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**Effect of High Frequency Electromagnetic Fields on Homogenous and Inhomogeneous Human Head Models
**

Ossama E. Gouda1, Adel Zein E. M.2, and Ghada Amer3 1 Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Giza Egypt 2 Higher Institute of Energy, South Valley University, Aswan, Egypt 3 Higher Institute of Technology, Benha University, Benha, Egypt

Abstract—This paper describes the research work done by using the method of moment in investigating the effects of high frequency electromagnetic field (EM) on a homogeneous and inhomogeneous human head at various frequencies. The behavior of the human head under EM radiation is modeled as a homogenous model and a multilayer model in order to assess biological effects on the human head. The specific absorption rate (SAR) in the human head model is calculated, where the SAR is the main parameter used for indicating the effects of EM field. Index Terms—EMF, SAR, Human head, Method of moments.

Also the results of the three layer model are compared with those of homogenous model at 900MHz [4]. 2-FEKO SIMULATION AND VALIDATION The FEKO program is based on the Method of Moments. Electromagnetic fields are obtained by first calculating the electric surface currents on conducting surfaces and equivalent electric and magnetic surface currents on the surface of a dielectric solid. The currents are calculated using a linear combination of basis functions, where the coefficients are obtained by solving a system of linear equations. Once the current distribution is known, further parameters can be obtained e.g. the near field, the far field, radar cross sections, directivity or the input impedance of antennas [5]. The simulation procedure is as follows: 1-Create the human geometry model 2-Define the frequency, human parameters and meshing parameters, 3-Create the monopole and mobile handset, define parameters for segmentation, excitation and radiation power 4-Solving the problem 5-Calculate the near field and SAR. Table (2) shows the calculation information from FEKO program. 3- RESULTS AND DISCUSSION A. Calculation Position As it cannot be expected that the user will hold the mobile phone exactly in one well defined position, therefore there are different operational conditions. Let a reference line describing the phone is defined as a line which connects the center of the ear piece with the center of the bottom of the case and the human head position is given by means of a reference plane defined by the following three points: auditory canal opening of both ears and the center of the closed mouth [6]. With these definitions the calculation position is given by: The telephone line shall lie in the reference plane (40 degrees around x-axis). The angle between the phone line and the line connecting both auditory canal openings shall be reduced (10 degrees around y-axis) until the device touch the human head. A FEKO simulation of the human head and the handset antenna interaction is shown in figures (1-a) and (1-b). B. Specific Absorption Rate It is generally accepted that the Specific Absorption Rate

1-

INTRODUCTION

HE increasing use of electromagnetic (EM) devices in our society for a variety of purposes has caused growing concern about possible health hazards produced by EM radiation. This concern has led to an increased intensity of research aimed at identifying possible hazards due to EM radiation. In particular, a considerable amount of theoretical work has been devoted to the investigation of EM effects on human being using various shapes [1]. In this paper, two models of the human head are used; the first is a homogeneous model and the second is inhomogeneous model and classified into only three layers of material (average skin dray/wet properties for first layer, average skull properties for second layer and average brain properties for third layer). The tissue parameters are derived by Gabriel, et al. [2]. This data is available on Federal Communication Commission's website in the United States. Table (1) shows the real part of the dielectric permittivity (εr), conductivity (σ S/m) and mass density (ρ kg/m3) of tissues used in the simulation of three layer model and homogenous model at high frequency electromagnetic field (900MHz and 1800MHz) [2]. The applied antenna is consisted of a quarter-wavelength monopole (of radius 0.0025m at 900MHz and 0.0012m at 1800MHz) mounted on a mobile handset (treated as a metal box of 5cm*8cm*18cm), and radiated power of 0.32 watt. The purpose of this paper is for the investigation of interactions between the handset antenna and the human head. Where the SAR is the main parameter used for indicating the effects, one gram average SAR on the above systems is calculated, which is recommended its limit value 2W/kg in the Federal Communications Commission, FCC and International Commission on NonIonizing Radiation protection, ICNIRP. In addition to these results, ten grams average SAR is calculated [3].

T

978-1-4244-4346-8/09/$25.00 ©2009 IEEE

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(SAR) is the most appropriate metric for determining EM effect exposure in the very near field of a RF source [7]. The SAR (W/kg) at any point in the model can be determined from the calculated electric field (V/m) at that point by [8]. 2 (1)

SAR =

where :

σE ρ

σ

ρ

E

is the internal electric field (rms) value (V/m), is the conductivity (S/m) of the tissue in which the calculation is done,

is its mass density (kg/m³). SAR can be expressed in two ways; one way is to compute average value of SAR in cell of one gram and the other way is to compute an average value in a cell of ten grams. Also SAR can be calculated over a whole body. SAR is important in the antenna design process since the value is restricted and it is not to be exceeded. In Sweden and the rest of Western Europe the maximum average value is set to 2 W/kg over ten grams by standardization organization European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization, CENELEC. In United States and many other countries the maximum average value is set to 1.6W/kg over one gram by another standardization organization called – the Federal Communications Commission, FCC [9]. Also SAR is a measure of the local heating rate dT / dt , viz.: (2) dT SAR Ko/s =

dt

c

where c is the specific heat capacity of tissue in J/kgKo. This assumes “ideal” nonthermodynamic circumstances, i.e., no heat loss by thermal diffusion, heat radiation, or thermoregulation (blood flow, sweating, etc). C. Results Figure (2) shows the SAR variation along x-axis, that is “from one ear to the other” of the three layer human head model, it is noticed that the SAR decreases within the second layer (skull), which have lower conductivity, then the SAR decreases rapidly with increasing depth from the phone head side as a result of the skin effect or penetration depth, where the penetration depth and reflection at the interface surface determine how much energy reaches deep into the body. Figure (3) shows the SAR variation along x-axis, that is “from one ear to the other” of the homogenous human head model at 900MHz and 1800MHz, it is noticed that for 1800MHz the SAR decreases more rapidly with increasing depth from the phone head side than that for 900MHz . That can be explained as: at 1800MHz, where the penetration depth is reduced by about 50% than that at 900MHz, most of the induced fields are already absorbed in the peripheral layer (closed to the mobile) compared to 900MHz. Figure (4) show the distributions of the local SAR at y=0 plane for three layer human head at 900MHz, it is noticed that the first layer (skin) have higher local SAR values and

the second layer (skull) have lower local SAR values. Figures (5-6) show the distributions of the local SAR, at y=0 plane for a homogeneous model at 900 and 1800 MHz respectively. It can be easily observed that high SAR regions produced by 900MHz monopole antenna are more extended as compared to those induced by 1800 MHz monopole antenna. This is due to the fact that the higher rate of energy absorption for a high frequency does not allow much energy to penetrate to a region that is located towards the back of the body. Figures (7-8-9) show the distributions of the local SAR, at x=0 plane for inhomogeneous model at 900MHz and homogeneous at 900 and 1800 MHz respectively. It is noticed that, at 1800 MHz, most of the induced fields are already absorbed in the peripheral layer (closed to the mobile) compared to 900 MHz that because the penetration depth is reduced by about 50%. Hence, the second maximum at the brain layer at 1800 MHz is much less pronounced than that at 900 MHz. Results for average SAR in W/kg over whole head model, max. SAR in one gram and ten grams tissue in the shape of a cube for homogenous model at 900 and 1800MHz and three layer model at 900 are presented in table (3). From table (3), for a homogenous model, it is noticed that, where the spatial-peak SAR values (one gram and ten grams) for tissue in the shape of a cube for 1800MHz are higher than those for 900MHz, the average SAR, over whole human head, at 1800MHz is less than that at 900MHz, that can be explained as the SAR regions produced by 900MHz monopole antenna are more extended as compared to those induced by 1800MHz monopole antenna. This is due to the fact that the higher rate of energy absorption for a high frequency does not allow much energy to penetrate to a region that is located towards the back of the body. 4- CONCLUSIONS The obtained results show that the spatial-peak SAR values as averaged over one gram on the human head model obtained with a radiated power of 320 mW, are well below the limit of 2 W/kg at both 900 and 1800 MHz frequencies. The results have shown that it is possible to support experimental findings of phantom studies with numerical computer models. So there are possibilities to validate both - the experimental results and the calculations. Finally the FEKO simulation package used in this study has been proved to be adequate in evaluating the interaction between a handset antenna and the human head, but it needs a long time and requires a large memory on a computer disc to obtain the results. REFERENCES

[1] F. Akleman & L. Sevgi, "FDTD Analysis of Human Head–Mobile Phone Interaction in Terms of SSAR Calculations and Antenna Design", Proc. of IEEE-APS Conference on Antennas & Propagation for Wireless Comm., pp. 85-88, November 1995,2-4, Waltham, MA, USA [2] C. Gabriel et al., “Compilation of the Dielectric Properties of Body Tissues at RF and Microwave Frequencies“, http://www.brooks.af.mil/AFRL/HED/hedr/reports/dielectric/Title/Title. html, 1999.

Authorized licensed use limited to: QASSIM UNIVERSITY. Downloaded on August 28, 2009 at 09:12 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

[3] ANSI/IEEE, “IEEE Standard for Safety Levels with Respect to Human Exposure to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields, 3 kHz to 300 GHz”, ANSI/IEEE C95.1-1992 (see http://standards.ieee.org/cgibin/status), 1992. [4] Adel Zein E.M and O. S. Dautov “ Application of FEKO program to the analysis of SAR on human head modeling at 900 and 1800 MHz from a handset antenna” VI international conference on electromagnetic compatibility and electromagnetic ecology EMS-2005, St.-Petersburg, Russia, on June, 21-24,2005,in English. [5] FEKO program http://www.feko.info/contact.htm and http://www.emss.de. [6] EUROPEAN STANDAR EN 50361, Basic standard for the measurement of Specific Absorption Rate related to human exposure to

electromagnetic fields from mobile phones (300 MHz – 3 GHz), CENELEC European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization, rue de Stassart 35, B-1050 Brussels, July 2001. [7] Allen S G, “Radiofrequency field measurements and hazard assessment”, Journal of Radiological Protection, Vol ll-1, 1996. [8] FCC, OET Bulletin 65, “Evaluating Compliance with FCC Guidelines for Human Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields,” Edition 97-01, released December, 1997. [9] “SEMCAD Reference Manual”. Bundled with SEMCAD and available at: http://www.semcad.com/downloads_free/SEMCAD_RefManual.pdf.

TABLE (1) REAL PART OF THE DIELECTRIC PERMITTIVITY (εR), CONDUCTIVITY (σ) (S/M), AND MASS DENSITY (Ρ) KG/M3 OF TISSUES USED IN THE SIMULATIONS AT 900 AND 1800MHZ. Properties of tissues 900MHz ( homogenous ) 1800MHz ( homogenous) 900MHz Skin dray/wet 900MHz Skull 900MHz Brain average dielectric permittivity (εr ) 45.8 43.5 43.8 20.8 45.8 TABLE (2) CALCULATION INFORMATION FEKO Program The total computation surface: wire segment of dipole antenna metallic triangles of mobile handset dielectric triangles of three layer human head model Total number of basis function Memory requirement on disc Total time required for calculations 900MHz (homogenous) 9 188 1480 4730 unknown 341.383MByte 6.482 hours 1800MHz (homogenous) 9 502 2868 9365 unknown 1.307 GByte 12.677 hours 900MHz (three layers) 9 368 6560 20240 unknown 6.104 GByte 38.862 hours conductivity ( σ ) (S/m) 0.77 1.15 0.86 0.34 0.77 mass density ( ρ ) kg/m3 1030 1030 1100 1850 1030

TABLE (3) AVERAGE SAR AND MAX. SAR IN W/KG FOR (ONE GRAM AND TEN GRAMS) TISSUE IN THE SHAPE OF A CUBE FOR 900MHZ AND 1800MHZ. SAR 900MHz ( homogenous) 1800MHz ( homogenous) 900MHz ( three layers) Average SAR Whole head 0.02908 0.01301 0.01611 One gram SARmax (W/kg) 0.4221 0.8291 0.3826 Ten grams SARmax (W/kg) 0.3338 0.5432 0.2273

Fig. (1-a) Feko model and calculation position

Fig. (1-b) Feko model and calculation position

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Fig. (2) Penetration curve of SAR along x-axis for inhomogeneous model at 900MHz

Fig. (3) Penetration curves of SAR along x-axis for homogeneous model at 900 and 1800MHz

Fig. (4) SAR distribution at 900MHz for inhomogeneous model (y=0 plane).

Fig. (5) SAR distribution at 900MHz for homogeneous model (y=0 plane).

Fig. (6) SAR distribution at 1800MHz for homogeneous model (y=0 plane).

Fig. (7) SAR distribution at 900MHz for inhomogeneous model (x=0 plane).

Fig. (8) SAR distribution at 900MHz for homogeneous model (x=0 plane).

Fig. (9) SAR distribution at 1800MHz for homogeneous model (x=0 plane).

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