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What is Management Information Systems?

Management Information Systems (MIS) is the study of people, technology, organizations and the relationships among them. MIS professionals help firms realize maximum benefit from investment in personnel, equipment, and business processes. MIS is a people-oriented field with an emphasis on service through technology. If you have an interest in technology and have the desire to use technology to improve peoples lives, a degree in MIS may be for you. Businesses use information systems at all levels of operation to collect, process and store data. Management aggregates and disseminates this data in the form of information needed to carry out the daily operations of business. Everyone who works in business, from someone who pays the bills to the person who makes employment decisions, uses information systems. A car dealership could use a computer database to keep track of which products sell best. A retail store might use a computer-based information system to sell products over the Internet. In fact, many (if not most) businesses concentrate on the alignment of MIS with business goals to achieve competitive advantage over other businesses. MIS professionals create information systems for data management (i.e., storing, searching and analyzing data). In addition, they manage various information systems to meet the needs of managers, staff and customers. By working collaboratively with various members of their work group, as well as with their customers and clients, MIS professionals are able to play a key role in areas such as information security, integration and exchange. As an MIS major, you will learn to design, implement and use business information systems in innovative ways to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of your company. A common misconception that MIS only concerns programming. However, programming is just a small part of the MIS curriculum. While programming concepts represent some of the founding concepts and information systems development, implementation and use, many jobs in MIS do not utilize programming at all. A large portion of the MIS degree focuses on data analysis, teamwork, leadership, project management, customer service and underlying business theories. These aspects of the degree are what set the MIS professional apart from a computer science specialist.

Do you enjoy working with people? Would you enjoy the chance to work on global problems with people from all over the world? Do you enjoy analyzing and solving problems? Do you want to create innovative, cutting-edge technology solutions? Do you want to learn how to make businesses more efficient, effective and competitive?

Then you should consider as your major the field that is experiencing a critical shortage of professionally trained individuals. A field where demand is skyrocketing with projected growth rates of 38 percent the fastest of any business discipline (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics).

MIS professionals make business better

Below are some frequently asked questions regarding careers in MIS. This information will help you learn more about a career in MIS and to better understand the opportunities such a career may have in store for you. What kinds of people pursue MIS degrees? The profiles of MIS professionals are varied, but in general, such individuals possess many of the following traits:

good problem solving skills ability to effectively manage time and resources a clear vision of the big picture as well as the small details a desire to work closely with other people excellent communication skills ability to think strategically about technology a desire to take responsibility for developing and implementing their own ideas

What are typical career options for MIS professionals?


IT Consultant Web Developer Information Systems Manager Business Intelligence Analyst Network Administrator Business Application Developer Systems Analyst Technical Support Specialist Business Analyst Systems Developer

Why should I choose to major in MIS?


Job satisfaction High placement rate High salaries Exciting field Challenging field

Hands-on problem solving Innovation and creativity Global opportunities Great chance for advancement You can have an impact!

What is an average salary for an MIS professional?


MIS majors have one of the highest starting salaries of all the undergraduate degree programs in Mays Business School. The average starting salaries of our MIS graduates in 2012 was $57,705 with top students commanding salaries as high as $72,000
A management information system (MIS) provides information that organizations need to manage [1] themselves efficiently and effectively. Management information systems are typically computer systems used for managing five primary components: hardware, software,data (information for decision making), procedures (design,development and documentation), and people (individuals, groups, or organizations). Management information systems are distinct from other information systems, in that they [2] are used to analyze and facilitate strategic and operational activities. Academically, the term is commonly used to refer to the study of how individuals, groups, and organizations evaluate, design, implement, manage, and utilize systems to generate information to improve efficiency and effectiveness of decision making, including systems termed decision support systems, expert systems, and executive [2] information systems. Most business schools (or colleges of business administration within universities) have an MIS department, alongside departments of accounting, finance, management, marketing, and sometimesThe system provides information on the past, present and project future and on relevant events inside and outside the organization . It may be defined as a planned and integrated system for gathering relevant data, converting it in to right information and supplying the same to the concerned executives. The main purpose of MIS is to provide the right information to the right people at the right time. The Concept of management information systems originated in the 1960s and become the byword of almost all attempts to relate computer technology and systems to data processing in business . During the early 1960s , it became evident that the computer was being applied to the solution of business problem in a piecemeal fashion, focusing almost entirely on the computerization of clerical and record keeping tasks. The concepts of management information systems was developed to counteract such in efficient development and in effective use of the computer. The MIS concepts is vital to efficient and effective computer use in business of two major reasons: It serves as a systems framework for organizing business computer applications. Business applications of computers should be viewed as interrelated and integrated computer based information systems and not as independent data processing job . In emphasizes the management orientation of electronics information processing in business . The primary goal of computer based information systems should be the processing of data generated by business operations. A management information system is an integrated man machine systems that provides information to support the planning and control function of manager in an organization . The out put of an MIS is information that sub serves managerial functions. When a system provides information to persons who are not managers, then it will not be considered as part of an MIS . For .example , an organization often process a lot of data which it is required by law to furnish to various

government regulatory agencies. Such a system, while it may have interfaces with an MIS, would not be a part of it, Instances of such systems are salary disclosures and excise duty statements. By the same token to sophisticated computer aided design system for engineering purposes would also not be a part of an MIS. Generally, MIS deals with information that is systematically and routinely collected in accordance with a well-defined set of rules. Thus, and MIS is a part of the formal information network in an organization. Information that has major managerial planning significance is sometimes collected at golf courses. Such information is not part of MIS, how ever, one- shot market research data collected to gauge the potential of a new product does not come with in the scope of an MIS by our definition because although such information may be very systematically collected it is not collected on a regular basis. Normally, the information provided by an MIS helps the managers to make planning and control decisions. Now, we will see, what is planning and control. Every organization in order to function must perform, certain operations. For Example, a car manufacturer has to perform certain manufacturing activities, a wholesaler has o provide water to its area of jurisdiction. All these are operations that need to be done. Besides, these operations, an organization must make plans for them. In other words it must decide on how many and what type of cars to make next month or what commissions to offer retailers or what pumping stations to install in the next five years. Also an organization must control the operations in the light of the plans and targets developed in the planning process. The car manufacturer must know if manufacturing operations are in line with the targets and if not, he must make decisions to correct the deviation or revise his plans. Similarly the wholesaler will want to know the impacts that his commissions have had on sales and make decisions to correct adverse trends. The municipal corporation will need to control the tendering process and contractors who will execute the pumping station plans. Generally, MIS is concerned with planning and control. Often there are elaborate systems for information that assists operations. For example, the car manufacturer will have a system for providing information to the workers on the shop floor about the job that needs to be done on a particular batch of material. There may be route sheets, which accompany the rate materials and components in their movement through various machines. This system per se provides only information to support operation. It has no managerial decision-making significance. It I not part of an MIS. If, however, the system does provided information on productivity, machine utilization or rejection rates, then we would say that the system is part of an MIS. Generally MIS has all the ingredients that are employed in providing information support to manager to making planning and control decisions. Managers often use historical data on an organizations activities as well as current status data make planning and control decisions. Such data comes from a data base which is contained in files maintained by the organization . This data base is an essential component of an MIS. Manual procedures that are used to collect and process information and computer hardware are obvious ingredients of an MIS . These also form part of the MIS. In summary , when we say that an MIS is an integrated man machine systems that provided information to supports the planning and control function of managers in an origination . It does the following function . - sub serves managerial function - collects stores , evaluates information systematically and routinely - supports planning and control decisions - Includes files , hardware , software , software and operations research models. Effective management information systems are needed by all business organization because of the increased complexity and rate of change of todays business environment . For Example, Marketing manager need information about sales performance and trends, financial manger returns, production managers needs information analyzing resources requirement and worker productivity and personnel manager require information concerning employee compensation and professional development. Thus,

effective management information systems must be developed to provide modern managers with the specific marketing , financial, production and personnel information products they required to support their decision making responsibilities . An MIS provides the following advantages. 1. It Facilitates planning : MIS improves the quality of plants by providing relevant information for sound decision making . Due to increase in the size and complexity of organizations, managers have lost personal contact with the scene of operations. 2. In Minimizes information overload : MIS change the larger amount of data in to summarized form and there by avoids the confusion which may arise when managers are flooded with detailed facts. 3. MIS Encourages Decentralization : Decentralization of authority is possibly when there is a system for monitoring operations at lower levels. MIS is successfully used for measuring performance and making necessary change in the organizational plans and procedures. 4. It brings Co ordination : MIS facilities integration of specialized activities by keeping each department aware of the problem and requirements of other departments. It connects all decision centers in the organization . 5. It makes control easier : MIS serves as a link between managerial planning and control. It improves the ability of management to evaluate and improve performance . The used computers has increased the data processing and storage capabilities and reduced the cost . 6. MIS assembles, process , stores , Retrieves , evaluates and Disseminates the information . others, and grant degrees (at undergrad, masters, and PhD levels) in MIS.

Contents
[hide]

1 Overview 2 History 3 Types and Terminology 4 Advantages 5 Enterprise applications 6 Developing Information Systems 7 See also 8 References 9 External links

Overview[edit]
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This section may contain original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research may be removed. (November 2012)

A management information system gives the business managers the information that they need to make decisions. Early business computers were used for simple operations such as tracking inventory, billing, [3] sales, or payroll data, with little detail or structure (see EDP). Over time, these computer applications became more complex, hardware storage capacities grew, and technologies improved for connecting previously isolated applications. As more data was stored and linked, managers sought greater abstraction as well as greater detail with the aim of creating significant management reports from the raw, stored data. Originally, the term "MIS" described applications providing managers with information about sales, inventories, and other data that would help in managing the enterprise. Over time, the term broadened to include: decision support systems, resource management and human resource management, enterprise resource planning(ERP), enterprise performance management (EPM), supply chain management (SCM), customer relationship management (CRM), project management and database retrieval applications.

History[edit]
Kenneth and Jane Laudon identify five eras of MIS evolution corresponding to the five phases in the development of computing technology: 1) mainframe and minicomputer computing, 2) personal [4] computers, 3) client/server networks, 4) enterprise computing, and 5) cloud computing. The first era (mainframe and minicomputer) was ruled by IBM and their mainframe computers; these computers would often take up whole rooms and require teams to run them - IBM supplied the hardware and the software. As technology advanced, these computers were able to handle greater capacities and therefore reduce their cost. Smaller, more affordable minicomputers allowed larger businesses to run their own computing centers in-house. The second era (personal computer) began in 1965 as microprocessors started to compete with mainframes and minicomputers and accelerated the process of decentralizing computing power from large data centers to smaller offices. In the late 1970s minicomputer technology gave way to personal computers and relatively low cost computers were becoming mass market commodities, allowing businesses to provide their employees access to computing power that ten years before would have cost tens of thousands of dollars. This proliferation of computers created a ready market for interconnecting networks and the popularization of the Internet. As technological complexity increased and costs decreased, the need to share information within an enterprise also grewgiving rise to the third era (client/server), in which computers on a common network access shared information on a server. This lets thousands and even millions of people access data simultaneously. The fourth era (enterprise) enabled by high speed networks, tied all aspects of the business enterprise together offering rich information access encompassing the complete management structure. The fifth era (cloud computing) is the latest and employs networking technology to deliver applications as well as data storage independent of the configuration, location or nature of the hardware. This, along with high speed cellphone and wifi networks, led to new levels of mobility in which managers access the MIS remotely with laptops, tablet PCs, and smartphones.

Types and Terminology[edit]


The terms Management Information System (MIS), information system, Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), and information technology management are often confused. Information systems and MIS are broader categories that include ERP. Information technology management concerns the operation and organization of information technology resources independent of their purpose. Most management information systems specialize in particular commercial and industrial sectors, aspects of the enterprise, or management substructure. Management information systems (MIS), produce fixed, regularly scheduled reports based on data [5] extracted and summarized from the firms underlying transaction processing systems to middle and operational level managers to identify and inform structured and semi-structured decision problems. Decision Support Systems (DSS) are computer program applications used by middle management to compile information from a wide range of sources to support problem solving and decision making.

Executive Information Systems (EIS) is a reporting tool that provides quick access to summarized reports coming from all company levels and departments such as accounting, human resources and operations. Marketing Information Systems (MIS) are Management Information Systems designed specifically for managing the marketing aspects of the business. Office Automation Systems (OAS) support communication and productivity in the enterprise by automating work flow and eliminating bottlenecks. OAS may be implemented at any and all levels of management. School Information Management Systems (SIMS) cover school administration,and often including teaching and learning materials. Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) facilitates the flow of information between all business functions [6] inside the boundaries of the organization and manage the connections to outside stakeholders.

Advantages[edit]
The following are some of the benefits that can be attained for different types of management information [7] systems. Companies are able to highlight their strengths and weaknesses due to the presence of revenue reports, employees' performance record etc. The identification of these aspects can help the company improve their business processes and operations. Giving an overall picture of the company and acting as a communication and planning tool. The availability of the customer data and feedback can help the company to align their business processes according to the needs of the customers. The effective management of customer data can help the company to perform direct marketing and promotion activities

Types of Management Information Systems


A management information system (MIS) is a computer-based system that provides the information necessary to manage an organization effectively. An MIS should be designed to enhance communication among employees, provide an objective system for recording information and support the organization's strategic goals and direction. There are four types of MIS that will be introduced in ascending order of sophistication.

Transaction Processing Systems

1. These systems are designed to handle a large volume of routine, recurring transactions. They were first introduced in the 1960s with the advent of mainframe computers. Transaction processing systems are used widely today. Banks use them to record deposits and payments into

accounts. Supermarkets use them to record sales and track inventory. Most managers use these systems to deal with tasks such as payroll, customer billing and payments to suppliers.

Operations Information Systems


2. These systems were introduced after transaction processing systems. An operations information system gathers comprehensive data, organizes it and summarizes it in a form that is useful for managers. Most of these systems access data from a transaction processing system and organize it into a form usable by managers. Managers use operations information systems to obtain sales, inventory, accounting and other performance-related information.

Decision Support Systems (DSS)


3. A DSS is an interactive computer system that can be used by managers without help from computer specialists. A DSS provides managers with the necessary information to make intelligent decisions. A DSS has three fundamental components: 1. Database management system (DBMS): Stores large amounts of data relevant to problems the DSS has been designed to tackle. 2. Model-based management system (MBMS): Transforms data from the DBMS into information that is useful in decision making. 3. Dialog generation and management system (DGMS): Provides a user-friendly interface between the system and the managers who do not have extensive computer training.

Expert Systems and Artificial Intelligence


4. These systems use human knowledge captured in a computer to solve problems that ordinarily need human expertise. Mimicking human expertise and intelligence requires that the computer (1) recognize, formulate and solve a problem; (2) explain solutions and (3) learn from experience. These systems explain the logic of their advice to the user; hence, in addition to solving problems they can also serve as a teacher. They use flexible thinking processes and can accommodate new knowledge.

Considerations
5. A potential problem with relying on electronic communication and processing of information is the loss of the vital human element. Sometimes because of the complexity of information, an MIS report cannot effectively summarize it. Very rich information is needed to coordinate and run an enterprise and certain classes of information cannot be quantified. For example, it might be wrong to evaluate an employee's performance solely based on numbers generated by an MIS. Numbers can indicate a performance problem but a face-to-face meeting will be necessary to discuss the nature of the problem.

Types of MIS?
Answer
MIS stands for Management Information Systems. There are two main kinds. The first is routine, ordinary daily work. The second is a variety of operations that require decision making. Types of MIS

A management information system (MIS) is a computer-based system that supplies the necessary information to efficiently manage an organization. This system entails three primary resources: information, technology and people. MIS is designed to record... More difficulty: Easy Source: www.ehow.com
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Q&A Related to "Types of MIS?"


What are types of mis?
Management information systems are those systems that allow managers to make decisions for the successful operation of businesses. Management information systems consist of computer http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_are_types_of_mis

Management information system A management information system (MIS) provides information that is needed to manage organizations efficiently and effectively. Management information systems are not on

Explain various

types of Systems in MIS?


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g. Is not at all adaptive in the nature. 5. Natural Systems a. b. Such Are Systems also not at exist all and the also results abound of the in the nature. endeavors. human

c. Rivers, mountains, minerals etc. are the major examples of the natural Systems. 6. Artificial Systems a. Are manufactured (man made). b. Examples of such Systems are dams, canals, roads, machines, factories etc. 7. Probabilistic Systems a. Based on the predictability of the behavior or the outcome. 8. Deterministic Systems a. In such Systems, the interaction of the elements is known. b. As the behavior of the elements is pre determined, it becomes possible to work upon the reaction well in the advance

What is Simons decision-making model?


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Answer:

Answer
Simon's Model is based on premise that decision rash null. Decision making in Simon's Model is characterized by limited information processing and use of rules. Simmons decision-making model there are four phases 1) Intelligence phase 2) Design phase

3) Choice phase 4) Implementation phase Initially the problem comes and we are in the intelligence phase thinking of the problem as it comes and then we try to find out what the solution to the given problem and then we move to design phase. In the design phase the way and method to solve the problem is thought and we actually try analyze the problem, we try to find the algorithms and the way that can actually solve the problem and hence we use the genetic algorithm to find the solution to the given problem .After finding the method which is to be applied to the given problem we move to choice phase and here the actual work of finding the best algorithm come .Here we try to find the best algorithm from the given set of algorithm we have the option of choosing the algorithms such as "ACO" algorithm which is called the ant colony optimization algorithm or we have the choice of finding the algorithm such as Simulated annealing (SA) is a related global optimization technique that traverses the search space by testing random mutations on an individual solution. A mutation that increases fitness is always accepted. A mutation that lowers fitness is accepted probabilistically based on the difference in fitness and a decreasing temperature parameter. In SA parlance, one speaks of seeking the lowest energy instead of the maximum fitness. SA can also be used within a standard GA algorithm by starting with a relatively high rate of mutation and decreasing it over time along a given schedule. After deciding that genetic algorithm is the most suitable algorithm for the programming we move to the next step which is the implemetation phase here the real implemeation of the slotuin is done we implemet the solution to the given problem by using the geneteic algorithm according to the given problem.

In the given problem a list of 26 items is given they all have different price, different weights and different volumes. The problem says that we have to find the items which can be fitted in to the given space of the container the number of items chosen to be fitted in to the given space should be such that the weight and the volume of the selected items should not be more than the total allowed volume and weight in the container. The care has to be taken such that the total weight and volume of the selected items should not exceed more than the allowed weight and the volume.

Answer
Simmons decision-making model there are four phases 1) Intelligence phase 2) Design phase 3) Choice phase 4) Implementation phase Initially the problem comes and we are in the intelligence phase thinking of the problem as it comes and then we try to find out what the solution to the given problem and then we move to design phase. In the design phase the way and method to solve the problem is thought and we actually try analyze the problem, we try to

find the algorithms and the way that can actually solve the problem and hence we use the genetic algorithm to find the solution to the given problem .After finding the method which is to be applied to the given problem we move to choice phase and here the actual work of finding the best algorithm come .Here we try to find the best algorithm from the given set of algorithm we have the option of choosing the algorithms such as "ACO" algorithm which is called the ant colony optimization algorithm or we have the choice of finding the algorithm such as Simulated annealing (SA) is a related global optimization technique that traverses the search space by testing random mutations on an individual solution. A mutation that increases fitness is always accepted. A mutation that lowers fitness is accepted probabilistically based on the difference in fitness and a decreasing temperature parameter. In SA parlance, one speaks of seeking the lowest energy instead of the maximum fitness. SA can also be used within a standard GA algorithm by starting with a relatively high rate of mutation and decreasing it over time along a given schedule. After deciding that genetic algorithm is the most suitable algorithm for the programming we move to the next step which is the implemetation phase here the real implemeation of the slotuin is done we implemet the solution to the given problem by using the geneteic algorithm according to the given problem.

In the given problem a list of 26 items is given they all have different price, different weights and different volumes. The problem says that we have to find the items which can be fitted in to the given space of the container the number of items chosen to be fitted in to the given space should be such that the weight and the volume of the selected items should not be more than the total allowed volume and weight in the container. The care has to be taken such that the total weight and volume of the selected items should not exceed more than the allowed weight and the volume.

systemSimon's Model of Decision Making


Newell and Simon formulated a methodology for human information processing. This model is conceptual in nature and goes hand in hand with the working of a digital computer. According to this model, a human being interacts with the external environment, gets information, and processes them. The initial interaction between the human being and the environment is triggered by stimuli. The sensory organs (receptors) accept the environment and pass it on to the

brain (processor). The brain transfers the information so obtained intoSTM and LTM. Decisions made by the brain are conveyed to the environment by various organs of the human body (effectors) in the form of speech, physical activity, written messages, etc. To illustrate, a poet visualizes a beautiful natural scenario, is totally absorbed in it and the response to this stimulus is a poem that flows spontaneously. The model, as already mentioned, goes hand in hand with the working of a digital computer. A digital computer gets data through one of its input devices ("receptor" in the Newell and

Simon model), passes the same to its central processing unit ("brain" in the Newell and Simon model), which in turn, after processing, sends an output through its output unit ("effectors" in the Newell and Simon model). Important information is stored in external memory units. Any human being, in response to a stimulus, reacts and decides what to do. For example, if the share prices are falling the initial reaction is panic. Shareholders then decide either to offload all the shares or wait for the market to pick up. How do they decide on these? Are there any models available that can explain clearly the decision-making process? A well-known model on the human decision-making process was proposed by H.A. Simon. Simon's decision-making model consists of three major stages: Stage I: Problem identification and data collection stage (also called intelligence phase). Stage 2: Identification and planning of alternative solutions (also called as design phase) Stage 3: Selection of a solution from multiple alternatives, implementing and monitoring (also called as choice phase.)

What are the advantages and disadvantages of MIS?


s - these syste
Answer: ADVANTAGES An MIS provides the following advantages. 1. It Facilitates planning : MIS improves the quality of plants by providing relevant information for sound decision - making . Due to increase in the size and complexity of organizations, managers have lost personal contact with the scene of operations. 2. In Minimizes information overload : MIS change the larger amount of data in to summarized form and there by avoids the confusion which may arise when managers are flooded with detailed facts. 3. MIS Encourages Decentralization : Decentralization of authority is possibly when there is a system for monitoring operations at lower levels. MIS is successfully used for measuring performance and making necessary change in the organizational plans and procedures. 4. It brings Co ordination : MIS facilities integration of specialized activities by keeping each department aware of the problem and requirements of other departments. It connects all decision centers in the organization . 5. It makes control easier : MIS serves as a link between managerial planning and control. It improves the ability of management to evaluate and improve performance . The used computers has increased the data processing and storage capabilities and reduced the cost .

6. MIS assembles, process , stores , Retrieves , evaluates and Disseminates the information. reference: http://www.management-hub.com/information-management-advantages.html DISADVANTAGES 1.highly senstive requires constant monitoring. 2.buddgeting of MIS extremely difficult. 3.Quality of outputs governed by quality of inputs. 4.lack of flexiblity to update itself. 5.effectiveness decreases due to frequent changes in top management 6.takes into account only qualitative factors and ignores non-qualitative factors like morale of worker, attitude of worker etc...

ms

data dictionary

A data dictionary is a collection of descriptions of the data objects or items in a data model for the benefit of programmers and others who need to refer to them. A first step in analyzing a system of objects with which users interact is to identify each object and its relationship to other objects. This process is called data modeling and results in a picture of object relationships. After each data object or item is given a descriptive name, its relationship is described (or it becomes part of some structure that implicitly describes relationship), the type of data (such as text or image or binary value) is described, possible predefined values are listed, and a brief textual description is provided. This collection can be organized for reference into a book called a data dictionary. When developing programs that use the data model, a data dictionary can be consulted to understand where a data item fits in the structure, what values it may contain, and basically what the data item means in real-world terms. For example, a bank or group of banks could model the data objects involved in consumer banking. They could then provide a data dictionary for a bank's programmers. The data dictionary would describe each of the data items in its data model for consumer banking (for example, "Account holder" and ""Available credit").

An MIS provides the following advantages.


1. It Facilitates planning : MIS improves the quality of plants by providing relevant information for sound decision making . Due to increase in the size and complexity of organizations, managers have lost personal contact with the scene of operations.

2. In Minimizes information overload : MIS change the larger amount of data in to summarized form and there by avoids the confusion which may arise when managers are flooded with detailed facts. 3. MIS Encourages Decentralization : Decentralization of authority is possibly when there is a system for monitoring operations at lower levels. MIS is successfully used for measuring performance and making necessary change in the organizational plans and procedures. 4. It brings Co ordination : MIS facilities integration of specialized activities by keeping each department aware of the problem and requirements of other departments. It connects all decision centers in the organization . 5. It makes control easier : MIS serves as a link between managerial planning and control. It improves the ability of management to evaluate and improve performance . The used computers has increased the data processing and storage capabilities and reduced the cost . 6. MIS assembles, process , stores , Retrieves , evaluates and Disseminates the informatio

Data Dictionary
Definition - What does Data Dictionary mean? A data dictionary is a file or a set of files that contains a database's metadata. The data dictionary contains records about other objects in the database, such as data ownership, data relationships to other objects, and other data. The data dictionary is a crucial component of any relational database. Ironically, because of its importance, it is invisible to most database users. Typically, only database administrators interact with the data dictionary. Techopedia explains Data Dictionary Answer:

ADVANTAGES
An MIS provides the following advantages. 1. It Facilitates planning : MIS improves the quality of plants by providing relevant information for sound decision - making . Due to increase in the size and complexity of organizations, managers have lost personal contact with the scene of operations. 2. In Minimizes information overload : MIS change the larger amount of data in to summarized form and there by avoids the confusion which may arise when managers are flooded with detailed facts.

3. MIS Encourages Decentralization : Decentralization of authority is possibly when there is a system for monitoring operations at lower levels. MIS is successfully used for measuring performance and making necessary change in the organizational plans and procedures. 4. It brings Co ordination : MIS facilities integration of specialized activities by keeping each department aware of the problem and requirements of other departments. It connects all decision centers in the organization . 5. It makes control easier : MIS serves as a link between managerial planning and control. It improves the ability of management to evaluate and improve performance . The used computers has increased the data processing and storage capabilities and reduced the cost . 6. MIS assembles, process , stores , Retrieves , evaluates and Disseminates the information. reference: http://www.management-hub.com/information-management-advantages.html DISADVANTAGES 1.highly senstive requires constant monitoring. 2.buddgeting of MIS extremely difficult. 3.Quality of outputs governed by quality of inputs. 4.lack of flexiblity to update itself. 5.effectiveness decreases due to frequent changes in top management 6.takes into account only qualitative factors and ignores non-qualitative factors like morale of worker, attitude of worker etc...

Biyani's Think Tank Concept based notes Management Information System (BBA Part-II) Ms. Kusumlata Bhargava Deptt. Of Management Biyani Girls College, Jaipur PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com For more detail: - http://www.gurukpo.comPublished by : Think Tanks Biyani Group of Colleges Concept & Copyright : Biyani Shikshan Samiti Sector-3, Vidhyadhar Nagar, Jaipur-302 023 (Rajasthan) Ph : 0141-2338371, 2338591-95 Fax : 0141-2338007 E-mail : acad@biyanicolleges.org

Website :www.gurukpo.com; www.biyanicolleges.org First Edition : 2009 Leaser Type Setted by : Biyani College Printing Department While every effort is taken to avoid errors or omissions in this Publication, any mistake or omission that may have crept in is not intentional. It may be taken note of that neither the publisher nor the author will be responsible for any damage or loss of any kind arising to anyone in any manner on account of such errors and omissions. PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com For more detail: - http://www.gurukpo.comPreface I am glad to present this book, especially designed to serve the needs of the students. The book has been written keeping in mind the general weakness in understanding the fundamental concepts of the topics. The book is self-explanatory and adopts the Teach Yourself style. It is based on question-answer pattern. The language of book is quite easy and understandable based on scientific approach. This book covers basic concepts related to the microbial understandings about diversity, structure, economic aspects, bacterial and viral reproduction etc. Any further improvement in the contents of the book by making corrections, omission and inclusion is keen to be achieved based on suggestions from the readers for which the author shall be obliged. I acknowledge special thanks to Mr. Rajeev Biyani, Chairman & Dr. Sanjay Biyani, Director (Acad.) Biyani Group of Colleges, who are the backbones and main concept provider and also have been constant source of motivation throughout this Endeavour. They played an active role in coordinating the various stages of this Endeavour and spearheaded the publishing work. I look forward to receiving valuable suggestions from professors of various educational institutions, other faculty members and students for improvement of the quality of the book. The reader may feel free to send in their comments and suggestions to the under mentioned address. Author PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com For more detail: - http://www.gurukpo.comSyllabus B.B.A. Part-II Management Information System Introduction to MIS : Meaning and Role of MIS, Definition of MIS, System Approach to MIS, MIS Organization within a Company. Concept of Balanced MIS, Effectiveness and Efficiency Criteria.

Overview of System and Design, Feasibility Analysis, Design, Implementation, Testing and Evaluation. Introduction to Systems Development Life Cycle and its Phases. MIS Planning : MIS Structure and Components, MIS Features, Problem and Derivation of MIS Plans, Prioritization and Developmental Strategies. Conceptual Design of MIS : Definition of the Problem, System Objectives and System Constraints, Analysis of Information Source. Alternative System Design and Selection of Optimal System. Conceptual System Design Document. Detailed System Design and Implementation : Application of Basic System Design Concepts to MIS, Involvement of End-User and Role of MIS Department and System Analyst, Role of Top Management during Design an Implementation. System Evaluation Review and Update. Management and Control of MIS Function. Advanced MIS Concept, Decision Support System. MIS in Operation : (See Note at End) : MIS for Accounting and Finance Function MIS for Personnel Systems, MIS for Marketing Systems, Production & Inventory System. Note : A STANDARD LAYOUT IS TO BE ADOPTED FOR ALL MIS. PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com For more detail: - http://www.gurukpo.comContent S. No. Name of Topic Page No. 1. Introduction to MIS 7-14 1.1 Introduction & Objective of MIS 1.2 Computer Based MIS 1.3 Organizational Need for MIS in Company 1.4 Pre-requisites of Effective MIS 2. Information System of Decision Making 15-20 2.1 Introduction & Characteristics of MIS 2.2 Steps in Decision Making 2.3 Purpose of DSS 2.4 Herbert S. Model 3. Information 21-30 3.1 Information 3.2 Classification of Information 3.3 Types of Information System 3.4 Value of Information 3.5 Data Collection Method 4. Development of MIS 31-37 4.1 Introduction & MIS Planning 4.2 Development of MIS

4.3 Approaches to MIS Development 4.4 Factors Responsible for Development of MIS S. No. Name of Topic Page No. 5. Database Management System 38-47 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Database Design 5.3 Model of DBMS 5.4 Views in DBMS 5.5 Data Access PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com For more detail: - http://www.gurukpo.com6. Network 48-54 6.1 Data Communication 6.2 Introduction of Network 6.3 Types of Computer Network 6.4 Topologies 7. System Analysis & Design 55-78 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Types of Business System 7.3 System Analysiss Tools 7.4 Introduction to System Analysis & Design 7.5 Feasibility Study & Cost Benefit Analysis 7.6 System Documentation 8. MIS in Operation 79-86 8.1 MIS for Finance 8.2 MIS for Marketing 8.3 MIS for Production 8.4 MIS for HRM PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com For more detail: - http://www.gurukpo.comChapter-1 Introduction to MIS Q.1 What is MIS? Discuss in detail? OR Describe the three words of MIS: Management, Information, System. OR Discuss the objectives and characteristics of MIS. Ans.: Management Information Systems (MIS), referred to as Information Management and Systems, is the discipline covering the application of people, technologies, and procedures collectively called information systems, to solving business problems. 'MIS' is a planned system of collecting, storing and disseminating data in the form of information needed to carry out the functions of management. Academically, the term is commonly used to refer to the group of information

management methods tied to the automation or support of human decision making, e.g. Decision Support Systems, Expert Systems, and Executive Information Systems. Management : Management is art of getting things done through and with the people in formally organized groups. The basic functions performed by a manager in an organization are: Planning, controlling, staffing, organizing, and directing. Information : Information is considered as valuable component of an organization. Information is data that is processed and is presented in a form which assists decision maker. Information Generation System : A system is defined as a set of elements which are joined together to achieve a common objective. The elements are interrelated and interdependent. Thus every system is said to be composed of subsystems. A system has one or multiple inputs, these inputs are processed through a transformation process to convert these input( s) to output. Data Processing Information PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com For more detail: - http://www.gurukpo.comThese subsystems are interrelated through a process of Input - Throughput - Output A system Objectives of MIS : Data Capturing : MIS capture data from various internal and external sources of organization. Data capturing may be manual or through computer terminals. Processing of Data : The captured data is processed to convert into required information. Processing of data is done by such activities as calculating, sorting, classifying, and summarizing. Storage of Information : MIS stores the processed or unprocessed data for future use. If any information is not immediately required, it is saved as an organization record, for later use. Retrieval of Information : MIS retrieves information from its stores as and when required by various users. Dissemination of Information : Information, which is a finished product of MIS, is disseminated to the users in the organization. It is periodic or online through computer terminal. Objectives of MIS Input Transformation Process Output Data Capture Processing Dissemination Retrieval

Storage of Data Source User PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com For more detail: - http://www.gurukpo.comCharacteristics of MIS : Systems Approach : The information system follows a systems approach. Systems approach means taking a comprehensive view or a complete look at the interlocking sub-systems that operate within an organization. Management Oriented : Management oriented characteristic of MIS implies that the management actively directs the system development efforts. For planning of MIS, top-down approach should be followed. Top down approach suggests that the system development starts from the determination of managements needs and overall business objective. To ensure that the implementation of systems polices meet the specification of the system, continued review and participation of the manager is necessary. Need Based : MIS design should be as per the information needs of managers at different levels. Exception Based : MIS should be developed on the exception based also, which means that in an abnormal situation, there should be immediate reporting about the exceptional situation to the decision makers at the required level. Future Oriented : MIS should not merely provide past of historical information; rather it should provide information, on the basis of future projections on the actions to be initiated. Integrated : Integration is significant because of its ability to produce more meaningful information. Integration means taking a comprehensive view or looking at the complete picture of the interlocking subsystems that operate within the company. Common Data Flow : Common data flow includes avoiding duplication, combining similar functions and simplifying operations wherever possible. The development of common data flow is an economically sound and logical concept, but it must be viewed from a practical angle. Long Term Planning : MIS is developed over relatively long periods. A heavy element of planning should be involved. Sub System Concept : The MIS should be viewed as a single entity, but it must be broken down into digestible sub-systems which are more meaningful. Central database : In the MIS there should be common data base for whole system PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com For more detail: - http://www.gurukpo.comQ.2 Highlight the Salient Features of Computer which makes it an essential component of MIS OR With the Penetration of Computer in Business Society, Information System has

got a new meaning, explain. Ans.: Characteristics of Computerized MIS : (i) Ability to process data into information with accuracy and high speed. It involves complex computation, analysis, comparisons and summarization. (ii) Organizing and updating of huge amount of raw data of related and unrelated nature, derived from internal and external sources at different periods of time. (iii) The information processing and computer technology have been so advanced that managers are able to obtain real time information about ongoing activities and events without any waiting period. (iv) The input data in computer can be converted into different output formats for a variety of purpose. The system is so organized that managers at different levels and in different activity units are in a position to obtain information in whatever form they want , provided that relevant programmes or instructions have been designed for the purpose. (v) Super-human memory, tremendous volume of data and information and the set of instructions can be stored in the computer and can be retrieved as and when needed. Management can get bit of stored information from the computer in seconds. Advantages of Computer : The usage of computer gives following advantages in comparison to manual MIS : a) Speed : The speed of carrying out the given instructions logically and numerically is incomparable between computers and human beings. A computer can perform and give instructions in less than a millionth of second b) Accuracy : Computer can calculate very accurately without any errors. c) Reliability : The information stored in the computer is in digital format. The information can be stored for a long time and have long life. A user may feel comfortable and be rely on, while using information stored in computer. d) Storage : Computer can store huge data for a long time in comparison to human brain. PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com For more detail: - http://www.gurukpo.come) Automaticity : Computers perform automatically in user friendly and menu driven program. f) Repetitiveness : Computer can be used repetitively to process information without any mental fatigue as in case of human brain. g) Diligence : A computer is an electronic device. It does not suffer from the human traits of lack of concentration. h) No Feeling : Computers are devoid of any emotions. They have no feelings and no instincts because they are machines. Limitations of Computer : a) Lack of Common Sense : Computer is only an electronic device. It can not

think. If we provide an incorrect data, it does not have a commonsense to question the correctness of the data. b) Memory Without Brain : Computer can store data in its memory; however, if a wrong instruction is given to computer it does not have a brain to correct the wrong instruction. Q.3 Discuss an Organizational Need for MIS in a Company? Ans.: To facilitate the management decision making at all levels of company, the MIS must be integrated. MIS units are company wide. MIS is available for the Top management. The top management of company should play an active role in designing, modifying and maintenance of the total organization wide management information system. Information system and Information technology have become a vital component of any successful business and are regarded as major functional areas just like any other functional area of a business organization like marketing, finance, production and HR. Thus it is important to understand the area of information system just like any other functional area in the business. MIS is important because all businesses have a need for information about the tasks which are to be performed. Information and technology is used as a tool for solving problems and providing opportunities for increasing productivity and quality. Information has always been important but it has never been so available, so current and so overwhelming. Efforts have been made for collection and retrieval of information, However, challenges still remain in the selection analysis and interpretation of the information that will further improve decision making and productivity. PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com For more detail: - http://www.gurukpo.comMIS for a Business Organization : Support the Business Process : Treats inputs as a request from the customer and outputs as services to customer. Supports current operations and use the system to influence further way of working. Support Operation of a Business Organization : MIS supports operations of a business organization by giving timely information, maintenance and enhancement which provides flexibility in the operation of an organizations. To Support Decision Making : MIS supports the decision making by employee in their daily operations. MIS also supports managers in decision making to meet the goals and objectives of the organization. Different mathematical models and IT tools are used for the purpose evolving strategies to meet competitive needs. Strategies for an Organization : Today each business is running in a competitive market. MIS supports the organization to evolve appropriate strategies for the business to assented in a competitive environment. Q.4 Discuss the Prerequisites of an Effective MIS? Ans.: Essential Requirement of an Effective MIS : (i) Qualified System and Management Staff : The prerequisite of an effective MIS is that it should be managed by qualified officers. These officers

should have a mutual understanding about the roles and responsibilities of each other. be understand clearly the view of their fellow officers. For this, each organization should have two categories of officers : (a) System and Computer Experts who in addition to their expertise in their subject area , they should also be capable of understanding management concepts to facilitate the understanding of problems asked by concern. They should also be clear about the process of decision making and information requirements for planning. (b) Management experts who should also understand quite-clearly the concepts and operations of a computer. This basic knowledge of computer will be useful will place them in a comfortable position, while working with systems, technicians in designing or other wise, of the information system. (ii) Futuristic Perspective : An effective MIS should be capable of meeting the future requirements of its executives as well. This capability can be achieved by regular monitoring and updating the MIS. PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com For more detail: - http://www.gurukpo.com(iii) Support of Top Management : For a management information system to be effective, it must receive the full support of top management. The Reasons for this are : (a) Subordinate managers are usually lethargic about activities which do not receive the support of their superiors. (b) The resources involved in computer based information system are larger and are growing larger and larger in view of importance gained by management information system. (iv) Common Database : It is an integrated collection of data and information which is utilized by several information subsystems of an organization. A common database may be defined as a super file which consolidates and integrates data records formerly stored in a separate data file. Such a database can be organized as an integrated collection of data records into a single super file or it can be organized as an integrated collection of several data file. (v) Control and maintenance of MIS : Control of the MIS means the operation of the system as it was designed to operate. Some times, users develop their own procedures or short cut methods to use the system which reduces its effectiveness. PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com For more detail: - http://www.gurukpo.comChapter-2 Information System for Decision Making Q.1 What do you understand by Decision Making? Discuss the nature and characteristics of Decision? Ans.: The word decision is derived from the Latin word decido. Which means A

decision, therefore is A Settlement A fixed intuition to bringing to a conclusive result A judgment A resolution Decision : A decision is the choice out of several options made by the decision maker to achieve some objective in a given situation. Business Decision : Business decisions are those which are made in the process of conducting business to achieve its objective in a given situation. Characteristic of Business Decision Making : a) Sequential in nature. b) Exceedingly complex due to risk and trade off. c) Influenced by personal values. d) Made in institutional setting and business environment. Rational Decision Making : A rational decision is the one which, effectively and efficiently, ensure the achievement of the goal for which the decision is made .In reality there is no right or wrong decision but a rational decision or irrational decision which depends on situation. Type of Rationality : Objectively : Maximum the value of the objectives. Subjective : If it is minimize the attainment of value in relation to the knowledge and awareness of subject. Consciously : Extent the process of the decision making is a conscious one Organizationally : degree of the orientation towards the organization. PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com For more detail: - http://www.gurukpo.comPersonal: Rational to the extent is achieves an individuals personal reason (goals). Type of Decision Making System : There are two types of decision making system on the basis of knowledge about the environment. (i) Closed : If the manager operates in a known environment then it is called closed decision making system. Conditions : a) Manager knows the set of decision alternative and know their outcome in term of values. b) Manager has a model, by which decision alternatives can be generated, tested and ranked. c) The manager can choose one of them, based on some goal or objective. (ii) Open : If the manager operates in unknown environment then it is called open decision making. Conditions : a) Manager does not know all alternatives. b) Outcome is not known.

c) No methods or models are used. d) Decide objective or goal; select one where his aspirates or desire are met best. Types of Decision : Types of decision are based on the degree of knowledge about the out come of the events which are yet to take place. Certainty : If the manager has full knowledge of event or outcome then it is a situation of certainty. Risk : If the manager has partial knowledge or probabilistic knowledge then it is decision under risk. Uncertainty : If the manager does not have any knowledge, it is decision making under uncertainty MIS converts the uncertainty to risk and risk to certainty. The decision at the low level management is certain, at middle level of the management the decision is under risk and at the top level management the decision is in under uncertain. Nature of decision : Decision making is a complex task. To resolve the complexity the nature of decision are of two types : Programmed and Non-Programmed Decision : PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com For more detail: - http://www.gurukpo.coma) If a decision can be based on a rule, methods or even guidelines, it is called the programmed decision. b) A decision which can not be made by using a rule or model is the nonprogrammed decision. Q.2 Discuss the essential steps in process of Decision Making? Ans.: Decision making process is same as Hebert Simon Model. Q.3 What is DSS? What is the purpose of Decision Support System in MIS. Ans.: Decision Support System refers to a class of systems which support in the process of decision making and does not always give a decision it self. Decision Support Systems (DSS) are a specific class of computerized information system that supports business and organizational decision-making activities. A properly designed DSS is an interactive software-based system intended to help decision makers compile useful information from raw data, documents, personal knowledge, and/or business models to identify and solve problems and make decisions DSS is an application of Hebert Simon model, as discussed, the model has three phases : i) Intelligence ii) Design iii) Choice The DSS basically helps in the information system in the intelligence phase where the objective is to identify the problem and then go to the design phase for solution. The choice of selection criteria varies from problem to problem. It is therefore, required to go through these phases again and again till satisfactory solution is found.

In the following three phase cycle, you may use inquiry, analysis, and models and accounting system to come to rational solution. These systems are helpful where the decision maker calls for complex manipulation of data and use of several methods to reach an acceptable solution using different analysis approach. The decision support system helps in making a decision and also in performance analysis. DSS can be built around the rule in case of programmable decision situation. The rules are not fixed or predetermined and requires every time the user to go through the decision making cycle as indicated in Herbert Simon model. Attributes : PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com For more detail: - http://www.gurukpo.comi) DSS should be adaptable and flexible. ii) DSS should be interactive and provide ease of use. iii) Effectiveness balanced with efficiency (benefit must exceed cost). iv) Complete control by decision-makers. v) Ease of development by (modification to suit needs and changing environment) end users. vi) Support modeling and analysis. vii) Data access. viii) Standalone, integration and Web-based DSS Characteristics : i) Support for decision makers in semi structured and unstructured problems. ii) Support managers at all levels. iii) Support individuals and groups. iv) Support for interdependent or sequential decisions. v) Support intelligence, design, choice, and implementation. vi) Support variety of decision processes and styles Q.4 Discuss in brief the Hebert A. Simon Decision Support System Model. Define the term Intelligence, Design and Choice as Model. OR Discuss the essential steps in process of decision making. Ans.: There are three phases in Hebert Simon model : Hebert Simon Model INTELLIGENCE DESIGN CHIOCE PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com For more detail: - http://www.gurukpo.comIntelligence : In this phase MIS collects the raw data. Further the data is sorted and merged with other data and computation are made, examined and presented. In this phase, the attention of the manager is drawn to the entire problem situation, calling for a decision. Design : Manager develops a model of problem situation on which he can

generate and test, summarizing the different decision alternatives and test the feasibility of implementation. Assess the value of the decision outcome. Choice : In this phase the manager evolves a selection criterion and selects one alternative as decision based on selection criteria. In these three phases if the manager fails to reach a decision, he starts the process all over again from intelligence phase where additional data and information is collected, the decision making process is refined, the selection criteria is changed and a decision is arrived at. PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com For more detail: - http://www.gurukpo.comChapter-3 Information Q.1 What do you understand by Information? What are the characteristics of Information? Ans.: Data : Data is raw facts. Data is like raw material. Data does not interrelate and also it does not help in decision making. Data is defined as groups of nonrandom symbols in the form of text, images, voice representing quantities, action and objects. Information : Information is the product of data processing. Information is interrelated data. Information is equivalent to finished goods produced after processing the raw material. The information has a value in decision making. Information brings clarity and creates an intelligent human response in the mind. According to Davis and Olson : Information is a data that has been processed into a form that is meaningful to recipient and is of real or perceived value in the current or the prospective action or decision of recipient. Information Generation It is a most critical resource of the organization. Managing the information means managing future. Information is knowledge that one derives from facts placed in the right context with the purpose of reducing uncertainty. Characteristics of Information : The parameters of a good quality are difficult to determine for information. Quality of information refers to its fitness for use, or its reliability. Following are the essential characteristic features : i) Timeliness : Timeliness means that information must reach the recipients within the prescribed timeframes. For effective decision-making, information must reach the decision-maker at the right time, i.e. recipients must get information when they need it. Delays destroys the value of information. The characteristic of timeliness, to be effective, should also include up-to-date, i.e. current information. Data Processing Information PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com For more detail: - http://www.gurukpo.comii) Accuracy : Information should be accurate. It means that information should be free from mistakes, errors &, clear Accuracy also means that the

information is free from bias. Wrong information given to management would result in wrong decisions. As managers decisions are based on the information supplied in MIS reports, all managers need accurate information. iii) Relevance : Information is said to be relevant if it answers especially for the recipient what, why, where, when, who and why? In other words, the MIS should serve reports to managers which is useful and the information helps them to make decisions.. iv) Adequacy : Adequacy means information must be sufficient in quantity, i.e. MIS must provide reports containing information which is required in the deciding processes of decision-making. The report should not give inadequate or for that matter, more than adequate information, which may create a difficult situation for the decision-maker. Whereas inadequacy of information leads to crises, information overload results in chaos. v) Completeness : The information which is given to a manager must be complete and should meet all his needs. Incomplete information may result in wrong decisions and thus may prove costly to the organization. vi) Explicitness : A report is said to be of good quality if it does not require further analysis by the recipients for decision making. vii) Impartiality : Impartial information contains no bias and has been collected without any distorted view of the situation. Q.2 What are the different types of Information? Ans.: Classification of Information : The information can be classified in a number of ways provide to better understanding. Jhon Dearden of Harvard University classifies information in the following manner : (1) Action Verses No-Action Information : The information which induces action is called action Information. No stockreport calling a purchase action is an action information. The information which communicates only the status is No-Action Information. The stock balance is no-action information. (2) Recurring Verses No-Recurring Information : The information generated at regular intervals is Recurring Information. The monthly sales reports, the stock statement, the trial balance, etc are recurring information. The PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com For more detail: - http://www.gurukpo.comfinancial analysis or the report on the market research study is norecurring information. (3) Internal and external information : The information generated through the internal sources of the organization is termed as Internal Information, while the information generated through the govt. reports, the industry survey etc., termed as External Information, as the sources of the data are outside the organization. The information can also be classified, in terms of its application : Planning Information : Certain standard norms and specifications are

used in planning of any activity. Hence such information is called the Planning Information. e. g. Time standard, design standard. Control Information : Reporting the status of an activity through a feedback mechanism is called the Controlling Information. When such information shows a deviation from the goal or the objective, it will induce a decision or an action leading to control. Knowledge Information : A collection of information through the library records and the research studies to build up a knowledge base as an information is known as Knowledge Information. Organization Information : When the information is used by everybody in the organization, it is called Organization Information. Employee and payroll Information is used by a number of people in an organization. Functional/ Operational Information : When the information is used in the operation of a business it is called Functional/Operational Information. Database Information : When the information has multiple use and application, it is called as database information. Material specification or supplier information is stored for multiple users. Q.3 Explain the level of business activity with reference to information required? Ans.: While developing an information management strategy within an organization, it is useful to consider informations need at on three levels : Corporate (Top Level ) Team, Division, Business Unit (Middle Level) Individual (Low Level ) The needs of each of these three levels must be met if a coordinated and effective solution is to be maintained in the long-term. PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com For more detail: - http://www.gurukpo.comFailure to address any one of the levels will lead to areas of the business or individuals finding their own solution, which may not fit well within the strategic goals of the organization. Corporate (Top Level Information) : At the top level corporate information that is useful for the whole organization. This 'global' information is generally well addressed by the corporate intranet. Examples of corporate information include policies and procedures, HR information, online forms, phone directory, etc. Interestingly, there may be a limited amount of truly global information, and it may not deliver the greatest (measurable) business benefits. Team, division, business unit (Middle level) : The middle level is perhaps the most important, as it covers all the information shared within teams, divisions, business units, etc. This information may be critical to the day-to-day activities of the group, but of little interest to the rest of the organization. Examples include project documentation, business unit specific content, meeting minutes, etc. This level is generally poorly-served within organizations, although collaboration

tools are increasingly being used to address team information needs. It is also being recognized that it is this 'local' information that may be the most valuable, in terms of driving the day-to-day activity of the organization. Levels of Informations Need Individual (Low Level) : At the lowest level the personal information need of staff exists throughout the organization. Examples include correspondence, reports and spreadsheets. In most organizations, staff must struggle with using email to meet their information management needs. While staff generally recognizes the inadequacy of e-mail, they have few other approaches or technologies at their disposal. Managing the Levels : While managing the information at each of the three levels, consider aspects need consideration: An information management solution must be provided for staff at each of the three levels. PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com For more detail: - http://www.gurukpo.com If corporate solutions aren't provided, then staff will find their own solutions. This is the source of poor-quality intranet sub-sites, and other undesirable approaches. A clear policy must be developed, outlining when and how it will apply at all the three levels and how information should be managed at each level. Processes must be put in place to 'bubble up' or 'promote' information from lower levels to higher levels. For example, some team-generated information will be critical for the whole organization. As much as possible, a seamless information management environment should be delivered that covers all the three levels. Q.4 What do you understand by Information System? Discuss various type of Information. Ans.: A business has several information systems : (A) Formal Information System (B) Informal Information System (C) Computer Based Information System Formal Information System : It is based on organizational chart represented by the organization. Informal Information System : It is an employee based system designed to meet personal and vocational needs and to help in the solution of work-related problems. It also funnels information upward through indirect channels. It works within the framework of the business and its stated policies. Computer Based Information System (CBIS) : This category of information system depends mainly on the computer for handling business application. System analysis develops different types of information system to meet variety of business needs. There is class of system known as collectively as computer based information system. They can be classified as : Transaction Processing System (TPS)

Management Information System(MIS) Decision Making System (DSS) Office Automation System (OAS) PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com For more detail: - http://www.gurukpo.comQ.5 What do you mean by Value of Information? Ans.: Dimensions of Information : There are three most common dimensions of information for MIS : (i) Economic Dimension : Economic dimension of information refers to the cost of information and its benefits. Generation of information costs money. Measuring cost and benefit of information is difficult because of intangible characteristic of information. Cost of Information : Cost of information may include: Cost of acquiring data, Cost of maintaining data, Cost of generating information and Cost of communication information. Cost related to the response time require to generate information and communicating it. Thus, for system with low response time, the cost is high. The cost is depends on accuracy, speed of generation etc. Value of Information : Information has a cost for its acquisition and maintenance. Thus before a particular piece of information is acquired, decision maker must know its value. The information has a perceived value in terms of decision making. The decision maker feels more secured when additional information is received in case of decision making under uncertainty or risk. Perfect Information : The information is called a Perfect Information, if it wipes out uncertainty or risk completely. However, perfect information is a myth. The value of information is the value of the change in decision behavior because of the information. The change in the behaviour due to new information is measured to determine the benefit from its use. To arrive at the value of information, the cost incurred to get this information is deducted from the benefit. Value of information = Cost to get information-benefit Given a set of possible decisions, a decision maker will select one on the basis of the available information. If the new information causes a change in the decision, then the value of information is the difference in the value between outcome of the old decision and that of new decision, less the cost obtaining the new information. The value of the additional information making the existing information perfect (VPI) is: VPI = (V2 - V1) - (C2 - C1) PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com For more detail: - http://www.gurukpo.comWhere V is the value of the information and C is the cost of obtaining the information. V1 and C1 relate to one set of information V2, C2 relate to the

new set. In MIS, the concept of the value of information is used to find out the benefit of perfect information and if the value is significantly high, the system should provide it. If the value is insignificant, it would not be worth collecting the additional information. (ii) Business Dimension : Different types of information are required by managers at different levels of the management hierarchy. The information needs of managers at strategic planning level are altogether different that those of operational control managers. It is because of the fact that managers at different levels are required to perform different functions in an organization. (iii) Technical Dimension : This dimension of information refers to the technical aspects of the database. It includes the capacity of database, response time, security, validity, data interrelationship etc. Q.6 What is the difference between Data Processing and Information Processing? Ans.: Data Processing : Data Processing is a process that converts data into information or knowledge. The processing is usually assumed to be automated and running on a computer. Because data are most useful when well-presented and actually informative, data-processing systems are often referred to as information systems to emphasize their practicality. Nevertheless, both terms are roughly synonymous, performing similar conversions; data-processing systems typically manipulate raw data into information, and likewise information systems typically take raw data as input to produce information as output. Data processing is that a business has collected numerous data concerning an aspect of its operations and that this multitude of data must be presented in meaningful, easy-to-access presentations for the managers who must then use that information to increase revenue or to decrease cost. That conversion and presentation of data as information is typically performed by a data-processing application. Information Processing : Information processing is the change or processing of information in any manner detectable by an observer. Information processing may more specifically be defined in terms by Claude E. Shannon as the conversion of latent information into manifest information. Latent and manifest information is defined through the terms of equivocation, PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com For more detail: - http://www.gurukpo.comremaining uncertainty, what value the sender has actually chosen, dissipation uncertainty of the sender what the receiver has actually received and transformation saved effort of questioning - equivocation minus dissipation. Practical Information Processing can be described as a cycle, where data which may have no inherent meaning to the observer is converted into information, which does have meaning to the observer. Q.7 What are the different methods for Data Collection?

Ans.: Methods of Data and Information Collection : Several methods are available for the collection of data. The choice of method will have an impact on the quality of information. Similarly the design of data collection method also decides the quality of data and information. Following are the methods of data collection : i) Observation ii) Experiment iii) Survey iv) Subjective Estimation v) Transaction Processing vi) Purchase from Outside vii) Publication viii) Government Agencies PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com For more detail: - http://www.gurukpo.comChapter-4 Development of MIS Q.1 What is MIS Planning? Discuss the need and objectives of MIS Planning. OR What are the objectives and need of MIS Planning? Ans.: The plan for development and its implementation is a basic necessity for MIS. In MIS the information is recognized as major resource like capital and time. If this resource has to be managed well, it calls upon the management to plan for it and control it, so that the information becomes a vital resource for the system. The management information system needs good planning. This system should deal with the management information not with data processing alone. It should provide support for the management planning, decision making and action. It should provide support to the changing needs of business management. A long range MIS plan provides direction for the development of the system and provides a basis for achieving the specific targets or tasks against time frame. Following are the contents of MIS planning : MIS Goals and Objectives : It is necessary to develop the goal and objectives for the MIS which will support the business goals. The MIS goals and objectives will consider management philosophy, policy constraints, Business risk, internal and external environment of the organization and business. The goals and objectives of the MIS would be so stated that they can be measured. The typical statements of the goals can be providing online information on the stock and market; the query processing should not exceed more than three seconds and the like. Strategy for Plan Achievement : The designer has to take a number of strategic decisions for the achievement of MIS goals and objectives. They are a) Development Strategy : Ex. an online, batch , a real time. b) System Development Strategy : Designer selects an approach to system development like operational verses functional, accounting verses

analysis. c) Resources for the Development : Designer has to select resources. Resources ca be in-house verses external, customized or use of package. d) Manpower Composition : The staff should have the staffs of an analyst, and programmer. PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com For more detail: - http://www.gurukpo.comThe Architecture of MIS : The architecture of the MIS plan provides a system and subsystem structure and their input, output and linkage. It spells out in details the subsystem from the data entry to processing, analysis to modeling and storage to printing. The System Development Schedule : A schedule is made for development of the system. While preparing a schedule due consideration is given to importance of the system in the overall information requirements. This development schedule is to be weighed against the time scale for achieving certain information requirements. Hardware and Software Plan : Giving due regards to the technical and operational feasibility, the economics of investment is worked out. Then the plan of procurement is made after selecting the hardware and software. One can take the phased approach of investing starting from the lower configuration of hardware going to the higher as development take place. The process needs matching the technical decisions with the financial decisions. Q.2 What are the stages of Development of MIS? Ans.: In order to develop a system successfully, it is managed by breaking the total development process into smaller basic activities or phases. Any system development process, in general, is understood to have the following phases : i) Systems Planning ii) Systems Analysis iii) Systems Design iv) Systems Implementation v) Systems Operation and Support Q.3 What are different approaches to Development of MIS? Ans.: There are two basic approaches for development of MIS : a) System development life cycle : The system development life cycle have following steps of development : i) Systems Planning ii) Systems Analysis iii) Systems Design iv) Systems Implementation v) Systems Operation and Support (System Maintenance) b) Prototyping : Prototyping is the process of creating an incomplete model of the future full-featured system, which can be used to let the users have a PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com

For more detail: - http://www.gurukpo.comfirst idea of the completed program or allow the clients to evaluate the program. Advantages : i) The designer and implementer can obtain feedback from the users early in the project development. ii) The client and the contractor can compare that the developing system matches with the system specification, according to which the system is built. iii) It also gives the engineer some idea about the accuracy of initial project estimates and whether the deadlines can be successfully met. The process of prototyping involves the following steps : i) Identify basic requirements. ii) Develop initial prototype. iii) Review : The customers, including end-users, examine the prototype and provide feedback for additions or changes. iv) Revise and Enhance the Prototype : Using the feedback both the specifications and the prototype can be improved. If changes are introduced then a repetition of steps 3 and 4 may be needed. Types of prototyping : System prototyping are of various kinds. However, all the methods are in some way based on two major types of prototyping : Throwaway Prototyping : Throwaway or Rapid Prototyping refers to the creation of a model that will eventually be discarded rather than becoming part of the finally delivered system. After preliminary requirements gathering is accomplished, a simple working model of the system is constructed to visually show the users what their requirements may look like when they are implemented into a finished system. The most obvious reason for using Throwaway Prototyping is that it can be done quickly. Evolutionary Prototyping : Evolutionary Prototyping (also known as Breadboard Prototyping) is quite different from Throwaway Prototyping. The main goal when using Evolutionary Prototyping is to build a very good prototype in a structured manner so that we can refine it or make further changes to it. The reason for this is that the Evolutionary prototype, when built, forms the heart of the new system, and the improvements and further requirements will PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com For more detail: - http://www.gurukpo.combe built on to it. It is not discarded or removed like the Throwaway Prototype. When developing a system using Evolutionary Prototyping, the system is continually refined and rebuilt. Incremental Prototyping : The final product is built as separate

prototypes. At the end the separate prototypes are merged in an overall design. Advantages of Prototyping : i) Reduced Time and Costs : Prototyping can improve the quality of requirements and specifications provided to developers. Early determination of what the user really wants can result in faster and less expensive software. ii) Improved and Increased User Involvement : Prototyping requires user involvement and allows them to see and interact with a prototype; allowing them to provide better and more complete feedback and specifications. Since users know the problem better than anyone, the final product is more likely to satisfy the users desire for look, feel and performance. Disadvantages of Prototyping : i) Insufficient Analysis : Since a model has to be created, developers will not properly analyse the complete project. This may lead to a poor prototype and a final project that will not satisfy the users. ii) User Confusion for Prototype and Finished System : Users can begin to think that a prototype, intended to be thrown away, is actually a final system that merely needs to be finished or polished. Users can also become attached to features that were included in a prototype for consideration and then removed from the specification for a final system. iii) Excessive Development Time of the Prototype : A key property to prototyping is the fact that it is supposed to be done quickly. If the developers forget about this fact, they will develop a prototype that is too complex. iv) Expense of Implementing Prototyping : The start up costs for building a development team focused on prototyping may be high. Many companies have to train the team for this purpose which needs extra expensive? Q.4 Factors responsible for Development of MIS? Ans.: Factors Responsible for the development of MIS are numerous and have been a prime concern for many Researchers and Practitioners. Both Inter and external PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com For more detail: - http://www.gurukpo.comfactors must be taken into account when trying to understand and organizations criteria for deciding about technology. The following are the factors which are responsible for development of MIS : 1. External 2. Internal External Factors : External Factors are conditions that exist in organizations external environment. The factors can be found at the industry level or in

national policies. (a) Industry level : At the industry level, we are looking at characteristics as degree of diffusion of certain technologies, the availability of external know-how, for example, technology suppliers, the degree of innovativeness of the industry, the requirements imposed by major customers and external markets and overall levels of competition and technology sophistication in the industry. (b) National Policies : For the external factors the national policies also affect the organization that indirectly affects the subsystems of the organization. Internal Factors : Internal factors internal of the firm that may affect the development of MIS can be grouped into three categories: i) Past Experience with Technology : The organizations past experience about the technology in terms of exposure and organizational learning ultimately affects its future in developing technology. ii) Organizational Characteristics : An organizations characteristic like size, influence the adoption of MIS application in organization. The adoption of certain technologies may appear more appropriate for the larger firms because of the large capital investments and the skilled human resources involve in the implementation and operation of such technologies. Smaller firms are less affected by organizational inertia and they show a greater degree of involvement of organizational members especially top management during implementation. Ready to use software and less expensive equipments of MIS application are more attractive to smaller firms. iii) Organizational Pursued strategy : Internal factors deal with the organizations pursued strategy on both orientation and technology policy. An organizations strategy reflects its action with market and technology, which ultimately modify its experience and consequently its overall characteristics and capabilities. The need for a strong technology has been advocated by a number of authors and investments in MIS should therefore be closely aligned with overall corporate strategy. PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com For more detail: - http://www.gurukpo.comOther Factors : Customer Satisfaction : Development of MIS is affected by customer satisfaction. Customer of the services should be satisfied by the presented system. Effective : Development should be effective in terms of organizational benefit & user satisfaction. Efficient : Development should use all the resources, organization values efficiently. PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com For more detail: - http://www.gurukpo.comChapter-5 Database Management Systems Q.1 What do you understand by Database Management System? What are its

objectives? Discuss the various elements of Database System. Ans.: A database management system is a collection of interrelated data and a set of program to access those data. The collection of data, usually referred to as the Database contains information relevant to an enterprise. The primary goal of a DBMS is to provide a way to store and retrieve database information that is both convenient and efficient. Database : An organization must have accurate and reliable data for effective decision making. For this, the organization maintains records of various facts of its operation by building appropriate models of the diverse classes of objects of interest. The models capture the essential properties of the objects and records relationship among them. Such related data is called Database Objectives : i) The users of the database establish their view of the data and its structure without regards to the actual physical storage of the data. ii) That the database establishes a uniform high level of accuracy and consistency. Validation rules are applied by the DBMS. iii) The data should be available for use by application and by queries. iv) The data item prepared by one application are available to all applications or queries. No data items are owned by an application. v) The data base can be evolved according to application usage and query needs. Elements of DBMS : The elements of database management system are : i) Database : Databases are banks and is an important constituent of any information system. Data bank for computerized information is organized in the form of a collection of file stored on secondary storage media. A file is a collection of records for each entity in the system. The record being a collection of data items representing the attributes of an entity. PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com For more detail: - http://www.gurukpo.comii) People : The people involved with the database system can be divided into 2 groups: those who use the information system provided by the system and those who design develop and manage the system itself. iii) Database Planning and Design Technique : Since the database system involves people from all parts of organization with variety of information needs the development and operation of database system must be very carefully planned and managed. The data must be carefully designed to provide efficient excess to information required by different users. iv) Computer Hardware and Software : Computer hardware and software for DBMS are two different important elements of DBMS. They are technological foundation of DBMS. Q.2 What is Database Design? And objectives of Database Design? Ans.: Database design is the process of designing the overall schema of database. This process is mainly divided in four phases: analysis phase, design phase refinement

phase and physical design phase. Analysis Phases : This is the initial phase of database design which includes the specification of data stored; operation applied on the stored data and description of application which use the data stored. This phase also takes care of existing system, its requirements and operation performed, so that expectation from the new system can be understood. Design Phase : It is not real analysis of enterprise. The output of the design phase is directly converted into real database. This is divided into two parts : a) Conceptual Design : The information gathered in first phase is converted into data model which is used to specify data stored, data relationship and constraints applied on stored data. b) Logical Design : Information represented in data model is converted into database schema of chosen DBMS or the conceptual schema mentioned above is applied for implementation from database schema. Refinement Phase : This phase is used to correct problems which are encountered while analyzing the relations of database schema. This phase is used to i) Analyze the relations. ii) Identify the anomalies. iii) Refine database schema to correct or remove anomalies. PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com For more detail: - http://www.gurukpo.comPhysical design : This phase is used to create physical schema corresponding to the logical schema. It is used to specify internal storage structure and file organization that is required to store the data. Q.3 What is Database Management System? Discuss different models of Database. Which is mostly used and why? Ans.: A data model is not just a way of structuring data: it also defines a set of operations that can be performed on the data. A data model is a mechanism that provides abstraction for the database application. Database modeling is used for representing entities of interest and their relationship in database. It allows the conceptualization of the association between various entities and their attributes. Following are the different models of DBMS : Hierarchical Model Network Model Relational Model . Most database systems are built around one particular data model, although it is increasingly common for products to offer support for more than one model. Hierarchical Model : In a hierarchical model, data is organized into a tree-like structure, implying a single upward link in each record to describe the nesting, and a sort field to keep the records in a particular order in each same-level list. Hierarchical structures were widely used in the early mainframe database management systems, such as the Information Management System (IMS) by IBM. This structure allows 1 : N relationship between two types of data. This

structure is very efficient to describe many relationships in the real world; recipes, table of contents, ordering of paragraphs, any nested and sorted information. However, the hierarchical structure is inefficient for certain database operations when a full path is not included for each record. One limitation of the hierarchical model is its inability to efficiently represent redundancy in data. PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com For more detail: - http://www.gurukpo.comHierarchical structure of product (HDBMS) Network Model : The network model organizes data using two fundamental constructs, called records and sets. Records contain fields; Sets define one-tomany relationships between records: one owner, many members. A record may be an owner in any number of sets, and a member in any number of sets. The network model is a variation on the hierarchical model, to the extent that it is built on the concept of multiple branches emanating from one or more nodes. The model differs from the hierarchical model as in network model branches can be connected to multiple nodes. The network model is able to represent redundancy in data more efficiently than in the hierarchical model. Although it is not an essential feature of the model, network databases generally implement the set relationships by means of pointers that directly address the location of a record on disk. This gives excellent retrieval performance, at the expense of operations such as database loading and reorganization. PRODUCT LEVEL 1 LEVEL 2 LEVEL 4 LEVEL 5 LEVEL 3 ASSEMBLY SUBASSEMBLY PARTS COMPONENTS PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com For more detail: - http://www.gurukpo.comProduct Database in NDBMS Relational Model : Three key terms are used extensively in relational database models : relations, attributes, and domains. A relation is a table with columns and rows. The named columns of the relation are called attributes, and the domain is the set of values the attributes are allowed to take. The basic data structure of the relational model is the table, where information about a particular entity is represented in columns and rows, also called tuples. Thus, the "relation" in "relational database" refers to the various tables in the database; a relation is a set of tuples. The columns enumerate the various attributes of the entity and a row is an actual instance of the entity that is represented by the relation. As a result, each tuple of the employee table represents various attributes of a single employee.

All relations in a relational database have to adhere to some basic rules to qualify as relations. First, the ordering of columns is immaterial in a table. Second, there can't be identical tuples or rows in a table. And third, each tuple will contain a single value for each of its attributes. P P SA SA SA R R R R R C C C C C A A PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com For more detail: - http://www.gurukpo.comProduct database: Component number Component name 100 Washer 102 nut 109 bolt 111 screw Part component table: Component number Part number Usage of component in the part Component name 100 10 3 Washer 102 11 2 nut 109 12 1 bolt 111 14 4 screw 100 10 3 Washer 109 10 4 bolt 111 12 6 screw Product database in RDBMS The flexibility of relational databases allows programmers to write queries that were not anticipated by the database designers. As a result, relational databases

can be used by multiple applications in ways the original designers did not foresee, which is especially important for databases that might be used for a long time. This has made the idea and implementation of relational databases very popular with business organization. Q.4 Discuss the different views of Database System. OR Throw the light on conceptual, external and internal view of Database System. Also discuss the relationship among them. Ans.: There are three levels of DBMS architecture : a) Internal : Also known as storage level. This level is closest to physical storage. That it is the one concerned with the way data is stored inside the concept system. Internal level is defined in terms of machine oriented constructs such as bits and bytes. PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com For more detail: - http://www.gurukpo.comb) Conceptual : Conceptual level is defined in terms of user oriented constructs such as records. This is also called community logical level. It is a level of direction between the other 2 levels. c) External Level : Also called user logical level. External level is the one closest to the users, that is , it is the one concerned with the way the data is seen by individual user. Ex : Internal Conceptual External Stored employee BYTES=20 PPEFIX BYTE=6 EMPLOYEE Struct employee EMP# BYTE=6 EMPLOYEE_NUMBER char emplno(6) DEPT# BYTE=4 DEPARTMENT_NUMBER char dptno(4) PEY BYTE=4 SALARY int salary Q.5 Who is the Database Administrator? Discuss the various functions of Database Administrator? Ans.: A Database Administrator (DBA) is a person who is responsible for the environmental aspects of a database. An effective administrator skills include : Recoverability - Creating and testing Backups Integrity - Verifying or helping to verify data integrity Security - Defining and/or implementing access controls to the data Availability - Ensuring maximum uptime Performance - Ensuring maximum performance Development and testing support - Helping programmers and engineers to efficiently utilize the database. The role of a database administrator has changed according to the technology of database management systems as well as the needs of the owners of the databases. For example, although logical and physical database designs are traditionally the functions of a Database Analyst or Database Designer, a DBA may be tasked to perform those duties.

Function of DBA : The responsibilities of a database administrator vary and depend on the job description, corporate and Information Technology (IT) policies and the technical features and capabilities of the DBMS being administered. They nearly always include disaster recovery (backups and testing of backups), performance analysis and tuning, data dictionary maintenance, and some database design. PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com For more detail: - http://www.gurukpo.comSome of the roles of the DBA may include : Installation of New Software : It is primarily the job of the DBA to install new versions of DBMS software, application software, and other software related to DBMS administration. It is important that the DBA or other IS staff members test this new software before it is moved into a production environment. Configuration of Hardware and Software with the System Administrator : In many cases the system software can only be accessed by the system administrator. In this case, the DBA must work closely with the system administrator to perform software installations, and to configure hardware and software so that it functions optimally with the DBMS. Security Administration : One of the main duties of the DBA is to monitor and administer DBMS security. This involves adding and removing users, administering quotas, auditing, and checking for security problems. Data Analysis : The DBA will frequently be called on to analyze the data stored in the database and to make recommendations relating to performance and efficiency of that data storage. This might relate to the more effective use of indexes, enabling "Parallel Query" execution, or other DBMS specific features. Database Design (Preliminary) : The DBA is often involved at the preliminary database-design stages. Through the involvement of the DBA, many problems that might occur can be eliminated. The DBA knows the DBMS and system, can point out potential problems, and can help the development team with special performance considerations. Data Modeling and Optimization: By modeling the data, it is possible to optimize the system layout to take the most advantage of the I/O subsystem. Responsible for the administration of existing enterprise databases and the analysis, design, and creation of new databases. Q.6 Write short note of Data Access. Ans.: Data Access: how data can be access from secondary storage device or physical storage device. There are 3 methods for data access: a) Sequential Data Access: In this method data access one after another. Records are identified by field called key field. It is easy method and easy to design and understand. This method is used in batch processing

environment. PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com For more detail: - http://www.gurukpo.comb) Direct Access: I is also called random access. In this method each record is identified without reading intermediate records. Every record is assigns an address; whenever a particular record is to be read, altered and deleted this address is used to perform the operation. c) Index Sequential Access Method: It is used in batch and online processing. In this method each record has a key and index associated with it. Records are stored sequentially by the key field while the index permits direct access to selected record without requiring a full search of entire file. It combines positive aspects of direct and sequential methods. Database Access : Any access to stored data is done by data manager in database structure. A users request for data is received by the data manager, which determines the physical record required. The decision as to which physical record is needed may require some preliminary consultation of database and/or the data dictionary to the access of the actual data itself. The data manager sends the request for a specific physical record to the file manager. The manager decides the physical block of secondary storage device which contains the required record and sends the request for appropriate block to the disk manager. A block is a unit of physical input/output operations between primary and secondary storage. The disk manager retrieves the block and sends it to the file manager, which sends the required record to the data manager. PDF Created with deskPDF PDF Writer - Trial :: http://www.docudesk.com For more What

is DFD ? or What is Data Flow Diagram?

A data-flow diagram (DFD) is a graphical representation of the "flow" of data through an information system. DFDs can also be used for the visualization of data processing (structured design). On a DFD, data items flow from an external data source or an internal data store to an internal data store or an external data sink, via an internal process. A DFD provides no information about the timing or ordering of processes, or about whether processes will operate in sequence or in parallel. It is therefore quite different from a flowchart, which shows the flow of control through an algorithm, allowing a reader to determine what operations will be performed, in what order, and under what circumstances, but not what kinds of data will be input to and output from the system, nor where the data will come from and go to, norwhere the data will be stored (all of which are shown on a DFD).

When it comes to conveying how information data flows through systems (and how that data is transformed in the process), data flow diagrams (DFDs) are the method of choice over technical descriptions for three principal reasons. (1) DFDs are easier to understand by technical and nontechnical audiences. (2) DFDs can provide a high level system overview, complete with boundaries and connections to other systems. (3) DFDs can provide a detailed representation of system components. DFDs help system designers and others during initial analysis stages visualize a current system or one that may be necessary to meet new requirements. Systems analysts prefer working with DFDs, particularly when they require a clear understanding of the boundary between existing systems and postulated systems. DFDs represent the following: 1. External devices sending and receiving data 2. Processes that change that data 3. Data flows themselves 4. Data storage locations The hierarchical DFD typically consists of a top-level diagram (Level 0) underlain by cascading lower level diagrams (Level 1, Level 2) that represent different parts of the system. detail: - http://wwata

Flow Diagrams

The following text is derived from the Data Flow Diagram entry in the online Wikipedia. A data flow diagram (DFD) is a graphical representation of the "flow" of data through an information system. A data flow diagram can also be used for the visualization of data processing (structured design). It is common practice for a designer to draw a context-level DFD first which shows the interaction between the system and outside entities. This context-level DFD is then "exploded" to show more detail of the system being modeled. Data flow diagrams were invented by Larry Constantine ... based on Martin and Estrin's "data flow graph" model of computation. [They] are one of the three essential perspectives of Structured Systems Analysis and Design Method SSADM. The sponsor of a project and the end users will need to be briefed and consulted throughout all stages of a system's evolution. With a dataflow diagram, users are able to visualize how the system will operate, what the system will accomplish, and how the system will be implemented. The old system's dataflow diagrams can be drawn up and compared with the new system's dataflow diagrams to draw comparisons to implement a more efficient system. Developing a DFD helps in identifying the transaction data in the data model. For further information on the concepts of Data Flow Diagrams, refer to the Wikipedia item and its linked sources.

Data Flow Diagrams in Enterprise Architect


Enterprise Architect enables you to develop Data Flow diagrams quickly and simply, through use of an MDG Technology integrated with the Enterprise Architect installer. The Data Flow diagram facilities are provided in the form of:

A Data Flow diagram type, accessed through the New Diagram dialog A Data Flow Diagram page in the Toolbox Data Flow element and relationship entries in the Toolbox Shortcut Menu and Quick Linker.

Data Flow Diagram Toolbox Page


You can access the Data Flow Diagram page of the Toolbox through the More tools | Data Flow Diagrams menu option. The following icons are available:

Process is a process or activity in which data is used or generated External represents an external source, user or depository of the data Data Store represents an internal physical or electronic repository of data, into and out of which data is stored and retrieved Data Flow (connector) represents how data flows through the system, in physical or electronic form Gate represents the termination point of incoming and outgoing messages on a lower level diagram (that is, messages to and from processes depicted elsewhere).

When dragged onto a Data Flow diagram, the elements and relationship have the following appearances:

To preserve the simplicity and readability of the diagram, you cannot display the element compartments on the diagram.

Context Diagram
A Context diagram is a top-level Data Flow diagram that has just one Process element representing the system being modeled, showing its relationship to external systems.

w.gurukpo. Donald S. Le Vie, Jr. Data flow diagrams (DFDs) reveal relationships among and between the various components in a program or system. DFDs are an important technique for modeling a systems high-level detail by showing how input data is transformed to output results through a sequence of functional transformations. DFDs consist of four major components: entities, processes, data stores, and data

comUnderstanding Data Flow Diagrams

flows. The symbols used to depict how these components interact in a system are simple and easy to understand; however, there are several DFD models to work from, each having its own symbology. DFD syntax does remain constant by using simple verb and noun constructs. Such a syntactical relationship of DFDs makes them ideal for object-oriented analysis and parsing functional specifications into precise DFDs for the systems analyst. DEFINING DATA FLOW DIAGRAMS (DFDs) When it comes to conveying how information data flows through systems (and how that data is transformed in the process), data flow diagrams (DFDs) are the method of choice over technical descriptions for three principal reasons. 1. DFDs are easier to understand by technical and nontechnical audiences 2. DFDs can provide a high level system overview, complete with boundaries and connections to other systems 3. DFDs can provide a detailed representation of system components1 DFDs help system designers and others during initial analysis stages visualize a current system or one that may be necessary to meet new requirements. Systems analysts prefer working with DFDs, particularly when they require a clear understanding of the boundary between existing systems and postulated systems. DFDs represent the following: 1. External devices sending and receiving data 2. Processes that change that data 3. Data flows themselves 4. Data storage locations The hierarchical DFD typically consists of a top-level diagram (Level 0) underlain by cascading lower level diagrams (Level 1, Level 2) that represent different parts of the system. Before There Were DFDs Flowcharts and Pseudocode Years ago, programmers used a combination of flowcharts and pseudocode (a combination of English

and the programming language being

written) to design programs. Pseudocode can actually be simpler to read than corresponding

flowcharts, as

Figure 1 illustrates.

Phases of System Development Life Cycle


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Let us now describe the different phases and the related activities of system development life cycle in detail.

Data Flow Diagrams

Data flow diagrams (DFDs) are a way of representing a system's business processes, the flow of data into and out of those processes, and the flow of data between the system and the external agencies with which it interacts. The resulting graphical views of the system, its processes, and its data flows can be used as a basis for discussion between system developers and users of the system. A hierarchy of DFDs is produced, starting with an overview that provides a very abstract view of the system and ending with a number of diagrams representing the lowest-level sub-processes. The highest level DFD is the context diagram, which simply shows the system of interest, the external entities with which it interacts, and

the data flows between the system and the external entities. A typical context diagram is shown below.

A context diagram for an order management system

You will notice several things about this diagram. An external entity (in this case "Customer") is shown as an ellipse, appropriately labelled. An external entity is either a source of data entering the system, or a destination for data leaving the system, or (more often than not) both. The system itself is simply shown as a rectangular box with a suitable name. A data flow is represented by a line, suitably labelled, with an arrow at one end (or in some cases both ends) showing in which direction the data is flowing. The Customer external entity is duplicated on the diagram for the sake of clarity, to avoid too many data flows close together. The diagonal line in the top left corner of the Customer external entity symbol is to indicate that more than one instance of this entity appears on the diagram. The last thing of note is the representation of a resource flow("Goods"), which is shown as a line with a double-headed arrow. The context diagram serves to define the system boundary. Any entity with which the system interacts, but which is not a part of the system itself, is an external entity. Before doing too much work on a set of data flow diagrams, it is worth drawing up a list of the external entities providing inputs to or receiving outputs from the system, and identifying those inputs and outputs. In addition, it would be useful to identify all of the high-level business activities included within the system boundary, and relate these activities to specific inputs and outputs. The sort of questions to be asked include questions such as "Who does what, when, where and how?" and "What data do each of these people need to carry out their tasks?". We can represent the high-level processes within the system of interest by creating a level 1 data flow diagram. An example of a level 1 DFD for our order management system is shown below.

A level 1 data flow diagram for an order management system

We now have three processes, "Manage enquiry", "Manage order", and "Manage sales ledger". Each process is represented by a rectangle, subdivided into three smaller rectangles. Each has a descriptive name that provides a clue as to the type of activity taking place within it, and an ID number in the top left corner. Note that the ordering of these ID numbers is purely arbitrary, and there is no priority implied by it. The space to the right of the ID number can be used, if required, to identify the person or department responsible for the process, or the location at which it occurs. A process is some activity that receives data, transforms it in some way, and (usually) outputs it again in a modified format. We also have three data stores, "Sales orders", "Quotations" and "Invoices". The data store symbol is also a rectangle, subdivided into two smaller rectangles and open at one end. The boxed in area at the left side of the data store symbol contains an ID number, prefixed with a capita "D" (for data, presumably!). Again, no priority is implied by the numbering of data stores. To the right of the ID number is the name of the data store, which usually gives a clue as to the kind of information

held. The data store is a generic representation of some physical or electronic data storage medium, such as index cards or a database file. Like external entities, data stores can be duplicated on the same diagram for the sake of clarity. Some rules for data flow diagrams:

all processes must have at least one data in, and one data flow out each process should represent only one activity at a particular level each data store must have both inputs and outputs, and relate to at least one data flow each external entity must relate to at least one data flow each data flow must be attached to at least one process a data flow from an external entity must flow into a process a data flow to an external entity must flow from a process a data flow to a data store can only come from a process a data flow from a data store can only go to a process As a general rule, the number of processes shown in a DFD should not exceed twelve

The context diagram and level 1 DFD may well be re-drawn a number of times before a consensus is reached between developers and users that the diagrams accurately represent all of the high level processes, data stores, and data flows. Looking at the above DFD, for example, it will become apparent that we do not currently have a data store for customer information. Once these diagrams are considered to be substantially correct, however, each of the high-level processes included in the level 1 DFD will probably require further analysis to break them down into their constituent sub-processes, resulting in a level 2 DFD being produced for each process shown on the level 1 DFD. A level 2 DFD for the "Manage enquiry" process is shown below.

A level 2 data flow diagram for the "Manage enquiry" process

Each (parent) process in the level 1 DFD will be decomposed into lower level (child) sub-processes. The lower level processes may be further decomposed if necessary, although it is unusual to have to do this beyond level 3, and often level 2 is sufficient. Note that the data flows in and out of a parent DFD must be evident in the child DFD. Note also that the ID number allocated to the parent process is carried down to each child process. In the example above, the "Manage enquiry" process has an ID number of 2, and the three sub-processes have the ID numbers 2.1, 2.2 and 2.3. Once a low level process is considered to be a discrete task that is sufficiently atomic in nature, no further decomposition is necessary and an elementary process description (EPD) can be produced for each low-level process (see example below).

Elementary process descriptions for "Manage enquiry"

Data flow diagrams can be used to represent the system, not only at different levels of detail, but from different perspectives. The four main types of data flow diagram are described below:

Current logical DFD - describes what the system does, but not necessarily how it does it. This is useful for discussing the functionality of the system without getting bogged down in too much detail. Current physical DFD - describes what the system does and how the functionality is currently implemented. This type of diagram is useful for highlighting redundant processes and data stores, and for giving the analyst an insight into how the system operates in its present form. Required logical DFD - describes what the new system must be able to do, but not necessarily how it should do it. This is useful for achieving consensus between developers and users on a requirements specification. Required physical DFD - describes what the new system will do and how the functionality will be implemented. This type of diagram is

produced during the design stage, and is useful for conveying to users how the system will be implemente

Contents
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1 System Study 2 Feasibility Study 3 Detailed System Study 4 System Analysis 5 System Design 6 Coding 7 Testing 8 Implementation 9 Maintenance

System Study
Preliminary system study is the first stage of system development life cycle. This is a brief investigation of the system under consideration and gives a clear picture of what actually the physical system is? In practice, the initial system study involves the preparation of a System proposal which lists the Problem Definition, Objectives of the Study, Terms of reference for Study, Constraints, Expected benefits of the new system, etc. in the light of the user requirements. The system proposal is prepared by the System Analyst (who studies the system) and places it before the user management. The management may accept the proposal and the cycle proceeds to the next stage. The management may also reject the proposal or request some modifications in the proposal. In summary, we would say that system study phase passes through the following steps:

problem identification and project initiation background analysis inference or findings

Feasibility Study
In case the system proposal is acceptable to the management, the next phase is to examine the feasibility of the system. The feasibility study is basically the test of the proposed system in the light of its workability, meeting users requirements, effective use of resources and of course, the cost effectiveness. These are categorized as technical, operational, economic, schedule and social feasibility. The main goal of feasibility study is not to solve the problem but to achieve the scope. In the process of feasibility study, the cost and benefits are estimated with greater accuracy to find the Return on Investment (ROI). This

also defines the resources needed to complete the detailed investigation. The result is a feasibility report submitted to the management. This may be accepted or accepted with modifications or rejected. In short, following decision are taken in different feasibility study: Economic feasibility - The likely benefits outweigh the cost of solving the problem which is generally demonstrated by a cost/ benefit analysis. Operational feasibility - Whether the problem can be solved in the users environment with existing and proposed system workings? Organizational feasibility Whether the proposed system is consistent with the organizations strategic objectives? Technical feasibility - Whether the problem be solved using existing technology and resources available? Social feasibility Whether the problem be solved without causing any social issues? Whether the system will be acceptable to the society?

Detailed System Study


The detailed investigation of the system is carried out in accordance with the objectives of the proposed system. This involves detailed study of various operations performed by a system and their relationships within and outside the system. During this process, data are collected on the available files, decision points and transactions handled by the present system. Interviews, on-site observation and questionnaire are the tools used for detailed system study. Using the following steps it becomes easy to draw the exact boundary of the new system under consideration: Keeping in view the problems and new requirements Workout the pros and cons including new areas of the system

All the data and the findings must be documented in the form of detailed data flow diagrams (DFDs), data dictionary, logical data structures and miniature specifications. It includes planning for the new system, analysis of requirement, system constraints, functions and proposed system architecture, prototype of the proposed system and its analysis.

System Analysis
Systems analysis is a process of collecting factual data, understand the processes involved, identifying problems and recommending feasible suggestions for improving the system functioning. This involves studying the business processes, gathering operational data, understand the information flow, finding out bottlenecks and evolving solutions for overcoming the weaknesses of the system so as to achieve the organizational goals. System Analysis also includes subdividing of complex process involving the entire system, identification of data store and manual processes. The major objectives of systems analysis are to find answers for each business process: What is being done? How is it being done?

Who is doing it? When is he doing it? Why is it being done? How can it be improved? It is more of a thinking process and involves the creative skills of the System Analyst. It attempts to give birth to a new efficient system that satisfies the current needs of the user and has scope for future growth within the organizational constraints. The result of this process is a logical system design. System analysis is an iterative process that continues until a preferred and acceptable solution emerges.

System Design
Based on the user requirements and the detailed analysis of a new system, the new system must be designed. This is the phase of system designing. It is the most crucial phase in the development of a system. The logical system design arrived at as a result of system analysis and is converted into physical system design. In the design phase the SDLC process continues to move from the whatquestions of the analysis phase to the how . The logical design produced during the analysis is turned into a physical design - a detailed description of what is needed to solve original problem. Input, output, databases, forms, codification schemes and processing specifications are drawn up in detail. In the design stage, the programming language and the hardware and software platform in which the new system will run are also decided. Data structure, control process, equipment source, workload and limitation of the system, Interface, documentation, training, procedures of using the system, taking backups and staffing requirement are decided at this stage. There are several tools and techniques used for describing the system design of the system. These tools and techniques are: Flowchart, Data flow diagram (DFD), Data dictionary, Structured English, Decision table and Decision tree which will be discussed in detailed in the next lesson.

Coding
The system design needs to be implemented to make it a workable system. his demands the coding of design into computer language, i.e., programming language. This is also called the programming phase in which the programmer converts the program specifications into computer instructions, which we refer to as programs. It is an important stage where the defined procedures are transformed into control specifications by the help of a computer language. The programs coordinate the data movements and control the entire process in a system. A well written code reduces the testing and maintenance effort. It is generally felt that the programs must be modular in nature. This helps in fast development, maintenance and future changes, if required. Programming tools like compilers, interpreters and language like c, c++, and java etc., are used for coding .with respect to the type of application. The right programming language should be chosen.

Testing
Before actually implementing the new system into operations, a test run of the system is done removing all the bugs, if any. It is an important phase of a successful system. After codifying the whole programs of the system, a test plan should be developed and run on a given set of test data. The output of the test run should match the expected results. Sometimes, system testing is considered as a part of implementation process.

Using the test data following test run are carried out: Program test System test

Program test : When the programs have been coded and compiled and brought to working conditions, they must be individually tested with the prepared test data. All verification and validation be checked and any undesirable happening must be noted and debugged (error corrected). System Test : After carrying out the program test for each of the programs of the system and errors removed, then system test is done. At this stage the test is done on actual data. The complete system is executed on the actual data. At each stage of the execution, the results or output of the system is analyzed. During the result analysis, it may be found that the outputs are not matching the expected output of the system. In such case, the errors in the particular programs are identified and are fixed and further tested for the expected output. All independent modules be brought together and all the interfaces to be tested between multiple modules, the whole set of software is tested to establish that all modules work together correctly as an application or system or package. When it is ensured that the system is running error-free, the users are called with their own actual data so that the system could be shown running as per their requirements.

Implementation
After having the user acceptance of the new system developed, the implementation phase begins. Implementation is the stage of a project during which theory is turned into practice. The major steps involved in this phase are: Acquisition and Installation of Hardware and Software Conversion User Training Documentation

The hardware and the relevant software required for running the system must be made fully operational before implementation. The conversion is also one of the most critical and expensive activities in the system development life cycle. The data from the old system needs to be converted to operate in the new format of the new system. The database needs to be setup with security and recovery procedures fully defined. During this phase, all the programs of the system are loaded onto the users computer. After loading the system, training of the user starts. Main topics of such type of training are: How to execute the package? How to enter the data? How to process the data (processing details)? How to take out the reports?

After the users are trained about the computerized system, working has to shift from manual to computerized working. The process is called Changeover. The following strategies are followed for changeover of the system. 1. Direct Changeover: This is the complete replacement of the old system by the new system. It is a risky approach and requires comprehensive system testing and training. 2. Parallel run : In parallel run both the systems, i.e., computerized and manual, are executed simultaneously for certain defined period. The same data is processed by both the systems. This strategy is less risky but more expensive because of the following facts: Manual results can be compared with the results of the computerized system. The operational work is doubled. Failure of the computerised system at the early stage does not affect the working of the organization, because the manual system continues to work, as it used to do.

(iii) Pilot run: In this type of run, the new system is run with the data from one or more of the previous periods for the whole or part of the system. The results are compared with the old system results. It is less expensive and risky than parallel run approach. This strategy builds the confidence and the errors are traced easily without affecting the operations. The documentation of the system is also one of the most important activity in the system development life cycle. This ensures the continuity of the system. Generally following two types of documentations are prepared for any system.

User or Operator Documentation System Documentation

User Documentation: The user documentation is a complete description of the system from the users point of view detailing how to use or operate the system. It also includes the major error messages likely to be encountered by the user. System Documentation: The system documentation contains the details of system design, programs, their coding, system flow, data dictionary, process description, etc. This helps to understand the system and permit changes to be made in the existing system to satisfy new user needs.

Maintenance
Maintenance is necessary to eliminate errors in the system during its working life and to tune the system to any variations in its working environments. It must meet the scope of any future enhancement, future functionality and any other added functional features to cope up with the latest future needs. It has been seen that there are always some errors found in the systems that must be noted and corrected. It also means the review of the system from time to time. The review of the system is done for: knowing the full capabilities of the system knowing the required changes or the additional requirements

studying the performance. If a major change to a system is needed, a new project may have to be set up to carry out the change. The new project will then proceed through all the above life cycle phases.

Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) puts emphasis on decision making processes that affect system cost and usefulness. These decisions must be based on full consideration of business processes, functional requirements, and economic and technical feasibility. The primary objectives of any SDLC is to deliver quality system which meets or exceed customer expectations and within cost estimates, work effectively and efficiently within the current and planned infrastructure, and is an inexpensive to maintain. SDLC establishes a logical order of events for conducting system development that is controlled, measured, documented, and ultimately improved. Any software is not all complete and there are enough rooms to add new features to existing software.

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 12, 2008

Stages of System Development Life Cycle (SDLC)


The System Development is the interactive process which consists of the following stages Preliminary Investigation: One of the most tedious task is to recognize the real problem of the pre-installed system. The analysis has to spend hours and days for understanding the fault in the system. This fault could have however overcome if the Preliminary Investigation before installing the system was properly done. This is the first stage of thedevelopment of the system. In this stage the analyst makes a survey by gathering all the available information needed for the system elements and allocation of the requirements to the software. Analysis of the requirement: The analyst understands the nature of the information and the functions of the software which is required for the system. The analyst makes a brief survey of the requirements and tries to analyze the performance of the system which is to be developed. He also makes sure that he gets enoughinformation and resources for building the appropriate system. System Design: The analyst actually makes number of designs of the system on paper or on the computer and sees to it that the rough image made of the system comprises of all the requirements or not. Once this is done, the analyst selects and finalizes a best suited design for thedevelopment of the system.

System Coding: The analyst translates the code or the programs in such a way that they become in machine readable form. The coding step is very time consuming and involves number of rooms

for errors. System Testing: Once the analyst is through with the coding stage he tests the systems and sees to it that it is working as per the expectations or not. He corrects theflaws in the system if any. System Implementation: This is one of the most vital phase as in this phase the analyst actually gives the system to the customer and expects for a positive feedback. System Maintenance: The last stage of the SDLC is that the analyst needs to maintain the system and see to it that it working within the standards set. He needs to maintain the system by removing the defects of flaws occure

office automation

The use of computer systems to execute a variety of office operations, such asword processing, accounting, and email. Office automation almost always implies a network of computers with a variety of available programs.

Office Automation Systems Concept

(IS 415) Abdisalam Issa-Salwe Taibah University Information Systems Faculty of Computer Science & Engineering Lecture 12 Course Objectives To understand the need and importance of Office Automation Systems To understand the benefits of paperless Office To know about the components of Office Automation To study the concept of Office Information Systems3 Session Objective Understanding office automation Knowing the changing office concept Understanding the organisational status of office automation4 Office Automation An automation system is a precisely planned change in a physical or administrative task utilising a new process, method, or machine that increases productivity, quality, and profit while providing methodological control and analysis. The value of system automation is in its ability to improve efficiency; reduce wasted resources associated with rejects or errors; increase consistency, quality, and customer satisfaction; and maximise profit. 5 Office Automation (cont) Definition: Office automation refers to the varied computer machinery and software used to digitally create, collect, store, manipulate, and relay office information needed for accomplishing basic tasks and goals. Raw data storage, electronic transfer, and the management of electronic business information comprise the basic activities of an office automation system. Office automation helps in optimising or automating existing office procedures. The backbone of office automation is LAN, which allows users to transmit data, mail and even voice across the network. All office functions, including dictation, typing, filing, copying, fax, Telex, microfilm and records management, telephone and telephone switchboard operations, fall into this category.

Office automation was a popular term in the 1970s and 1980s as the desktop computer exploded onto the scene.6 Office Automation (cont) The automation of everyday office tasks is one of the key results of the electronic revolution No modern office can hope to survive without many of them IT as the technological innovations that have transformed the way we work in the late twentieth century Integrated into a smoothly working business system, office automation tools can vastly improve office productivity78 About Office Automation Systems (OAS) The use of computer systems to execute a variety of office operations, such as word processing, accounting, and e-mail. Office automation almost always implies a network of computers with a variety of available programs. Includes a wide range of applications of computer, communication and information technologies in office environments. 9 About OAS (cont) Refers to all tools and methods that are applied to office activities Making possible to process written, visual, and sound data in a computer-aided manner. Provides elements which make it possible to simplify, improve, and automate the organisation of the activities of a company or a group of people (management of administrative data, synchronisation of meetings, etc.). 10 Automation has altered not only our work environment, but our very concept of work Automation as a continual state of flux, the size of the market is huge, with annual investments measured in billions of dollars Office automation is the basic requirements of any office or department within an organisation. Office automation aims to organise the functions in such a way that they do not have to be carried out on a variety of equipment. About OAS (cont)11

About OAS (cont) Office automation seems to proceeding more rapidly and penetrate economic activities more thoroughly than have other waves of automation World economy is driven by the incessant demand for information as it is by the continuing necessity of converting raw materials into finished products Office work is rapidly being automated, or computerised12 About OAS (cont) The office as the primary workplace for many industries, such as banking, insurance, and real estate Handling information as the main activity it requires a system Use of information for the purpose of tracking, monitoring, recording, directing, and supporting complex human activities13 About OAS (cont) One consequences of information and communication technologies is that together they make much office work independent of the place where it has usually been performed They allow it to be done in the home, in airplanes and trains, and in other countries14 Towards OAS trend A continuing strong movement towards microcomputers and towards distributed data access and data handling, usually superimposed on rather than superseding centralised automatic data processing; More powerful, easier to use, software; A strong trend towards linking and networking of microcomputers, minicomputers, mainframes, and peripheral and supporting systems; Increasing choice among technological options for accomplishing information handling objectives;15 Towards OAS trend (cont) More and more capture of data at the point of origin, decreasing the need for repeated keyboarding and centralised data entry; Growing capability for communication, between devices, between organisations, and between locations.16

Office Automation Focus Office automation refers to the type of computer machinery and software used to digitally create, collect, store, manipulate, and relay office information needed for accomplishing basic tasks and goals. Raw data storage, electronic transfer, and the management of electronic business information comprise the basic activities of an office automation system17 There are three basic activities of an office automation system: Storage of information, data exchange, and data management. Within each broad application area, hardware and software combine to fulfill basic functions that are needed to successfully accomplish the goals for a specific business. Storage of information would be the computer or a computer like system. Data Exchange would be a fax, phone, or some type of communication hardware. Data management would be using specific software tools to organise and maintain data. Office Automation Focus (cont)18 The technology contribution The impact of technological change has, in the past, repeatedly confounded expectations; sometimes it has been slower than expected, sometimes more rapid Computing: The earliest applications were automated payroll and inventory-control systems. These systems were usually operated only by programmers in the data-processing division of the organisation The applications of computers in organisational settings grew to include more and more kinds of data processing. 19 Text processing: In the mid-1970s IBM introduced a product called the MCST - Magnetic Card Selectric Typewriter. This device had a box crammed with electronic equipment The operator would insert a specially coated

card the size and shape of a standard IBM punch card into a slot on the top of the box and would type on the attached typewriter as usual The technology contribution (cont) 20 Communications Technology: Focusing on the movement of information from one place to another. A wide range of techniques to achieve this end were introduced, from telex and facsimile services to services using specially conditioned telephone lines and others using sophisticated satellite links between distant points The technology contribution (cont) 2122 Integrating the system Office automation tools can vastly improve office productivity. However, the very richness and diversity of these tools is the source of some of our most serious office problems. There thousands of programs running on dozens of different kinds of computers and operating systems, often linked together by a variety of networks, the potential for incompatibilities is great.23 Hierarchy of Office Automation Systems, (Chorafas, 1982)2425 The Internet: The Internet as the most dramatic shift for business in communications technology Increasing use of the Internet in the form of email and websites is transforming the work environment The Internet has broken down traditional geographic barriers to communication, opened up markets, and created an environment of almost instantaneous feedback The technology contribution (cont) 26 The effect of office automation Office automation reduces the number of clerical Large firms no longer have to employ typists

Office employees become more flexible and several people Receptionists can spend more time with clients Managers need not necessarily delegate typing, to include more Public Relations work27 27 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, Faculty of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University Within each basic activity of an office, hardware and software combine to fulfill basic functions that are needed to successfully accomplish the goals for a specific business. The three basic activities of an office automation system: Storage of information Data exchange Data management. Office Automation Focus 28 28 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, Faculty of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University Data storage and manipulation Storage of information would be the computer or a computer like system Data storage includes office records and other primary office forms and documents Data applications involve the capture and editing of files, images, or spreadsheets Example 1: Word processing and desktop presentation packages accommodate raw textual and graphical data Example 2: Spreadsheet applications provide users with the capacity to engage in the easy manipulation and output of numbers Example 3: Image applications allow the capture and editing of visual images.29 29 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, Faculty of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University Data storage and manipulation (cont) Text handling software and systems cover the whole field of word processing and desktop publishing Word processing, the most basic and common office automation activity, is the inputting (usually via keyboard)

and manipulation of text on a computer One important features of word processing packages are their preformatted document templates Desktop publishing adds another dimension to text manipulation30 30 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, Faculty of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University Data Exchange While data storage and manipulation is one component of an office automation systems Exchange of that information is an important component of office activity Electronic transfer is a general application area that highlights the exchange of information between more than one user or participant31 31 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, Faculty of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University Data Exchange (cont) Systems that allow instantaneous or "real time" transfer of information (i.e. online conversations via computer or audio exchange with video capture) are considered electronic sharing systems Electronic mail, voice mail, and facsimile are examples of electronic transfer applications Other examples would be a fax, phone, or some type of communication hardware32 32 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, Faculty of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University Data Exchange and Manipulation (cont) Office automation systems that include the ability to electronically share information between more than one user simultaneously are sometimes referred to as groupware systems One type of groupware is an electronic meeting system Electronic meeting systems allow geographically dispersed participants to exchange information in real time33 33

Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, Faculty of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University Data management Office automation systems are also often used to track both short-term and long-term data in the realms of financial plans, workforce allocation plans, marketing expenditures, inventory purchases, and other aspects of business Task management or scheduling systems monitor and control various projects and activities within the office Electronic management systems monitor and control office activities and tasks through timelines, resource equations, and electronic scheduling. 34 34 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, Faculty of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University Integrating the system Office automation tools can vastly improve office productivity. However, the very richness and diversity of these tools is the source of some of our most serious office problems. There thousands of programs running on dozens of different kinds of computers and operating systems, often linked together by a variety of networks, the potential for incompatibilities is great.35 Discussion Questions Look at the difference between manual and computerised office system; Comparison of manual and computerised system Advantage and disadvantage of manual system Advantage and disadvantage of computerised system How an organisation can: Exchange information Manage administrative documents