Appendix:The PrinciPalPlaYers

Thn GermanSide KonradAdenauer:Germany,sfirstchancellorafterWorldWarll.HeledGermany,s into NATO' entrance transitionliom enemyto ah and its eventual front agentoperationson.the eastern Hermann Baun: After headingthe Abwehr's to Gehlen Reinhard with an agreement ifrr""gitt", the war, he immeiiately made met Baun while operationagainstsoviet forces. ."_".Jur" the information-collection hiscommitmentandlbrtwoyearsprovidedcriticalsupporttoGehlen,theirrelations of role in the emergence and eventualf f'oat'"td a break'He playedno deteriorated theBND. Stafffrom 1934to 1938'IdeologiLudwig Beck Chief of the GermanArmy General callyandintellectuallyopposedtoHitler,heexertedagreatinfluenceonyoungofficers period' enteringthe GermanGeneralStaffduring this TheodorBlankAleaderinthelaborwingoftheChristianDemocraticUnion'He Allies in with the. plirrning and negotiations for defense headedan officeresponsible was sovereignty only after ministerin 1955 defense andbecame theyears1g5oto 1955, into NATO' grantedand Germanywasaccepted to Adenauer on foreign policy' He Herbert Blankenhorn: The p\incipal advisor schwerin,but with Hans Globke's initially identifiedwith the sritirh *a with Graf his role was diminished'He conin late summer.1950 ur"".rjurr"y in the chancellory tinuedtobepromi,,entinG"rmany'sdiplomaticrelationswithNATOandtheWestem Allies. yearsafter the war. circle for several Eberhard Blum: A memberof Gehlen,sinner he contributedin the no GeneralStaffbackground, n"ir""a ilffi ""d;J; the gNb' After servinga remarkable effort to broaden,h. irt;;;;? G"hl"" and of he wascalledback to succeed in Washington' twelveyears* th" nND'3p'"tt"*'it'" of the BND' asPresident Wessel

APPEN

D IX

TH E P B I N C I P A L

P L A Y t rR S

Heinz Felfe: A former SD officer who was recruited by the KGB and positione4rr within the Gehlen organization for a firll decadeafter rg5r. An almost legendary world, he inflicted enormousdamageto the BND and to figure in the intelligence reputation. Gehlen's commanderof the German HerrnannFoertsch: FirstArmy at theend ofworld WarII.. and speidelin developing Hejoined Heusinger the concepts and plansfor Germany's and the earlyplanningstages rearmament of the Bundeswehr. Reinhard Gehlen:A Generalstaffofficer who, under FranzHalder,headedFremde Heereost, the intelligence departmentof the Generalstaffstationedon the eastern front. He emerged in thepostwareraaspresidentof the BND, Germany,s first intelli. gence service. Dr. Hans Globke:As statesecretary in the chancellor's officehe wasthe mostpowerful figurein the earlyAdenauer government, shapingthe foreignand defense policies that took Germanyinto a closerelationshipwith the united statesand NATO. He brought Heusinger,speidel, and Gehleninto key positions in Adenauer,s national' securitysystem. , FranzHalder: chief of the GermanArmy Generalstafffrom rg3guntil his final breakl with Hitler inrg42. He wasarrested by the Gestapo and takento Berlin for interroga-. tion aftertheeoJuly 1944coupattemptagainst Hitler. It wasin his Generalstaffheadquartersin East Prussiawhere the Gehlen organization was born and where the relationship between Heusingerand Gehlendeveloped. , Heinz Danko Herre: A Generalstaffofficer intimatelyassociated with Gehlenfroml their earlydaysin FremdeHeereost and during the entirepostwarperiod leading up to creationof the BND. He waswith Gehlenin the United States the immedialely after war and emerged asthe memberof Gehlen'sclosest advisors, the one individualwho demonstrated a personalresponsibiJity for theAmericanconnection, oflus regardless assignment. Adolf Heusinger: A lieutenantgeneraland chief of operationsin the Generalstafr underFranzHalderandhis successor, Kurt Sietzler, fiom 1g4oto 1g{{. He wasarrested and interrogatedby the Gestapo afterthe zo July ry44 coupattempiagainstHitler. After thewar he emerged astheprimaryfigr." ilr;h.'.*td.vjop*".ri Bundeswehr. of.-the conrad Kuehlein:A General staffofficerwho twiceserved adjuasHalder,spersonal tant on the eastern front and for a brief period on Gehlen,sFremdeHeereOst staff. After the war he became headof the operational and staffof the GehlenOrganization one of the most important figurescementingthe relationshipbetweenthe Getrlen Organization and Americanintelligence.

Graf Schwerin: A recognized commander of armored forces in the war who briefly emerged (under British sponsorship) as a military advisor to Adenauer in the summer ofr95o. He was not an influence beyond r95o. Kurt Schumacher: Head of the opposition German Social Democratic Party during the immediate postwar period. Hans Speidel: A lieutenant general who inrg44waschief of staffon Rommel's Group B. He was also brought to Berlin for interrogation by the Gestapo after the ZoJuly coup attempt. He sharescredit with Heusinger for creating the Bundeswehr and developing the relationship with NATO. Horst von Mellenthin: A General Staffofficer who headed the Abwehr station in Berlin and later headed Germany's prewar military attach6 service. He was a mqjor influence in both Gehlen's efforts in developing an intelligence network and in Heusinger's efforts at remilitarization. Horst Wendland: A General Staffofficer on the easternfiont who late in the war served ashead of the organizational department of the General Staff. Hejoined Gehlen's staff in 1948 and rapiJ$ emerged as one of the most respected and capable members of the inner circle, ultimately named Gehlen's general depufy. Gerhard Wessel: A General Staff officer who shared Gehlen's entire experience on the eastern ftont and who was for much of the time Gehlen's deputy. Late in the war he succeeded Gehlen as head of Fremde Heere Ost. He was the central figure in the FHO staffassembled by the U.S. Army G-Z at the end of the war. He later succeeded Gehlen as BND president. Eberhard Wildermuth: A member of the Free Democratic Party in Adenauer's coalition government who aspired to be the minister of defense. A friend of Hans Speidel, it *ai he who initially brought Heusinger, Speidel, and Foertsch and their ideas to the attention of the chancellor. After r95o he played no further role in military affairs and died in March rg5z.

The American Sidz ReinhardGehlenin thewiesbaden John Boker:The u.s. Army officerwho discovered interrogationcenterand introducedhim into the U.S.Army G-z system' in Germanyduringthe postwar Lucius Clay: The mostinfluentialAmericangeneral period from 1945to rg4g.He exercised his power from Berlin asU'S' military goverand finallyascommander Theater, nor,ascommander in chief,U.S.Forces-European in chief,U.S. Command-Europe.

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APPENDIX THE PRINCIPAL PLAYERS

JamesCritchfield: A U.S

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Gordon stewart: chief of Statiol-Glrmany during the formative yearsof the Gehlen Organization asa ClA-supportedactivity. Arthur Tirrdeau: The headof the u.s. Army G-z in-washington who, beginningin i954,unsuccessfully opposed Adenauer,s poii"y o'the Gehlir O.g""lr.Ji". Eric waldman: A U.s. war Departmentintelrigence officer who worked with the Gehlengroup at Fort Hunt in rg45 and,r946 andln Germanyfrom 1946to tg4g.

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Tom Lucid: He came thto'gh Italy with Mark clark,s Fifth Army 'P of the 43oth and thlef corps before transferring pjfr"r. was the "ou U.r"*rrr.*"lr#u.ounterintelligence ," in ry4g. district e attorn"y",

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