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1. Find the angle between the vectors v and w in each of the following. (a) v = (2, 1, 3)T , w = (6, 3, 9)T (b) v = (2, 3)T , w = (3, 2)T Answer: We use Theorem 5.1.1, which says xT y = x compute the angle between the two vectors. y cos , to

(a) First, we compute the dot product of the v and w, and we compute v and w : vT w = 2(6) + 1(3) + 3(9) = 42 v w = = 4+1+9= 14 126

36 + 9 + 81 =

Thus, the angle between v and w is 0. (Since w is a positive multiple of v, we could have simply noticed immediately, that the angle between them is 0.) (b) First, we compute the dot product of the v and w: vT w = 2(3) 3(2) = 0 Since, the dot product of v and w is 0, the 2 vectors are perpen dicular. Thus, the angle between them is (or 90 ). 2 1

2. For each pair of vectors in Exercise 1, nd the scalar projection of v onto w. Also, nd the vector projection of v onto w. Answer: The scalar projection of v onto w is = vT w w

3. For each of the following pairs of vectors x and y, nd the vector projection p of x onto y and verify that p and x p are orthogonal. (a) x = (3, 4)T , y = (1, 0)T Answer: The scalar projection of x onto y is = xT y 3 = =3 y 1

Thus, xp= 3 4 3 0 = 0 4

We can take the dot product of p and x p to verify that they are orthogonal: p (x p) = 3(0)+0(4) = 0, so p and x p are orthogonal. 5. Find the point on the line y = 2x that is closest to the point (5, 2). Answer: To nd the point on the line y = 2x that is closest to the point (5, 2), 5 we project the vector onto the line y = 2x. A vector in the 2 1 5 direction of the line y = 2x is . The projection of v = 2 2 1 is onto w = 2 p= vT w 9 w = wT w 5 1 2 = 9/5 18/5 = 1.8 3.6

Thus, the point (1.8, 3.6) is the point on the line y = 2x that is closest to the point (5, 2). 10. Find the distance from the point (2, 1, 2) to the plane 6(x 1) + 2(y 3) + 3(z + 4) = 0 Answer: The vector N = (6, 2, 3)T is perpendicular to the plane, and the point (1, 3, 4) is on the plane. Consider the point (2, 1, 2); call it P. And consider the point (1, 3, 4); call it Q (this is the point on the plane). Consider the vector QP . If we project QP onto N, we get a vector whose distance is the distance from the plane to P . 1 QP = 2 2 3

The scalar projection of QP onto N is QP N 8 = = N 7 Thus, the distance between the point and the plane is 8 . 7

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