intact tunnel. No changes have to be done. Section between 25 m and 26.5 m is intact tunnel as well, however the jack forces on the side of this section have to be deactivated. Select the side of the section and in Selection explorer deactivate the surface load representing the jack forces at y = 26.5 m. Deactivate the surface load between 26.5 m to 28 m that represents the grout pressure and activate the interface. Select the volumes representing the nal lining (between 26.5 m to 28 m). Assign the Concrete material set to the nal lining that was just activated. Select the surfaces representing the jack forces at y = 28 (Figure 5.22) and activate them.

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Figure 5.22 Jack forces to be activated at y = 28

Section between y = 28 m to y = 29.5 m has to be changed from the tail of the TBM to grout pressure. Select the two parts that represent the TBM and deactivate the plate representing the TBM, the surface contraction and the interface while activating the surface load representing the grout pressure. The section between y = 29.5 m and y = 31 m, is the tail of the TBM. Select the two parts of the plate element that form the TBM and modify the assigned contraction to Uniform and assign a value of Cref = 0.5%. Deactivate the tunnel phase pressure (y = 37 m) for Phase 2. The section between y = 37 m and y = 38.5 m is excavated in this phase. Deactivate the soil in the volumes inside the tunnel and the ones corresponding to the tunnel lining and set the WaterConditions to Dry. Activate the interfaces, plate and contraction in the section between y = 37 m and y = 38.5 m. Select the contraction between y = 31 m and y = 38.5 m and dene the contraction as done in the Phase 1 for the contraction in the section between y = 28 m and y = 35.5 m. Activate the tunnel phase pressure at y = 38.5 m. FOURTH PHASE - TBM ADVANCEMENT 3

5.3.5

In this phase the TBM advances from y = 38.5 to y = 40. The same steps as for the third phase will be followed, taking into account that sections 1 and 2 (y = 0 to y = 26.5) remain unchanged, the jack forces at y = 28 should be removed, the section 4 (y = 28 to y = 29.5) should be changed from grout pressure to nal tunnel lining and jack forces must be applied, the section 5 (y = 29.5 to y = 31) should be changed from the tail of the TBM to grout pressures etc. until the section between y = 38.5 to y = 40, which is the newly excavated tunnel section. 5.3.6 FIFTH PHASE - TBM ADVANCEMENT 4

In this phase the nal advancement of the TBM is modelled. The same steps as for the third phase will be followed, taking into account that sections 1 to 3 (y = 0 to y = 28) remain unchanged, the jack forces at y = 29.5 are removed, the section 5 (y = 29.5 to y = 31) should be changed from grout pressure to nal tunnel lining and jack forces must be applied, the section 6 should be changed from the tail of the TBM to grout pressures etc. until the nal section. Press the Calculate button to start the calculation. Ignore the message "No nodes or

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stress points selected for curves" as we will not draw any load-displacement curves in this example, and continue the calculation.

5.4

VIEWING THE RESULTS

Once the calculation has been completed, the results can be evaluated in the Output program. In the Output program the displacement and stresses are shown in the full 3D model, but the computational results are also available in tabular form. To view the results for the current analysis, follow these steps: Select the last calculation phase (Phase 5) in the Phases explorer. Click on the Output button to open the Output program. The Output program will by default show the 3D deformed mesh at the end of the selected calculation phase. From the Deformations menu, select Total displacements and then uz in order to see the total vertical displacements in the model as a shaded plot (Figure 5.23).

Figure 5.23 Total vertical displacements after the nal phase uz 3cm

In order to see the settlements at ground level make a horizontal cross section by choosing the Horizontal cross section button. In the window that appears ll in a cross section height of 1.95 m. The window with the cross section opens (Figure 5.24). The maximum settlement at ground level is about 2 cm.

Figure 5.24 Settlement trough at ground level |u | 2cm

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RAPID DRAWDOWN ANALYSIS

This example concerns the stability of a reservoir dam under conditions of drawdown. Fast reduction of the reservoir level may lead to instability of the dam due to high pore water pressures that remain inside the dam. The dam to be considered is 30 m high. The top width and the base width of the dam are 5 m and 172.5 m respectively. The dam consists of a clay core with a well graded ll at both sides. The geometry of the dam is depicted in Figure 6.1. The normal water level behind the dam is 25 m high. A situation is considered where the water level drops 20 m. The normal phreatic level at the right hand side of the dam is 10 m below ground surface. The sub-soil consists of overconsolidated silty sand.
50 m 25 m Core 5m Subsoil 120 m 20 m 120 m Fill
y x

77.5 m

5m

90 m

37.5 m

30 m Fill

30 m

Figure 6.1 Geometry of the dam

Objectives: Performing fully coupled ow deformation analysis Dening time-dependent hydraulic conditions Using unsaturated ow parameters

6.1

GEOMETRY Start the Input program and select the Start a new project from the Quick select dialog box. In the Project properties window enter a proper title. Keep the default units and set the model dimensions to xmin = 130, xmax = 130, ymin = 0 and ymax = 50.

Assuming the dam is located in a wide valley, a representative length of 50 m is considered in the model in order to decrease the model size. The geometry of the model is shown in Figure 6.2. 6.1.1 DEFINITION OF SOIL STRATIGRAPHY

In order to dene the underlying foundation soil, a borehole needs to be added and material properties must be assigned. A layer of 30 m overconsolidated silty sand is considered as sub-soil in the model. Create a borehole at (0.0 0.0). The Modify soil layers window pops up.

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Figure 6.2 The geometry of the model

Add a soil layer extending from ground surface (z = 0) to a depth of 30 m (z= -30). Set the Head in the borehole to -10 m. A horizontal water level will be automatically generated. This water level in combination with surface groundwater ow boundary conditions will be used in the Fully coupled ow deformation analyses. Open the Material sets window. Create data sets under Soil and interfaces set type according to the information given in Table 6.1. Note that the Interfaces and Initial tabsheets are not relevant (no interfaces or K0 procedure used). Assign the Subsoil material dataset to the soil layer in the borehole.
Parameter General Material model Drainage type Soil unit weight above p.l. Soil unit weight below p.l. Parameters Young's modulus Poisson's ratio Cohesion Undrained shear strength Friction angle Dilatancy angle Young's modulus inc. Reference level Undrained shear strength inc. Reference level Flow Flow data set Model Soil Soil coarseness Horizontal permeability Vertical permeability Name Core Mohr Coulomb Undrained B 16.0 18.0 1.5103 0.35 5.0 300 30 3.0 30 Hypres Van Genuchten Subsoil Very ne 1.010-4 1.010-4 1.010-4 Fill Mohr Coulomb Drained 16.0 20.0 2.0104 0.33 5.0 31 1.0 Hypres Van Genuchten Subsoil Coarse 0.25 0.25 0.25 Subsoil Mohr Coulomb Drained 17.0 21.0 5.0104 0.3 1.0 35.0 5.0 Hypres Van Genuchten Subsoil Coarse 0.01 0.01 0.01 Unit kN/m3 kN/m3 kN/m2 kN/m2 kN/m2

Table 6.1 Material properties of the dam and sub-soil

Model Type unsat sat E' ' c 'ref su ,ref ' E 'inc zref su ,inc zref Model
-

kN/m2 m kN/m2 m m/day m/day m/day

kx ky kz

6.1.2

DEFINITION OF THE EMBANKMENT

The embankment will be dened in the Structures mode.

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Dene a surface by specifying points located at (-80 0 0), (92.5 0 0), (2.5 0 30) and (-2.5 0 30). Dene a surface by specifying points located at (-10 0 0), (10 0 0), (2.5 0 30) and (-2.5 0 30). Multi-select the created surfaces and right-click on the draw area. Select the Intersect and recluster option from the appearing menu. Multi-select the surfaces and extrude along (0 50.0 0) The volumes representing the dam are generated. Delete the surfaces used to create the soil volumes. Assign the corresponding material datasets to the soil volumes. Time dependent conditions can be assigned to surface groundwater ow boundary conditions. Dene surface groundwater ow boundary conditions (under the Create hydraulic conditions tool) according to the information in Table 6.2.
Table 6.2 Surface groundwater ow boundary conditions
Surface 1 2 3 Points (-130 0 0), (-80 0 0), (-80 50 0), (-130 50 0) (-80 0 0), (-2.5 0 30), (-2.5 50 30), (-80 50 0) (-130 0 0), (-130 0 -30), (-130 50 -30), (-130 50 0)

6.2

MESH GENERATION

For the generation of the mesh it is advisable to set the Element distribution parameter to Fine. To modify the global coarseness: Click the Generate mesh button in the side toolbar. The Mesh options window is displayed. Select the Fine option form the Element distribution drop-down (Figure 6.3).

Figure 6.3 Modication of the Global coarseness

Click OK to close the Mesh options window and to generate the mesh. Click the View mesh button in the side toolbar to preview the mesh. The resulting mesh is displayed in Figure 6.4.

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Figure 6.4 The resulting mesh

6.3

PERFORMING CALCULATIONS

In the calculation process the initial state (high reservoir), the rapid drawdown case, the slow drawdown case and nally the low water level case will be considered. A safety analysis will be performed for each of the cases. Proceed to the Water levels mode. Create water levels corresponding to the full reservoir and the low water level cases according to the information given in Table 6.3. In the Attributes library of the Model explorer rename the created user water levels as 'High_Reservoir' and 'Low_Reservoir'.
Level High reservoir Low reservoir Points (-130 0 25), (-10 0 25), (93 0 -10), (130 0 -10), (130 50 -10), (93 50 -10), (-10 50 25), (-130 50 25) (-130 0 5), (-10 0 5), (93 0 -10), (130 0 -10), (130 50 -10), (93 50 -10), (-10 50 5), (-130 50 5)

Table 6.3 Water levels

Hint: No modications, such as Time dependency is possible for Borehole water levels and non-horizontal User water levels.

6.3.1

INITIAL PHASE: HIGH RESERVOIR Proceed to the Staged construction mode. Double-click the initial phase in the Phases explorer. In the General subtree of the Phases window rename the phase as 'High reservoir'.

Select the Gravity loading option as Calculation type. Note that Staged construction is the only option available for Loading type. Select the Steady state groundwater ow option as pore pressure calculation type. Note that the options Ignore undr. behaviour (A,B) and Ignore suction are by default selected in the Deformation control parameters subtree. The default values will be used for the parameters in the Numerical control parameters and Water control parameters subtrees. Click OK to close the Phases window. In the Staged construction mode activate the soil clusters representing the embankment.

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In the Model explorer extend the Model conditions subtree. In the GroundwaterFlow subtree set BoundaryYMin, BoundaryYMax and BoundaryZMin to Closed. The remaining boundaries should be Open (Figure 6.5). In the Water subtree select the high reservoir water level (High_Reservoir ) as GlobalWaterLevel.

Figure 6.5 Boundary conditions for groundwater ow

6.3.2

PHASE 1: RAPID DRAWDOWN

In the rapid drawdown phase the water level in the reservoir will be lowered from z = 25 m to z = 5 m in a period of 5 days. To dene the function describing the uctuation of the water level: Extend the Attributes library in the Model explorer. Right click on Flow functions and select the Edit option in the appearing menu. The Flow functions window is displayed. In the Head functions tabsheet add a new function by clicking the corresponding button. The new function is highlighted in the list and options to dene the function are displayed. Specify a proper name to the function for the rapid drawdown (e.g. Rapid). Select the Linear option from the Signal drop-down menu. Assign a value of -20 m to Head, representing the amount of the head decrease. Specify a time interval of 5 days. A graph is displayed showing the dened function (Figure 6.6). Click OK to close the Flow functions window. Add a new calculation phase and rename it (e.g. Rapid drawdown). Set the Calculation type to Fully coupled ow-deformation. Set the Time interval to 5 days.

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Figure 6.6 The ow function for the rapid drawdown case

In the Deformation control parameters subtree, select the Reset displacements to zero option. Click OK to close the Phases window. Activate all the surface groundwater ow boundary conditions. Multi-select the surface groundwater ow BCs in the draw area. In the Selection explorer select the Head option as behaviour. The distribution of the head is Constant. Assign a value of 25 m to href . Set the time dependency to Time dependent and select the Rapid option as Head function. Information related to the head function is displayed in the Object explorers as well (Figure 6.7).

Figure 6.7 Denition of SurfaceGWFlowBC for the rapid drawdown case

In the Water subtree in the Model explorer select the BoreholeWaterLevel_1 option as GlobalWaterLevel.

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6.3.3

PHASE 2: SLOW DRAWDOWN

In the slow drawdown phase the water level in the reservoir will be lowered from z = 25 m to z = 5 m in a period of 50 days. To dene the function describing the uctuation of the water level: Create a new ow function following the steps previously described. Specify a proper name to the function for the slow drawdown (e.g. Slow). Select the Linear option from the Signal drop-down menu. Assign a value of -20 m to Head, representing the amount of the head decrease. Specify a time interval of 50 days. The window displaying the dened function is shown in Figure 6.8.

Figure 6.8 The ow function for the slow drawdown case

Click OK to close the Flow functions window. Add a new calculation phase and rename it (e.g. Slow drawdown). Set the Start from phase parameter to High reservoir. Set the Calculation type to Fully coupled ow-deformation. Set the Time interval option to 50 days. In the Deformation control parameters subtree, select the Reset displacements to zero option. Click OK to close the Phases window. In the model multi-select all the surface groundwater ow BCs. In the Selection explorer select the Slow option as Head function.

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The BoreholeWaterLevel_1 option is still valid as GlobalWaterLevel.

Phase 3: Low level


This phase considers the steady-state situation of a low reservoir level. Add a new calculation phase. In the Phases explorer double-click the newly added phase. The Phases window is displayed. In the General subtree specify the name of the phase (ex: Low level). Set the Start from phase parameter to High reservoir. Select the Plastic option as calculation type. Select the Steady state groundwater ow option as Pore pressure calculation type In the Deformation control subtree, select Ignore und. behaviour (A,B) and Reset displacements to zero. Click OK to close the Phases window. In the Model explorer Deactivate the surface groundwater ow BSs. In the Water subtree select the low reservoir water level (Low_Reservoir ) as GlobalWaterLevel.

Phase 4 to 7:
In Phases 4 to 7 stability calculations are dened for the previous phases respectively. Select the phase in the Phases explorer. Add a new calculation phase and proceed to the Phases window. Set Calculation type to Safety. The Incremental multipliers option is valid as Loading type. In the Deformation control subtree, select Reset displacements to zero. In the Numerical control parameters subtree set the Max steps parameter to 30 for Phase 4 and to 50 for phases 5 to 7. The nal view of the Phases explorer is given in Figure 6.9.

Figure 6.9 The nal view of the Phases explorer

In the Staged construction mode select a nodes located at the crest (-2.5 25.0 30.0 ).

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Start the calculation process by clicking the Calculate button in the Staged construction mode.

6.4 6.4.1

VIEWING THE RESULTS RESULTS After the calculation is nished click the View the calculation results button. The Output window now shows the deformed mesh for the selected phase.

In the Stresses menu point the Pore pressures option and select the pwater option from the appearing menu. Dene a vertical cross section passing through (-130 15) and (130 15)

The results of the four groundwater ow calculations in terms of pore pressure distribution are shown in Figures 6.10 to 6.13. Four different situations were considered: The situation with a high (standard) reservoir level (Figure 6.10).

Figure 6.10 Pore water pressure distribution for high reservoir level

The situation after rapid drawdown of the reservoir level (Figure 6.11).

Figure 6.11 Pore water pressure distribution after rapid drawdown

The situation after slow drawdown of the reservoir level (Figure 6.12).

Figure 6.12 Pore water pressure distribution after slower drawdown (phase 3)

The situation with a low reservoir level (Figure 6.13).

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Figure 6.13 Pore water pressure distribution for low reservoir level (phase 4)

When the change of pore pressure is taken into account in a deformation analysis, some additional deformation of the dam will occur. These deformations and the effective stress distribution can be viewed on the basis of the results of phases 1 to 4. In this tutorial attention is focused on the variation of the safety factor of the dam for the different situations. Therefore, the development of Msf is plotted for the phases 4 to 7 as a function of the displacement of the dam crest point (see Figure 6.14).

Figure 6.14 Safety factors for different situations

Rapid drawdown of a reservoir level can reduce the stability of a dam signicantly. Fully coupled ow-deformation and stability analysis can be performed with PLAXIS 3D to effectively analyze such situations.

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DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF A GENERATOR ON AN ELASTIC FOUNDATION

DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF A GENERATOR ON AN ELASTIC FOUNDATION

In this tutorial the inuence of a vibrating source on its surrounding soil is studied. To reduce the calculation time, only one-quarter of the overall geometry is modelled, using symmetry boundary conditions along the lines of symmetry. The physical damping due to the viscous effects is taken into consideration via Rayleigh damping. Also, due to radial wave propagation, 'geometric damping' can be signicant in attenuating the vibration. The modelling of the boundaries is one of the key points in the dynamic calculation. In order to avoid spurious wave reections at the model boundaries (which do not exist in reality), special conditions have to be applied in order to absorb waves reaching the boundaries.

7.1

GEOMETRY

The vibrating source is a generator founded on a 0.2 m thick concrete footing of 1 m in diameter, see Figure 7.1. Oscillations caused by the generator are transmitted through the footing into the subsoil. These oscillations are simulated as a uniform harmonic loading, with a frequency of 10 Hz and amplitude of 10 kN/m2 . In addition to the weight of the footing, the weight of the generator is modelled as a uniformly distributed load of 8 kN/m2 .
0.5 m 20 m z Generator x z=0 20 m

sandy clay z = -10

10 m

Figure 7.1 Generator founded on elastic subsoil

The model boundaries should be sufciently far from the region of interest, to avoid disturbances due to possible reections. Although special measures (absorbent boundaries) are adopted in order to avoid spurious reections, there is always a small inuence and it is still a good habit to put boundaries far away. In a dynamic analysis, model boundaries are generally taken further away than in a static analysis. 7.1.1 GEOMETRY MODEL

Start the Input program and select the Start a new project from the Quick select dialog box. In the Project properties window enter a proper title.

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Keep the default units and set the model dimensions to xmin = 0, xmax = 20, ymin = 0 and ymax = 20. The geometry model is shown in Figure 7.2.

Figure 7.2 Geometry of the model

7.1.2

DEFINITION OF SOIL STRATIGRAPHY

The subsoil consists of one layer with a depth of 10 m. The ground level is dened at z = 0. Create the material dataset according to Table 7.1 and assign it to the soil layer. Note that water conditions are not considered in this example and the hydraulic head is set at z = -10.
Table 7.1 Material properties for the soil layers
Parameter General Material model Drainage type Unit weight above phreatic level Unit weight below phreatic level Parameters Young'modulus Poisson's ratio Interfaces Interface strength Initial Model Type Linear elastic Drained Name Sandy clay Unit

unsat sat E' ' K0

20.0 20.0 5 104 0.3


Rigid Manual

kN /m3 kN /m3 kN /m2

K0 determination
Lateral earth pressure coefcient

0.5

7.1.3

DEFINITION OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS

The generator is dened in the Structures mode. The Polycurve feature is used to dene the geometry. Click the Create polycurve button in the side toolbar. In the General tabsheet the default option for shape (Free) and the default orientation axes (x-axis, y-axis) are valid for this polycurve. In the Segments tabsheet three segments are dened as given in Table 7.2. The

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insertion point is located at (0 0 0).


Table 7.2 Segments composing the polycurve
Segment Segment type Segment 1 Line Relative start angle = 0 Length = 0.5 m Segment 2 Arc Relative start angle = 90 Segment properties Radius = 0.5 m Segment angle = 90 Discretization angle = 5 Relative start angle = 90 Length = 0.5 m Segment 3 Line

Right-click the polycurve and select the Create surface option from the appearing menu. Right-click the created surface and select the Create surface load option in the appearing menu. In the Selection explorer, click the plus sign (+) in front of SurfaceLoad to extend the tree.

The Uniform distribution is valid. Assign (0 0 -8) to the pressure components.

Denition of dynamic multipliers


Dynamic loads are dened on the basis of input values of loads or prescribed displacements and corresponding time-dependent multipliers. To create the multipliers of the dynamic load: In the Model explorer expand the Attributes library subtree. Right-click the Dynamic multipliers subtree and select the Edit option from the appearing menu. The Multipliers window pops up. Click the Load multipliers tab. Click Add button to introduce a multiplier for the loads. Dene a Harmonic signal with an Amplitude of 10, a Frequency of 10 Hz and a Phase of 0 as shown in Figure 7.3. In the Selection explorer, click the plus sign (+) in front of DynSurfaceLoad_1 to extend the dynamic load subtree. Specify the components of the load as (0 0 -1). Click Multiplier _z in the dynamic load subtree and select the LoadMultiplier _1 option from the appearing menu. Hint: The dynamic multipliers can be dened in the Geometry modes as well as in the Calculation modes.

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Figure 7.3 Denition of a Harmonic multiplier

7.2

MESH GENERATION Proceed to the Mesh mode. Rene the surface corresponding to the generator by assigning a Fineness factor of 0.125. Click the Generate mesh button. The Medium option will be used for Element distribution. View the generated mesh.

Figure 7.4 Geometry and mesh

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Hint: In all dynamic calculations, the user should pay special attention to the element size to decrease numerical dispersion of waves. It should be noted that large elements are not able to transmit high frequencies. The transmission of waves is governed by both wave speed and wave length. If dynamic input contains high frequencies, either high frequencies should be ltered out or a ner mesh should be used.

7.3

PERFORMING CALCULATIONS

The calculation consists of 4 phases. The initial phase consists of the generation of the initial stresses using the K0 procedure. The second phase is a Plastic calculation where the static load is activated. The third phase is a Dynamic calculation where the effect of the functioning generator is considered. The fourth and nal phase is a Dynamic calculation as well where the generator is turned off and the soil will vibrate freely.

Initial phase
Click on the Staged construction tab to proceed with denition of the calculation phases. The initial phase has already been introduced. The default settings of the initial phase will be used in this tutorial.

Phase 1
Add a new phase (Phase_1). The default settings of the added phase will be used for this calculation phase. In the Staged construction mode activate the static component of the surface load. Do not activate the dynamic load (Figure 7.5).

Figure 7.5 Applied load in the Phase_1

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Phase 2
Add a new phase (Phase_2). In the General subtree in the Phases window, select the Dynamic option as calculation type. Set the Time interval parameter to 0.5 s. In the Deformation control parameters subtree in the Phases window select the Reset displacement to zero parameter. The default values of the remaining parameters will be used for this calculation phase. In the Staged construction mode activate the dynamic component of the surface load. Note that the static component of the load is still active (Figure 7.6).

Figure 7.6 Applied load in the Phase_2

Special boundary conditions have to be dened to account for the fact that in reality the soil is a semi-innite medium. Without these special boundary conditions the waves would be reected on the model boundaries, causing perturbations. To avoid these spurious reections, viscous boundaries are specied at Xmax, Ymax and Zmin. The dynamic boundaries can be specied in the Dynamics subtree located under the Model conditions in the Model explorer (Figure 7.7).

Figure 7.7 Boundary conditions for Dynamic calculations

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Phase 3
Add a new phase (Phase_3). In the General subtree in the Phases window, select the Dynamic option as calculation type. Set the Time interval parameter to 0.5 s. In the Staged construction mode deactivate the dynamic component of the surface load. Note that the static load is still active. The dynamic boundary conditions of this phase should be the same as in the previous phase. Figure 7.8 shows the Phases explorer of this tutorial. Select nodes located at the ground surface (ex: (1.4 0 0), (1.9 0 0), (3.6 0 0)) to consider in curves. Execute the calculation. Save the project.

Figure 7.8 Phases explorer

7.3.1

ADDITIONAL CALCULATION WITH DAMPING

In a second calculation, material damping is introduced by means of Rayleigh damping. Rayleigh damping can be entered in the material data set. The following steps are necessary: Save the project under another name. Open the material data set of the soil. In the General tabsheet click the box next to the Rayleigh parameter. Note that the display of the General tabsheet has changed displaying the Single DOF equivalence box. Set the value of the parameter to 5% for both targets. Set the frequency values to 9 and 11 for the Target 1 and Target 2 respectively. Click on one of the denition cells of the Rayleigh parameters. The values of and are automatically calculated by the program. Click OK to close the data base. Check whether the phases are properly dened (according to the information given before) and start the calculation.

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Figure 7.9 Input of Rayleigh damping

7.4

VIEWING THE RESULTS

The Curve generator feature is particularly useful for dynamic analysis. You can easily display the actual loading versus time (input) and also displacements, velocities and accelerations of the pre-selected points versus time. The evolution of the dened multipliers with time can be plotted by assigning Dynamic time to x-axis and uz to the y-axis. Figure 7.10 the response of the pre-selected points at the surface of the structure. It can be seen that even with no damping, the waves are dissipated which can be attributed to the geometric damping. The presence of damping is clear in Figure 7.11. It can be seen that the vibration is totally seized when some time is elapsed after the removal of the force (at t = 0.5 s). Also, the displacement amplitudes are lower. Compare Figure 7.11 (without damping) with Figure 7.11 (with damping). It is possible in the Output program to display displacements, velocities and accelerations at a particular time, by choosing the appropriate option in the Deformations menu. Figure 7.12 shows the total accelerations in the soil at the end of phase 2 (t = 0.5 s).

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Figure 7.10 Vertical displ.- time on the surface at different distances to the vibrating source (without damping)

Figure 7.11 Vertical displ.- time (with damping)

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Figure 7.12 Total accelerations in the soil at the end of phase 2 (with damping)

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FREE VIBRATION AND EARTHQUAKE ANALYSIS OF A BUILDING

FREE VIBRATION AND EARTHQUAKE ANALYSIS OF A BUILDING

This example demonstrates the natural frequency of a long ve-storey building when subjected to free vibration and earthquake loading. The building consists of 5 oors and a basement. It is 10 m wide and 17 m high including the basement. The total height from the ground level is 5 x 3 m = 15 m and the basement is 2 m deep. A value of 5 kN/m2 is taken as the weight of the oors and the walls. The building is constructed on a clay layer of 15 m depth underlayed by a deep sand layer. In the model, 25 m of the sand layer will be considered.

8.1

GEOMETRY

The length of the building is much larger than its width and the earthquake is supposed to have a dominant effect across the width of the building. Taking these facts into consideration, a representative section of 3 m will be considered in the model in order to decrease the model size. The geometry of the model is shown in Figure 8.1. 8.1.1 GEOMETRY MODEL

Start the Input program and select Start a new project from the Quick select dialog box. In the Project tabsheet of the Project properties window, enter an appropriate title. Keep the default units and set the model dimensions to Xmin = 80, Xmax = 80, Ymin = 0 and Ymax = 3.
3m

15 m

15 m

25 m

Figure 8.1 Geometry of the model

8.1.2

DEFINITION OF SOIL STRATIGRAPHY

The subsoil consists of two layers. The Upper clayey layer lies between the ground level (z = 0) and z = -15. The underlying Lower sandy layer lies to z = -40. Dene the phreatic level by assigning a value of -15 to the Head in the borehole. Create the material dataset according to Table 8.1 and assign it to the corresponding soil layers. The upper layer

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consists of mostly clayey soil and the lower one consists of sandy soil. The presence of the groundwater is neglected.
Table 8.1 Material properties of the subsoil layers
Parameter General Material model Drainage type Soil unit weight above phreatic level Soil unit weight above phreatic level Parameters Secant stiffness in standard drained triaxial test Tangent stiffness for primary oedometer loading Unloading / reloading stiffness Power for stress-level dependency of stiffness Cohesion Friction angle Dilatancy angle Shear strain at which Gs = 0.722G0 Shear modulus at very small strains Poisson's ratio
ref E50 ref Eoed ref Eur m c 'ref ' 0.7 ref G0 'ur

Name Model Type

Upper clayey layer HS small Drained 16 20 2.0104

Lower sandy layer HS small Drained 20 20 3.0104

Unit kN/m3 kN/m3 kN/m2

unsat sat

2.56110 0.5 10 18.0 0.0 1.210-4 2.7105 0.2

9.484104

3.60110 0.5 5 28.0 0.0 1.510-4 1.0105 0.2

kN/m2 kN/m2 kN/m2


1.108105

kN/m2 -

When subjected to cyclic shear loading, the HS small model will show typical hysteretic ref behaviour. Starting from the small-strain shear stiffness, G0 , the actual stiffness will decrease with increasing shear. Figures 8.2 and 8.3 display the Modulus reduction curves, i.e. the decay of the shear modulus with strain.

250000

0.722G0
200000

Shear modulus

150000

100000

50000

G used

0.7
0 0.00001 0.0001 0.001

Gt

Gs

0.01

Shear strain

Figure 8.2 Modulus reduction curves for the upper clayey layer

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100000

80000

0.722G0

Shear modulus

60000

40000

G used

20000

0.7
Gt

Gs

0.00001

0.0001

0.001

0.01

Shear strain

Figure 8.3 Modulus reduction curve for the lower sandy layer

In the HS small model, the tangent shear modulus is bounded by a lower limit, Gur .

Gur =

Eur 2(1 + ur )

ref ref for the Upper clayey layer and Lower sandy layer and the ratio to G0 The values of Gur are shown in Table 8.2. This ratio determines the maximum damping ratio that can be obtained.
ref Table 8.2 Gur values and ratio to G0

Parameter

Unit

Upper layer 39517 6.75

clayey

Lower layer 41167 2.5

sandy

Gur ref G0 /Gur

kN /m2
-

Figures 8.4 and 8.5 show the damping ratio as a function of the shear strain for the material used in the model. For a more detailed description and elaboration from the modulus reduction curve to the damping curve can be found in the literature .
0.2

Damping ratio

0.15

0.1

0.05

0.00001

0.0001

0.001

0.01

Cyclic shear strain

Figure 8.4 Damping curve for the upper clayey layer

Brinkgreve, R.B.J., Kappert, M.H., Bonnier, P.G. (2007). Hysteretic damping in small-strain stiffness model. In Proc. 10th Int. Conf. on Comp. Methods and Advances in Geomechanics. Rhodes, Greece, 737 742

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0.2

Damping ratio

0.15 0.1

0.05 0

0.00001

0.0001

0.001

0.01

Cyclic shear strain

Figure 8.5 Damping curve for the lower sandy layer

8.1.3

DEFINITION OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS

The structural elements of the model are dened in the Structures mode. To dene the structure: Dene a surface passing through the points (-5 0 -2), (5 0 -2), (5 3 -2) and (-5 3 -2). Create a copy of the surface by dening an 1D array in z-direction. Set the number of the columns to 2 and the distance between them to 2 m. Select the created surface at z = 0 and dene a 1D array in the z-direction. Set the number of the columns to 6 and the distance between consecutive columns to 3 m. Dene a surface passing through the points (5 0 -2), (5 3 -2), (5 3 15) and (5 0 15). Create a copy of the vertical surface by dening an 1D array in x-direction. Set the number of the columns to 2 and the distance between them to -10 m. Multiselect the vertical surfaces and the horizontal surface located at z = 0. Right-click on the selection and select the Intersect and recluster option from the appearing menu. It is important to do the intersection in the Structures mode as different material data sets are to be assigned to the basement and the rest of the building. Select all the created surfaces representing the building (basement, oors and walls), right-click and select the Create plate option from the appearing menu. Dene the material dataset for the plates representing the structure according to Table 8.3. Note that two different material datasets are used for the basement and the rest of the building respectively. Assign the Basement material dataset to the horizontal plate located at z = -2 and the vertical plates located under the ground level. Assign the corresponding material dataset to the rest of the plates in the model.

In order to model the soil-structure intersection at the basement of the building assign interfaces to the outer side of the basement. Note that depending on the local coordinate system of the surfaces an interface either positive or negative is assigned.

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Table 8.3 Material properties of the building (plate properties)


Parameter Thickness Material weight Material behaviour Youngs modulus Poissons ratio Rayleigh damping Name d Rest of building 0.3 33.33 Linear; Isotropic 3107 0 0.2320 810-3 Basement 0.3 50 Linear; Isotropic 3107 0 0.2320 810-3 Unit m

kN /m3
-

E1 12

kN /m2
-

The central column of the structure is modelled using the Node-to-node anchor feature. To create the central column of the structure: Create a Line through points (0 1.5 -2) and (0 1.5 0) corresponding to the column in the basement oor. Create a Line through points (0 1.5 0) and (0 1.5 3) corresponding to the column in the rst oor. Create a copy of the last dened line by dening an 1D array in z-direction. Set the number of the columns to 5 and the distance between them to 3 m. Select the created lines, right-click and select the Create node-to-node anchor option from the appearing menu. Create the material dataset according to the Table 8.4 and assign it to the anchors.
Parameter Material type Normal stiffness Name Type Column Elastic 2.5 106 Unit kN

Table 8.4 Material properties of the node-to-node anchor

EA

A static lateral force of 1 kN/m is applied laterally at the top left corner of the building. To create the load: Create a line load passing through (-5 0 15) and (-5 3 15). Specify the components of the load as (10 0 0). The earthquake is modelled by imposing a prescribed displacement at the bottom boundary. To dene the prescribed displacement: Create a surface prescribed displacement passing through (-80 0 -40), (80 0 -40), (80 3 -40) and (-80 3 -40). Specify the x-component of the prescribed displacement as Prescribed and assign a value of 1.0. The y and z components of the prescribed displacement are Fixed. The default distribution (Uniform) is valid. In the Model explorer extend the Attributes library subtree. Right-click on Dynamic multipliers and select the Edit option from the appearing menu. The Multipliers window pops up displaying the Displacement multipliers tabsheet. To add a multiplier click the corresponding button in the Multipliers window. From the Signal drop-down menu select the Table option.

To dene the dynamic multipliers for the prescribed displacement:

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The le containing the earthquake data is available in the PLAXIS knowledge base (http://kb.plaxis.nl/search/site/smc). Copy all the data to a text editor le (e.g. Notepad) and save the le in your computer. Open the page in the web browser and copy all the data. In the Multipliers window click the Open button and select the saved le. In the Import data window select the Strong motion CD-ROM les option from the Parsing method drop-down menu and press OK to close the window.

In the Dynamic multipliers window the table and the plot of the data is displayed (Figure 8.6). Select the Acceleration option in the Data type drop-down menu. Select the Drift correction options and click OK to nalize the denition of the multiplier. In the Model explorer extend the Surface displacements subtree and assign the DisplacementMultiplier_1 to the x- component by selecting the option in the drop-down menu.

Figure 8.6 Dynamic multipliers window

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8.2

MESH GENERATION Proceed to the Mesh mode. Click the Generate mesh button. Set the element distribution to Fine. View the generated mesh (Figure 8.7).

Figure 8.7 Geometry and mesh

8.3

PERFORMING CALCULATIONS

The calculation process consists of the initial conditions phase, simulation of the construction of the building, loading, free vibration analysis and earthquake analysis.

Initial phase
Click on the Staged construction tab to proceed with denition of the calculation phases. The initial phase has already been introduced. The default settings of the initial phase will be used in this tutorial. In the Staged construction mode check that the building and load are inactive.

Phase 1
Add a new phase (Phase_1). The default settings of the added phase will be used for this calculation phase. In the Staged construction mode construct the building (activate all the plates, the interfaces and the anchors) and deactivate the basement volume (Figure 8.8).

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Figure 8.8 Construction of the building

Phase 2
Add a new phase (Phase_2). In the Phases window select the Reset displacement to zero in the Deformation control parameters subtree. The default values of the remaining parameters will be used in this calculation phase. In the Staged construction mode activate the line load. The value of the load is already dened in the Structures mode.

Phase 3
Add a new phase (Phase_3). In the Phases window select the Dynamic option as Calculation type. Set the Time interval parameter to 5 sec. In the Staged construction mode deactivate the line load. In the Model explorer extend the Model conditions subtree. Extend the Dynamics subtree. By default the boundary conditions in the x and y directions are set to viscous. Select the None option for the boundaries in the y direction. Set the boundary Zmin to viscous (Figure 8.9). Hint: For a better visualisation of the results, animations of the free vibration and earthquake can be created. If animations are to be created, it is advised to increase the number of the saved steps by assigning a proper value to the Max steps saved parameter in the Parameters tabsheet of the Phases window.

Phase 4
Add a new phase (Phase_3). In the Phases window set the Start from phase option to Phase 1 (construction of building).

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Figure 8.9 Boundary conditions for Dynamic calculations

Select the Dynamic option as Calculation type. Set the Dynamic time interval parameter to 20 sec. Select the Reset displacement to zero in the Deformation control parameters subtree. The default values of the remaining parameters will be used in this calculation phase. In the Model explorer activate the Surface displacement and its dynamic component. The Zmin boundary is NOT viscous in this phase. Select points for load displacement curves at (0 1.5 15), (0 1.5 6), (0 1.5 3) and (0 1.5 -2). The calculation may now be started.

8.4

VIEWING THE RESULTS

Figure 8.10 shows the deformed structure at the end of the Phase 2 (application of horizontal load). Figure 8.11 shows the time history of displacements of the selected points A (0 1.5 15), B (0 1.5 6), C (0 1.5 3) and D (0 1.5 -2) for the free vibration phase. It may be seen from the gure that the vibration slowly decays with time due to damping in the soil and in the building. In the Chart tabsheet of the Settings window select the Use frequency representation (spectrum) and Use standard frequency (Hz) options in the Dynamics box. The plot is shown in Figure 8.12. From this gure it can be evaluated that the dominant building frequency is around 1 Hz. For a better visualisation of the results animations of the free vibration and earthquake can be created. Figure 8.13 shows the time history of displacements of the point A (0 1.5 15) for the

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Figure 8.10 Deformed mesh of the system

Figure 8.11 Time history of displacements (Free vibration)

earthquake phase. It may be seen from the gure that the vibration slowly decays with time due to damping in the soil and in the building. The time history signature of the earthquake has been transformed to normalized power spectra through Fast Fourier transform and is plotted in Figure 8.14.

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Figure 8.12 Frequency representation (spectrum - Free vibration)

Figure 8.13 Time history of displacements of the top of the building (Earthquake)

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Figure 8.14 Acceleration power spectra at (0 1.5 15)

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A.1

INPUT MENU 1 View Pan camera Rotate camera Zoom in Zoom out Reset zoom Default views Explode Implode Create line Create polycurve Create surface Create load Create prescribed displacement Create structure Create hydraulic conditions Import structures Show materials Show materials Create point Import soil Create array View mesh Select points for curves Create borehole Extrude object Generate mesh Adjust soil contour Rotate object Reset local coarseness Move object Move object Coarsen mesh Select multiple objects Select multiple objects Rene mesh Select Select Select multiple objects Modify soil layers Show dynamic multipliers Select Soil Structures Mesh

File

Edit

New project

Undo

Open project

Redo

Recent projects

Copy screen image

INPUT MENU

Save project

Delete

Save project as

Select all

APPENDIX A - MENU TREE

Close project

Deselect all

Project properties

Print

Exit

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INPUT MENU 2 Phases Edit phases Show materials Show dynamic multipliers Show ow functions Visualisaton settings View les Show local axis Congure remote scripting server Show cursor location Macro library Show grid and ruler Run commands Snap to grid Examine commands Manuals Command reference Instruction movies Request support Update license http://www.plaxis.nl Disclaimer About Options Expert Help

Water levels

Select

Select multiple objects

Move object

Create water level

TUTORIAL MANUAL

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Preview phase

A.2

OUTPUT MENU (1)

File

View

Project

Geometry

Mesh

Open project Load information Water load information Prescribed displacement information Virtual interface thickness Volume information Material information (all load cases) Material information (current load cases) General project information Calculation information Calculation info per step Step info Structures per phase Filter Prescribed displacements Fixities Loads Volume Volume table Connectivity plot Element contours Phreatic level Quality table

Zoom out

Node xities

Disabled structures

Quality

OUTPUT MENU

Close active project

Reset view

Close all projects

Viewpoint

Work directory

Save view

Export to le

Show saved views

Report generation

Scale

Create animation

Use result smoothing

Element deformation contours Materials Element numbers Material set numbers Structure material set numbers Cluster numbers Nodes Stress points Node numbers Stress point numbers Selection labels

Print

Legend settings

(List of recent projects)

Scan line

Exit

Title

Legend

Axes

Shrink

Expand

Explode

Implode

Move cross section forward

Move cross section backward

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Settings

OUTPUT MENU (2)

Deformations

Stresses

Forces

Tools

Window

Help

Elevation Cartesian effective stresses Cartesian total stresses Principal effective stresses Principal total stresses State parameters Total increments Pore pressures Groundwater ow Plastic points Fixed-end anchors Node to node anchor Wells Drains Hint box Distance measurement Line cross section Free cross section Horizontal cross section Vertical cross section Table of stress points Table Tile vertically Tile horizontally (List of active views) Table Curves manager Cascade Bending moments Mesh point selection Close window Shear forces Select points for curves Duplicate model view

Cross section

Axial forces

Copy

Project manager

Manuals Instruction movies http://www.plaxis.nl/ Disclaimer About

Deformed mesh |u |

TUTORIAL MANUAL

Total displacements

Phase displacements

Incremental displacements

Velocities

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Accelerations

Total cartesian strain

Accelerations (in 'g')

Phase cartesian strain

Incremental cartesian strain

Total strain

Phase strain

Incremental strains

APPENDIX B - CALCULATION SCHEME FOR INITIAL STRESSES DUE TO SOIL WEIGHT

APPENDIX B - CALCULATION SCHEME FOR INITIAL STRESSES DUE TO SOIL WEIGHT


Start

Yes

Horizontal surface

No

K0 -Procedure Initial stresses -Mweight = 1

Gravity loading Gravity loading Loading input: Total multipliers -Mweight = 1

calculation

Ready

Examples of non-horizontal surfaces, and non-horizontal weight stratications are:

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