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UNIT 1: PERSONAL AND CAREER DEVELOPMENT

SELF-APPRAISAL:

Self evaluation process involved in determining the level of self efficacy.

A *Self-Appraisal* is a method in which the employee evaluates his own

performance and then discusses this with his manager. The method can be used

as an introduction phase of an Appraisal process. An advantage of doing so is

that it provides the employee with the opportunity to reflect on his own

performance and reasons behind it. It can be a good preparation for the appraisal

by the manager of the employee and can help to increase the size of the future-oriented
part of it.

Self-appraisal includes the following objects such as skills audit, evaluating self-

management, leadership and interpersonal skills.

1.1 SKILLS AUDIT:

Learning Objective:

After reading this section you will be able to know,

 The meaning of skills audit.

 Purpose and uses of skills audits.

 Benefits and Techniques of Skills Audit

 Process of skills audit

 Principles of skills audit


 To know the categories of Skills Audit - Working with others, Planning

and organization, Improving learning and performance,

Communication skills, Handling information

 Strategies for Skills Audit Implementation

Skills audit - Definition - “a process for measuring the skills of an

individual or group”

Meaning:

Getting the right mix of skills, experiences and qualities is a key ingredient in

building an effective board of trustees. A skills audit is a tool to help your board

identify why they have become a trustee and what skills, knowledge or

experience they can contribute to the board.

Purpose and uses of skills audits:

The key piece of information an organisation needs to improve and to

deliver to its Mission Statement and strategy is to know what skills and

knowledge the organisation requires and what skills and knowledge the

organisation currently has.

This information is essential for a number of reasons:

• Know where to improve.

• Better planned and more focused T&D.

• Better defined recruitment needs.

• Easier placement decisions.

• Enablement of career path and succession planning.


Existing members of your board may possess a range of skills or knowledge that

may never have been identified or called upon by the organisation. Prospective

new trustees can be recruited on the basis of what they can bring to the board,

complementing and enhancing what is already there and increasing the diversity

of both skills and perspectives.

The ideal trustee would have every desirable skill and quality, but in the real

world we each have only a selection. If we know what qualities we possess

ourselves, and what qualities others possess, we can pool our talents.

Benefits:

• Valid and valuable workplace skills plans

• Improved skills and knowledge.

• Lower training and development costs because development efforts are

more focused.

• Acquisition and use of information that can be used for purposes such as

internal employee selection and placement.

• Increased productivity as people are better matched to their positions.

Techniques - Skills Audit

There are numerous techniques to conduct a skills audit based on the context and

strategy of the organisation. It is vital that the first step in implementing a skills

audit is to analyze the organizational context and strategy in relation to the

objectives of the skills audit. The context of the organisation may be identified

based on time available, logistical issues, primary reasons for the skills audit and
the prevalent socio-political environment. The organizational strategy provides

the basis for alignment of skills to current and future organizational needs. This

alignment is essential to ensure consistency with business strategy and value of

skills audit results.

The process to be followed essentially consists of the following:

There are three key stages to a skills audit.

a. Determine skills The first is to determine what skills each


requirements
employee requires. The second stage is to

determine which of the required skills each


b. Audit actual skills
employee has. The third is to analyze the

results and determine skills development


c. Determine needs. The outcome of the skills audit
development needs
and plan for training/ process is usually a training needs analysis,
restructuring
which will enable the organisation to target

and also provide information for purposes

such as recruitment and selection,

performance management and succession

planning.

a. Determine skills requirements

In order to determine skills requirements, an organisation should identify

current and future skills requirements per job. The end result is a skills matrix

with related competency definitions. Definitions can be allocated against various

proficiency levels per job, such as basic, intermediate and complex.


b. Audit actual skills

The actual skills audit process is outlined below and involves an individual self-

audit and skills audit. Results are collated into reporting documents that may

include statistical graphs, qualitative reports and recommendations.

c. Determine development needs and plan for training/restructuring

Once skills audit information has been collected, an analysis of the results may

be used for planning purposes relating to training and development and other

Human Resource interventions. Recommendations are then discussed and

agreed actions are implemented.

The principles of good skills audits

 Fairness

 Validity & Reliability

 Transparency/ Openness

 Constructive feedback

 Evaluation of evidence

Example: Personal Evidence Skills Gained Work:

• Data entry within a job at a call centre - Basic IT skills; Communication

Skills

• Working as a sales assistant in a clothes store - Communication Skills;

Negotiation Skills
Skills Audit rate your overall skills development. The Continued Professional

Development helps you to plan for skills development during your career.

Skills are divided into five categories:

Handling information

- assess your ability to use relevant literature and to produce and interpret

data;

Communication skills

- assess your ability to communicate effectively in oral and written formats;

Improving learning and performance

- assess your development and ability to identify opportunities for further

skills development;

Planning and organization

- assess your ability to plan your research on a short-term and long-term

basis;

Working with others

- assess your ability to work as part of a team and to network with others.

Strategies for Skills Audit Implementation

Skills audits may be conducted in various ways. Current approaches to skills

audits include the following:

a) Panel approach

b) Consultant approach

c) One-on-one approach
Individual
self-audit

Panel audit Consultant One-on-


audit one audit

A panel is normally made External consultants This is similar to a

up of managers, Subject interview both employees performance appraisal,

Matter Experts and HR and managers, and may except that an individual

experts. The skills audit review performance and is rated against a pre-

form is completed through related documentation to defined skills matrix

discussion, and includes establish an individual’s instead of his/ or her job

one-on-one feedback with level of competence. profile. The employee’s

the employee. manager will hold a

discussion with the

employee to agree on

skills audit ratings.


Skills audit – Action plan

GOAL STEPS
Agreement on the objectives of the Discussion and agreement on project outcomes

skills audit and the expected

outcomes
Investigation to identify key Review business goals

competencies and Review job descriptions

analyse the organisational context Review organisational structure

and strategy in relation to the Review future business plans

objectives of the skills audit.


Communication Workshop with key people to confirm key

competencies and to agree broad process

Communicate purpose and process to all staff

members
Competence profiling Prepare a profile for each job
Individual audits (by self, consultant Plan a meeting with each employee to gather

and/or panel evidence of competencies in relation to the key

organisational competencies and the job competence

profile
Application Prepare a skills gap analysis
Feedback Present the skills gap analysis to management and

training committee/shop stewards and discuss next

steps

Give feedback to individual staff members

Train managers to use the skills audit process


Reporting Prepare a formal report and compile the Workplace

Skills Plan
REVIEW QUESTIONS:

 What is meant by skills audit?

 Define Purpose and uses of skills audits.

 What are the Benefits of Skills Audit?

 Brief the Techniques adopted in skills audit.

 Process of skills audit – Explain

 Define the Principles of skills audit.

 What are the categories of Skills Audit -?

 Strategies for Skills Audit Implementation

1.2 EVALUATING SELF-MANAGEMENT:

Learning Objective:

After reading this section you will be able to know,

 To know the base of self-management.

 The Components of self-management - Self-monitoring, Self-

evaluation and Self-reinforcement.


 The needs of self-management skills.

 Applications of self – management.

 The strategies of self – management.

 The Self-management Behaviors.

 The Benefits of Employee Self Evaluation.

 The rules to be followed for self-management.

 To know about the self-management skills.

Meaning: “Managing one’s internal states, impulses, and resources”

Self-management is a psychological term used to describe the process of

achieving personal autonomy. The goal of self-management for the

developmentally disabled population is to shift supervision and control from a

parent, caregiver, job coach, or employer to the person him-/herself. A successful

self-management program will allow these individuals to live and work

independently within their environment.

Components of self-management :

There are 3 components of self-management.

Self-monitoring. The aim of self-monitoring is teach the person to become more

aware of his/her own behavior. For those with developmental disabilities, a

target behavior(s) is selected, such as aggression, making nonsense noises, and

staying on task; and the person is taught to monitor when this behavior(s)

occurs. One strategy is to teach the person to monitor his/her own behavior at
short time intervals. At first a teacher or supervisor may remind the student

every 10 or 15 minutes to observe his/her behavior. Later, a kitchen timer can be

used to present an auditory signal every 10 or 15 minutes to cue the person to

observe whether the target behavior occurred. An eventual goal may be to teach

the person to monitor his/her behavior without a prompt. For example, after

performing an undesirable behavior, he/she may become immediately aware of

what he/she is doing. Such awareness may then prompt the person to stop the

behavior before it escalates. Sometimes there is a reactivity effect in which the

undesirable behavior decreases merely because of the process of observation.

Self-evaluation. The person determines whether or not he/she engaged in the

target behavior in relation to the goals that have been set. For example, if the goal

is to refrain from self-injury for 10 minutes, the person and those helping him/her

can reflect over the 10-minute time period to determine if this goal was met. If it

was, the person will proceed to the next stage, self-reinforcement. If not, goals

may need to be revised and self-monitoring will need to take place again. In

order to maximize the likelihood of success, goals should be realistic and

attainable; and they should be made more challenging as the person experiences

consistent success.

Self-reinforcement. Self-reinforcement refers to self-delivery of rewards for

reaching the goals which were set. For example, if the goal is to refrain from

aggression for 30 minutes (e.g., three 10-minute self-monitoring intervals) and if

the person has met the goal, then he/she would reward him-/herself. Researchers

claim that allowing a person to choose from a variety of rewards is more effective

than simply making only one reward available. Initially, these rewards may be

given to the person immediately, such as eating a food snack; but similar to the
real world, it would be best to establish a token economy in which the person

receives tokens (e.g., coins, stars) for appropriate behavior, and then exchanges

them for a reward at a later time. Although tangible, external rewards are often

quite effective, it would be advantageous to have the person eventually rely on

internal rewards, such as knowing he/she performed well. Also, while

continuous reinforcement works well when new behaviors are being established

(e.g., learning not to be aggressive), the behaviors will be stronger if

reinforcement becomes intermittent.

Certainly, self-regulation can be challenging to teach to a person with a

developmental disability; but many professionals have been quite successful

using simple behavioral techniques to do so. These techniques include:

modeling, rehearsal, shaping, prompting, feedback, fading, and generalization.

Initially, the individual will likely need close supervision but, over time, such

supervision should be gradually removed, if possible. If a self-management

program is successful, it is important to develop some type of maintenance

program, otherwise the person's skills may deteriorate over time. Such 'booster'

training sessions should be integrated into the program.

Self-management may take a great deal of time and energy to implement.

However, having an individual actively participate in changing his/her own

behavior may be the key to reducing or eliminating behaviors as well as to

maintaining appropriate behaviors. Once the person can monitor, evaluate, and

reinforce his/her own behavior, everyone benefits.

Need for self-management skills

Self-management is the foundation of prosocial behavior


• Our society is incapable of maintaining positive behavior via external
reinforces alone
• Self-management skills facilitate generalization
• Self-management skills facilitate development of new, prosocial skills

Uses of self – management:

• To increase motivation

• To increase predictability and consistency

• To facilitate memory or exaggerate relevant

• To decrease physiological arousal

• To decrease dependence on staff/family

• To improve generalization and maintenance

Self-management Strategies

• self-monitoring

• self-delivered instructions & self-talk

• self-relaxation routines

• self manipulations of preceding events

• self-delivered rewards

• (self-delivered corrections)

Self-management Behaviors

• Preparing for class & work

– Time management

• Define and teach the routines

– arrive on time
– With necessary materials

– complete tasks in timely manner

– Appearance & attitude

• enter in a pleasant manner, be respectful

• be prepared to work

• ask for help when needed

• Participating in class & work

– follow rules and guidelines

– stay on-task/ time management

– do work as assigned

– ask for help when needed, in an endearing way

– be respectful and cooperative

• Wrapping up and leaving class & work

– be respectful and cooperative

• organize/ clean up materials and workspace

• take necessary materials/ homework

– Time management

• wrap up work station & tasks on time

• leave on time

The Benefits of Employee Self Evaluation or Self Appraisal

There are a number of benefits to having employees self-evaluate or self

appraise, either as part of the formal performance management system, or

informally. Here are a few of them:


• By having employees do some sort of self evaluation before the actual

review meeting, the review meetings can be shorter.

• If done properly and tactfully, encouraging employees to self evaluation

or self appraise at any time during the year, including around the actual

review meetings, help convey the message that the process of

performance management and appraisal is a team effort, and not

something the manager does to the employee. This greases the wheels of

the process, making it more effective.

• Whey self appraisal is an accepted and integrated part of the performance

management process, it encourages employees to self evaluate throughout

the year. That's exceedingly valuable, because what most managers want

is employees who can do their jobs, monitor their own progress, and self-

correct all year long. When that happens managers can spend far less time

fire fighting or micromanaging.

Twelve Rules for Self-Management. Show me a business where everyone lives

and works by self-managing, and I’ll bet it’s a business destined for greatness.

1. Live by your values, whatever they are. You confuse people when

you don’t, because they can’t predict how you’ll behave.

2. Speak up! No one can “hear” what you’re thinking without you be

willing to stand up for it. Mind-reading is something most people can’t

do.

3. Honor your own good word, and keep the promises you make. If

not, people eventually stop believing most of what you say, and your

words will no longer work for you.


4. When you ask for more responsibility, expect to be held fully

accountable. This is what seizing ownership of something is all about;

it’s usually an all or nothing kind of thing, and so you’ve got to treat it

that way.

5. Don’t expect people to trust you if you aren’t willing to be

trustworthy for them first and foremost. Trust is an outcome of

fulfilled expectations.

6. Be more productive by creating good habits and rejecting bad ones.

Good habits corral your energies into a momentum-building rhythm

for you; bad habits sap your energies and drain you.

7. Have a good work ethic, for it seems to be getting rare today.

Curious, for those “old-fashioned” values like dependability,

timeliness, professionalism and diligence are prized more than ever

before. Be action-oriented. Seek to make things work. Be willing to do

what it takes.

8. Be interesting. Read voraciously, and listen to learn, then teach and

share everything you know. No one owes you their attention; you have

to earn it and keep attracting it.

9. Be nice. Be courteous, polite and respectful. Be considerate. Manners

still count for an awful lot in life, and thank goodness they do.
10. Be self-disciplined. That’s what adults are supposed to “grow up”

to be.

11. Don’t be a victim or a martyr. You always have a choice, so don’t

shy from it: Choose and choose without regret. Look forward and be

enthusiastic.

12. Keep healthy and take care of yourself. Exercise your mind, body
and spirit so you can be someone people count on, and so you can live
expansively and with abundance.

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1. What is self-management?

2. Explain the Components of self-management.

3. Define the needs of self-management skills.

4. What are the Applications of self – management?

5. Explain the strategies of self – management.

6. Determine the Self-management Behaviors.

7. Explain the Benefits of Employee Self Evaluation.

8. What are the rules to be followed for self-management?

9. Define self-management skills.


1.3 LEADERSHIP AND INTERPERSONAL SKILLS:

Learning Objective:

After reading this section you will be able to know,

 The leadership concept.

 The different types of Leadership theories.

 The leadership Trait theory.


 To understand the styles of leadership, Autocratic – Democratic - The

Laissez-Faire.

 The interpersonal skills.

 To understand about how to develop Interpersonal skills.

 The tips for improving your interpersonal skills.

LEADERSHIP:

Many people believe that leadership is simply being the first, biggest or most

powerful. Leadership in organizations has a different and more meaningful

definition. Very simply put, “a leader is interpreted as someone who sets

direction in an effort and influences people to follow that direction”.

Theories about Leadership

There are also numerous theories about leadership, or about carrying out the role

of leader, e.g., servant leader, democratic leader, principle-centered leader,

group-man theory, great-man theory, traits theory, visionary leader, total leader,

situational leader, etc.

Leadership theories

Over time, a number of theories of leadership have been proposed. Here are

some of the main ideas.

• Great Man Theory

• Trait Theory

• Behavioral Theories
o Role Theory

o The Managerial Grid

• Participative Leadership

o Lewin's leadership styles

o Likert's leadership styles

• Situational Leadership

o Hersey and Blanchard's Situational Leadership

o Vroom and Yetton's Normative Model

o House's Path-Goal Theory of Leadership

• Contingency Theories

o Fiedler's Least Preferred Co-worker (LPC) Theory

o Cognitive Resource Theory

o Strategic Contingencies Theory

• Transactional Leadership

o Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory

• Transformational Leadership

o Bass' Transformational Leadership Theory

o Burns' Transformational Leadership Theory

o Kouzes and Posner's Leadership Participation Inventory

Trait theory:

Assumptions

 People are born with inherited traits.

 Some traits are particularly suited to leadership.

 People who make good leaders have the right (or sufficient) combination

of traits.
Early research on leadership was based on the psychological focus of the day,

which was of people having inherited characteristics or traits. Attention was thus

put on discovering these traits, often by studying successful leaders, but with the

underlying assumption that if other people could also be found with these traits,

then they, too, could also become great leaders.

McCall and Lombardo (1983) researched both success and failure identified four

primary traits by which leaders could succeed or 'derail':

• Emotional stability and composure: Calm, confident and predictable,

particularly when under stress.

• Admitting error: Owning up to mistakes, rather than putting energy into

covering up.

• Good interpersonal skills: Able to communicate and persuade others without

resort to negative or coercive tactics.

• Intellectual breadth: Able to understand a wide range of areas, rather than

having a narrow (and narrow-minded) area of expertise.

Leadership Styles

Leaders carry out their roles in a wide variety of styles, e.g., autocratic,

democratic, participatory, laissez-faire (hands off), etc. Often, the leadership style

depends on the situation, including the life cycle of the organization. The

following document provides brief overview of key styles, including autocratic,

laissez-faire and democratic style.


1. The Autocrat

The autocratic leader dominates team-members, using unilateralism to achieve a

singular objective. This approach to leadership generally results in passive

resistance from team-members and requires continual pressure and direction

from the leader in order to get things done. Generally, an authoritarian approach

is not a good way to get the best performance from a team.

There are, however, some instances where an autocratic style of leadership may

not be inappropriate. Some situations may call for urgent action, and in these

cases an autocratic style of leadership may be best. In addition, most people are

familiar with autocratic leadership and therefore have less trouble adopting that

style. Furthermore, in some situations, sub-ordinates may actually prefer an

autocratic style.

2. The Laissez-Faire Manager

The Laissez-Faire manager exercises little control over his group, leaving them to

sort out their roles and tackle their work, without participating in this process

himself. In general, this approach leaves the team floundering with little

direction or motivation.

Again, there are situations where the Laissez-Faire approach can be effective. The

Laissez-Faire technique is usually only appropriate when leading a team of

highly motivated and skilled people, who have produced excellent work in the

past. Once a leader has established that his team is confident, capable and

motivated, it is often best to step back and let them get on with the task, since
interfering can generate resentment and detract from their effectiveness. By

handing over ownership, a leader can empower his group to achieve their goals.

3. The Democrat

The democratic leader makes decisions by consulting his team, whilst still

maintaining control of the group. The democratic leader allows his team to

decide how the task will be tackled and who will perform which task.

The democratic leader can be seen in two lights:

A good democratic leader encourages participation and delegates wisely, but

never loses sight of the fact that he bears the crucial responsibility of leadership.

He values group discussion and input from his team and can be seen as drawing

from a pool of his team members' strong points in order to obtain the best

performance from his team. He motivates his team by empowering them to

direct themselves, and guides them with a loose reign.

The Eleven Skills of Leadership

The following links to sections describe the eleven leadership skills as they are

taught within White Stag Leadership Development by those who learned from

the program founders.

• Getting and Giving Information

• Understanding Group Needs and Characteristics

• Knowing and Understanding Group Resources

• Controlling the Group

• Counseling
• Setting the Example

• Representing the Group

• Problem-Solving

• Evaluation

• Sharing Leadership

• Manager of Learning

INTERPERSONAL SKILLS

"Interpersonal skills" refers to mental and communicative algorithms applied

during social communications and interactions in order to reach certain effects

or results. The term "interpersonal skills" is used often in business contexts to

refer to the measure of a person's ability to operate within business organizations

through social communication and interactions. Interpersonal skills are how

people relate to one another.

As an illustration, it is generally understood that communicating respect for

other people or professionals within the workplace will enable one to reduce

conflict and increase participation or assistance in obtaining information or

completing tasks. For instance, in order to interrupt someone who is currently

preoccupied with a task in order to obtain information needed immediately, it is

recommended that a professional utilize a deferential approach with language

such as, "Excuse me, are you busy? I have an urgent matter to discuss with you if

you have the time at the moment." This allows the receiving professional to make

their own judgment regarding the importance of their current task versus

entering into a discussion with their colleague.


Having positive interpersonal skills increases the productivity in the

organization since the number of conflicts is reduced. In informal situations, it

allows communication to be easy and comfortable. People with good

interpersonal skills can generally control the feelings that emerge in difficult

situations and respond appropriately, instead of being overwhelmed by emotion.

Developing Interpersonal skills:

Leadership

The process of successfully influencing the activities of a group towards the

achievement of a common goal. A leader has the ability to influence others

through qualities such as personal charisma, expertise, command of language,

and the creation of mutual respect. As well as requiring strong Communication


Skills and Personal Skills, leadership uses the Background skills of mentoring,

decision making, delegation and motivating others.

Networking

The ability to actively seek, identify and create effective contacts with others, and

to maintain those contacts for mutual benefit. In addition to strong

Communication Skills and Personal Skills, Networking uses the Background

skills of network building and motivating others.

Teamwork

Involves working with others in a group towards a common goal. This requires

cooperating with others, being responsive to others' ideas, taking a collaborative

approach to learning, and taking a responsibility for developing and achieving

group goals. Teamwork uses the Background skills of collaboration, mentoring,

decision making and delegation.

Background Skills

Mentoring is:

• A mentoring relationship may be formal or informal, but must involve

trust, mutual respect, and commitment as both parties work together to

achieve a goal (for example, mentoring a younger member of a team to

achieve better performance in the lead-up to a sporting event).

Group work is:

• any activity in which students work together;

• any activity which has been specifically designed so that students work in

pairs or groups, and may be assessed as a group (referred to as formal

group work); or
• When students come together naturally to help each other with their work

(referred to as informal group work).

• peer group activity in lab classes, tutorials etc

Decision making is:


• Identifying appropriate evidence and weighing up that evidence to make

a choice (for example, gathering and assessing information to find the best

way to perform an experiment).

• Taking responsibility for a decision and its outcomes (for example,

choosing a topic for a group presentation from a number of suggestions).

Delegation is:
• Taking responsibility for determining when to ask someone else to make a

decision or carry out a task (for example, figuring out what is a fair

distribution of the workload in a group project, and sharing responsibility

with others).

• Distributing responsibility and authority in a group by giving someone

else the discretion to make decisions that you have the authority to make

(for example, as the chosen leader of a lab experiment team, you could

assign tasks and decisions to different group members).

Collaboration is:
• Working cooperatively and productively with other team members to

contribute to the outcomes of the team's work (for example, dividing the

workload and sharing the results of your own work with others in the

group, or assisting members of the group who are having difficulty

completing their tasks).

Network building is:


• Creating contacts with other people and maintaining those contacts (for

example, meeting someone at a seminar with similar interests, and

swapping email addresses with them).

• Acquiring and maintaining information about people who might be useful

contacts for specific purposes (for example, seeking out people established

in an industry you hope to work with one day).

• Using a contact in an ethical manner to help each of you meet specific

goals, (for example, collaborating on projects of importance to both of

you).

Motivating others is:


• Generating enthusiasm and energy by being positive, focussing on finding

solutions and maintaining a positive attitude even when things are not

going well (for example, when something goes wrong, asking "What can

we try now?" instead of saying, "That should have worked better.").

• Encouraging others to come up with solutions, listening carefully to their

ideas and offering constructive feedback (for example, gathering

suggestions for a group project, and giving each person's ideas fair

discussion).

Tips for improving your interpersonal skills:

Smile. Few people want to be around someone who is always down in the

dumps. Do your best to be friendly and upbeat with your coworkers.

Be appreciative. Find one positive thing about everyone you work with and let

them hear it. Say thank you when someone helps you.
Pay attention to others. Observe what’s going on in other people’s lives.

Acknowledge their happy milestones, and express concern and sympathy for

difficult situations such as an illness or death.

Practice active listening. To actively listen is to demonstrate that you intend to

hear and understand another’s point of view. It means restating, in your own

words, what the other person has said.

Bring people together. Create an environment that encourages others to work

together. Treat everyone equally, and don't play favorites. Avoid talking about

others behind their backs.

Resolve conflicts. Take a step beyond simply bringing people together, and

become someone who resolves conflicts when they arise. Learn how to be an

effective mediator.

Communicate clearly. Pay close attention to both what you say and how you say

it. A clear and effective communicator avoids misunderstandings with

coworkers, colleagues, and associates.

Humor them. Most people are drawn to a person that can make them laugh. Use

your sense of humor as an effective tool to lower barriers and gain people’s

affection.

See it from their side. Empathy means being able to put yourself in someone

else’s shoes and understand how they feel. Try to view situations and responses

from another person’s perspective.


Don't complain. There is nothing worse than a chronic complainer or whiner. If

you simply have to vent about something, save it for your diary.

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1. What is meant by leadership?

2. Explain about the Leadership theories.

3. Explain about Trait theory.

4. Define the styles of leadership.

5. Define interpersonal skills.

6. How to develop Interpersonal skills?

7. Define the tips for improving your interpersonal skills.

1.4 DEVELOPMENT PLAN:

Learning objective:
After reading this section you can able to know,

 The concept of Personal and career development.

 Career development process.

 Development plan.

 Current performance, future needs.

 Aims, objectives and targets.

 Review dates and achievement dates

 Learning programme or activities:

 Action plans – writing a development action plan.

CAREER AND PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT:

Personal development is our conscious self-improvement and self-

transcendence. It is the aspiration to realize our higher self. The process of

Personal development involves several aspects:

Transcending our Negative Qualities - We all have negative qualities such as

pride, anger and doubt. Personal development is a conscious effort to reduce and

minimize these qualities by focusing on the positive aspects of life.

Controlling Our Thoughts - Control of our thoughts is essential for our own

development. If we allow ourselves to be at the mercy of our own thoughts, we

cannot hope to minimize our negative qualities and bring our good qualities to

the fore. Meditation is the best way to cultivate a silent mind.

Self-Transcendence - Self-Transcendence is the art of going beyond our own self-

imposed limitations. This means we aspire to reach new goals and not to be

satisfied with what we were in the past.


Intuition - Personal development means we learn to listen to the inner voice -

our inner pilot. The messages of our inner voice can only be heard with a silent

mind. This inner inspiration comes not from our ego, but our Soul.

Minimize Desires - When we live in the world of desires there is no end to our

desires. However, spiritual growth means we learn to reduce our desires. By

reducing our desires we discover that the source of abiding happiness is to be

found in a life of simplicity and not outer success.

To Live in the Heart - If we can live in the heart many of our problems will be

solved. When we live in the heart, we can spontaneously feel our oneness with

others.

Gratitude - Gratitude is to make a conscious appreciation of the Source of all

things. Without gratitude personal development is very limited

Enlarging our Sense of Self - Self-improvement is A continuous self-offering.

CAREER DEVELOPMENT:

In personal development, career development is:

" the total constellation of psychological, sociological, educational, physical,

economic, and chance factors that combine to influence the nature and

significance of work in the total lifespan of any given individual."

“Lifelong psychological and behavioral processes as well as contextual influences

shaping one’s career over the life span. As such, career development involves the
person’s creation of a career pattern, decision-making style, integration of life

roles, values expression, and life-role self concepts."

Career development process:

Career development is:

• an ongoing, lifelong process

• an active process; we must be the driving force behind the process,

gathering information, setting goals, and making decisions

• an introspective process of self-assessment and reflection

• a time-consuming process

• a holistic process, which integrates our changing needs, wants,

relationships, and situations with the ever-changing world of work.

Below is a model of the career development process:

Assess - "Who am I?" If you’ve been thinking about your career path and know

you want a career change you may wonder: “Where do I start?” Typically, this
process starts with self-assessment. Understanding who you really are is critical

to effective career planning. Breaking this down can be helpful:

• Skills—what skills do I have? And which do I really enjoy using? Just

because you’re good at something doesn’t necessarily mean you like doing

it.

• Interests—what excites me? What interests me enough that I don’t realize

the passage of time while I am engaged in it?

• Values—what things do I believe in? What motivates me to work?

• Personality—who am I? What are my personal preferences?

DEVELOPMENT PLAN:

Remember that your development plan is not only about developing yourself for

university and the workplace, it’s also about developing yourself for you.

A useful structure for the development plan could be:

 Current performance: where you are up to now

 Future needs which can be set out in a framework of aims, objectives and

targets

 Review dates: in setting out the plan it is important to set out dates at

which progress will be reviewed,. For example at the end of each term/

semester of a course, at the end of each month.

 Achievement dates: when particular targets were achieved

 Learning programme or activities designed to enable the individual to

meet objectives or targets


 An action plan setting out a plan of actions required to meet objectives or

targets.

CURRENT PERFORMANCE:

Because we are concerned with personal development, as well as career and

educational development, it is always important to start by examining yourself.

Set out:

 Your personal achievements and skills

 Your personal qualities, including strengths and weaknesses.

Activity:

A useful way of ‘looking in the mirror’ is to examine your strengths and

weakness other people would see them.

 List three of what you consider to be your personal strengths.

 Now ask a friend to make a list of your strengths.

 Compare the two lists.

 Now list three areas of weakness that you need to work on.

 Ask a friend to list three areas for development.

 Compare the lists.

You should also make a list of your personal achievements, that is, the success

areas of your life. There are all sorts of areas of personal achievement that we

tend to overlook. Think carefully about your achievements and list them
carefully for your folder. Examples could be looking after an elderly person,

decorating a room, repairing an item of equipment, playing for a sports team ,

solving a difficult problem, helping someone else, doing voluntary work,

keeping fit, receiving certificates, passing exams and so on.

There are all sorts of ways of recording information for providing evidence for

your individual development portfolio. Here are some examples:

 Newspaper cuttings about y ou

 Testimonies, references

 Certificates

 Awards

 Portfolios of work

 Photographs

 Trophies

 Logs and diaries

AIMS, OBJECTIVES AND TARGETS:

Aims and objectives are the ends that you are trying to achieve. An aim is a

major end that you are trying to achieve, which can typically be broken down

into a number of objectives. For example, your aims and objectives might be

 Educational: to get a good degree qualification

 Work-related: to develop a career in marketing and eventually to

become a marketing director of a major PLC.

 Personal: to become more confident and sociable


Activity

Set out a statement of your main aims for the next two years, and break

down the aims into educational, work-related and personal.

Now establish some targets for the next three months. At the end of each

three-month period you will need to establish new targets. In the course of

time you may also want to adjust your aims.

Make sure that your targets are SMART:

1. Specific: they are easy to understand

2. Measurable if possible ( that is, you can attach numbers to them)

3. Achievable

4. Realistic

5. Time-related

Targets are shorter-term challenges that help you to achieve your aims and

objectives. For example, short-term targets may relate to gaining scores of at least

60 percent on your next three pieces of work.

REVIEW DATES AND ACHIEVEMENT DATES:

An important part of successful career and personal development is to establish

review dates that are adhered to.


As part of the planning process you will establish plans which need to be

monitored. For example, if one of your targets is to carry out a confident

presentation to a group of fellow students or work colleague’s when you will

need to establish dates:

 For the presentation

 For the preparation of the presentation

 To review the effectiveness of the presentation, for example with a

course tutor.

Learning programme/activities Target

Means End

ACHIEVEMENT DATES:

Achievement dates are the dates at which you successfully achieve your targets.

Setting out achievement dates helps you to build confidence in your portfolio
building, because each achievement of a target will provide you with more

evidence of successful development.

LEARNING PROGRAMME OR ACTIVITIES:

The learning programme or activities are the means by which you achieve your

targets.

Some parts of the learning program or activities will be designed for our, for

example training activities at work and the structure of your Business Higher or

Foundation award. Other activities you may have to design yourself in order to

develop the capabilities that you are working towards. Do not expect to receive

all the required experiences provided for you ‘on a plate’. For example, if part of

research assignment involves collecting primary information, then you will need

to take the responsibility to arrange to go and interview relevant individuals

yourself. This self-management of learning is an essential part of your

development process.

ACTION PLANS:

Action planning is crucial part of a degree award. Planning is concerned with

providing a structured and organized way of meeting objectives.

There are a number of important reasons why you should plan, including:

 To be clear about your objectives

 To organize activities into a sequence


 To organize the timing of events

 To keep a check on progress

 To make sure that the important things are not left until last

 To plan what resources and materials you need

 To save time

 To reduce stress

 To look at present strengths and how they can be build upon

A problem for many students is that while they have some idea about the

goal or target they are working towards they are not skilled at planning the

steps required to achieve this target. Action planning involves designing a

series of sequential steps that will enable you to meet targets.

Action plan for an assignment An important area of action planning on your

course will relate to completing assignments on time in order to meet

specified criteria:

 Be clear about your objective, for example to complete the (named)

assignment by the given deadline, covering all of the required criteria.

 Organize activities into a sequence. Set out a step-by-step plan of how

you will complete this assignment, and how each step is related o the

performance criteria.

 Organize the timing of events. When will each step in the assignment

be completed?

 Keep a check on progress. How will you check that you are keeping to

deadlines? Will you review your progress with another student, for

example?
T
A
R
G
E
T

ACTION STEPS

STARTING POINT

Development action plan

The importance of action plans is that they help you organize yourself. You

should be able to put your plan together quickly with the minimum of

paperwork. If an action plan involves a lot of paper and time, then throw it in the

bin and start again. Your action plan should be simple and easy to follow.

Write your action plan under these headings:

1) Area for development

2) Name of person responsible for development

3) Action steps ( simple and practical)


i.

ii.

iii.

iv.

(There may be quite a few of these)

4. Review of progress (when reviews will occur and who will be involved).

5. Evaluation of plan (when and how it will take place, how it can be improved).

Area for development - What do you want to plan? Set out your targets.

Person responsible for development

This will be you, or a small group of students. The responsibility lies with you,

not with your tutor. Take charge of your own learning.

Action steps - What steps will you need to take to seethe plan through? Be

specific about the steps that need to be taken. Set out the time when these steps

will take place.

Review of progress

When and how will the progress of action steps and the plan be checked. In

writing out your plan you need to set dates for reviewing successful you have

been in carrying out the plan. For example, if you have eight weeks to complete
an assignment, you could review your progress after two weeks, four weeks and

six weeks. You will need to carry out this review with someone else. Two

students can review each others work for example.

FUTURE PLAN – EVALUATION:

It is helfpful to evaluate the success of your plan in order to help you to action

plan in the future. Make sure that your action steps are a clear and practical

rather than sketchy and vague. For example, ‘reading four journal articles about

appraisal processes, and making detailed notes about salient points is a specific

and practical step. ‘Doing some reading’ is vague.

Going to computer services, taking out a manual on spreadsheets, setting out a

spreadsheet of my research figures is a detailed description of a practical step.

‘Improving my ICT’ is not. You can see that the action plan we have outlined

does not involve a lot of paperwork. However, it enables you to map out clear

steps that you will need to take to meet your targets.

Too often in the past students have found themselves with three or four

assignments to do at the same time and have left essential work to the last

minute. Action planning helps you to spread out your work over a period of

time.

Action planning is used widely in the work place. If you learn to construct

simple action plans now, you will have developed a useful life skill. Finally, never

write an action plan after completing an assignment.


REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1) Explain the concept of Personal and career development.

2) Define the Career development process.

3) Write a short note on Current performance and future needs.

4) Explain about aims, objectives and targets.

5) Describe about Review dates and achievement dates in development

plan.

6) Explain about the learning programme.

7) Define action plans and also development an action plan by your own.

1.5 PORTFOLIO BUILDING:

DEVELOPING AND MAINTAINING A PERSONAL PORTFOLIO:

Learning Objective:
After reading this section you will be able to know,

 The meaning of Portfolio.

 About the Personal career portfolio Design.

 The concept of Personal portfolio.

 The Key elements of Personal/Career portfolio.

 About the suggestions for developing and maintaining Portfolio.

 Career Exploration and Assessment - Letter of introduction - career-

Pursuit Information - samples of work.

Meaning of Portfolio:

A portfolio is a place where you store things related to your training, work

experience, contributions, and special accomplishments. It is the place to

document all your work-related talents and accomplishments so that you have a

good sense of your "assets."

An effective portfolio is a visual representation of your experience, strengths,

abilities, skills - the things you like to do, and do best. There are wide variations

in professional portfolios and in where and how they can be used. Here's a

starter list of artifacts to consider. Begin you collection with whatever is relevant

to you.

Personal portfolio:

A personal portfolio is a compilation of work samples and documents gathered

during a student’s school years and presented in a structured manner. It should

profile the student’s goals, progress, achievements and competencies in an


organized, accessible and purposeful format, without overwhelming a

prospective employer.

Personal career portfolio Design : The Personal Portfolio is designed to: (1)

provide an information repository that can be used throughout your career; and

(2) help you better market yourself and set yourself apart from the mass of other

applicants for the positions you seek.

Task description

Suggested level: Years 7 to 10.

Teachers may introduce Year 7 students to the idea of portfolios. Each year

students can review and update their portfolio to include their skills

development and goal setting activities.

The purpose of the portfolio is to:

• Present goals, progress, achievements and competencies to a range of

audiences, including new schools and teachers, course enrolment counselors,

prospective employers and parents

• Establish a focus for a range of learning activities, including goal setting,

decision making, action planning, prioritizing and negotiating

• Enhance student self-esteem by profiling positive achievements, including

academic, sporting, leisure, work experience and cultural activities.

Key elements of Personal/Career portfolio:

 Dual Purpose
Marketing Tool/Visual Aide for Interviews

♦ Jobs

♦ Scholarships

♦ College

Organizational Tool

♦ Assists in identifying important documents

♦ Puts all information in one place

♦ Tabs separate information by categories

 Visual Impact---Remember Your Audience

Eye Pleasing

♦ Place documents in sheet protectors

♦ Pay close attention to detail—make it visually attractive

Professional

♦ Keep it visually appropriate to your audience (not too cutsey)

♦ Demonstrate your skills

Be Concise

♦ More is not always better

♦ Selections of best work

♦ Pertinent information

 Work In Progress
♦ Designed for use beyond high school

♦ Tool for life

♦ Shows growth and improvement

Suggestions for developing and maintaining Portfolio:

 Education

• Diplomas, certificates, CEUs, licenses

• Assessments, test results (e.g. GRE scores), appraisals (e.g. 180° or 360°

feedback), grade reports

• Awards, honors, honor society memberships

• Internships, apprenticeships, special projects (e.g. senior capstone)

• Writing samples

• Workshops, seminars, conferences attended

• Independent learning (things you've learned on your own, or taught

yourself)

 Activities

• Leadership positions held

• Hobbies or Interests (time devoted to or photos)

• Participation in team sports

• Service project participation

• Volunteer activities

• Organizations joined (all)

• Public speaking/presentations or performances

• Awards

 Work-Related Activities
• Resume

• Performance reports, appraisals (e.g. internship/student teaching

evaluations), Letter of nomination and/or recommendation

• Accomplishments (could include newspaper clippings that detail your

achievements)

• Military training, citations (complete description of duties, activities)

• Awards and Professional licenses

• Publications, reports, published articles

• Training materials, Samples of brochures, flyers made

• Attendance records and Organization charts

• Customer surveys , Documentation of accomplishments - increase in sales,

decrease in claims

 Personal Qualities or Strengths

• Strengths (personal qualities that will help you contribute to an employer)

• Teamwork and people skills, problem-solving, budgeting, planning and

organization, time management, energy, discipline, motivation,

persistence, responsibility, dependability, etc.

• Contributing to your family (teaching, caring for siblings, cooking - all

require planning, responsibility, dependability)

• Helping your friends or working on extracurricular projects (may require

teamwork, problem-solving skills, teaching skills, people skills)

• Raising a family and /or running a household (requires budgeting,

organization, time management skills, adaptability)

Career Exploration and Assessment


Before you begin to work on your Career Portfolio, it is important to spend time

thinking about what you like to do and exploring different career areas. The time

you spend now doing career exploration and assessment will help you decide

which businesses/colleges to apply to in the future. There are many tools and

activities that you can use to gather some information about yourself—your

particular learning style, strengths, abilities.

Letter of introduction

 A well-written introduction is an important requirement of the Career

Portfolio. This letter introduces you to prospective employers and colleges.

It should be both personal and informative and spotlight your best work.

 Your career aspirations and goals.

 The skills and abilities that would make you successful in a particular

career or at a particular college.

Career-Pursuit Information

This part of the portfolio gives businesses/colleges important information.

Resume

If you already have a resume, transfer the information it contains into the format

Presented here.

Letters of Recommendation

(1) Employment-related: A letter from a past employer evaluating your work

performance.
(2) Character-related: A letter from a person who has known you for more than

one year and can testify to your personal and/or academic attributes. It is

important that you be recommended as a good citizen and a responsible person.

Samples of work:

 Possible examples of academic work:

• Research papers, book reports, essays

• Math’s, science and computer projects

 Pictures, projects, descriptions of activities relating to personal interests

and hobbies (i.e., photography, poetry, cooking, woodworking, etc.)

 Pictures, projects, descriptions of activities relating to community

involvement outside of school (i.e., Scouts, religious organizations, 4-H,

etc.)

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1. Explain the meaning of Portfolio.

2. What is meant by Personal career portfolio Design?

3. What is Personal portfolio?

4. Explain the Key elements of Personal/Career portfolio.

5. Provide suggestions for developing and maintaining Portfolio.

6. What is Career Exploration and Assessment?

7. What is meant by Letter of introduction?

8. Brief about the Career-Pursuit Information.

9. What are the types of Sample work?

1.6 CONSTRUCTING A CV WRITING, MAINTAINING AND PRESENTING


Meaning of CV and Resume.

You are probably familiar with a resume, but may or may not have heard the

term “CV.” A CV, or curriculum vitae, is a written profile of your professional

qualifications. It can vary in length from one to several pages, depending upon

the variety and number of your experiences. (A resume, in contrast, is a 1-2 page

overview of your job experiences.) A CV is appropriate for the health care

professional because potential employers typically do not receive a large number

of applications (i.e. < 20) for each position. In other fields, an employer may

receive hundreds of applications for one position and so will desire brevity.

Although they are actually different, the terms CV and resume are used

interchangeably by many people.

A CV or Curriculum Vitae is:

* Your Life History

* Your Job History

* Your Achievements

* Your Skills

A CV or curriculum vitae is a marketing tool. With your CV you will be able to

promote yourself. Imagine the CV as being a brochure that will list the benefits of

a particular service.

Organizing CV:

Keeping your CV concise and to the point is a difficult task. Selecting a

comprehensive structure and format will help you to get success. There are many

layouts to choose from, and they vary from country to country.


The top of every CV should contain contact information. Your name is typically

centered, and may be set in larger and/or boldface type to attract attention.

Remember to:

• ·Place your complete name, address and telephone number at the top of

the page. You may also want to include an e-mail address. Make sure that

the telephone number is the number at which you would like to be

contacted.

• If you don’t want your current employer to know you’re looking for

another job, then do not put your current job phone number down as the

contact number.

• Think carefully before including a second “permanent” address. This can

be confusing to employers who will not know where to contact you.

After the contact information, you should strongly consider the following
headings:

Education

• Start with your most recent educational experience first (this is

called reverse chronological order).

• For each degree you have obtained, spell out the full name of the

degree (i.e. “Bachelor of Science in Pharmacy” “Doctor of

Pharmacy”) and the full name of the university. Then note the year

of graduation. If you are currently working on a degree, put the

word “candidate” after the name of the degree, spell out the full

name of the university, and note the expected year of graduation.

• If you have no degree from your pre-pharmacy coursework, then it

is acceptable to use the words “Pre-pharmacy studies.”


• Residency, fellowship, and certificate information should be

included under the “education” heading.

• Do not include information from/about high school.

Specialized Training/Certification

• This includes CPR, ACLS, BCPS, immunizations, emergency

contraception—any similar professional certification you have earned.

• Use the full certification name and note the year the certification was

earned. You can include a short description of the certification if you feel it

is not self-explanatory.

• Understand that certification is not the same as a certificate. If you are

certified in some area, it means you have received specialized training in a

particular skill and that you have shown you can perform that skill at a

pre-specified level. A certificate involves more coursework and qualifies

you to work in a particular area – not to perform a specific skill.

Experience

• Use the heading “Professional Experience” if you have any

pharmacy or other professional health care experience.

• Include related jobs, rotations, and volunteer experience

• Start with your most recent experience first (reverse

chronological order).

 Information to include:

 Time interval employed (list start and stop month/year; use year only if

you held the job for more than a year)

 Position title
 Name and location of employer

 Name and contact number of a supervisor

 Non-pharmacy or non-professional experiences can go under the

category of “Other Related Experience.” Be sure to describe only

transferable skills (i.e. skills you gained at other nonpharmacy jobs that

would enhance your value to a pharmacy employer. Any jobs involving

teaching, triage, or interaction with members of the public may involve

skills transferable to the pharmacy profession. It all depends upon how

you present the skills on paper).

 A short description/list of projects you completed or notable activities

performed while on the job is a nice touch; it is probably not necessary to

list your standard job duties unless they are out-of-the-ordinary.

 Rotations are good to list when you don’t have much else to place on the

CV. If you’re more than a couple of years out from school, drop the

rotation information unless skills that you learned at a particular rotation

may play a direct role in the job you are applying for. Include the same

information as for a job; and avoid site-specific rotation descriptions (e.g.,

instead of “white medicine,” use the easy-to-understand “adult internal

medicine”). Spell out names and do not use abbreviations (for example,

heme/onc is wrong, Hematology/Oncology is correct—also be sure to spell

out terms like Medicine Service, and University Hospital and Medical

Center).

 If you have experience teaching courses that you want to highlight, you

may include “Teaching Experience” as a third experience heading.

Presentations
 Include the presentation title, name of group presented to, and year. The

location of the meeting (city and state) is optional.

 If you have several presentations, you can separate out poster

presentations, invited oral presentations, in services, class lectures—

whatever works.

 Don’t list contact names for the presentation, but have a copy of all

handouts from the presentations ready to present during an interview.

Publications

 Don’t include site-specific newsletter publications—these should be listed

with job or rotation as projects.

 If you have more than four, divide them into peer-reviewed and non-peer-

reviewed.

 Cite the published material using the official citation method noted in the

“Uniform Requirements for References in Manuscripts submitted to

Biomedical Journals,” except list all authors (not just the first three).

Related Awards and Activities

• For awards, list title and year granted. You may describe the award briefly

if you think it will not be self-explanatory.

• For Dean’s List, cite the quarter(s) and year(s).

• For committee memberships (general and ad hoc), list committee name

and time spent in committee.

• List any association offices held.

Professional Affiliations
• List all professional associations of which you are currently a member.

Spell out the full name of the associations—do not use abbreviations.

• Licensure

• List name of state and type of license only.

CV Presentation:

The quality and presentation of your CV is vital when selling yourself. The

appearance of your CV is an indication to a prospective employer of the type of

person that may be working in their environment. There is no exact format for

compiling a CV, but the following guideline is a sure fire way to avoid yours

being rejected.

Things should be avoided in CV presentation:

Omit items that have nothing to do with your profession. Besides the fact that the

information is irrelevant, there are two other important considerations. First,

listing certain kinds of personal information can enable unscrupulous people to

gain enough information about you to commit fraud in your name. Second,

potential employers typically don’t WANT to know anything that could put them

at risk of a discrimination suit later on. Equal opportunity employment clauses

state that some of the items listed below could provide a basis for discrimination,

so employers would not want to see this type of information. Include only

information that is pertinent to the professional nature of the position for which

you are applying.

Leave all these things off your CV:


• Social security number

• Marital status

• Description of health

• Citizenship

• Age

• Pharmacist or intern license number

• Irrelevant awards, publications, scholarships, associations, and

memberships

• Recreational activities or hobbies

• Personal references

• Travel history

• Previous pay rates

• Reasons for leaving previous jobs

• Components of your name which you really never use (i.e. middle names)

• The words “References available upon request.”

Standard for formatting and layout in CV Presentation:

CVs and resumes can be presented in a variety of ways. This is an opportunity

for you to be creative. However, the following standards should be followed:

Ensure that your CV is neat and visually appealing:

• Choose high quality paper in white or off-white

• Have the final version professionally reproduced in a single-

sided format

• Use a laser printer—handwriting, typing and dot matrix

printing look unprofessional


Font case and size:

• Times New Roman is recommended

• 12 point font size will be the easiest to read; do not use smaller than 10

point font

• Do not use more than two fonts on your resume

• Use bullets to aid organization, but be careful not to overuse them. Too

many bullets lead to a cluttered appearance.

• Be consistent. Choose a pattern of spacing, an order of information

presentation or a format of highlighting that is standard throughout the

document. This will avoid a “patched” appearance.

Grammer:

The standard grammar for a CV differs somewhat from everyday professional


writing. Some general points of difference are listed below:
• Use past tense, even for descriptions of currently held positions, to

promote consistency.

• Do not use personal pronouns

• For the most part, use short, simple phrases that begin with action verbs.

• Check for grammar. Misspellings, poorly constructed sentences, and

inappropriate use of

• Punctuation communicates negative impressions about a candidate. Do

not rely on the computer grammar check or spell check.

• Be sure to catch all spelling errors, grammatical weaknesses, unusual

punctuation, and inconsistent capitalization. Proofread it numerous times,

put it down for a week, and then proofread it again to catch any hidden

mistakes.

Closing thoughts:
• Sell yourself. Create a good first impression by highlighting skills and

abilities appropriate to the position. List your qualifications in order of

relevance, from most to least.

• Don't sell yourself short. This is by far the biggest mistake of all CVs. Your

experiences are worthy for review by hiring managers. Treat your resume

as an advertisement for you.

• Be sure to thoroughly "sell" yourself by highlighting all of your strengths.

If you've got a valuable asset that doesn't seem to fit into any existing

components of your CV, list it as its own segment or highlight it in the

cover letter.

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1. What is a CV and is it any different than a resume?

2. How should you organize your CV?

3. What things should you avoid putting on your CV?

4. How to present a CV?

5. What are the things to be considered for standard formatting and layout

in CV presentation?

6. What about grammar details to be cared in resume preperation?

UNIT 2
2. EVALUATE PROGRESS

Learning objectives:

After reading this section you can able to know,

 The concept of evaluate progress.

 Overview of goal or objectives,targets

 Setting Goals

 Responding to feedback

 Steps for responding to feedback

 Resetting aims and planning for resetting aims.

Evaluating progress includes formal review of both use data and the activities

carried out as part of the action plan as compared to your performance goals.

Evaluation results and information gathered during the formal review process is

used by many organizations to create new action plans, identify best practices,

and set new performance goals.

Key steps involved include:

Measure results - Compare current performance to established goals.

Gather data and compare results to goals to determine accomplishments.

Key steps in measuring results include:

Gather tracking data

• Review and cost data (capital and operating expenses).

• Organize reports and data from tracking and monitoring efforts.

• Analyze efficiency achievements based on your established performance

metrics. (See earlier Assess Performance and Set Goals sections.)


Benchmark

• Compare performance to baselines.

• Compare performance against established goals for:

o environmental performance

o financial savings.

To achieve a goal or a vision you must plan how to make it happen.

You cannot 'do' a goal or a vision. Instead you must do the things that enable it -

usually several things, in several steps.

A goal without a plan remains just a goal - many people have visions, intentions,

ideas, dreams which never happen, because they are not planned.

Objectives .

A goal or objective is a projected state of affairs that a person or a system plans

or intends to achieve—a personal or organizational desired end-point in some

sort of assumed development. Many people endeavor to reach goals within a

finite time by setting deadlines.

A desire or an intention becomes a goal if and only if\one activates an action for

achieving it.It is roughly similar to purpose or aim, the anticipated result which

guides action, or an end, which is an object, either a physical object or an abstract

object, that has intrinsic value.

Performance goals drive management activities and promote continuous

improvement. Setting clear and measurable goals is critical for understanding

intended results, developing effective strategies, and reaping financial gains.

Review Action Plan


After reviewing performance data, the next steps is to understand the factors

affecting the results as well as the additional benefits of the improved

performance.

This review should look at the effectiveness of your action plan. Where activities

and projects were successful, document best practices to share throughout the

organization. Where goals were not met, many organizations determine the

cause and decide what corrective or preventive actions should be taken.

Key steps in reviewing the action plan include:

• Get feedback — Solicit feedback and ideas on the plan from the team,

implementation staff, and other departments.

• Gauge awareness — Assess changes in employee and organizational

awareness of issues.

• Identify critical factors — Identify factors that contributed to surpassing

or missing targets.

• Quantify side benefits — Identify and quantify, if possible, side benefits

arising from management activities such as employee comfort,

productivity improvement, impact on sales, reduced operation and

maintenance expenses, or better public/community relations.

Regular evaluation of performance and the effectiveness of management

initiatives also allow managers to:

• Measure the effectiveness of projects and programs implemented

• Make informed decisions about future projects

• Reward individuals and teams for accomplishments

• Document additional savings opportunities as well as non-quantifiable

benefits that can be leveraged for future initiatives.


Evaluate progress:

• What is working in my plan?

• Why is it working?

• What measure or system can I use to track my progress?

• If something is not working, what about it isn’t?

• What can I do about it?

• When will I do it?

• What is my commitment level?

• How can I remember my commitment to my goal?

If you get sidetracked from your goal, ask yourself the following questions:

• Am I repeating an old pattern of not giving something enough time?

• Do I want to quit out of sheer boredom?

• Is wanting to quit a warning sign of a repeated pattern I fall into?

• How can I make the plan more enticing for me to follow without

compromising the entire plan?

• How does my plan support my mission statement?

Targets:

A Target is any entity whose existence is the object of goal accomplishment by another
entity's intended action results.

Make sure that your targets are SMART:

6. Specific: they are easy to understand


7. Measurable if possible ( that is, you can attach numbers to them)
8. Acheivable
9. Realistic
10. Time-related

Targets are shorter-term challenges that help you to achieve your aims and objectives. For
example, short-term targets may relate to gaining scores of at least 60 percent on your
next three pieces of work.

RESPONDING TO FEEDBACK (JOB):

Some feedback is easy to take. Someone makes an awesome suggestion that makes a ton
of sense or simply loves what you are doing and wants to tell you so. Some feedback isn’t
as easy - someone doesn’t like something you’ve done and wants to let you know about
it.

Responding to Feedback on the Job From time to time, your employer will want to
give you feedback on your progress and performance at work. Generally, you'll get a
"Great job!" But occasionally, your supervisor will let you know something didn't go
well. You may instinctively become defensive, feeling like you're being blamed. Stop!
Negative feedback can be a valuable opportunity to learn how to do things better next
time. Here's how to respond and benefit from it.

1. Listen to your employer's feedback. Pay attention to the content, not the tone. What's
the problem? What part did you play in it? Summarize what you hear your supervisor
saying to show that you understand what's being said, even if you don't agree with it. For
example: "You wanted me to contact John by the end of the day yesterday to make sure
he could come to tomorrow's meeting, and since I didn't contact him until this morning,
he no longer had room in his schedule and won't be able to make the meeting."

2. Acknowledge whatever part of the situation you're responsible for. This doesn't
mean taking on all the blame! But if an important phone call wasn't made, and it was
your job to make it, take responsibility for letting it slip through the cracks. For example,
you could say, "You're absolutely right, I should have let you know that I wasn't going to
be able to call John until this morning."

3. Offer your own perspective on the situation:


• Give an overall evaluation of your performance. If you disagree with your
supervisor's point of view, try expressing it by saying, "While you think I did
______, I feel I did __________."
• Mention at least two things you did well.
• Describe at least one thing you could have done better.
• Discuss what you might do to prevent the problem from happening again.

4. Ask what else you might do to improve your performance. Listen and summarize
what your supervisor says to show that you understand. Take notes if you need help
remembering the conversation.

RESETTING AIMS (Goals):

One of the biggest mistakes goal setters make is not to re-set goals after a goal has been
achieved. Re-setting is absolutely necessary if motivation and momentum are to me
maintained. If re-setting doesn't take place, you run the risk of losing interest, direction,
and feelings of progress.

Begin with a clear goal, and an outline of what will make your goal happen.
Whatever the aim, all good plans tend to include:
1. A clearly defined aim.
2. Linked steps or stages or elements - resources, actions, knowledge, etc - the
factors of cause and effect.
3. Relevant and achievable proportions and timings (for steps, stages, elements)
Note that the overall aim or vision does not have to be limited or constrained.
Where aims and visions are concerned virtually anything is possible - for an individual
person or an organization - provided the above goal planning criteria are used.
Here is a simple outline goal planning template and process, which can be used as the full
planning method for certain personal aims, or as an initial outline planning tool for the
most complex organizational vision.

Reasons for failure:


• not being methodical
• lack of commitment to solving the problem
• misinterpreting the problem
• lack of. knowledge of the techniques and processes involved in problelI1 solving
• inability to use the techniques effectively
• using a method inappropriate to the particular problem
• insufficient or inaccurate information
• inability to combine analytical and creative thinking
• failure to ensure effective implementation.

Well-stated goals guide daily decision-making and are the basis for tracking and

measuring progress.

Goal planning template

Define your aim - clearly and measurably.

My aim/vision/goal: Measures: Timescale:


1. Write down your aim or vision. Describe it. Clearly define it so that a stranger
could understand it and know what it means.
2. Attach some measures or parameters or standards (scale, values, comparative
references, etc) to prove that it is achieved.
3. Commit to a timescale - even if it is five or ten years away.
4. Then ask yourself and identify: What factors would directly cause the aim to be
achieved? Insert these below.

Finally, you should assess how effectively you are fulfilling all of your commitments at
all stages. Once you have developed an initial overview of your activities and tasks you
will need to reassess these as priorities and commitments change.

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1) Define about the Evaluating progress.

2) Describe about objectives, Targets.


3) Explain the steps for responding to Feedback?
4) Describe about the Re-setting aims and Reasons for failure:
5) Describe about Goal planning template.

UNIT 3

INTERPERSONAL AND TRANSFERABLE BUSINESS SKILLS:

“Interpersonal skills" refers to mental and communicative algorithms applied

during social communications and interactions in order to reach certain effects or

results. The term "interpersonal skills" is used often in business contexts to refer
to the measure of a person's ability to operate within business organizations

through social communication and interactions.

Assertiveness Training

Basic or Advanced Assertiveness Courses and Classes offer key techniques to

deal with Bullying, Confrontations and Difficult People.

Business Networking Skills

Most people share an uneasiness of walking into a group of strangers and

socializing with charm and wit. Learn how to be more at ease in the networking

arena and build the kind of relationships that will develop your company and

take the sting out of events.

Communication Skills Training

The single most important skill you have to have in business is to be able to

communicate effectively with colleagues and customers. From making sure

you're understood to delivering difficult messages to handling conflict, just about

everyone could do with polishing their skills to become more effective

communicators.

Conflict Management Training

Many people manage conflict by avoiding it. Whether its workplace disputes,

difficult people or unresolved conflicts the thing to aim for is resolution,

otherwise, what's the point? Here we help people get to the heart of the problem

so they can get to the heart of the solution.

Interview Skills Training


Getting the job you want is a key career and potentially life-changing time.

Having some solid interview techniques and skills can make all the difference

between you getting what you want or you being disappointed because once

again, the interview didn't go as well as you wanted it to.

Personal Impact Training

Many of us aren't very adept at understanding the personal impact we make on

others. Here you get to look at what makes an impact and how you can make the

impression you want without compromising who you are.

Stress Management Training

Stress makes it difficult to see the wood for the trees. If you're under pressure or

you manage people who are, this program helps you create a balanced, effective

life style.

Work Life Balance

Two for the Price of one. Striking the right balance between Work and Home.

Transferable skills

Generic (or general) transferable skills are those skills, abilities and personal

attributes which you can use in a wide range of activities, both in and out of

employment, and that are not specific to the subject you studied.
There exist many transferable skills, but most can be summarized under four

main headings:

Communication and presentation skills (oral, written and graphic);

Teamwork or interpersonal skills (e.g. negotiating, listening, sharing,

empathizing);

Management or organizing and planning skills (including self management

skills such as integrity, honesty and ethical behavior); and Intellectual and

creative skills (such as problem solving and 'thinking beyond the square').

Skills that you have developed in a specific subject area at university (e.g.

sociology, psychology, archaeology) may be transferred from that context into

another (e.g. another topic or a community role or a employment-related task).

To be successful in the workplace, employees have to possess transferable skills.

Knowing about these skills will help teens and adults prepare to be successful in

the workplace. Transferable skills are a product of our talents, traits and

knowledge. These skills determine how you respond to new activities, work

situations or jobs.

Transferable skills are non-job specific skills that you have acquired during any

activity or life experiences. Student activities and experiences include campus

and community activities, class projects, and assignments, hobbies, athletic

activities, internships and summer part-time jobs.

Transferable skills fall into three (3) groups: Working with people, working with

things, and working with data/information. These terms are defined below:

Working with people skills happen when people sell, train, advice, and negotiate.
Working with things skills occur when people repair, operate machinery, sketch,

survey, or troubleshoot.

3.1 PROBLEM SOLVING:

Learning Objective:

After reading this section you will be able to know,

Meaning of Problem.
The concept of Problem solving.

Problem solving steps - Problem analysis - Identifying Success Criteria -

Understanding the Problem Environment-Generating Alternative

Solutions - Analyzing Risks, Assumptions, and Impacts - Selecting the

Best Solution.

Key areas – Five Whys, Cause and Effect Analysis, CATWOE, Drill Down

, Critical Success Factors , SWOT Analysis , PEST Analysis , Value

Chain Analysis , Flow Charts , Swim Lane Diagrams , Impact Analysis,

The Ladder of Inference, Failure Mode and Effects Analysis ,

Cost/Benefit Analysis or Decision Tree Analysis, Grid Analysis

The impact of Brainstorming for generating solutions.

Meaning of Problem:

Problem is a chance for you to do your best.

A problem is the difference between the actual state and desired state.

A problem is an opportunity for improvement.

“Most people rush to find solution before knowing the real problem.”

“Most people spend more time and energy going around problems than in trying

to solve them.” - Henry Ford

Problem solving:
Problem solving is a tool, a skill and a process. It is a tool because it can help you

to solve an immediate problem or to achieve a goal. It is a skill because once you

have learnt it you can use it repeatedly, like the ability to ride a bicycle, add

numbers or speak a language.

It’s good to know that there are many powerful problem-solving tools that can

lend a hand – helping you determine the nature of the issue you’re dealing with,

generate good options, analyze risks and impacts, and, finally, select the best

solution.

This guide to problem solving is designed with exactly that in mind. It helps you

learn the key steps of problem solving, and it assists you in choosing some of the

best tools and approaches. Read on to discover more about some of the most

popular tools for problem solving, how to apply them with flexibility, and how

to use them to good effect.

Six Key Steps

Most problem solving boils down to six steps:

1. Defining the problem or problem analysis

2. Identifying success criteria

3. Understanding the problem environment

4. Generating alternative solutions

5. Analyzing risks, hidden assumptions, and unexpected impacts

6. Selecting the best solution

Step 1: Defining the Problem or Problem analysis


First it is need to check whether it’s worth spending time to solve this problem. Is

the problem significant and strategic? Will solving it add value to you, your

organization, or your customers? And if it should be solved, is it your

responsibility to do so? If not, consider leaving the problem unsolved – or pass it

on to the person whose responsibility it is to deliver a solution.

If you decide to go ahead, then it’s often worth investing some time and effort in

fully understanding the problem. This is particularly the case when you’re

dealing with problems that will take several months to solve. In this situation, it’s

worthwhile to determine before you start that you’re solving the true problem –

rather than just treating the symptoms of a deeper, underlying issue.

To do this, consider using the Five Whys technique, Cause and Effect Analysis, or

CATWOE. Of these three tools, Five Whys is the simplest and is ideal for smaller

problems. It can, however, lead you down a single path where you ignore other

options. Cause and Effect Analysis and CATWOE help you avoid this problem,

so they’re best for larger problems with greater potential impact.

Five Whys

This simple but effective tool prompts you to ask “why” the problem exists. After

that, you keep on asking “why?” to those answers until you uncover the real root

cause of the problem.

Cause and Effect Analysis


This technique involves drawing a fishbone-like diagram that helps you

brainstorm the possible underlying causes of your problem. This pushes you to

consider many more of the possible causes of your problem than you might

naturally consider.

CATWOE

The CATWOE tool helps you look at the situation from a number of different

points of view – from customer perspectives to environmental constraints – so

that you can make sure that you’re solving the right problem, and not just a

symptom of a larger problem.

Drill Down

This helps you break down a large and complex problem into its component

parts. By doing so, you can develop plans that deal with each of these parts. It

also shows you where you need to conduct more detailed research.

Step 2: Identifying Success Criteria

Once you’ve identified the root cause of your problem, the next step is to

understand what’s important for success. In other words, which areas of activity

need to be completed successfully for your problem-solving project to be judged

a success?

Critical Success Factors


Critical Success Factors (CSFs) are the areas of your business or project that are

absolutely essential to its success. By identifying and communicating these CSFs,

you help ensure that your business or project is well focused – and you can avoid

wasting effort and resources on less important areas.

Step 3: Understanding the Problem Environment

Sometimes people take this environmental analysis step intuitively. For smaller

problems, you may not need to go through any elaborate investigation to

understand your current situation. If, however, you want to make significant

changes or if you need to have a strong grasp of the big picture before moving

ahead, then this step is essential.

Perhaps the most useful tool for doing this is a SWOT Analysis. Used on a

personal, organizational, or competitive basis, this tool helps you identify the

strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats that are related to the problem

at hand. By using this technique, you can think about these questions:

• What strengths and opportunities can you build upon to come up with a

solution?

• What weaknesses and threats do you need to keep in mind when you evaluate

and eventually choose a solution?

SWOT Analysis

SWOT Analysis is a simple but powerful framework for analyzing your

Strengths and Weaknesses, as well as the Opportunities and Threats that you face

in your specific situation. This helps you focus on your strengths, minimize
threats, and take the greatest possible advantage of the opportunities that are

available to you.

Porter’s Five Forces

This simple but powerful tool allows you to see where power lies in a business

situation. This is often fundamental to understanding what you can expect from

other people and organizations. Five Forces Analysis is based on an analysis of

supplier power, customer power, threat of substitution, ease of new entry, and

competitive rivalry. This tool is particularly useful because it helps you

understand both the strengths and weaknesses of your current competitive

position, as well as those of a strategic position you’re looking to move into.

PEST Analysis

PEST Analysis is a simple but important – and widely used – tool that helps you

understand the big picture of the Political, Economic, Sociocultural, and

Technological environment in which you’re operating. PEST is used by business

leaders worldwide to build their vision of the future. It can help you understand

some of the fundamental forces that could lie behind the problem you’re

experiencing.

Value Chain Analysis

This helps you think about where you add value for your customers within your

business process. This way, you can understand whether there are issues at any

of these points. It can also help you spot situations where you’re failing to deliver

what you customer wants and expects.


Flow Charts

Flow charts are easy-to-understand diagrams that show how steps in a process

fit together. They help you recognize and clarify the details of how things

currently work. This allows people to understand and discuss processes, and

identify any flaws within them.

Swim Lane Diagrams

These diagrams take flow charts a step further by allowing you to map

interactions in processes between departments and teams. Many problems are

caused by confusion and failure at the point of handover between different

groups of people. You can easily identify these possible points of failure with

Swim Lane Diagrams.

Step 4: Generating Alternative Solutions

After you’ve understood the context of the problem, it’s time to actually start

generating potential solutions. Too often, however, this is the stage of the

problem-solving process at which people first jump in (in fact, often people just

pick the first solution they can think of.) They’ve identified the problem, and

they just want to get answers. But if you bypass earlier steps of analysis, you risk

developing solutions that only disguise the problem – or you may create an even

greater problem down the road. This can be a key failure if the problem is a

major one, or if developing the initial, failed solution takes a long time.

When you are ready to come up with solutions, there are several tools you can

use to kick-start your creative processes.


Once you’ve generated a set of ideas and potential solutions, you need to start

organizing these – many ideas are likely to be different versions of the same basic

concept.

Brainstorming is a popular – and effective – way to generate solutions to a

problem. Use it when you have a team of people who want to look at a problem

with fresh eyes and open minds. An extension of this approach is Reverse

Brainstorming.

TRIZ can help you generate a comprehensive list of solutions by drawing on

rigorously analyzed past solutions to generalized problems. While TRIZ is

normally only used to solve engineering problems, its comprehensive approach

makes it particularly powerful in this context.

Use an Affinity Diagram to help you group the ideas you developed and show

you how to create relationships between ideas. By doing this, you may also gain

further insight into the problem, and you may discover hidden linkages. This can

lead to some great new alternatives that you would not have otherwise seen.

Step 5: Analyzing Risks, Assumptions, and Impacts

So, you now have a set of potential solutions to your well-defined problem.

Before you take the final step and choose one, you need to test the ideas to make

sure that they’re sound. This involves understanding the risks involved in each

alternative, checking that the assumptions behind them are sound, and

projecting the likely outcomes of the change to make sure that there are no

serious negative consequences. The most important tool you need to use here is
Risk Analysis. The basis of risk analysis is that risk = probability of event x cost

of event. With this tool, you first identify the potential risks of your solution.

Another useful tool is Failure Mode and Effects Analysis, or FMEA, which

helps you look at the possible points of failure in your solution. This helps you

systematically identify all the points at which a solution could fail. By looking at

a solution from this negative perspective, you can develop a solution that is

robust enough to succeed.

The Ladder of Inference provides a structured approach for (1) checking

whether your assumptions are correct and (2) ensuring that you’ve based your

proposed solution on correct logic and well-gathered data.

Finally, Impact Analysis helps you uncover the unexpected effects that changes

might have on your organization and the people involved. This helps you avoid

that dreadful, career-limiting situation in which the changes you champion make

the situation worse rather than better.

Step 6: Selecting the Best Solution

This is where all of your preparatory work sees a payoff. At this point, you’re

confident that the solutions you’re evaluating are appropriate, that they’ll solve

the real problem, and that they’re consistent with the strategic direction of the

company.

For small or medium-sized decisions, use Cash Flow Forecasting to assess the

viability of the project, and then carry out a Cost/Benefit Analysis or Decision

Tree Analysis to help you decide which solution provides the best financial
return. (For more complex or larger decisions, you may want to get the help of

your finance department or your accountant to ensure that the analysis is

comprehensive and correctly structured.)

The amount of time you invest in this will depend on how important the decision

is. For high-impact decisions, you may also want to use Six Thinking Hats to

ensure that you’ve considered all points of view in a balanced way.

Typically, there are a number of factors that need to be taken into account when

you’re choosing between several alternatives: cost, impact, timing, and so on.

Grid Analysis is a powerful tool for assessing the relative importance of each

and helping you identify the best solution.

With all of those preliminary concerns addressed, it’s now a much simpler matter

of evaluating the merits of each solution and choosing the best one. However,

who should be involved in the decision? The Vroom-Yetto-Jago Decision Model

gives you a useful (if slightly theoretical) guide for deciding whether you should

choose a solution yourself or involve others.

If you need the input of many other people, then techniques like Multi-Voting

and Nominal Group Technique can help you make sure that everyone feels

they’ve had fair input into the final decision.

The six-step problem-solving process is a useful starting point for most

problems, and it can be adopted according to the circumstances. Each is powerful

in its own way and when applied to a particular type of situation – so it’s well

worth exploring them and learning to use them.

REVIEW QUESTIONS:
What is meant by Problem?

What is Problem solving?

Explain the Problem solving steps?

What are the tools used for problem solving?-

How will you Generating Alternative Solutions?

Explain the importance of Brainstorming for generating solutions.

What are the tools used for choosing the solution.

Define the following concepts - Five Whys, Cause and Effect Analysis,

CATWOE, Drill Down , Critical Success Factors , SWOT Analysis ,

PEST Analysis , Value Chain Analysis , Flow Charts , Swim Lane

Diagrams , Impact Analysis, The Ladder of Inference, Failure Mode

and Effects Analysis , Cost/Benefit Analysis or Decision Tree Analysis,

Grid Analysis.

3.2 BRAINSTORMING:

Learning Objective:
After reading this section you will be able to know,

The fundamentals of Brainstorming

The meaning of Brainstorming and Lateral Thinking

The concept of Group Brainstorming

To importance of brainstorming tool in problem solving for generating

solutions.

Brainstorming – An overview:

“Generating many radical and useful ideas”

Brainstorming is a useful and popular tool that you can use to develop highly

creative solutions to a problem. It is particularly helpful when you need to break

out of stale, established patterns of thinking, so that you can develop new ways

of looking at things. This can be when you need to develop new opportunities,

where you want to improve the service that you offer, or when existing

approaches just aren't giving you the results you want.

Used with your team, it helps you bring the experience of all team members into

play during problem solving. This increases the richness of solutions explored

(meaning that you can find better solutions to the problems you face, and make

better decisions.) It can also help you get buy in from team members for the

solution chosen - after all, they have helped create that solution.

Brainstorming and Lateral Thinking


Brainstorming is a lateral thinking process. It asks that people come up with

ideas and thoughts that seem at first to be a bit shocking or crazy. You can then

change and improve them into ideas that are useful, and often stunningly

original.

During brainstorming sessions there should therefore be no criticism of ideas:

You are trying to open up possibilities and break down wrong assumptions

about the limits of the problem. Judgments and analysis at this stage will stunt

idea generation.

Ideas should only be evaluated at the end of the brainstorming session - you can

then explore solutions further using conventional approaches.

If your ideas begin to dry up, you can 'seed' the session with, for example, a

random word (see Random Input).

Individual Brainstorming

When you brainstorm on your own you will tend to produce a wider range of

ideas than with group brainstorming - you do not have to worry about other

people's egos or opinions, and can therefore be more freely creative. You may

not, however, develop ideas as effectively as you do not have the experience of a

group to help you.

When Brainstorming on your own, it can be helpful to use Mind Maps to arrange

and develop ideas.

Group Brainstorming
Group brainstorming can be very effective as it uses the experience and creativity

of all members of the group. When individual members reach their limit on an

idea, another member's creativity and experience can take the idea to the next

stage. Therefore, group brainstorming tends to develop ideas in more depth than

individual brainstorming.

Brainstorming in a group can be risky for individuals. Valuable but strange

suggestions may appear stupid at first sight. Because of this, you need to chair

sessions tightly so that uncreative people do not crush these ideas and leave

group members feeling humiliated.

How to Use the Tool:

To run a group brainstorming session effectively, do the following:

Define the problem you want solved clearly, and lay out any criteria to be

met.

Keep the session focused on the problem.

Ensure that no one criticizes or evaluates ideas during the session. Criticism

introduces an element of risk for group members when putting forward

an idea. This stifles creativity and cripples the free running nature of a

good brainstorming session.

Encourage an enthusiastic, uncritical attitude among members of the group.

Try to get everyone to contribute and develop ideas, including the quietest

members of the group.

Let people have fun brainstorming. Encourage them to come up with as

many ideas as possible, from solidly practical ones to wildly impractical

ones. Welcome creativity.

Ensure that no train of thought is followed for too long.


Encourage people to develop other people's ideas, or to use other ideas to

create new ones.

Appoint one person to note down ideas that come out of the session. A good

way of doing this is to use a flip chart. This should be studied and

evaluated after the session.

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

Define Brainstorming.

What is meant by Brainstorming and Lateral Thinking?

What is Group Brainstorming?

How to Use the Tool?

3.3 MIND MAPPING:


Learning Objective:

After reading this section you will be able to know,

The concept of mind map and its origin

The applications of mind map

The guidelines of Mind map

The Strengths of Mind Mapping.

Mind mapping diagram – for a business scenario.

A mind map is a diagram used to represent words, ideas, tasks or other items

linked to and arranged radically around a central key word or idea. It is used to

generate, visualize, structure and classify ideas, and as an aid in study,

organization, problem solving, decision making, and writing. Mind maps have

been used for centuries, for learning, brainstorming, memory, visual thinking,

and problem solving by educators, engineers, psychologists and people in

general.

Mind maps were developed in the late 60s by Tony Buzan, a British psychologist

and a business creativity guru, as a way of helping students make notes that

used only key words and images. They are much quicker to make, and because

of their visual quality much easier to remember and review. He made the

modern Mind Map popular in the 60s.

Mind Maps are useful for:

Summarizing information.

Consolidating information from different research sources.


Thinking through complex problems.

Presenting information in a format that shows the overall structure of your

subject.

They are very quick to review as you can often refresh information in your mind

just by glancing at one. In the same way, they can be effective mnemonics.

Remembering the shape and structure of a Mind Map can give you the cues you

need to remember the information within it. As such, they engage much more of

your brain in the process of assimilating and connecting facts, compared with

conventional notes.

Mind map guidelines:

Tony Buzan suggests using the following foundation structures for Mind

Mapping:

Start in the center with an image of the topic, using at least 3 colors.

Use images, symbols, codes, and dimensions throughout your Mind Map.

Select key words and print using upper or lower case letters.

Each word/image must be alone and sitting on its own line.

The lines must be connected, starting from the central image. The central

lines are thicker, organic and flowing, becoming thinner as they radiate

out from the centre.

Make the lines the same length as the word/image.

Use colors – your own code – throughout the Mind Map.

Develop your own personal style of Mind Mapping.

Use emphasis and show associations in your Mind Map.


Keep the Mind Map clear by using radial hierarchy, numerical order or

outlines to embrace your branches.

Mind mapping diagram for Business:

Strengths of Mind Mapping:

Simplicity: ease of use.

Associative: any idea probably has many links.

Visual: easy to remember.

Radial: always allows you to work on all directions.

Overview: help to see the big picture and relationship between issues
REVIEW QUESTIONS:

What is mind mapping?

What are the applications of mind map

What are the guidelines to be followed while Mind mapping?

Explain the Strengths of Mind Mapping.

Give a Mind mapping example with a diagram.

3.4 GENERATING SOLUTIONS:


Learning Objective:

After reading this section you will be able to know,

The process of Generating solutions.

The approaches to generate solutions (Bottom-up) or (top-down).

The origin of solutions (where the solutions would come from).

Generating solutions process is all about finding various ways to remove the

causes of the problem, thus, effectively solving it. The earlier processes of

innovative problem solving, whether framing or diagnosis, are just preparations

for the stage of generating solutions to the original problem. It is at this process

where the intuition is the most crucial. We might have creative leap in seeing

solution without going through all the earlier processes.

The process consists of answering the following questions;

• Is the problem a routine/standard, unique or the combination of both?

• Can we solve it intuitively right away? (Top-down)

• Can we solve parts of the problem and aggregate them? (Bottom-up)

• What are the solutions?

Is the problem a routine/standard, unique or combination of both?

By answer whether the problem is a routine/standard, unique or the combination

of both, it is very useful in finding where the solutions would come from.

If the problem is a routine/standard type, we can identify the boxes of

known problems and apply its solutions to our problem directly. The
generation of solutions for this type would concentrate on finding existing

knowledge-base on how to solve a problem. It is more important to know

where to find the relevant knowledge-base than to come up with your

original solution which might very well run the risk of reinvent the wheel.

If the problem is indeed a unique type, it is more important to focus on how

to creatively solve the problem in an original way. The focus would shift to

creative techniques such as brain-storming, visualization, backward

induction, lateral thinking. The preparation works such as framing,

problems structure, issue analysis are important ingredients to make

creative leap in solving problem. It is crucial that one must not kill the

possible solutions from birth, i.e. in throwing ideas to the table on how to

solve the problem; one must delay the evaluation of particular idea until

each idea is develop into a well-thought-of solution or its element.

If the problem is a combination of both, it is important to identify which

part of the problem is routine/standard and which is not. Those that are

routine can be solved using a boxes technique and those that are unique

elements must be solved creatively

Can we solve it intuitively right away? (Top-down)

Once you identify the problem type, you can now use various outputs from your

framing and diagnosis process to assist you in arriving at the solution. If some

case, especially when the problem is not complex or your intuition perform

miracle, you can solve it right away once you know the real causes to the

problem.
If you answer yes to the top-down question. That would mean you intuitively

grasp the solution to the problem as a whole. Most of the time, it’s because you

could see the pattern that the problem is a generic one that can apply other

known generic solutions to it. You might also find proper analogy that

transforms solution from one area to your target problem’s area. You could easily

search the boxes f or solutions.

On a rare occasion, your intuition work out magic. You might very well develop

original solution to the problem intuitively. The remaining work is to provide

details in solving various parts of the problem. Therefore, it is called top-down

approach.

Can we solve parts of the problem and aggregate them? (Bottom-up)

Most of the cases, especially in complex problems, it is difficult to solve the

overall problem right away. The advantage of painful problem structuring and

issue pyramid is that they provide a very clear pyramid structure to the problem.

Therefore, as we break the problem down to sub-issues/problems, it is easier for us to

solve smaller problems and slowly aggregate them into the original problem. We use the

same technique in solving smaller problems, i.e. see which is routine and which

is unique and solve them accordingly.

It is very crucial to check whether the smaller solutions integrate back to

effectively solve the original problem as many times it doesn’t quite sum up or

there can be unnecessary repetition in the set of solutions.

What are the solutions?


Once we have some ideas of alternative solutions to the problem. We must

develop them in such a way that they become clearer both in term of concept and

the process.

Each solution should contain a clear process or steps in solving the problem, the

resources required, assumptions and the output/outcome of the solution as well

as other unique aspects of the solutions such as the degree of acceptability by the

stakeholders and the practicality of the solutions.

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

What are the solutions?

Explain the process of generating solutions.

What is Bottom-up approach for generating solution?

What is Top-down approach for generating solution?

Where the solutions would come from?

3.5 CHOOSING A SOLUTION:

Learning Objective:

After reading this section you will be able to know,

The Process of choosing solution.

To make the right choices by selecting the proper solution to solve the

problem.

The Pros-Cons analysis Technique for choosing solution.

The approaches considered for choosing solution – Analysis – Intuition.


This is the stage at which you evaluate the possible solutions and select that

which will be most effective in solving the problem. It's a process of. Decision

making based on a comparison of the potential outcome of alternative solutions.

This involves

identifying all the features of an ideal solution, including the constraints it

has to meet

eliminating solutions which do not meet the constraints

evaluating the remaining solutions against the outcome required

assessing the risks associated with the 'best' solution

making the decision to implement this solution

A problem is only solved when a solution has been implemented. In some

situations, before this can take place, you need to gain acceptance of the solution

by other people, or get their authority to implement it. This may involve various

strategies of persuasion.

Learning how to make the right choices is all about selecting the proper solution

to solve the problem. It consists of finding the best-fitting solution for solving the

problem. In doing so, we must compare each solution against the other. Then, we

can select the one that yields the best combination of benefits and risks. Former

CIA analyst, Morgan D. Jones has developed a choice-making technique that has

been proven to be very useful in making the best choices between various

alternatives. The technique is called “Pros-Cons-Fixes (PCF)”.


PCF’s advantage over other Pros-Cons analysis is that it focuses on eliminating

unnecessary & biased negativity in human reasoning. The PCF process consists

of the following steps:

• List all the Pros.

• List all the Cons.

• Review and consolidate the Cons for merging and elimination.

• Neutralize as many Cons as possible.

• Compare the Pros and unalterable Cons against all options; pick one option at

a time.

1. List all the Pros

First, we try to list the Pros of a particular solution in as many varied dimensions

as possible: benefits, advantages, merit, strength, practicality, acceptability, cost-

effectiveness, innovativeness, scalability, sustainability, etc.

2. List all the Cons

We then list all the Cons in as many varied dimensions as possible, especially in

terms of risk, danger, disadvantage, weakness, threat, unacceptability, cost, etc.

3. Review and consolidate the Cons for merging and elimination

We try to rethink about the Cons; try to group and consolidate them, find their

common attributes and eliminate those that are not relevant.

4. Neutralize as many Cons as possible

Frequently, the reason many Cons arise is because the solutions remain simply

too new and have never really been thought -through before. Therefore, spotting
the Cons in each solution can actually help modify and improve that particular

solution. By neutralizing as many Cons as possible, we are able to think of what

can be done or what measure can be taken, to either convert each Con into a Pro

or to neutralize the various Cons.

Choose an Alternative:

Individuals need to give their opinions and not be intimidated by personnel they

perceive to have more power. They should not be afraid that they may be

ridiculed if a decision turns out not to be the correct one. If this process is not

followed, decisions can go wrong even though they may have been viable

solutions.

Analysis, intuition, or a combination of both helps to decide a course of action.

Analysis is the use of statistical methods to quantify the process of making

choices among alternatives. Intuition occurs when understanding something

takes place without using a rational thought process. It is arriving at a

Conclusion using “feelings.”

Evaluating information using analysis. Analysis is putting the facts in order and

making a decision based on the importance of each fact. Intuition is reviewing

the same facts and trying to see a pattern. An analytical approach is better in a

non-time critical situation when a large quantity of data is available with an

inexperienced decision-maker. During an analytical decision process, keep it as

Simple as possible. Simplify the decision process by gradually eliminating

decision criteria and alternatives.


Evaluating information using intuition. An intuitive approach is most useful in

high-speed, high-risk, and uncertain situations with experienced decision-

makers. In situations where speed and uncertainty are key factors, the intuitive

approach requires the decision maker to have the option to choose a workable

solution, and then continually refine the solution as new information becomes

available. Experience can improve the intuitive decision-making process.

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

Explain the Process of choosing solution.

How to make the right choices by selecting the proper solution to solve the

problem?

Explain about the Pros-Cons analysis Technique.

What are the approaches considered for choosing solution?

3.6 CREATIVE THINKING:

Learning Objective:

After reading this section you will be able to know,

The meaning of creativity.

The basics of Creative thinking.

The importance of Creative Thinking.


The concept of Creativity techniques.

The Characteristics of the Creative Person.

The different types of Creative Methods.

The creative thinking skills- key elements.

Creativity is a mental and social process involving the generation of new ideas or

concepts, or new associations of the creative mind between existing ideas or

concepts. Creativity is fueled by the process of either conscious or unconscious

insight. An alternative conception of creativeness is that it is simply the act of

making something new.

Much of the thinking done in formal education emphasizes the skills of analysis--
teaching students how to understand claims, follow or create a logical argument,

figure out the answer, eliminate the incorrect paths and focus on the correct one.

However, there is another kind of thinking, one that focuses on exploring ideas,

generating possibilities, looking for many right answers rather than just one.

Both of these kinds of thinking are vital to a successful working life, yet the latter

one tends to be ignored until after college.

Overview of Creativity:

Ability. A simple definition is that creativity is the ability to imagine or invent

something new. As we will see below, creativity is not the ability to create out of

nothing (only God can do that), but the ability to generate new ideas by

combining, changing, or reapplying existing ideas. Some creative ideas are

astonishing and brilliant, while others are just simple, good, practical ideas that

no one seems to have thought of yet.


Believe it or not, everyone has substantial creative ability. Just look at how

creative children are. In adults, creativity has too often been suppressed through

education, but it is still there and can be reawakened. Often all that's needed to

be creative is to make a commitment to creativity and to take the time for it.

An Attitude. Creativity is also an attitude: the ability to accept change and

newness, a willingness to play with ideas and possibilities, a flexibility of

outlook, the habit of enjoying the good, while looking for ways to improve it. We

are socialized into accepting only a small number of permitted or normal things,

like chocolate-covered strawberries, for example. The creative person realizes

that there are other possibilities, like peanut butter and banana sandwiches, or

chocolate-covered prunes.

A Process. Creative people work hard and continually to improve ideas and

solutions, by making gradual alterations and refinements to their works.

Contrary to the mythology surrounding creativity, very, very few works of

creative excellence are produced with a single stroke of brilliance or in a frenzy

of rapid activity. Much closer to the real truth are the stories of companies who

had to take the invention away from the inventor in order to market it because

the inventor would have kept on tweaking it and fiddling with it, always trying

to make it a little better.

The creative person knows that there is always room for improvement.

The Importance of Creative Thinking

• Creative thinking can make you millions!

• Creative thinking is usually discouraged in children.

• Most people are not very creative, but they can be!
• Open your mind to new ideas and new ways of thinking.

• Do something different each day to “flex” your mind.

Creative Thinking

suspended judgment generative

diffuse divergent

subjective lateral

an answer possibility

right brain visual

associative richness, novelty

In an activity like problem solving, both kinds of thinking are important to us.

“First, we must analyze the problem; then we must generate possible solutions;

next we must choose and implement the best solution; and finally, we must

evaluate the effectiveness of the solution”. As you can see, this process reveals an

alternation between the two kinds of thinking, critical and creative. In practice,

both kinds of thinking operate together much of the time and are not really

independent of each other.

Creativity techniques are methods that encourage original thoughts and

divergent thinking. Some techniques require groups of two or more people while

other techniques can be accomplished alone. These methods include word

games, written exercises and different types of improvisation. Creativity

techniques can be used to develop new materials for artistic purposes or to solve

problems.
Most creativity techniques use associations between the goal (or the problem),

the current state (which may be an imperfect solution to the problem), and some

stimulus (possibly selected randomly).

Characteristics of the Creative Person

curious

seeks problems

enjoys challenge

optimistic

able to suspend judgment

comfortable with imagination

sees problems as opportunities

sees problems as interesting

problems are emotionally acceptable

challenges assumptions

Doesn’t give up easily: perseveres, works hard

Creative Methods

Several methods have been identified for producing creative results. Here are the

five classic ones:


Evolution. This is the method of incremental improvement. New ideas stem

from other ideas, new solutions from previous ones, the new ones slightly

improved over the old ones. Many of the very sophisticated things we enjoy

today developed through a long period of constant incrementation. Making

something a little better here, a little better there gradually makes it something a

lot better--even entirely different from the original.

For example, look at the history of the automobile or any product of

technological progress. With each new model, improvements are made. Each new

model builds upon the collective creativity of previous models, so that over

time, improvements in economy, comfort, and durability take place. Here the

creativity lies in the refinement, the step-by-step improvement, rather than in

something completely new.

The evolutionary method of creativity also reminds us of that critical principle:

Every problem that has been solved can be solved again in a better way. Creative

thinkers do not subscribe to the idea that once a problem has been solved, it can

be forgotten, or to the notion that "if it ain't broke, don't fix it." A creative

thinker's philosophy is that "there is no such thing as an insignificant

improvement."

Synthesis. With this method, two or more existing ideas are combined into a

third, new idea. Combining the ideas of a magazine and an audio tape gives the

idea of a magazine you can listen to, one useful for blind people or freeway

commuters.
For example, someone noticed that a lot of people on dates went first to dinner

and then to the theater. Why not combine these two events into one? Thus, the

dinner theater, where people go first to eat and then to see a play or other

entertainment.

Revolution. Sometimes the best new idea is a completely different one, an

marked change from the previous ones. While an evolutionary improvement

philosophy might cause a professor to ask, "How can I make my lectures better

and better?" a revolutionary idea might be, "Why not stop lecturing and have the

students teach each other, working as teams or presenting reports?"

For example, the evolutionary technology in fighting termites eating away at

houses has been to develop safer and faster pesticides and gasses to kill them. A

somewhat revolutionary change has been to abandon gasses altogether in favor

of liquid nitrogen, which freezes them to death or microwaves, which bake them.

A truly revolutionary creative idea would be to ask, "How can we prevent them

from eating houses in the first place?" A new termite bait that is placed in the

ground in a perimeter around a house provides one answer to this question.

Re-application. Look at something old in a new way. Go beyond labels. Unfixate,

remove prejudices, expectations and assumptions and discover how something

can be reapplied. One creative person might go to the junkyard and see art in an

old model T transmission. He paints it up and puts it in his living room. Another

creative person might see in the same transmission the necessary gears for a

multi-speed hot walker for his horse. He hooks it to some poles and a motor and

puts it in his corral.


For example, a paperclip can be used as a tiny screwdriver if filed down; paint

can be used as a kind of glue to prevent screws from loosening in machinery;

dishwashing detergents can be used to remove the DNA from bacteria in a lab;

general purpose spray cleaners can be used to kill ants.

Changing direction. Many creative breakthroughs occur when attention is

shifted from one angle of a problem to another. This is sometimes called creative

insight.

A classic example is that of the highway department trying to keep kids from

skateboarding in a concrete-lined drainage ditch. The highway department put

up a fence to keep the kids out; the kids went around it. The department then put

up a longer fence; the kids cut a hole in it. The department then put up a stronger

fence; it, too, was cut. The department then put a threatening sign on the fence; it

was ignored.

This example reveals a critical truth in problem solving: the goal is to solve the

problem, not to implement a particular solution. When one solution path is not

working, shift to another. There is no commitment to a particular path, only to a

particular goal. Path fixation can sometimes be a problem for those who do not

understand this; they become overcommitted to a path that does not work and

only frustration results.

In problem-solving contexts, the random word creativity technique is perhaps

the simplest method. A person confronted with a problem is presented with a

randomly generated word, in the hopes of a solution arising from any

associations between the word and the problem. A random image, sound, or
article can be used instead of a random word as a kind of creativity goad or

provocation.

Creative thinking key elements:

The creative thinking skills can be divided into several key elements:

• fluency - producing many ideas

• Flexibility - producing a broad range of ideas. originality - producing

uncommon ideas

• Elaboration - developing ideas.

Effective problem solving requires a controlled mixture of analytical and creative

thinking.

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

What is meant by Creativity?

Explain the basics of Creative thinking.

Describe the importance of Creative Thinking

Explain the concept of Creativity techniques

What are the Characteristics of a Creative Person?

What is the different type of Creative Methods?

Explain the several Creative thinking skills key elements.


3.7 VERBAL COMMUNICATION:

Learning Objective:

After reading this section you will be able to know,

The concept of Verbal Communication.

The importance of verbal communication.

Ways to acquire better verbal communication.

Steps to improve your verbal communication.

The types of verbal communication.


Verbal Communication

Verbal communication can be defined as communicating your thoughts through

words. Such thoughts may be ideas, opinions, directions, dissatisfaction,

objections, your emotions and pleasures.

Good verbal communication - Importance

When it comes to business, verbal communication is very important for the

reason being that you are dealing with a variety of people through out the day.

Now take for example the way you converse with a family member or friend

around your same age, you interact with them with a lot of confidence, there is

without doubt that verbal communication is expressed with much ease, and

perhaps you may speak differently from the way you speak with a person related

to business.

Imagine if you expressed yourself the same way with a customer who has

different culture, is much older than you and have many years of experience in

his field. Most likely your thoughts will be difficult to express. Thus it is

necessary to have proper skill when using verbal communication while dealing

with different people.

Acquiring Verbal communication

First of all you need to be aware of the fact that you must be flexible with people

depending on the circumstances. Let us say you are presenting a speech in front

of an audience at work, and you express your thoughts using business

vocabulary. Now what if your audience where to be unfamiliar with the terms
you are using, it is without question you will notice the audience lose focused

attention to what you are saying , so then you must be flexible and change the

way you are expressing your thoughts by using words that are more

comprehendible to the audience.

It is suggested to build skills by attending a college course related to business

communication. When you are attending the class you will then be forced to

communicate more organized. Try to use the opportunity to overcome the fear of

talking to a big crowd and a stranger while you are in class.

Besides attending a class that teaches business communication, you may also

want to consider working in a job-field that involves working with strangers,

such job can be a form of practice to gain confidence in yourself and help reduce

shyness and intimidation.

Another form of practice can be talking to older relatives and friends, about a

topic that involves expressing emotions and strong opinions or a discussion that

may concern experiences. Such communication helps you to accumulate skills to

express yourself in a more formal and proper manner.

When practicing with your relatives or friends it is important for you to back up

your opinions or statements with facts. In order to have references about your

subject it is suggested to read and study about it. Like for example, if you where

to discuss the issue that we are all facing today such as the world's economy for

instance, and then you may obtain the facts from the news paper, the news,

Internet, and you can even get it from books.


Verbal communication requires the use of words, vocabulary, numbers and

symbols and is organized in sentences using language.

Mastering linguistic skill is not reserved for the selected few. It is a skill that each

and every one should develop for personal growth and to improve relationships

and interactions. Everyone's brain is forever having thoughts and they are

primarily with words. Words spoken, listened to or written affect your life as

well as others. They have the power to create emotions and move people to take

action. When verbal communication is delivered accurately and clearly, you

activate the mind and encourage creativity.

You create your reality with your senses, the eyes, ears and feelings and words

and symbols are used to create the meanings. This is why you are encouraged to

read and watch informative materials, listen to motivational audio programs and

attend classes or seminars that relate to your line of work or objectives. Positive

and uplifting spoken or written messages motivate and inspire.

Ways to improve verbal communication.

Using positive words to challenge limiting beliefs.

Verbal communication includes phrasing your words clearly and positively. Your

words and the explanations you give affect thoughts and determine emotions.

Verbal communication that includes questions helps you challenge beliefs.

According to Michael Hall, a belief is a thought to which you have said "yes", and

you have affirmed by saying, "I believe this". It takes questions worded

specifically before you can fully agree.


Your customers, children or partners agreeing and saying "Yes" to your

suggestions and opinions indicate that you were able to influence and change

their beliefs and thoughts from your spoken or written persuasion.

Telling or narrating a story.

One of the ways to let others understand your message is by telling a story,

reading a quote or telling a joke. Verbal communication through stories carries

power to induce the person to relate to what you are saying or suggesting. A joke

usually helps people relax more and is opened to listen to you.

Asking the right questions.

Questioning yourself or others with precise words allow for answers. It will

make a difference if you were to ask a "why" or a "how" question. The former

gives you a lot of reasons, understandings and explanations while the later set

your brain thinking for a solution, useful information and a strategy.

By asking questions and wording them specifically, you will invite a positive

debate and interaction that will benefit all involved. You become a better listener

and entice others to do the same. Unnecessary arguments are reduced when you

are able to express yourself with great command of your language skills.

Think and prepare before you speak.

Whether you are going to speak in public, talk to your boss, spouse or children,

you have to think before you utter those words. Verbal abuse happens when you

express yourself without thinking and instead allow your emotions to take over.
Thinking, preparing and imagining the most desirable outcome in your mind

allow you to practice your presentation and getting them right.

Reduce your usage of verbal pauses.

Have you ever listened to how you speak and render your conversations? If you

haven't and are unaware, request for someone to do so. How many times did you

stop your sentences and added an "ah", "um" or "well"? You can also record your

verbal communication and listen back to your style of speaking.

Avoid careless language.

Use your phrases with care. Talk and write in ways that allow for accurate

description of your experience, thoughts or ideas. Don't expect people to assume

and guess what you are trying to say. Speak with specificity by avoiding words

like always, never, every, or all.

Types of verbal communication

Understanding these different modes of group discussion and their protocols

provides a powerful verbal communication coaching tool.

1. Debate is what we see most of in conventional conversation: ‘I put up my point

of view, you put up yours - and we try to knock each other out’. This is an

inappropriate style if what you want is meaningful interaction. Constructive

communication is productive dialogue and skillful discussions where new

insights can emerge through healthy give and take.


2. Discussion focuses on decisions and actions. I may still want to see my view

prevail, but there’s some concession to listen to other’s viewpoints, exchange

facts and opinions and perhaps even alter my position as a result. In terms of our

conversational continuum, polite discussion is different to skillful discussion.

Polite discussion is really a veiled version of debate. It’s ‘polite’ only insofar as

conflict, controversy and ‘hard-to-handle’ issues are kept concealed under the

surface. Polite discussion is actually anything but. It’s riddled with hidden

agendas, ‘corridor talk’, secret lobbying, dissembling, manipulation, factionalism

and thinly veiled competition.

3. Dialogue is designed to promote a free-flowing interchange of ideas and create

an open, equal and collaborative conversational climate. In dialogue:

The ‘point’ of the conversation is to share perspectives and understandings;

People talk together to find meanings and develop new ideas and concepts -

feeding off each other’s contributions;

The purpose is to go past the understanding of individual team members - to

explore issues creatively from many points of view.

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

What is Verbal Communication?

Why is good verbal communication so important?

How to acquire better verbal communication?

How to improve your verbal communication?

What are the types of verbal communication?


3.8 EFFECTIVE LISTENING:

Learning Objective:

After reading this section you will be able to know,

 The concept of listening.

 The need for listening.

 The listening process.

 The elements of listening.

 The Listening strategies.

 The Commandments of listening.

Listening helps one obtain adequate data to solve problems. Listening motivates

the speaker or the complaining employee or the deliberating subordinate.

Listening improves or lifts up the image of the listener, especially the manager.

Listening makes one a leader, an efficient mediator and a deft trouble-shooter.

Now what we have to master is the listening, since there are a lot of good things

supporting good listening.

Elements of listening

• Attentiveness to speaker

• Eye contact

• Intention be fully awake and aware

• Openness: to other person and your own

• Paying attention

• Listening to yourself
• Feedback

• Body language

• Change in pattern

Prof.Asha Kaul (2004, pp.45-46) has identified three essentials for good listening.

They are 1) positive attitude 2) concentration 3) interaction by question-answer

sequence. (Positive attitude towards the speaker or the situation keeps the

listener's mind open and thus the message gets imbibed. Secondly, careful

listening with concentration and evaluating of the speaker's point of view helps

one get the best of the listening. Thirdly, interaction with the speaker by posing

honest questions on un-clarified issues would promote effectiveness of listening.


Lesikar and Flately (2002,pp.407-408) have proposed Ten Commandments of

listening. We reproduce them here and their essential meaning.

1. Listener should stop talking. Talking distracts both speaker and more so the

listener.

2. Put the speaker at ease.

3. Show the speaker that you are interested in listening to him. Then only, the

speaker gives his best.

4. Remove distractions. Listener's idle behaviors like shuffling papers, scribbling

etc. would distract both.

5. Place yourself in speaker's shoes to look at things from his viewpoint.

6. Be patient and let the speaker take his own time to make his point without

hurrying.

7. Control your temper at any provocation from the speaker.

8. Go easy on criticism and argument.

9. Pose honest questions.

10. The first commandment, stop talking, is repeated as tenth commandment

since it is very important.

We would propose here a fairly comprehensive framework of listening strategies

by synthesizing all the words of wisdom about effective listening.

Positive Attitude

The listener should look for positive things and ignore negative things. A person

who sets about for positive things would definitely encounter positive points and

the converse is true of negative attitude. Negative attitude closes the mind and
misses the best points. Positive attitude is springboard for subsequent successes

in the listening process.

Remove internal and external distractions

An unprepared mind or preoccupied listener is a distraction for himself. The

distractions created by the listener himself are internal distractions. Failing to

give thought to the topic and being busy with something else is a self-created

internal distraction. Knowingly or unknowingly, the listener himself either

tolerates the distractions or encourages them. For example, if the listener does

not close his mobile phone, it would distract him, which he himself permitted.

Similarly, encouraging the co-listeners to discuss points or pose questions while

listening is a self-created distraction. External distractions include bad public

address system, disturbing public program in the close neighborhood etc.

Attentive Posture

The listener's forward bends posture, his encouraging small questions, agreeing

with the speaker on key points, clapping frequently for good points etc

encourage the speaker to give his best. Listener should not interrupt the speaker

for no good reason. The listener should not question just for the sake of

questioning. Besides this, frequent questioning disrupts the process of both the

speaker and the listener.

One should be actively involved in taking the message. Active involvement

drives monotony away. Yawing which often results out of monotony discourages

the speaker. The speaker should be properly and carefully involved so as to

obviate monotony and frequent yawns.


Interaction by way of questioning and paraphrasing

There may be missing links between the presentation and what the listener has to

understand, which float on the surface of listener's mind as questions. The

listener has to pose those queries and get them answered, but in that process he

should not interrupt the presentation with dishonest questions or too frequent

trivial questions.

Right questioning not only helps the speaker establish the logic but also helps the

listener avoid boredom and understand the message. In the interaction, if the

listener briefly paraphrases or restates what the speaker said, the listening goes

far towards achieving its purpose.

Active involvement

The listener should be actively involved in the message. All the above strategies

contribute to this. The attention should be undivided. Active involvement

demands attentive, evaluative, critical, sensitive listening. Look for meaning,

which lies buried somewhere beyond words. Meaning may be deep beneath the

words, or in eyes, or in intonation and other non-verbal cues. Meaning gets born

of the combination of both verbal and non-verbal message, whose understanding

is possible with active involvement only. Active involvement demands high

concentration. For this, the listener has to stop talking both within and without.

The listener has to sincerely desire to understand the speaker and think from his

angle. A person, who tries to understand others first is understood by others

well.
Taking Notes

The best method to being on the track of the presentation is taking notes on key

ideas, supporting facts and major sub-topics. Note taking keeps one within the

structure of the presentation. Besides this, the listener who is taking notes is an

encouraging scene for the speaker to give his best.

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

Explain the concept of listening.

Explain the need for listening.

Describe the listening process.

What are the elements of listening?

Explain about the Listening strategies.

Explain the Commandments of listening.


3.9 RESPECT OF OTHERS OPINION:

Learning Objective:

After reading this section you will be able to know,

The Meaning of respect.

The values of Respect in Organizations.

The concept of disrespect.

To educate staff’s in order to give respect.

The principles of respecting others.

The golden rule for respecting others.

Team work – impact of respect.

The most important Measures of Success.

The reason to respect yourself.

To develop our Expertise?

Meaning of respect:

Respect is a beautiful thing. We should respect each other, because if we want to

be respected we have to respect others. Students should respect Teachers to be

respected. Respect is also dignity between human beings and it involves

esteem. Respect is to make room for others who express their opinions without

discrimination or punishment; it is not to mistreat people, animals, nature, etc.,

simply because we believe some are better.


The Value of Respect in Modern Organizations

‘Respect’ is an important value in every culture. We are all taught to respect other

people; whether they are older or younger than us. We are also taught to respect

properties and belongings that are not ours. However, many working employees

found themselves not being respected either by their subordinates or superiors at

their workplace. Many have complained that they have experienced different

kinds of uncivil behaviors, verbal and nonverbal abuse as well as bullying and

humiliation from their superiors. These uncivil behaviors can include silent

treatment, demeaning jokes, ‘scapegoating’, backstabbing, and harassment.

Examine Your Own Behavior First

When you start experiencing uncivil behaviors from people around you, you will

feel uncomfortable. So, start to reflect on your own actions first. Have you shown

any disrespect to your staff or colleagues? There may be many incidents which

you may not recall well. You may have done so consistently or unintentionally.

You may even have done so because you have seen your peers doing so.

Apologize to the person(s)

After you have examined yourself, gather the courage within you to own up to

your ignorance. Do this as soon as possible. You may apologize openly or behind

closed doors. Owning up to your ignorance takes a lot of courage. You will be

appreciated for your effort. Apologizing can prevent ugly litigations and staff

attrition, something you do not wish to happen to you.


Lead By Example

You do not have to wait for your superiors to realize that ‘respect’ in the

workplace is an important value. You can start doing so – this is lead by example.

Make it clear that you do not tolerate ‘disrespect’ at the workplace. Reprimand

anyone showing disrespect to others immediately. When others see you showing

respect to your colleagues, they will do the same too. The workplace

environment will indeed be different.

Document the Aggressive Behaviors

There are arrogant people in any organization who look down upon others. They

feel that their positions allow them to behave aggressively toward their

subordinates. If you should meet such people, you can document what they say.

Carry with you a voice recorder. When you are verbally abused, record what is

said by that superior. You need to report to the HR department immediately.

Produce the evidence when you are asked to. When the case involve

discrimination against beliefs, racial and sexual, get legal counsels immediately.

Get the HR to educate staff on the value of ‘respect’

Aggressive behaviors are usually the cause of internal conflicts among staff.

Suggest to the HR to engage an organization trainer to educate staff on this

value. Make sure everybody attends the training and have some follow up

observations done after the training. You can suggest to the HR to include a

phrase or two about aggressive and uncivil behaviors in the Employee’s

Handbook. Everyone in the organization will be more careful with what they say

or do towards others. As human is considered a precious factor in every

productivity process, the HR of every organization have to make sure these


uncivil behaviors are handled properly. If not, there will be a sharp fall in

productivity. Nobody will want to work in such an unpleasant environment

again.

Give opportunities to your colleagues or staff to express their appreciation for

one another

This is for you if you are a boss of an organization. Organize some activities

where everyone in your organization can participate. Let them help each other.

Give them a chance to thank and praise each other. Let them know your

organization appreciates them too. If you are not in any superior positions, you

can still do something. Be the first to show appreciation to your colleagues.

Respect their actions and thoughts. In return, you will be respect too.

Commit to the principle of respecting others and their individuality

Everyone has different behaviors, attitudes, beliefs, lifestyle, perspectives and

visions. It is because of these, everyone deserves to be respected. You have your

own individuality too. You also demand respect from others, especially your

colleagues and staff. So, you have to be committed to this principle all the time!

Take a firm stand against uncivil behaviors all the time. Do not let anyone in your

organization get away with it. It is contagious! Many employees, for fear of

losing their work and future, choose to keep quiet and silently endure the stress

and depression. You can imagine what that will do to an organization’s

reputation.
Only people who respect others and insist on doing so will find themselves being

labeled as ‘effective individuals’. Keep your job and sanity. Show others the

respect they deserve.

Golden rule for respecting others:

Be tolerant of differences

Use good manners, not bad language

Be considerate of the feelings of others

Don’t threaten, hit or hurt anyone

Deal peacefully with anger, insults and

Disagreements

Work Ethics consist of 10 components, attendance, character, teamwork,

appearance, self-esteem, productivity, organization, communication, leadership

and respect.

Teamwork is important, because whether we are in class or at work, we have to

work well with others, you will accomplish more when you all work together.

We have to be respectful of others and keep their confidences. We may not like

our co- workers or fellow students, but you must work with them.

Respect is important, because it is best to respect ourselves and others. We have

to respect each others feelings, religion, and cultures. Let others know that we

respect their differences. We have to give respect to receive respect.


The Most Important Measure of Success

Being respected by others is very important to each of us. A survey done by the

Gallup organization found that the most prominent living Americans rated the

respect of others as the most important measure of success in life. They worked

very hard to earn the respect of their parents, the respect of their spouses and

children, the respect of their peers and colleagues, and the respect of mankind at

large.

Why You Respect Yourself

It seems that we truly respect ourselves only when we feel that we are respected

by others, and we will go to great lengths to earn and keep that respect. When we

feel that someone respects us for who we are and what we have accomplished,

we tend to be more open to that persons influence.

Develop Your Expertise

Another way to put ourselves in a position of being respected by others is to

develop our expertise. Expertise is closely tied to knowledge, but it is a little

different. Expertise is the ability to do, the ability to perform well in your chosen

field. Men and women with expertise are those who practice over and over in

whatever they do until they become known far and wide as the very best in their

field.
REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1. What is meant by respect?

2. Define the values of Respect in Organizations.

3. What is disrespect?

4. How to educate staff’s in order to give respect to others?

5. What is the principle of respecting others?

6. Explain the golden rule for respecting others.

7. Why to give respect to others in team work?

8. What are the most Important Measures of Success?

9. Why You Respect Yourself?

10. How to develop Your Expertise?


3.10 INTERVIEWING TECHNIQUES:

Learning Objective:

After reading this section you will be able to know,

 Introduction – Interview

 The different types of interviews.

 The Types of difficult Interviews

 Handling different kind of candidates

 Conducting the Interview – sequence of questions

 Gathering Information

 Opening and Closing an Interview

 Evaluation of candidates

 Effective communication techniques

Introduction
Interviews are particularly useful for getting the story behind a participant's

experiences. The interviewer can pursue in-depth information around a topic.

Interviews may be useful as follow-up to certain respondents to questionnaires,

e.g., to further investigate their responses. Usually open-ended questions are

asked during interviews.

An interview is a 2-way communication ; however, it should be controlled by

the interviewer

Every interviewee is a guest in your organization and should be treated in

such a manner

Always welcome the interviewees with a warm greeting

Encourage interviewees to respond positively and share the information

It is always better to take notes during Interview

Good interviews flow smoothly when both the interviewer and the candidate

take part in an information exchange

Types of Interviews

1. Informal, conversational interview - no predetermined questions are

asked, in order to remain as open and adaptable as possible to the

interviewee's nature and priorities; during the interview, the interviewer

"goes with the flow".

2. General interview guide approach - the guide approach is intended to

ensure that the same general areas of information are collected from each

interviewee; this provides more focus than the conversational approach,

but still allows a degree of freedom and adaptability in getting

information from the interviewee.


3. Standardized, open-ended interview - here, the same open-ended

questions are asked to all interviewees (an open-ended question is where

respondents are free to choose how to answer the question, i.e., they don't

select "yes" or "no" or provide a numeric rating, etc.); this approach

facilitates faster interviews that can be more easily analyzed and

compared.

4. Closed, fixed-response interview - where all interviewees are asked the


same questions and asked to choose answers from among the same set of
alternatives. This format is useful for those not practiced in interviewing.
Types of Topics in Questions

1. Behaviors - about what a person has done or is doing

2. Opinions/values - about what a person thinks about a topic

3. Feelings - note that respondents sometimes respond with "I think ..." so be

careful to note that you're looking for feelings

4. Knowledge - to get facts about a topic

5. Sensory - about what people have seen, touched, heard, tasted or smelled

6. Background/demographics - standard background questions, such as age,

education, etc.

Note that the above questions can be asked in terms of past, present or future.

Types of difficult Interviews

Some interviewees demand particularly focused interviewing techniques.


In order to get an accurate assessment of a candidate’s ability, the

interviewer’s ability to handle different types of candidate is very

important.

Before Interviewing, develop an understanding of the following types of

candidates:

Nervous candidate

Uncommunicative candidate

Talkative candidate

Handling a nervous candidate

Give them an especially warm greeting

Engage in more small talk than usual

Point out various facilities or areas of interest within your organization

Start with specific , fact-based questions that are easy for the candidate to

answer and unlikely to be stressful

Speak slowly in a relaxed, informal manner

Handling an uncommunicative candidate

Many reserved or uncommunicative candidates simply need to be

encouraged to share their thoughts

Using silence can be effective


If the candidate is having trouble in answering questions related to their

strengths and weaknesses, tell them that you will give them some time to

think about it and come back to the question later

Handling a talkative candidate

Candidates who talk too much , often about things unrelated to the job or

interview can be challenging

Tell the candidate that you will be following a structure, and stress on the

time available for each section of the interview

When necessary, remind the candidate of the time limits

Redirect the conversation as politely as possible

Telephone Interviews

The telephone interview is the most common way to perform an initial

screening interview. This helps the interviewer and the candidate get a general

sense if they are mutually interested in pursuing discussion beyond the first

interview. This type of interviewing also saves time and money. They may be

tape recorded for the review of other interviewers. The goal, for the candidate

during the phone interview, is to arrange a face to face meeting.

Computer Interviews

The computer interview involves answering a series of multiple-choice

questions for a potential job interview or simply for the submission of a resume.

Some of these interviews are done through the telephone or by accessing a web

site. One type is done with pushing the appropriate buttons on the telephone for
the answer you are submitting. Wal-Mart uses this method for screening cashiers,

stockers, and customer service representatives.

Another type of computer interviews provided by accessing a website while

using a computer keyboard and a mouse. Lowes Home Improvement uses this

type of screening. Some of the questions on both of these types of interviews are

related to ethics. As an example,” If you see a fellow co-worker take a candy bar

and eat it, do you a. Confront co-worker, b. Tell the supervisor, c. Do nothing."

Video Interviews

Videophone and Video Conferencing interviews provide the transfer of audio

and video between remote sites. More than half of the largest U.S. companies

already utilize videoconferencing. It is a convenient communication method and

an alternative to the more costly face-to-face meetings. Anyone, anywhere in the

world can perform videoconferencing with the use of a microphone, camera and

compatible software. Videoconferencing is available on the Internet. Its continual

drop in cost is making it a popular resource for businesses as well as for home

use.

Peer interviewing - Where coworkers interview potential new hires - offers you

the chance to create a great team. In peer interviewing, members of a work group

help choose new employees. Traditionally, employers relied on supervisors to

screen candidates. But, nowadays, supervisors, peers and even subordinates may

take part in the interview process. Peer interviewing can be a valuable interview

technique, under the right circumstances

Conducting the Interview


There are 3 steps to follow while conducting an Interview:

Open the Interview (Put the candidate at ease)

Gather Information (Ask questions & listen to responses)

Close the Interview (Create a positive impression of your organization )

Opening an Interview

While opening an interview, your purpose is to put both you and candidate at

ease, and set the stage for an open conversation

There are 3 steps you should complete when opening the interview:

Build rapport

State the agenda

Ask for acceptance

Gathering Information

Gathering Information represents 70 to 80 percent of the interview

There are 3 steps you should complete when gathering information from the

interviewee:

Ask lead questions

Ask follow-up questions

Transition to the next subject

Closing an Interview

 The close of the interview is used to indicate to the candidate that the

information gathering portion is complete and the interview is about to

wind down.
Take the following 4 steps when closing an interview:

Ask for and answer questions

Promote the organization and the job

Outline next steps

Thank the candidate

Evaluation of candidates

Manage your bias

○ Interviewer should be very careful to identify and overcome any biases

○ Bias is a form of extreme generalization. You may generalize that a candidate

lacks written communication skills because of last two people hired from the

same college had poor written communication skills

2 steps to evaluate the candidate:

• Summarize the interview (Refer the candidate’s resume and the

notes taken during interview)

• Score the candidate (Review Job requirement, mention success

factors, and calculate)

Effective communication techniques

Effective communication techniques include:

Active Listening (Follow 70/30 rule: Listen 70 percent of the time Talk 30

percent of the time)

Nonverbal behavior (silence, lean forward, eye contact)


Verbal devices (Restatement, expanders (“I see”, “That’s interesting”)

Summary

 A successful interview should determine if there is a match between the

individual and the job

 Be prepared for the interview.

 Analyze candidate’s resume before the interview and frame the lead

questions.

 Follow a structured process.

 Develop a simple outline that covers general job duties.

 Behave politely with the candidates.

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

What is an Interview?

What are the different types of Interviews?

How to handle difficult interviews?

How to handle different kind of candidates?

How to Conduct the Interview?

How to Gather Information for an interview?

What is video and Computer interviews?

How to Open and Close an Interview?

How to evaluate the interview candidates?

What are the effective communication techniques?


3.11 NEGOTIATION:

Learning Objective:

After reading this section you will be able to know,

Introduction about Negotiation.

The Negotiation Techniques.

Types of negotiation in organizations - Day-to-day / Managerial

Negotiations - Commercial Negotiations - Legal Negotiations

Necessity of negotiation.
Handling difficult negotiators.

Defined: Negotiation is usually considered as a compromise to settle an

argument or issue to benefit ourselves as much as possible.

Negotiating is the process of communicating back and forth, for the purpose of

reaching a joint agreement about differing needs or ideas. It is a collection of

behaviors that involves communication, sales, marketing, psychology,

sociology, assertiveness and conflict resolution. A negotiator may be a buyer or

seller, a customer or supplier, a boss or employee, a business partner, a diplomat

or a civil servant. On a more personal level negotiation takes place between

spouse’s friends, parents or children.

It is a process of interaction by which two or more parties who consider that they

need to be jointly involved in an outcome, but who initially have different

objectives, seek by the use of argument and persuasion to resolve their difference

in order to achieve a mutually acceptable solution. Another important

consideration is that negotiation implies acceptance by both parties that

agreement between them is required before a decision can be implemented.

The art of negotiation is based on attempting to reconcile what constitutes a good

result for the other party. To achieve a situation where both sides win something

for themselves, you need to be well prepared, alert and flexible. There are seven

basic principles common to all forms of negotiation.

• There are minimum two parties involved in the negotiation process. There

exists some common interest, either in the subject matter of the


negotiation or in the negotiating context that puts or keeps the parties in

contact.

Though the parties have the same degree of interest, they initially start with

different opinions and objectives which hinder the outcome in general.

• In the beginning, parties consider that negotiation is a better way of trying

to solve their differences.

• Each party is under an impression that there is a possibility of persuading

the other party to modify their original position, as initially parties feel

that they shall maintain their opening position and persuade the other to

change.

During the process, the ideal outcome proves unattainable but parties retain

their hope of an acceptable final agreement.

• Each party has some influence or power – real or assumed – over the

other’s ability to act.

• The process of negotiation is that of interaction between people – usually

this is direct and verbal interchange.

Negotiation Techniques:

1. Prepare, prepare, prepare. Enter a negotiation without proper preparation

and you've already lost. Start with yourself. Make sure you are clear on

what you really want out of the arrangement. Research the other side to

better understand their needs as well as their strengths and weaknesses.

Enlist help from experts, such as an accountant, attorney or tech guru.


2. Pay attention to timing. Timing is important in any negotiation. Sure, you

must know what to ask for. But be sensitive to when you ask for it. There

are times to press ahead, and times to wait. When you are looking your

best is the time to press for what you want. But beware of pushing too

hard and poisoning any long-term relationship.

3. Leave behind your ego. The best negotiators either don't care or don't

show they care about who gets credit for a successful deal. Their talent is in

making the other side feel like the final agreement was all their idea.

4. Ramp up your listening skills. The best negotiators are often quiet

listeners who patiently let others have the floor while they make their

case. They never interrupt. Encourage the other side to talk first. That

helps set up one of negotiation's oldest maxims: Whoever mentions

numbers first, loses. While that's not always true, it's generally better to sit

tight and let the other side go first. Even if they don't mention numbers, it

gives you a chance to ask what they are thinking.

5. If you don't ask, you don't get. Another tenet of negotiating is "Go high,

or go home." As part of your preparation, define your highest justifiable

price. As long as you can argue convincingly, don't be afraid to aim high.

But no ultimatums, please. Take-it-or-leave-it offers are usually out of

place.

6. Anticipate compromise. You should expect to make concessions and plan

what they might be. Of course, the other side is thinking the same, so
never take their first offer. Even if it's better than you'd hoped for, practice

your best look of disappointment and politely decline. You never know

what else you can get.

7. Offer and expect commitment. The glue that keeps deals from unraveling

is an unshakable commitment to deliver. You should offer this comfort

level to others. Likewise, avoid deals where the other side does not

demonstrate commitment.

8. Don't absorb their problems. In most negotiations, you will hear all of the

other side's problems and reasons they can't give you what you want.

They want their problems to become yours, but don't let them. Instead,

deal with each as they come up and try to solve them. If their "budget" is

too low, for example, maybe there are other places that money could come

from.

9. Stick to your principles. As an individual and a business owner, you

likely have a set of guiding principles — values that you just won't

compromise. If you find negotiations crossing those boundaries, it might

be a deal you can live without.

10. Close with confirmation. At the close of any meeting — even if no final

deal is struck — recaps the points covered and any areas of agreement.

Make sure everyone confirms. Follow-up with appropriate letters or

emails. Do not leave behind loose ends.

Types of negotiation in organizations


Depending upon the situation and time, the way the negotiations are to be

conducted differs. The skill of negotiations depends and differs widely from one

situation to the other. Basically the types can be divided into three broad

categories.

Types Parties Examples

Involved
1. Different levels of 1. Negotiation for pay,

Management terms and working


Day-to-day/
2. In between colleagues conditions.
Managerial
3. Trade unions 2. Description of the
Negotiations
job and fixation of
4. Legal advisers
responsibility.

3. Increasing

productivity.
Management 1. Striking a contract

with the customer.


Commercial Suppliers
2. Negotiations for the
Negotiations
Government price and quality of

goods to be
Customers
purchased.

Trade unions
3. Negotiations with

financial institutions
Legal advisors
as regarding the
Public availability of

capital.
1. Government Adhereing to the laws

2. Management of the local and


Legal Negotiations
national
3. Customers
government.
1. Day-to-day / Managerial Negotiations

Such types of negotiations are done within the organization and are related to

the internal problems in the organization. It is in regards to the working

relationship between the groups of employees. Usually, the manager needs to

interact with the members at different levels in the organization structure. For

conducting the day-to-day business, internally, the superior needs to allot job

responsibilities, maintain a flow of information, direct the record keeping and

many more activities for smooth functioning. All this requires entering into

negotiations with the parties internal to the organization.

2. Commercial Negotiations

Such types of negotiations are conducted with external parties. The driving

forces behind such negotiations are usually financial gains. They are based on a

give-and-take relationship. Commercial negotiations successfully end up into

contracts. It relates to foregoing of one resource to get the other.

3. Legal Negotiations

These negotiations are usually formal and legally binding. Disputes over

precedents can become as significant as the main issue. They are also contractual

in nature and relate to gaining legal ground.

Necessity of negotiation:
Negotiation, at times can be a lengthy and cumbersome process. By asking

whether it is necessary, time may sometimes be saved and unnecessary

compromise avoided. On occasions, a request to negotiate may best be met by

pointing out that the party making the request has no standing in the matter. If a

manager has the undoubted authority to act, making a decision rather than

negotiating about it may be the best tactic.

Alternatively, there are cases in which the best response to a request or a claim is

to concede it without argument. Why waste time negotiating if the other party

has a good case and there are no adverse consequences in conceding ?

Unnecessary negotiation, followed, perhaps, by a grudging concession of the

other party’s claim, will lose all the advantage that might be gained with a quick

unexpected yes.

An alternative to a simple yes or no when a difference of view occurs is to skip

negotiation and proceed immediately to some form of third – party intervention.

An alternative to a simple yes or no when a difference of view occurs, is to skip

negotiation and proceed immediately to some form of third – party intervention.

On the most formal basis, this might imply a decision to take a dispute to court:

informally, two managers who quickly realize that they cannot reach agreement

about a working problem may jointly agree to stop wasting time in argument

and refer the matter to a

Handling difficult negotiators

Every person that the manager negotiates with may not necessarily be easy to

deal with. Some negotiators turn aggressive to create an impression of their


being tough. Instead of getting intimidated, winning is more important. To

handle such outrageous behavior:

-> Speak more quietly than them.

-> Have more space in between your words than them.

-> If they interrupt, pause for a few seconds after they finish.

-> be critical of foul language.

-> Do not rise to bait if they attack or blame you.

-> Ignore all threats.

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1. Define about Negotiation.

2. What are the Negotiation Techniques?

3. What are the various types of negotiation in organizations?

4. Explain about the Day-to-day / Managerial Negotiations.

5. Describe about Commercial Negotiations.

6. What is meant by Legal Negotiations?

7. What is the necessity of negotiation?

8. How to handle difficult negotiators?


3.12 PERSUASION:

Learning Objective:

After reading this section you will be able to know,

 The concept of persuasion.

 Persuasive technology.

 Persuasion Tactics.
 The role of negotiation in persuasive technique.

 The method of Influence.

 Principles of persuasion.

Persuasion:

Persuasion is a form of social influence. It is the process of guiding people and

oneself toward the adoption of an idea, attitude, or action by rational and

symbolic (though not always logical) means. It is strategy of problem-solving

relying on "appeals" rather than coercion. According to Aristotle, "Rhetoric is the

art of discovering, in a particular case, the available means of persuasion."

Persuasive technology:

Persuasive technology is broadly defined as technology that is designed to

change attitudes or behaviors of the users through persuasion and social

influence, but not through coercion (Fogg 2002). Such technologies are regularly

used in sales, diplomacy, politics, religion, military training, public health, and

management, and may potentially be used in any area of human-human or

human-computer interaction. Most self-identified persuasive technology

research focuses on interactive, computational technologies, including desktop

computers, Internet services, video games, and mobile devices (Oinas-Kukkonen

et al. 2008), but this incorporates and builds on the results and methods of

experimental psychology, rhetoric (Bogost 2007), human-computer interaction,

and design with intent.

Persuasion Tactics in a Person-to-person Setting


Persuasion is easier to apply during a conversation between two people, as

opposed to communicating in front of a group. This is because in a person-to-

person setting, the opportunity to better understand the point of view of the

other party exists. You can nitpick and delve into every single detail, as opposed

to speaking to an audience, where the interaction is usually one sided.

In this kind of setting, it is possible for you and the other person to reach a

compromise that would bring the best probable value for both of you. You may

even want to change your stance while you're at it. In short, person-to-person

conversations are so open and flexible that it allows not just you to change

course, but also allow you to alter another person's mindset.

Communication as a persuasive theory

For most people, one of the most effective ways of getting what you want is

communication. Many people are using this method in the marketing and sales

world along with their own personal relationships. Persuasion with

communication has been around for many years. It is has also evolved over the

past centuries and has become more effective for careers and relationships as

well.

Using verbal communication is one of the best ways to get your point across no

matter what it is. You want to make sure that you are using the right methods to

get people aware of what you are after and how you can get it. Making it clear

why something is so important to you and why it would be a great addition to

your relationship. You will want to talk it over well so that you can get the
proposal out on the table for both people to understand.

Negotiation as a persuasive technique

A negotiation is a process that can be made into three very important steps.

These steps are very crucial in many of the marketing and sales careers in the

world today. Not only is it important in the world of marketing it is important in

any relationship as well. It is important to use these negotiation skills we have

learned in many of the relationships that we have today.

Not only are they important in the world of love relationships it is also a very

good method for friendships and family relations as well. You have to plan and

prepare for this method of persuasive technique. You need to make sure that you

are completely prepared so that you are giving the full method of negotiation.

You need to learn about the other person's negotiation style and you need to be

ready to take your position. You need to ensure that you have a smooth

negotiation. You need to be prepared with your proposals when you are

discussing any topic with a business partner or in a relationship.

After the negotiation - You will want to make sure that you are recapping the

conversation that you are using for the negotiation with your partner or special

person in your life. You want to make sure that you do this so that you may get a

better outcome from the persuasive technique. You will want to take the time to

review each of the elements and maybe the next time you can make some

improvements to your negotiation techniques.

Method of Influence - The method of influence is another way to get what you
are looking for out of a business or personal relationship. The definition of

influence is the act of getting compliance without using force. You do not have to

force your opinion on someone to get what you are looking for. In fact, the power

of influence is so effective that you may not have to use much of this technique at

all.

The persuasive techniques are used in more and more relationships today and in

some cases, they work easier than others. It is important to remember no matter

what you are trying to do, you need to be truthful to the person or people that

you are trying to persuade. There is no reason to lie or manipulate anyone to do

anything. With these powerful methods of science, you can get what you want

from any relationship honestly.

Principles

According to Robert Cialdini in his book on persuasion, he defined six

"weapons of influence".

• Reciprocation - People tend to return a favor. Thus, the pervasiveness of

free samples in marketing. In his conferences, he often uses the example of

Ethiopia providing thousands of dollars in humanitarian aid to Mexico

just after the 1985 earthquake, despite Ethiopia suffering from a crippling

famine and civil war at the time. Ethiopia had been reciprocating for the

diplomatic support Mexico provided when Italy invaded Ethiopia in 1937.

• Commitment and Consistency - Once people commit to what they think

is right, orally or in writing, they are more likely to honor that


commitment, even if the original incentive or motivation is subsequently

removed. For example, in car sales, suddenly raising the price at the last

moment works because the buyer has already decided to buy. See

cognitive dissonance.

• Social Proof - People will do things that they see other people are doing.

For example, in one experiment, one or more confederates would look up

into the sky; bystanders would then look up into the sky to see what they

were seeing. At one point this experiment aborted, as so many people

were looking up that they stopped traffic. See conformity, and the Asch

conformity experiments.

• Authority - People will tend to obey authority figures, even if they are

asked to perform objectionable acts. Cialdini cites incidents, such as the

Milgram experiments in the early 1960s and the My Lai massacre.

• Liking - People are easily persuaded by other people whom they like.

Cialdini cites the marketing of Tupperware in what might now be called

viral marketing. People were more likely to buy if they liked the person

selling it to them. Some of the many biases favoring more attractive

people are discussed, but generally more aesthetically pleasing people

tend to use this influence excellently over others. See physical

attractiveness stereotype.

• Scarcity - Perceived scarcity will generate demand. For example, saying

offers are available for a "limited time only" encourages sales.


REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1. Explain the concept of persuasion.

2. Persuasion Tactics – Short note.

3. Explain the role of negotiation in persuasive technique.

4. What is meant by the method of Influence?

5. Explain the principles of persuasion?


3.13 PRESENTATION SKILLS:

Learning Objective:

After reading this section you will be able to know,

 The concept of Presentation.

 Presentation program.

 Ways to improve presentation.

 Handling presentation – Start and close.

 Skills required for effective presentation.

 The basic guidelines for a presentation

Communication is one of the most important, yet basic, tools a human being

should master. Your ability to communicate will determine your success.

Presentation is one of the communication skills any leaders must have.

Presentation is the process of showing and explaining the content of a topic to

an audience. A presentation program, such as OpenOffice.org Impress, Apple

Keynote or Microsoft PowerPoint, is often used to generate the presentation

content.

Presentation program:

A presentation program is a computer software package used to display

information, normally in the form of a slide show. It typically includes three

major functions: an editor that allows text to be inserted and formatted, a method
for inserting and manipulating graphic images and a slide-show system to

display the content.

Some tips for improving presentation skills:

1. Know your subject! This is most important.

2. Prepare for the speaking situation (outline, writing the entire presentation,

delivering it to friends or whatever works for you). Even professional

public speakers take time to prepare themselves.

3. Prepare outlines and overheads to help develop your confidence in your

presentation (part of knowing your topic well).

4. Have your outline (or overheads, slides or note cards) with you to refer to

as you make the presentation and to trigger your thoughts as you speak.

5. In the early stages of your preparation, ask someone you trust to listen to

your presentation and give you honest feedback in a one-on-one situation.

Ask them what works well and what needs improvement. The more

important the results of your presentation are to you, the more important

it is to get help in refining your presentation.

6. Take classes where you are able to develop presentations and have them

critiqued (e.g., classes in public speaking or verbal presentation skills,

Toastmasters).
7. Tape your presentation (videotape is best) and ask others to critique your

presentation. Watch yourself and learn to look for subtle body language

clues to your confidence or insecurity.

8. Talk to people you respect about how they learned to speak well. Ask

them to coach you (if that is appropriate) or try to find someone you

admire who will work with you.

9. When you are confident, relaxed and enthusiastic about your topic, that

comes through strongly to your audience. Remember how much comes

through non-verbal clues.

10. Ask for feedback from your audience about your presentation and pay

attention to what they say.

11. In workshops, ask the participants to introduce themselves, state why they

are there and what they hope to gain from the presentation. (This is most

appropriate if you are making a speech or giving a class to strangers).

Based on the participants' needs and expectations, you may adjust your

presentation as you go through it.

12. In a management presentation especially (e.g., to present your new budget

or present sales information), stop occasionally to ask if people

understand what you have said.

13. If you have an executive coach (or someone who can play that role), have

them sit in on your presentations and help you pick up clues from the

group. (We did this very effectively with one of our clients who had been
promoted to department manager. We used hand signals and other cues to

let her know when she was going too fast, too slow or missing the body

language of an executive group where she gave regular presentations.)

14. And, most of all — Practice, practice, practice!

Handling the presentation:

Defining your objective

• What will you present?

• How will you present it?

• Why should the audience listen?

Developing your presentation

o Define your limitations

o Build your outline

o Decide on a logical sequence to your presentation

o Identify the best tools for your presentation

Team activity: Outline of Your Dreams

During Your Presentation

First impression

o Show respect and build rapport

o Grab the audience’s attention

Setting the right tone

o Tone

o Important things
o A lot of other trivial = Important things

Exceeding expectations

o Value add

o Know your audience’s wants and needs

o Under promise, over deliver

Closing your presentation

• Summarizing

• Close it right

• Continuous improvement

• Peer coaching for improvement

• Your Action Plan!

Leaders make presentations to a wide variety of audiences, for example, Board

members, employees, community leaders and groups of customers. Usually

there is a lot that can be quickly gained or quickly lost from a presentation. A

little bit of guidance goes a long way toward making a highly effective

presentation.

Note that meeting management skills are often helpful in designing an effective

presentation. Also note that the following guidelines are intended for general

presentations, not for training sessions where your presentation is to help

learners to gain specific knowledge, skills or attitudes in order to improve their

performance on a task or job.

Structuring the presentation

2 to 2.5 mins--- opening/beginning

20 to 21 mins--- middle section


2 to 3 mins --- closing/end

5 mins --- questions

Preparation – Structure

Sequence should be logical & understandable

Interim summaries- Recaps

Value of visual aids-flip charts, handouts etc.

Use the 4 Ps

Position Possibilities

Problem Proposals

Verbal Communication- barriers

Speaking too fast

Using jargon

Tone and content

Complicated or ambiguous language

Not questioning

Physical State of the audience

Effective Delivery

Be active - move

Be purposeful - controlled gestures

Variations – vocal (pitch, volume, rate)

Be natural

Be direct – don’t just talk in front of the audience talk to them
Basic Guidelines for Designing Your Presentation:

1. List and prioritize the top three goals that you want to accomplish with your

audience. It's not enough just to talk at them. You may think you know what you

want to accomplish in your presentation, but if you're not clear with yourself and

others, it is very easy - too easy - for your audience to completely miss the point

of your presentation. For example, your goals may be for them to appreciate the

accomplishments of your organization, learn how to use your services, etc.

2. Be really clear about who your audience is and about why is it important for

them to be in the meeting. Members of your audience will want to know right

away why they were the ones chosen to be in your presentation. Be sure that

your presentation makes this clear to them right away. This will help you clarify

your invitation list and design your invitation to them.

3. List the major points of information that you want to convey to your audience.

When you're done making that list, then ask yourself, "If everyone in the

audience understands all of those points, then will I have achieved the goal that I

set for this meeting?"

4. Be clear about the tone that you want to set for your presentation, for example,

hopefulness, celebration, warning, teamwork, etc. Consciously identifying the

tone to yourself can help you cultivate that mood to your audience.

5. Design a brief opening (about 5-10% of your total time presentation time) that
a. Presents your goals for the presentation.

b. Clarifies the benefits of the presentation to the audience.

c. Explains the overall layout of your presentation.

6. Prepare the body of your presentation (about 70-80% of your presentation


time).

7. Design a brief closing (about 5-10% of your presentation time) that summarizes
the key points from your presentation.

8. Design time for questions and answers (about 10% of the time of your
presentation).

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1) Explain the concept of Presentation.

2) What is meant by a presentation program?

3) What are the ways to improve presentation?

4) How to handle presentation?

5) What are the various skills required for effective presentation?

6) What are the guidelines to be handled for a presentation?


3.14 ASSERTIVENESS:

Learning Objective:

After reading this section you will be able to know,

 The concept of Assertiveness.

 The various Techniques of Assertiveness.

 The Importance of Assertiveness.

 Specific Techniques for Assertiveness.

 The nature of Assertive behavior.

Assertiveness – Introduction:

Assertiveness is a trait taught by many personal development experts and

psychotherapists and the subject of many popular self-help books. It is linked to

self-esteem and considered an important communication skill.

Definition:
An assertive style of behavior is to interact with people while standing up for

your rights. Being assertive is to one's benefit most of the time but it does not

mean that one always gets what he/she wants. The result of being assertive is that

1. you feel good about yourself

2. Other people know how to deal with you and there is nothing vague

about dealing with you.

Techniques

Broken record - A popular technique advocated by assertiveness experts is the

broken record technique. This consists of simply repeating your requests every

time you are met with illegitimate resistance. The term comes from vinyl records,

the surface of which when scratched would lead the needle of a record player to

loop over the same few seconds of the recording indefinitely. However, a

disadvantage with this technique is that when resistance continues, your requests

lose power every time you have to repeat them. If the requests are repeated too

often it can backfire on the authority of your words. In these cases it is necessary

to have some sanctions on hand.

Fogging - Another technique some suggest is called Fogging, which consists of

finding some limited truth to agree with in what an antagonist is saying. More

specifically, one can agree in part or agree in principle.

Negative inquiry - Negative inquiry [consists of requesting further, more specific

criticism. Negative assertion however, is agreement with criticism without letting

up demand.

Example:
Gandhi's struggle for India's independence, along with the communication

strategy and actions he used for this, are a good example of assertiveness. He

used a people movement which he called "Satyagraha" which used non violent

resistance as a means to achieve his objective. He kept communicating the

Indians' right to rule themselves to the British, irrespective of what the British

thought about Indians. Gandhi was sent to jail several times and in many cases

was asked to pay a fine for opposing British rule. He never agreed to pay the

fine, saying that he had the right to say what he thought was correct. After

several decades of this struggle, India became independent.

The Importance of Assertiveness

 Expressing your thoughts, feelings, and opinions and standing up for

your rights is important. You are your first and biggest supporter, so it's

important that you speak up for yourself.

 Whether your behavior is unassertive (passive) or overassertive

(aggressive), it is possible to change. But it is also important to understand

the difference between expressing yourself in a self-confident manner

(being assertive) and forcing your ideas on others and intimidating them

(being aggressive).

Specific Techniques for Assertiveness:

1. Be as specific and clear as possible about what you want, think, and feel.

The following statements project this preciseness:

o “I want to…”

o “I don’t want you to…”


o “Would you…?”

o “I liked it when you did that.”

o “I have a different opinion, I think that…”

o “I have mixed reactions. I agree with these aspects for these

reasons, but I am disturbed about these aspects for these reasons.”

It can be helpful to explain exactly what you mean and exactly what you don’t

mean, such as “I don’t want to break up over this, but I’d like to talk it through

and see if we can prevent it from happening again.

Be direct. Deliver your message to the person for whom it is intended. If you

want to tell Jane something, tell Jane; do not tell everyone except Jane; do not tell

a group, of which Jane happens to be a member.

2. “Own” your message. Acknowledge that your message comes from your

frame of reference, your conception of good vs. bad or right vs. wrong,

your perceptions. You can acknowledge ownership with personalized

(”I”) statements such as “I don’t agree with you” (as compared to “You’re

wrong”) or “I’d like you to mow the lawn” (as compared to “You really

should mow the lawn, you know”). Suggesting that someone is wrong or

bad and should change for his or her own benefit when, in fact, it would

please you will only foster resentment and resistance rather than

understanding and cooperation.

3. Ask for feedback. “Am I being clear? How do you see this situation?

What do you want to do?” Asking for feedback can encourage others to

correct any misperceptions you may have as well as help others realize

that you are expressing an opinion, feeling, or desire rather than a

demand. Encourage others to be clear, direct, and specific in their

feedback to you.
Assertive behavior includes:

• Starting, changing, or ending conversations

• Sharing feelings, opinions, and experiences with others

• Making requests and asking for favors

• Refusing others' requests if they are too demanding

• Questioning rules or traditions that don't make sense or don't seem fair

• Addressing problems or things that bother you

• Being firm so that your rights are respected

• Expressing positive emotions

• Expressing negative emotions

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1) Explain the concept of Assertiveness.

2) What are the various Techniques of Assertiveness?

3) Explain the importance of Assertiveness.

4) Describe the specific techniques for Assertiveness.

5) Explain about the nature of Assertive behavior.


3.15 TIME MANAGEMENT:

Key areas

 Introduction to Time management.

 Definition of Time management.

 Aspects of Time management.

 Essential habits for good time management.


 Time management approaches.

 Simple Techniques for Time management.

Overview:
Time management refers to a range of skills, tools, and techniques used to

manage time when accomplishing specific tasks, projects and goals. This set

encompass a wide scope of activities, and these include planning, allocating,

setting goals, delegation, analysis of time spent, monitoring, organizing,

scheduling, and prioritizing. Initially time management referred to just business

or work activities, but eventually the term broadened to include personal

activities also. A time management system is a designed combination of

processes, tools and techniques.

Definition: Time management is a set of principles, practices, skills, tools, and

systems that work together to help you get more value out of your time with the

aim of improving the quality of your life.

Aspects of Time management:

• Time management has five main aspects:

– Planning & Goal Setting

– Managing Yourself

– Dealing with Other People

– Your Time

– Getting Results

– The first 4 all interconnect and interact to generate the fifth - results

• Essential habits for good time management are:

– Know where the hours are going


– Keep focused on the end result

– Work to defined priorities

– Schedule time for important issues

– Delegate routine tasks and responsibility for them

– Confront your own indecision and delay

– Take the stress out of work

– Keep applying the essential habits!

Time management approaches:

Some authors (such as Stephen R. Covey) offered a categorization scheme for the

hundreds of time management approaches that they reviewed

• First generation: reminders based on clocks and watches, but with

computer implementation possible can be used to alert of the time when a

task is to be done.

• Second generation: planning and preparation based on calendar and

appointment books includes setting goals.

• Third generation: planning, prioritizing, controlling (using a personal

organizer, other paper-based objects, or computer or PDA-based systems

activities on a daily basis. This approach implies spending some time in

clarifying values and priorities.

• Fourth generation: being efficient and proactive using any of the above

tools places goals and roles as the controlling element of the system and

favors importance over urgency.


Some of the recent general arguments related to "time" and "management" point

out that the term "time management" is misleading and that the concept should

actually imply that it is "the management of our own activities, to make sure that

they are accomplished within the available or allocated time, which is an

unmanageable continuous resource".

Simple Techniques to Manage Time

There never seems to be enough time in the roles of management and

supervision. Therefore, the goal of time management should not be to find more

time. The goal is set a reasonable amount of time to spend on these roles and

then use that time wisely.

1. Start with the simple techniques of stress management above.

2. Managing time takes practice. Practice asking yourself this question


throughout the day: "Is this what I want or need to be doing right now?" If yes,
then keep doing it.

3. Find some way to realistically and practically analyze your time. Logging your

time for a week in 15-minute intervals is not that hard and does not take up that

much time. Do it for a week and review your results.

4. Do a "to do" list for your day. Do it at the end of the previous day. Mark items

as "A" and "B" in priority. Set aside two hours right away each day to do the

important "A" items and then do the "B" items in the afternoon. Let your

answering machine take your calls during your "A" time.

5. At the end of your day, spend five minutes cleaning up your space. Use this
time, too, to organize your space, including your desktop. That'll give you a clean

start for the next day.

6. Learn the difference between "Where can I help?" and "Where am I really

needed?" Experienced leaders learn that the last question is much more

important than the former.

7. Learn the difference between "Do I need to do this now?" and "Do I need to do

this at all?" Experienced leaders learn how to quickly answer this question when

faced with a new task.

8. Delegate. Delegation shows up as a frequent suggestion in this guide because

it is one of the most important skills for a leader to have. Effective delegation will

free up a great deal of time for you.

9. If you are CEO in a corporation, then ask your Board for help. They are

responsible to supervise you, as a CEO. Although the Board should not be micro-

managing you, that is, involved in the day-to-day activities of the corporation,

they still might have some ideas to help you with your time management.

Remember, too, that good time management comes from good planning, and the

Board is responsible to oversee development of major plans. Thus, the Board

may be able to help you by doing a better themselves in their responsibilities as

planners for the organization.

10. Use a "Do Not Disturb" sign! During the early part of the day, when you're

attending to your important items (your "A" list), hang this sign on the doorknob

outside your door.


11. Sort your mail into categories including "read now", "handle now" and "read

later". You'll quickly get a knack for sorting through your mail. You'll also notice

that much of what you think you need to read later wasn't really all that

important anyway.

12. Read your mail at the same time each day.

That way, you'll likely get to your mail on a regular basis and won't become

distracted into any certain piece of mail that ends up taking too much of your

time.

13. Have a place for everything and put everything in its place.

That way, you'll know where to find it when you need it. Another important

outcome is that your people will see that you are somewhat organized, rather

than out of control.

14. Best suggestion for saving time - schedule 10 minutes to do nothing.

That time can be used to just sit and clear your mind. You'll end up thinking

more clearly, resulting in more time in your day. The best outcome of this

practice is that it reminds you that you're not a slave to a clock - and that if you

take 10 minutes out of your day, you and your organization won't fall apart.

15. Learn good meeting management skills. Meetings can become a terrible

waste of time.

REVIEW QUESTIONS:
1. Write a short note on Time management.

2. Definition of Time management.

3. Explain the aspects of Time management.

4. What are the essential habits for good time management?

5. Describe - Time management approaches.

6. Explain the Simple Techniques for Time management.

3.16 PRIORITISING WORKLOADS:

Learning objectives:

After reading this section you can able to know,

 The concept of Prioritizing.

 The Prioritizing workload commitments.

 Prioritize your tasks.

 The concept of Alternatives to Prioritizing.

 The various Techniques for setting priorities

 Maslow's "Hierarchy of needs".

 The Eisenhower Method.

Prioritizing
When you are faced with many different demands on your time it is essential

that you are able to prioritize your workload. There are many different factors

affecting individual priorities, including:

 Personal motivation / interest

 Oncoming deadlines

 Confidence with the task / skill

 Difficulty of the task

Prioritizing workload commitments

 Linking workload to objectives or targets

 The difference between urgent and important tasks

 Methods of prioritizing workload commitments

Sometimes we have to reprioritize things that are under our direct control, which

is relatively simple compared to re-prioritizing things that involve other decision

makers.

A trick is always to de-personalise the activity. Don’t think in terms of ‘I

want/they want’, but in terms of what is best for the business. By doing this you

may even be able to see their point of view.

 Priorities against your own goals

 Consider elapsed time to completion, complexity, flexibility

 Consider needs of your team/stakeholders


 Where contribution is equal, do fastest things first

 Priorities against corporate goals

 Consider win/win and trade off

 Rank relative importance to the different decision makers

 Have compromises ready

Prioritizing your tasks

This is a useful structure for sorting things out. Write a list of all your

activities. Rank the activities against this chart, and tackle those in the upper left

quartile first. Leave those in the bottom right to last, if you bother with them at

all, and juggle the others.

Urgent Non-Urgent
Important Important/Urgent Important/Non- Urgent
Non-
Non-Important/Urgent Non-Important/Non-Urgent
Important

 Important = value/result

 Urgent = time/deadlines

Alternatives to Prioritizing:

A completely different approach which argues against prioritizing altogether

was put forward by British author Mark Forster in his book "Do It Tomorrow and
Other Secrets of Time Management". This is based on the idea of operating

"closed" to-do lists, instead of the traditional "open" to-do list. He argues that the

traditional never-ending to-do lists virtually guarantees that some of your work

will be left undone. This approach advocates getting all your work done, every

day, and if you are unable to achieve it helps you diagnose where you are going

wrong and what needs to change. Recently, Forster developed the "Auto focus

Time Management System", which further systematizes working a to-do list as a

series of closed sub lists and emphasizes intuitive choices.

Techniques for setting priorities

ABC analysis

A technique that has been used in business management for a long time is the

categorization of large data into groups. These groups are often marked A, B,

and C—hence the name. Activities are ranked upon these general criteria:

• A – Tasks that are perceived as being urgent and important.

• B – Tasks those are important but not urgent.

• C – Tasks that is neither urgent nor important.

Each group is then rank-ordered in priority. To further refine priority, some

individuals choose to then force-rank all "B" items as either "A" or "C". ABC

analysis can incorporate more than three groups. ABC analysis is frequently

combined with Pareto analysis.

Pareto analysis
This is the idea that 80% of tasks can be completed in 20% of the disposable time.

The remaining 20% of tasks will take up 80% of the time. This principle is used to

sort tasks into two parts. According to this form of Pareto analysis it is

recommended that tasks that fall into the first category be assigned a higher

priority.

The 80-20-rule can also be applied to increase productivity: it is assumed that

80% of the productivity can be achieved by doing 20% of the tasks. If

productivity is the aim of time management, then these tasks should be

prioritized higher.

Fit

Essentially, fit is the congruence of the requirements of a task (location, financial

investment, time, etc.) with the available resources at the time. Often people are

constrained by externally controlled schedules, locations, etc., and "fit" allows us

to maximize our productivity given those constraints. For example, if one

encounters a gap of 15 minutes in their schedule, it is typically more efficient to

complete a task that would require 15 minutes, than to complete a task that can

be done in 5 minutes, or to start a task that would take 4 weeks. This concept also

applies to time of the day: free time at 7am is probably less usefully applied to

the goal of learning the drums, and more productively a time to read a book.

Lastly, fit can be applied to location: free time at home would be used differently

from free time at work, in town, etc.

POSEC method
POSEC is an acronym for Prioritize by Organizing, Streamlining, Economizing

and Contributing. The method dictates a template which emphasises an average

individual's immediate sense of emotional and monetary security. It suggests

that by attending to one's personal responsibilities first, an individual is better

positioned to shoulder collective responsibilities.

Inherent in the acronym is a hierarchy of self-realization which mirrors Abraham

Maslow's "Hierarchy of needs".

1. PRIORITIZE-Your time and define your life by goals.

2. ORGANIZING-Things you have to accomplish regularly to be successful.

(Family and Finances)

3. STREAMLINING-Things you may not like to do, but must do. (Work and

Chores)

4. ECONOMIZING-Things you should do or may even like to do, but

they're not pressingly urgent. (Pastimes and Socializing)

5. CONTRIBUTING-By paying attention to the few remaining things that

make a difference. (Social Obligations)

The Eisenhower Method

All tasks are evaluated using the criteria important/unimportant and urgent/not

urgent and put in according quadrants. Tasks in unimportant/not urgent are

dropped, tasks in important/urgent are done immediately and personally, tasks

in unimportant/urgent are delegated and tasks in important/not urgent get an

end date and are done personally. This method is said to have been used by US
President Dwight D. Eisenhower, and is outlined in a quote attributed to him:

“What is important is seldom urgent and what is urgent is seldom important”.

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1. What is meant by Prioritizing?

2. What are the Prioritizing workload commitments

3. How you will prioritizing your tasks

4. Describe the concept of Alternatives to Prioritizing:

5. What are the various Techniques for setting priorities?

6. Explain about Maslow's "Hierarchy of needs".

7. The Eisenhower Method – Explain.

3.17 SETTING WORK OBJECTIVES:

Learning objective:

After reading this section you can able to know,

 The concept of Goal/Objective.

 Work Objective – Overview

 Setting Work Objectives.

 SMART – Specific – Measurable - Achievable - Realistic - Timely

 What are the Key Components of a Work Objective?

 What are the Goal types in business management:

 Explain the principles to be considered for work objectives.

 Describe the checklist for Goals.


A goal or objective is a projected state of affairs that a person or a system plans

or intends to achieve—a personal or organizational desired end-point in some

sort of assumed development. Many people endeavor to reach goals within a

finite time by setting deadlines.

What is a Work Objective?

A work objective is a mutually understood agreement about a specific work

outcome that a staff member is expected to achieve during the MPS cycle.

It is not a list of all the activities (often action items)/ responsibilities of the staff

member's role.

It is a direct link between the work the employee performs and the

faculty/centre's operational plan and ECU's strategic priorities.

Why Set Work Objectives?

Setting SMART work objectives allows you to understand exactly where your

role fits within the University and what your responsibilities are. You gain a

better understanding of the value and contributions you bring to the University.

SMART work objectives focus on outcomes rather than activities and allow you

to measure your own success.

With clear work objectives in mind, you are in a better position to review and

revise these objectives as work demands change during the MPS cycle. SMART

work objectives also enable your supervisor to focus your MPS discussion on

measurable performance outcomes and facilitate the discussion of your


development and career plans as part of the meeting. You can also seek ways to

improve effectiveness, efficiencies and outcomes of the faculty/centre and to the

overall performance outcomes of the University.

What is SMART?

SMART work objectives are:

• Specific

• Measurable

• Achievable

• Realistic

• Timely

Staff is strongly encouraged to be familiar with and utilise the SMART principles

when setting their work objectives, indicators and targets. As a guide, consider

the following statements:

Specific

• Is it clear and well defined

• Is it clear to anyone that has a basic knowledge of the work area

Measurable

• Know if the goal is obtainable and how far away completion is

• Know when it has been achieved

Achievable

• Agreement with all the stakeholders what the goals should be


• Is there a realistic path to achievement

Realistic

• Within the availability of resources, knowledge and time

Timely

• Enough time to achieve the goal, is there a time limit

• Not too much time, which can affect work performance

Key Components of a Work Objective

Conditions - Sets the situation and/or environment in which the staff member is

required to work within, eg OS&H and other University related legislation.

Acceptable levels of Performance - Consider what level of performance is

deemed acceptable in terms of Quality (i.e. how effectively the work should be

performed), Quantity (i.e. how much is produced) and/or Timeliness (i.e. how

quickly or in what timeframe the outcome is to be achieved).

Measures - Include clear measures (quality, quantity, cost, timeliness and

frequency of completion) so both parties can track progress and readjust

priorities if necessary, to ensure performance outcomes can be achieved.

Goal types in business management:


• Consumer goals: this refers to supplying a product or service that the

market/consumer wants.

• Product goals: this refers to supplying a product outstanding compared

to other products perhaps due to the likes of quality, design, reliability and

novelty.

• Operational goals: this refers to running the organization in such a way

as to make the best use of management skills, technology and resources.

• Secondary goals: this refers to goals which an organization does not

regard as priorities.

The principles being:

1. To concentrate on being effective, not on being busy.

2. To minimize wasted time.

3. The priorities being your key goals and objectives.

4. Plan in bite sized chunks.

5. Break complicated or difficult tasks into achievable elements or steps. The

first step could be to investigate.

6. Identify the right time for each activity, for you and others?

7. Leave time free for the unexpected! You can always use it! This may be as

much as 50% of your time.

8. Establish routines and patterns of work to improve efficiency.

Checklist for Goals


– Are they realistic and challenging?

– Have they been agreed with the manager and linked to the

performance appraisal system?

– Do you know what it will look like when you have achieved the

goal (visualization)?

– Are the goals important to you?

– Is there a time bound aspect to the goals?

– Are the goals SMART?

– What will the reward be once the goals have been achieved?

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1) What is a Work Objective?

2) Why to Set Work Objectives?

3) What is SMART?

4) What are the Key Components of a Work Objective?

5) What are the Goal types in business management:

6) Explain the principles to be considered for work objectives.

7) Describe the checklist for Goals.


3.18 USING TIME EFFECTIVELY:

Learning objectives:

This section covers the following key areas such as,

 Importance of time.

 Time wasters – components.

 Steps to be considered for managing the time effectively.

 'MISER' concept’.

Time Management is essential to success at work. God gives to each of us a

limited, finite number of hours in a year in which to achieve our goals. He gives
us these hours in sequence, they are neither repeatable nor refundable, and He is

not partial to either the rich or to the poor, to the young or to the old.

All of us 24 hours a day and we should plan these 24 hours. Planning our time

allows us to spread our work, avoid a "Traffic jam" of work and cope with the

work stress.

Many deadlines for work occur at the same time and unless we plan ahead, we

will find it impossible to manage. To meet the demands of work we need to

spread our workload over the allotted time. Work out what needs to be done and

when. Work out how to use available time as efficiently as possible.

Time Wasters

• Attempting too much

• Not saying 'NO'

• Incomplete information

• Management by crisis, fire fighting

• Interruption

Effective use of time

1. Concentrate on being effective, not on being busy.

2. Avoid red activities (time spent which is not helpful in meeting your

objectives). Analyze the root cause for each of these and avoid, eliminate

or minimize this waste of your time.

3. Don't do the work of others, unless you chose to do so (e.g. to understand

the problems or to show others etc.)


4. Delegate effectively

5. Effective Meetings

6. Be decisive.

Evaluate, assess the risks and decide the next course of action.

7. Do it now. Don't procrastinate; break up tasks so they are achievable.

8. Give realistic promises.

9. Learn to say 'No'. Direct people to owner of a problem or explain why you

are not dealing with it.

10. Avoid perfectionism. Seek a quality solution (fit for purpose) which is cost

effective.

11. Avoid clutter. Act - Bin - Refer - File. Only file if you need the information

and it is not readily available elsewhere.

12. Consolidate your time. Large size bites are excellent, hourly chunks are

ideal.

13. Control interruptions/ distractions. Find somewhere where you can think

and plan.

14. Orange time (marginal time) should be used wisely. Remember relaxation

and breaks are essential but this time could also be used for thinking and

planning. The choice is yours.

15. Don't spend endless time reordering 'to do lists'. When a task is complete

just cross it out.

16. Look at your aims/ responsibilities and identify your key goals (10 max.).

Set performance objectives for each key goal e.g.:

o Quality - right - error free services & goods - fit for purpose.

o Cost - value

 People.

 Machines, facilities & equipment.


 Method.

 Materials.

o Delivery

 When.

 Speed - fast - time between customer asking and receiving.

 Dependability - deliver on time.

o Flexibility - ability to adapt - service, product, mix, volume and

delivery time.

How We Use Time

When we spend time, there is no improvement in efficiency, productivity, or

effectiveness. The time is gone without a return. We save time when we perform

tasks in less time or with less effort than previously. We use shortcuts and

processes that streamline activities. We invest time when we take time now to

save time later.

We spend time when we go to a movie; however, if we are a screenwriter, the

time spent in the movie is an investment since it will help hone our writing skills.

If we invest time to learn screenwriting software, we will save time in the future

when we compose our scripts. However, this is still relative to the point that we

are able to turn better writing skills and faster script development into profit - if

we are able to sell it. In capitalism our investment, might very well be someone

else's profit.

Delegation is a valuable investment of our time. When we delegate, we teach

someone to perform tasks we usually perform. While the training process takes
time now, the investment pays off later since we free our time to perform higher-

payoff activities. The goal is to look for ways a person can save and invest time.

Task list

A task list (also to-do list) is a list of tasks to be completed, such as chores or steps

toward completing a project. It is an inventory tool which serves as an alternative

or supplement to memory.

Task lists are used in self-management, grocery lists, business management,

project management, and software development. It may involve more than one

list.

When you accomplish one of the items on a task list, you check it off or cross it off.

The traditional method is to write these on a piece of paper with a pen or pencil,

usually on a note pad or clip-board. Numerous digital equivalents are now

available, including PIM (Personal information management) applications and

most PDAs. There are also several web-based task list applications, many of

which are free.

'MISER' concept' - For effective use of time.

(As mentioned by Mr. Promod Batra in his book 'Be a Winner Every time')can be

used to manage the time effectively. It is a way to reduce the time taken to

complete any task.

M => Stands for 'Merge'. Can I merge it with some other activity? Meaning there

by doing more than one task at a time reduces the time taken to complete the

tasks separately.
I => Stands for 'Improving'. Can I improve it? And most of the time we can, if we

have a working attitude of 5 to 9 instead of 9 to 5.

S => Stands for 'Simplify'! Any action or activity can be simplified.

E => Stands for 'Eliminating'. Many things we do. We do not need to do them in

the first place.

R => Stands for 'Reducing' the activity. This is where your experience, exposure

and wisdom will help you.

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1. Explain the importance of time.

2. How can we use time?

3. What are the Time wasters – components?

4. Explain about the Steps to be considered for managing the time

effectively.

5. 'MISER' concept’ – Role in time utilization.


3.19 MAKING AND KEEPING APPOINTMENTS:

Learning objectives:

After reading this section you can able to understand about,

 The concept of external appointments.

 Planning to give appointment and tracking it.

 The concept of four quadrants and its uses.

 Suggestions for conducting a meeting and Appointments:

 To manage the appointments - Selecting Participants in appointments. -

Developing Agendas - Opening Meetings

 Establishing Ground Rules for Meetings

 Evaluations of Meeting Process

 Evaluating the Overall Meeting

 Prioritizing your time.


External Appointments

The next stage of Personal Time Management is to start taking control of your

time. The first problem is appointments. Start with a simple appointments diary.

In this book you will have (or at least should have) a complete list of all your

known appointments for the foreseeable future. If you have omitted your regular

ones (since you remember them anyway) add them now.

Your appointments constitute your interaction with other people; they are the

agreed interface between your activities and those of others; they are determined

by external obligation. They often fill the diary. Now, be ruthless and eliminate

the unnecessary. There may be committees where you can not productively

contribute or where a subordinate might be (better) able to participate. There

may be long lunches which could be better run as short conference calls. There

may be interviews which last three times as long as necessary because they are

scheduled for a whole hour. Eliminate the wastage starting today.

The next stage is to add to your diary lists of other, personal activity which will

enhance your use of the available time. Consider: what is the most important

type of activity to add to your diary? No: - stop reading for a moment and really,

consider.

The single most important type of activity is those which will save you time:

allocate time to save time, a stitch in time saves days. And most importantly of

all, always allocate time to time management: at least five minutes each and

every day.
For each appointment left in the diary, consider what actions you might take to

ensure that no time is wasted: plan to avoid work by being prepared. Thus, if you

are going to a meeting where you will be asked to comment on some report,

allocate time to read it so avoiding delays in the meeting and increasing your

chances of making the right decision the first time. Consider what actions need to

be done before AND what actions must be done to follow-up.

Using a diary, planner or spreadsheet allocates time to:

1. Activities that you have committed to i.e. appointments, meetings and

holidays.

2. The urgent or desperate tasks but ensure you delegate these where

appropriate and look for the route cause. Rearrange committed activities if

required.

3. Achievable tasks.

4. Thinking and planning. Take time to dream!

Adjust the plan each day, in the light of reality, always remembering your key

goals.

Daily lists

If you don’t have some idea of what needs to be done ‘today’, ‘next week’, ‘ in the

future’, you cannot begin to priorities.

As most people feel stressed by time pressures on a day-to-day basis, the first

logical step is to make daily “To Do” lists (which can be augmented by weekly

and monthly ‘To Do’ lists). Write tomorrow’s list before you leave work! Give

yourself 10/15 minutes at the end of the day for this task.
Four quadrants

Then assign priorities to each task on your “To Do” list using the Four Quadrant

approach:

1 Urgent and important : top priority Must be done today


2 Important but less Urgent Should be done today
3 Urgent but not Important Needs doing now
4 Not important, not urgent Could be postponed

Quadrants 1, 3 and 4 are where a lot of people spend their worrying lives!

Quadrant 1 activities are needed to achieve immediate results

Quadrants 2 are where you plan and is a place from where you can reduce

pressure on Quadrants 1 and 3.

Quadrant 2 activities impede results.

Quadrant 4 activities are wasted time.

Meeting management tends to be a set of skills often overlooked by leaders and

managers. The following information is a rather "Cadillac" version of meeting

management suggestions. The reader might pick which suggestions best fits the

particular culture of their own organization. Keep in mind that meetings are very

expensive activities when one considers the cost of labor for the meeting and

how much can or cannot get done in them. So take meeting management very

seriously.

Suggestions for conducting a meeting and Appointments:

The process used in a meeting depends on the kind of meeting you plan to have,

e.g., staff meeting, planning meeting, problem solving meeting, etc. However,
there are certain basics that are common to various types of meetings. These

basics are described below.

Selecting Participants

· The decision about who is to attend depends on what you want to accomplish

in the meeting. This may seem too obvious to state, but it's surprising how many

meetings occur without the right people there.

·Don't depend on your own judgment about who should come. Ask several other

people for their opinion as well.

·If possible, call each person to tell them about the meeting, it's overall purpose

and why their attendance is important.

·Follow-up your call with a meeting notice, including the purpose of the meeting,

where it will be held and when, the list of participants and whom to contact if

they have questions.

· Developing Agendas

·Develop the agenda together with key participants in the meeting. Think of

what overall outcome you want from the meeting and what activities need to

occur to reach that outcome. The agenda should be organized so that these

activities are conducted during the meeting.

·Design the agenda so that participants get involved early by having something

for them to do right away and so they come on time.

· Next to each major topic, include the type of action needed, the type of output
expected (decision, vote, action assigned to someone), and time estimates for

addressing each topic

· Ask participants if they'll commit to the agenda.

· Keep the agenda posted at all times.

· Opening Meetings

· Always start on time; this respects those who showed up on time and reminds

late-comers that the scheduling is serious.

· Welcome attendees and thank them for their time.

· Review the agenda at the beginning of each meeting, giving participants a

chance to understand all proposed major topics, change them and accept them.

· Note that a meeting recorder if used will take minutes and provide them back

to each participant shortly after the meeting.

· Model the kind of energy and participant needed by meeting participants.

· Clarify your role(s) in the meeting.

Establishing Ground Rules for Meetings

You don't need to develop new ground rules each time you have a meeting,

surely. However, it pays to have a few basic ground rules that can be used for

most of your meetings. These ground rules cultivate the basic ingredients needed

for a successful meeting.


·Four powerful ground rules are: participate, get focus, maintain momentum and

reach closure. (You may want a ground rule about confidentiality.)

·List your primary ground rules on the agenda.

·If you have new attendees who are not used to your meetings, you might review

each ground rule.

· Keep the ground rules posted at all times.

Evaluations of Meeting Process

· It's amazing how often people will complain about a meeting being a complete

waste of time -- but they only say so after the meeting. Get their feedback during

the meeting when you can improve the meeting process right away. Evaluating a

meeting only at the end of the meeting is usually too late to do anything about

participants' feedback.

· Every couple of hours, conduct 5-10 minutes "satisfaction checks".

· In a round-table approach, quickly have each participant indicate how they

think the meeting is going.

Evaluating the Overall Meeting

· Leave 5-10 minutes at the end of the meeting to evaluate the meeting; don't skip

this portion of the meeting.


· Have each member rank the meeting from 1-5, with 5 as the highest, and have

each member explain their ranking

· Have the chief executive rank the meeting last.

Prioritizing your time:

Prioritising your time involves juggling each of these, relating individual tasks to

each other and putting these in the wider context of all your commitments and

responsibilities. Ask such questions as:

• What is urgent?

• What is routine?

• What can be prepared in advance?

In other words, you need to be aware that:

• Some things demand immediate attention

• Some things can be predicted and routinely planned for

• Some things can be prepared in advance

It may help to gauge your activities and tasks on a table such as the

urgency/important grid in the next column. Where does each task fit? Is it urgent

and important? Or is it important but not urgent? Now apply this to your

planning sheets, tackling urgent and important things first and allocating time

ahead for important but non-urgent work.

REVIEW QUESTIONS:
 Explain about making appointments.

 How you will conduct meeting and manage the appointment?

 Explain the concept of four quadrants and its uses.

 Describe about suggestions for conducting a meeting and

Appointments:

 Explain about the Meeting Process and prioritizing time.


3.20 WORKING STEADILY RATHER THAN ERRATICALLY:

Learning objective:

After reading this section you can able to know about,

 The overview of erratically.

 Tips – For completing the work steadily.

 Key strategies for working steadily.

 Tips and techniques for working steady.

 A time-log concept.

 Managing interruptions.

 Keys to Successful Time Management.

Try also to work steadily through coursework rather than erratically. It is

important to work consistently over a period of time rather than in short,

energetic bursts. These bursts can be panic-driven. A sudden burst usually means

that you are behind schedule and may rush key elements of your work. On a

degree-level course it is essential that you allocate sufficient time for learning and

for reflecting on learning processes. It does not have to be done at a desk, but it

has to be done.

Erratic - “having no fixed course or purpose; irregular; random; wandering”

Tips – For completing the work steadily:

Organize your coursework and handouts as you go along. Don’t let big
piles of paperwork accumulate.

Set aside regular study sessions every week so you can work steadily

Throughout the semester.

Develop good diary habits.

Write down deadlines as soon as you get them.

Look at your diary on a daily basis.

Use task analysis to help you break down large tasks into smaller,

manageable steps

Use action planning to help you complete work. Attach deadlines to each

Step, and tick each one off as you complete it.

Make sure you know how much an assessment is worth in terms of %, so

That you can put in the corresponding amount of effort.

set you goals that are realistic and achievable.

If you’re finding it hard to get going, try hard to focus, set yourself one.

Manageable task, and DO IT. Don’t get hung up on things being perfect.

Key strategies:

We’ll look next at some key strategies that might help:

• time planning

• managing information

• managing large tasks

• meeting deadlines

 Time planning

Many people find it difficult to work steadily. It’s all too easy to leave things to

the last minute, but it’s much better to work at a steady rate – you’re less stressed,
you learn more effectively, and you’ll get better marks. It helps to use your diary

or calendar to write up a weekly timetable. Include your unit and your personal

activities, and set aside regular study times each week. You could also keep a ‘To

do’ list. Remember it’s not enough to set a regular schedule, you need to stick to

it!

 Managing information

It’s important to think about how best to organize your information. Gather

papers and handouts into folders, using dividers to separate topics or

assessments. Digital information should also be organized into folders and files

clearly named so they’re easy to retrieve. It should also be backed up! Try to file

information as soon as you get it. Don’t wait until you have a big pile of books

and papers - it’s easy to forget what that scribbled note means, or where that

quote came from.

 Managing large tasks

Assignments can seem overwhelming at first, because there’s so much to do. It

helps to use task analysis to break down projects into smaller, manageable

chunks. First, work out what needs to be done to complete your project, then

write it down in a series of steps. Decide what order they need to be done in. It’s

useful to set a deadline for each step, to tick off as you complete it. Once you see

the project as a series of manageable steps it doesn’t seem so overwhelming. It's

easier to get started, and it’s easier to finish.

 Meeting deadlines
Note all your deadlines in your diary and work out how much time you need to

complete each assignment. To help plan, work back from the deadline. Block out

time in your diary for each assignment. Make sure you allow time for

preparation such as research and editing. Then build in extra time so you don’t

need to rush if something else comes up. In general, try to deal with the largest

tasks first, then move on to the smaller ones.

Tips and techniques:

Time Logs

Quality Time

Managing Documents

Managing
Interruptions
Managing Workspace

Managing your Phone

• A time-log is
• A time-log is an effective way to see where your time actually goes to

during the working day Record the information for about 2 weeks to get a

representative picture of time spent

• By logging activities and the time taken to complete them, the time-log

provides useful information that can identify

• Accuracy of estimating time for tasks

• Time stealing activities

• Level of interruption

• Loading during the day

• Crises points / tasks

• Quality time is where you can plan to do the most important high priority

tasks

• It allows for deep concentration through eliminating interruptions

• It imposes a structure on work

• It allows you to move away from reactive work to proactive work

Dealing with Documents

• Document handling can steal a vast quantity of time from our working

day

• Improve your document handling by:

• Handling documents only once by :


– Act on what is required by the document

– File the document for reference later

– Dump the document

• Have a good system for handling your documents that allows you to:

– Define what you need to keep and for how long

– Allows you to file materials easily and logically

– Facilitates access to materials

– Purge the files on a regular basis

Managing interruptions

• Try to reduce the number of interruptions by applying the following

techniques:

• Create a visual barrier at your workspace to reduce the

incidence of ‘drop-in’ visits

• Don’t have extra chairs in your workspace - people do not

hang around as long if they must stand

• For important work - move to another space so the potential

interrupters can’t find you!

• Tell people that you are busy, explain why and arrange to

contact them at a more suitable time


• How our workspace is organized has an impact on how efficient we are -

try the following to improve efficiency

– De-clutter your desk by clearing it at the end of each working day

– File documents once they have been used

– Purge files regularly

– Organize a work flow system in your space

Managing workspace

• How our workspace is organized has an impact on how efficient we are -

try the following to improve efficiency

– De-clutter your desk by clearing it at the end of each working day

– File documents once they have been used

– Purge files regularly

– Organize a work flow system in your space

• Managing Your Phone

• The telephone can be responsible for eating vast quantities of time -

control the phone by using:

– Batch your outward calls

– Delegate calls that you don’t have to make personally to one of

your team
– Terminate calls once the business has been done

– Set up your team for handling incoming calls

Keys to Successful Time Management

• Self knowledge and goals: In order to manage your time successfully,

having an awareness of what your goals are will assist you in prioritizing

your activities.

• Developing and maintaining a personal, flexible schedule: Time

management provides you with the opportunity to create a schedule that

works for you, not for others. This personal attention gives you the

flexibility to include the things that are most important to you.

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1. How to work steadily rather then erratically?

2. Explain the tips for completing the work steadily.

3. Explain the Key strategies for working steadily.

4. Describe the Tips and techniques for working steadily.

5. Explain the importance of time-log concept.

6. How you will manage interruptions?

7. What are the Keys for a Successful Time Management?


3.21 TIME FOR LEARNING:

Learning objectives:

After reading this section you can able to know,

 The concept of time for learning

 The approaches to be handled for effective time management.

 A daily planner sheet outlined a step-by-step approach for learning to

use a day planner to manage time effectively and "boost" inherently

inefficient executive function.

 Follow the daily planner sheet steps for at least one week, reward

yourself at the end of the week for practicing the day planner skills, and

identify a friend as a planner coach to provide support and

encouragement for your efforts.

 The concept of discovery learning.

Personal time management skills are essential skills for effective people. People

who use these techniques routinely are the highest achievers in all walks of life,

from business to sport to public service.

Daily planner:

• selecting the right day planner

• effective strategies for using a day planner

• using a day planner for short- and long-term planning

This sheet will highlight strategies for using a day planner effectively, planning

effectively, and following through on commitments.*


The planner coach should be a person who will focus on the positive, praising

successes and cheering you on to the next step, and not a person who will

criticize failures or imperfect achievement of any of the steps.

1. Select a compatible day planner as your only planning calendar.

At a minimum, a day planner is a device that includes a calendar, space to write

"to-do" lists, and space to write telephone numbers, addresses, and other basic

identifying/reference information. It can be a paper-and-pencil model, as with

Franklin Planner, Day Timer, or Planner Pad brands. It can be a fancy electronic

organizer such as a Palm Pilot, or it can be time management software on a

laptop or desktop computer. Electronic organizers have a number of advantages.

They are compact; they provide audible reminders that can serve as memory

management aides; they can sort, organize, and store more information more

efficiently than paper and pencil planners; and they can easily exchange

information with office and home computers.

Your day planner should be the only planning calendar for everything you do

(i.e., work, home, personal). Using separate calendars at home and at the office

may become confusing and overwhelming; you will inevitably forget to transfer

entries from one calendar to the other and miss appointments or important

commitments.

2. Find a single, accessible place to keep the day planner.

After selecting a planner, the next step is to start keeping it in a single, accessible

location at home and at work, so you will always know where to find it. The

location should be clearly visible from a distance, even in a cluttered room or on


a messy desk. Convenient locations might be next to the telephone, on a table

near the front door, or on the desk at the office. If the day planner has a strap, it

might be hung on a hook next to the front door, above the telephone, or together

with the car keys. Carry it to and from work, and practice keeping it in the

designated locations for a week.

3. Enter the basics in the day planner.

Gather the most common names, addresses, and phone numbers you use. Enter

them into the planner in the alphabetical name/address section. Consider what

vital information might be helpful to have in the planner, such as insurance

policy numbers, computer passwords, equipment serial numbers, and birthdays

and anniversaries, and enter this information in the designated spaces.

4. Carry the day planner at all times.

Now that there is some information in your planner, you should carry it with you

at all times. Many people claim that they have carried their planner with them at

all times, but then they "forget" the great idea they thought of while shopping.

"At all times" means whenever you leave the car to go into a store or whenever

you leave your desk to attend a meeting.

5. Refer to the day planner regularly.

Many adults with AD/HD write things in their planners but rarely look at what

they wrote, relying instead on memory, with disastrous consequences. Before

you can use the planner for a calendar or "to do" lists, you need to develop the

habit of checking it regularly. Start by checking the planner a minimum of three

times per day -- once in the morning to plan/review the day's upcoming events,
once in the middle of the day to make any mid-course corrections and refresh

your memory about the remaining day's events, and once in the evening, to

plan/review the next day's events.

There are several ways to remember to check your planner. First, alarm wrist

watches or alarms for an electronic planner can be set to go off at regular

intervals when you wish to check your planner. Second, you could associate

checking your planner with habitual activities that are done at approximately the

same time each day, e.g,. eating meals, getting dressed in the morning or ready

for bed at night, or entering or exiting the office. Third, leaving reminder notes in

strategic locations (on the desk in the office, on the mirror in the bathroom, on

the dashboard or door handle of the car) can be helpful in reminding you to look

at the planner.

6. Use the day planner as your calendar for everything.

You are now ready to use your planner as a calendar. On scrap paper, make a list

of all appointments scheduled at any time in the future. Then, write these

appointments in the appropriate time slots on the pages of the planner for the

particular days and months. Review the scheduled appointments for that day

each time you check the planner. During the day, write in any additional

appointments as soon as you schedule them.

Using different color pens for writing different types of things on your calendar

(e.g., red for appointments, blue for work activities, and green for family events)

permits you to recognize different types of events as your eye scans the page. For

a very busy family, use different colors for each family member's activities.

7. Use your planner as a "brain dump" to capture your ideas.


Adults with AD/HD experience a constant stream of ideas flooding their minds.

They often become frustrated because they cannot remember these ideas when

they need them. Using the day planner as a "brain dump" avoids this dilemma.

With your planner with you at all times, practice writing down any ideas you

want to capture as they occur to you. Write these down either on blank, lined

planner pages or in the section of the planner for that day's "to do" list. If you

find that many of your important ideas come at times when it is impossible to

write them down (e.g., in the shower, while driving), consider carrying a small,

digital recorder. Dictate your ideas into the recorder and transcribe them to your

planner later that day. Some hand-held computers and pocket PCs may have

built-in digital recorders.

8. Construct a daily "to do" list and refer to it often.

Only after you experience success using your planner as a calendar should you

start making a daily "to do" list. Most planners have a place adjoining the

calendar for each day for "to do" lists. During the first review of your planner in

the morning, make a list of everything that needs to get done that day. Use your

"brain dump" notes to help you make the list. Keep the list relatively short, e.g.,

5-8 items, so that you can experience success completing all of the items. Be

realistic about what can be accomplished in one day, and remember to schedule

some "me time," by listing a personal activity or time as one item. List specific

actions, rather than vague concepts. For example, "buy my wife flowers" would

be a more specific item than "be nice to my wife."

Examine the list and assign the items to particular dates and times in the day

planner. Try to complete them as scheduled, referring to the list often. Check off

any completed items and review remaining uncompleted items.


At the end of the day, examine the list. Congratulate yourself if you completed all

of the items on the list. Do not berate yourself if you did not complete all of the

items. If there were only a few unfinished items, move them forward to the next

day's list. However, if you have many unfinished items, consider whether you

have unrealistic expectations for how much can be done. Analyze the

uncompleted items and what got in the way of completing everything on your

list (phone calls, other interruptions, not enough time, not having everything you

need to accomplish the task, unexpected crises). Thinking in these terms will

help you become more realistic about what can be accomplished in a day. Either

scale back expectations or find other approaches to completing tasks, such as

delegating, streamlining, or eliminating tasks.

9. Prioritize your "to-do" list and act in accordance with your priorities.

There are many ways to prioritize a "to do" list. One way is to number all of the

items on the list in order of decreasing priority. Another way is to classify items

into one of three categories: "Essential," "Important," and "Do only if I have extra

time." Pick the method that best fits your style, and begin prioritizing your daily

"to do" list.

As you go through the day, perform the items on the "to do" list in order of

decreasing priority. Adults with AD/HD are often tempted to ignore the

priorities and may need strategies to keep themselves on track. Set the alarms on

your wristwatch, electronic planner, computer task management software, or

beeper to go off at regular intervals as a signal to check whether you are on task

following your priorities. Use self-talks to help avoid distractions. Train yourself

to repeat reminders such as "I have to keep from getting distracted," "I have to

stick with my priorities," and "Don't switch now, I am almost done." Also, make
sure that you are taking an effective dose of medication that lasts throughout the

day. See the What We Know sheet on medication for more information about

determining an effective dose.

10. Conduct a daily planning session.

By the time you have completed the first eight steps, you will be conducting "ad

hoc" daily planning sessions where you construct and prioritize your daily "to

do" list. It is time to formalize this process as "the daily planning session."

Consider the time for constructing and prioritizing lists as a daily planning

session. The goal of this session is to plan the upcoming day's activities and

develop a plan of attack to carry them out. In addition to listing priorities and

reviewing schedules, the planning session is the time to consider exactly how

each task will be accomplished. What materials will be needed? What

individuals will have to be consulted? What obstacles are likely to be

encountered? How can these obstacles be overcome? Asking and answering

these questions will facilitate the process of prioritizing the items on your "to do"

list. The planning session will provide a mental map that guides you in carrying

out the tasks on your list.

When you have reached this point in the program, congratulate yourself! You

have mastered the basic steps of using a day planner to manage time! Continue

to follow these steps. As they become habitual, consider trying the last step,

which bridges the gap between short-term and long-term planning, but

understand that it is more challenging and may require the assistance of an

AD/HD coach or a therapist.


11. Generate a list of long-term goals and break the long-term goals into small,

manageable chunks, allocating these chunks to monthly and weekly planning

sessions.

First, generate a list of all long-term goals. These are broad goals to be

accomplished over many months and years. Then, take one goal at a time and

break it down into small chunks or sub-goals that might be accomplished on a

monthly basis. Assign one sub-goal to each month of the year. At the beginning

of the month, conduct a monthly planning session where you decide how to

accomplish the sub-goal over the course of the month. Assign various tasks to

each week of the month. At the beginning of each week, conduct a weekly

planning session where you decide how to assign aspects of that week's sub-goal

to the daily task lists for the entire week. During each daily planning session,

plan the details of the assigned task that will be performed that day.

Discovery learning:

Discovery Learning is an inquiry-based learning method. The concept of

discovery learning has appeared numerous times throughout history as a part of

the educational philosophy of many great philosophers particularly Rousseau,

Pestalozzi and Dewey. "There is an intimate and necessary relation between the

processes of actual experience and education" wrote Dewey. It also enjoys the

support of learning theorists and psychologists Piaget, Bruner, and Papert. It has

enjoyed a few positive swings of the educational-trend pendulum in American

education, but it has never received overwhelming acceptance.


Discovery learning takes place most notably in problem solving situations where

the learner draws on his own experience and prior knowledge to discover the

truths that are to be learned. It is a personal, internal, constructivist learning

environment. Bruner wrote "Emphasis on discovery in learning has precisely

the effect on the learner of leading him to be a constructionist, to organize

what he is encountering in a manner not only designed to discover regularity

and relatedness, but also to avoid the kind of information drift that fails to

keep account of the uses to which information might have to be put."

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1. Explain the concept of time for learning.

2. Describe the approaches to be handled for effective time management.

3. Explain the importance of daily planner sheet in learning for managing

the time effectively.

4. Explain the need of To-do list in time for learning.

5. Why planner coach is need to provide support and encouragement for

your efforts for time management?

6. What is discovery learning?


3.22 ESTIMATING TASK TIME: (PARTITIONABLE TASKS AND NON-

PARTITIONABLE TASKS)

Learning objectives:

After reading this you can able to know about,

 The concept of time estimation.

 Importance of estimation.

 The concept of Partitionable tasks and non-partitionable tasks.

 Tools used for time estimation – Gann chart, Critical path method and

PERT.

 The steps to be considered to complete the task in time.

The importance is to estimate the time that will be taken for certain tasks in order

to plan projects and the overall use of your time. “Some activities can be broken

down into sub-components: we call these partitionable tasks.” With partionable

tasks it is possible to break up the total time allocated to the projects in to

segments.

Fred Brooks, in his book The Mythical Man-month, talks about the concept of

Partitionable tasks. A fully partitionable task is one that reduces in duration as

more resources are put on it as long as the work does not require any

communications among the workers. For example, think of painting a room. A

single painter can paint all four walls and the ceiling in 20 hours if he averages

four hours per surface. However, if we put five painters in the room, each

painting the surface, then we can finish the job in four hours.
The opposite type of task is a task that is non-partitionable. This task will take

the same amount of time no matter how many people are working on it. For

example, think of testing a software string. The test does not go any faster if we

put more testers on it.

• Estimating

– The process of forecasting or approximating the time and cost of

completing project deliverables.

– The task of balancing the expectations of stakeholders and the need

for control while the project is implemented

• Types of Estimates

– Top-down (macro) estimates: analogy, group consensus, or

mathematical relationships

– Bottom-up (micro) estimates: estimates of elements of the work

breakdown structure

Importance of Estimation:

• Estimates are needed to support good decisions.

• Estimates are needed to schedule work.

• Estimates are needed to determine how long the project should take and

its cost.

• Estimates are needed to determine whether the project is worth doing.

• Estimates are needed to develop cash flow needs.

• Estimates are needed to determine how well the project is progressing.

• Estimates are needed to develop time-phased budgets and establish the

project baseline.
Sub-dividing Goals into Manageable Pieces

Once you have a set of goals, it is useful to decompose the goals into manageable

steps or sub-goals. Decomposing your goals makes it possible to tackle them one

small step at a time and to reduce procrastination. Consider for instance the goal

of obtaining your degree. This goal can be broken down into four sub-goals. Each

sub-goal is the successful completion of one year of your program. These sub-

goals can be further broken down into individual courses within each year. The

courses can be broken down into tests, exams, term papers and such within the

course, or into the 13 weeks of classes in each term. Each week can be further

subdivided into days, and each day can be thought of in terms of the hours and

minutes you'll spend in your classes and doing homework for today.

While it may seem challenging to take in the whole scope of that convergent

goal, thinking of your goals in this way helps to reinforce the idea that there is a

connected path linking what actions you take today and the successful

completion of your goals. Seeing these connections can help you monitor your

own progress and detect whether you are on track or not. Take some time now to

think through the goals you've set and to break them down into their smaller

constituent parts.

Estimating Time Accurately - IT Scenario

Time estimates are important as inputs into other techniques used to organize

and structure all projects. Using good time estimation techniques may reduce

large projects to a series of smaller projects. Accurate time estimation is a skill

essential for good project management.


Accurate time estimation is a skill essential to good project management. It is

important to get time estimates right for two main reasons:

1. Time estimates drive the setting of deadlines for delivery of projects, and

hence peoples' assessments of your reliability

2. They often determine the pricing of contracts and hence their

profitability.

Usually people vastly underestimate the amount of time needed to implement

projects. This is true particularly when they are not familiar with the task to be

carried out. They forget to take into account unexpected events or unscheduled

high priority work. People also often simply fail to allow for the full complexity

involved with a job.

This section discusses how to estimate time on small projects. Time estimates are

important inputs into the other techniques used to organize and structure

medium and large sized projects (Gantt charts and Critical Path Analysis). Both

of these techniques reduce large projects down into a set of small projects.

Gantt Charts

Planning and Scheduling Complex Projects

Gantt Charts (Gant Charts) are useful tools for analyzing and planning more

complex projects. They:

• Help you to plan out the tasks that need to be completed

• Give you a basis for scheduling when these tasks will be carried out
• Allow you to plan the allocation of resources needed to complete the

project, and

• Help you to work out the critical path for a project where you must

complete it by a particular date.

When a project is under way, Gantt Charts help you to monitor whether the

project is on schedule. If it is not, it allows you to pinpoint the remedial action

necessary to put it back on schedule.

Gantt charts are useful tools for planning and scheduling projects. They allow

you to assess how long a project should take, determine the resources needed,

and lay out the order in which tasks need to be carried out. They are useful in

managing the dependencies between tasks.

When a project is under way, Gantt charts are useful for monitoring its progress.

You can immediately see what should have been achieved at a point in time, and

can therefore take remedial action to bring the project back on course. This can be

essential for the successful and profitable implementation of the project.

Critical Path Analysis

Critical Path Analysis is an effective and powerful method of assessing:

• What tasks must be carried out.

• Where parallel activity can be performed.

• The shortest time in which you can complete a project.

• Resources needed to execute a project.

• The sequence of activities, scheduling and timings involved.


• Task priorities.

• The most efficient way of shortening time on urgent projects.

An effective Critical Path Analysis can make the difference between success and

failure on complex projects. It can be very useful for assessing the importance of

problems faced during the implementation of the plan.

CPM Diagram:

PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique)

PERT is a variation on Critical Path Analysis that takes a slightly more skeptical

view of time estimates made for each project stage. To use it, estimate the

shortest possible time each activity will take, the most likely length of time, and

the longest time that might be taken if the activity takes longer than expected.

Use the formula below to calculate the time to use for each project stage:
Use the formula below to calculate the time to use for each project stage:

Shortest time + 4 x likely time + longest time / 6

PERT is a variant of Critical Path Analysis that takes a more skeptical view of the

time needed to complete each project stage. This helps to bias time estimates

away from the unrealistically short time-scales normally assumed.

Steps for using the tool:

The first stage in estimating time accurately is to fully understand what you need

to achieve. This involves reviewing the task in detail so that there are no

unknowns. Inevitably it is the difficult-to-understand, tricky problems that take

the greatest amount of time to solve.

The best way to review the job is to list all tasks in full detail. Simple techniques

such as Drill-Down are useful for this. Once you have a detailed list of all the

tasks that you must achieve, make your best guess at how long each task will

take to complete.

Ensure that within your estimate you also allow time for project management,

detailed project planning, liaison with outside bodies, meetings, quality

assurance and any supporting documentation necessary.

Also make sure that you have allowed time for:

• Other high urgency tasks to be carried out which will have priority over

this one

• Accidents and emergencies

• Internal meetings
• Holidays and sickness in essential staff

• Contact with other customers, perhaps to arrange the next job

• Breakdowns in equipment

• Missed deliveries by suppliers

• Interruptions

• Quality control rejections

These factors may double (or more than double) the length of time needed to

complete a project. If the accuracy of time estimates is critical, you may find it

effective to develop a systematic approach to including these factors. If possible,

base this on past experience.

Key points:

You can lose a great deal of credibility by underestimating the length of time

needed to implement a project. If you underestimate time, not only do you miss

deadlines, you also put other project workers under unnecessary stress. Projects

will become seriously unprofitable, and other tasks cannot be started.

The first step towards making good time estimates is to fully understand the

problem to be solved. You can then prepare a detailed list of tasks that must be

achieved. This list should include all the administrative tasks and meetings you

need to carry out as well as the work itself. Finally, allow time for all the expected

and unexpected disruptions and delays to work that will inevitably happen.

REVIEW QUESTIONS:
1) What is the time estimation?

2) What is meant by Partitionable tasks and non-partitionable tasks?

3) Why to divide your goals to achieve it?

4) How to Use the Tool for time estimation?

5) Write a note on Gann chart, Critical path method and PERT.

6) What are the steps to be considered to complete the task in time?

UNIT 4
4.1 SELF-MANAGED LEARNING:

Learning objective:

After reading this section you can able to know,

 The concept of self-managed learning.

 Targets, aims and requirements in learning.

 Issues in Independent learning.

 Preferences in learning.

 Performance goal orientation.

 Learning goal orientation.

 Identification of learning needs.

 Dates for achieving the goal.

 Reviewing the goal plans.

 Pathways for achievement of on dates.

Self-managed learning in a professional context:

It is important for students to become self-managed learners because when they

are able to learn for themselves they can achieve far more, are able to produce

original work, enjoy their work, have pride in achieving results through their

own efforts, and are likely to be highly motivated.

An important goal of personal development therefore is to help individuals to

move forward to the point at which they come self-managed learners, this is a

valuable skill in the job market. An important recommendations that employers

look for on a reference for a potential employee is that they can manage their
own time effectively are effective self-managed learners can manage projects

independently and so on.

An important outcome of professional development therefore is that individuals

demonstrate self-managed learning either in relation to workplace learning or

university/college based learning. A good opportunity for students to

demonstrate they can self-manage their learning is in their research projects.

TARGETS:

In establishing targets it is important that students are able to establish for

themselves the aims and requirements of the learning that they are undertaking.

Grade level learning targets are what students should know, understand or be

able to do at the end of the grade level. They are the basic foundation for the

next grade level and contribute to the achievement of the district learning goals.

AIMS, REQUIREMENTS AND PREFERENCES:

Students should be able t o establish the ends that they are trying at achieve and

the requirements that the Piece of work will need to fulfill in order to achieve the

stated aims. For example, if you have decided that you want to use a work-

related spreadsheet application, then you will need to be able to establish an aim,

that is, what level of competence in the use of the package will be appropriate if

successful learning is to take place? You will then need to set out what is

required to learner how to use the package, that is, how you will access the

training opportunities, resources, and how you will priorities the use of time in

order to be successful. What will you use the package forbearing in mind that

you are seeking to develop a cross-transferable skill? An important aspect of


creating targets relates to personal preferences and personal orientation to the

achievement of set goals.

Independent learning: Learning depends on four key issues:

 Wanting

 Doing

 Feedback

 Digesting

To learn independently it is important to start from wanting, that is, the desire to

learn. In choosing tasks related to professional development it is therefore

sensible to choose tasks which are meaningful to the individual learner so as to

maintain interest and motivation. The next step is to develop a fairly clear picture

of what has to be learned: in other words, what does it mean to be more

knowledgeable or more skillful in the chosen area of self-managed learning?

Dates can be established for the achievement of the learning so as to put the

project into a time frame.

PERSONAL ORIENTATION ACHIEVEMENT GOALS:

Person’s set of beliefs that reflect the reasons why they approach and engage in

academic and learning tasks. Performance goal orientation is exemplified by a

concern for personal ability, a normative social comparison with others,

preoccupation with the perception of others, a desire for public recognition for

performance, and a need to avoid looking incompetent. A learning goal

orientation reflects a focus on task completion and understanding, learning,

mastery, solving problems, and developing new skills.


Academic goal orientation is based on contemporary “goal-as-motives” theory

where it is posited that “all actions are given meaning, direction, and purpose by

the goals that individuals seek out, and that the quality and intensity of behavior

will change as these goals change” (Covington, 2000, p. 174). Achievement goal

theory is particularly important in education as it is believed that by

differentially reinforcing some goals (and not others), teachers can influence

(change) the reasons why students learn—that is, change their motivation

(Covington, 2000).

Different groups of researchers have converged on strikingly similar findings

regarding the importance of academic goal orientation for academic success

(Snow et al., 1996). The resultant achievement goal theory has received considerable

attention during the past decade (Eccles & Wigfield, 2002; Linnenbrink &

Pintrich, 2002b). Goal theory focuses on the role that “purpose” plays in

motivation attitudes and behavior (Anderman & Maehr, 1994; Eccles &Wigfield,

2002; Maehr, 1999; Snow et al., 1996; Urdan & Maehr, 1995). Goal orientation

focuses on the student’s reasons for taking a course or wanting a specific grade

(Anderman et al., 2002). In this document, academic goal orientation is defined

as an individual’s set of beliefs that reflect the reasons why they approach and

engage in academic tasks (Eccles & Wigfield, 2002; Linnenbrink & Pintrich,

2002a; Pintrich, 2000b; Skaalvik & Skaalvik, 2002; Wentzel, 1999).

Although the specific terminology may differ amongst researchers, goal theory

typically proposes two general goal orientations (Covington, 2000; Linnenbrink

& Pintrich, 2002a). Nicholls and colleagues (e.g., Nicholls, Cobb, Yackel, &

Wood, 1990) classify goals as either ego- or task- involved (Eccles & Wigfield,

2002). Dweck and colleagues (see Dweck, 1999) distinguish between performance

(such as ego-involved goals) and learning goals (such as task-involved goals).


Ames (1992) refers to performance and mastery goals. A performance goal orientation

is characterized by self-questions such as “Will I look smart?” and/or “Can I out-

perform others?” which reflect a concern for personal ability, a normative social

comparison with others, preoccupation with the perception of others, a desire for

public recognition for performance, a need to avoid looking incompetent, and

“outperforming others as a means to aggrandize one’s ability status at the

expense of peers”(Covington, 2000, p. 174). In contrast, a student with a learning

goal orientation would more likely ask the questions “How can I do this task?”

and “What will I learn?” The learning goal orientation reflects a focus on task

completion and understanding, learning, mastery, solving problems, developing

new skills, and an appreciation for what one learns (Covington, 2000; Eccles &

Wigfield, 2002; Linnenbrink & Pintrich, 2002b; Skaalvik & Skaalvik, 2002).

Personal Achievement: Working Toward Your Goals

Increasing our personal achievement is something that most of us strive for in

our lives. The wish to improve our lives in some way is something that we all

share. We have the desire but we are not always sure what steps to take to lead

us to increase our personal achievement.

Benefits of Using Goals for Personal Achievement

Everyone in society is driven by achievement to some degree, without

achievement there would be no feeling of ever having accomplished anything.

Often in life personal achievements can feel virtually impossible to attain and

this can be due to a lack of goal setting for each individual. Goals can provide a

person with a target to aim for when trying to achieve anything and they can

help a person to realise that they are one step closer to a personal achievement.

Using goals for personal achievement can have many different benefits such as:
• A person has a clear and defined direction that they would like to go in and can

then follow that direction.

• Behavior can be modified in order to achieve a goal - something which can be

difficult to do if a person is not 100% aware of why they are doing something.

• Having a goal to aim for can help people who find it hard to stay on task to see

the bigger picture.

• Goals can be set for any aspect of life, if you want to think more positive about

something - make it one of your goals.

• When you have achieved a goal you can feel a sense of achievement and might

want to reward yourself accordingly - and believe that you actually deserve your

reward when you get it.

These are just a few of the many different benefits that a person will find when

they begin setting goals for their own personal achievement. Isn't it time you

start reaching your goals and have success in life?

IDENTIFICATION OF WHAT HAS TO BE LEARNT:

Learning needs:

Section 1: Why is it important to identify learning needs?

Section 2: How can we identify what our learners already know?

Section 3: Who can we work with to discover learning needs?

Section 4: How do we know what our learners want to learn?

Section 5: How can we identify and prioritize community problems and needs?

Section 6: How can we benefit from finding out about learning needs?
Learning will be most effective when people have an opportunity to learn things

that relate to their lives and their needs. People want to improve their lives and

the lives of their families. So their interests will be dominated by their own and

their family needs.

Sometimes people do not always see the linkage between learning and their

needs. Our role is to help learners make this connection. This will be easier if we

relate learning to prior experience and current relevance. Examination of

learning needs helps us to facilitate purposeful and useful learning. It also helps

us to identify the level of our learner’s literacy and numeracy skills, thus

allowing us to adapt curriculum, select relevant learning materials and to plan

appropriate learning activities.

Identification of learning needs also helps us in our future planning. Knowing

about an individual learner’s needs, we can plan specific reading, writing,

numeracy and life skill activities for that learner.

Activity:

Identify learning targets for a piece of self-managed learning which is relevant to

your course or to work. For example, you may want to learn some standard

problem-solving techniques, how to search the World Wide Web or how to build

a website.

Set out the following:

1. The aims and requirements of the learning project.

2. Your personal preferences: What it is you want to learn and why.

3. The goals that you will need to achieve to succeed in your learning project.
4. An outline of what needs to be learned.

5. A time schedule for achievement.

Correlations exist between learning styles and learning preferences, as

predicted by style theory. Honey and Mumford have advocated selection of

learning preferences to match an individual’s style and also positively seeking

and using unpreferred learning situations to develop unpreferred styles.

The best learning from experience needs strong preferences for all four styles

(Learning styles: activist, pragmatist, theorist, reflector) and uses style flexing

to meet the diverse environment of general practice.

DATES FOR ACHIEVEMENT:

When you have achieved a goal, take the time to enjoy the satisfaction of having

done so. Absorb the implications of the goal achievement, and observe the

progress you have made towards other goals. If the goal was a significant one,

reward yourself appropriately. All of this helps you build the self-confidence you

deserve!

With the experience of having achieved this goal, review the rest of your goal

plans:

• If you achieved the goal too easily, make your next goals harder.

• If the goal took a dispiriting length of time to achieve, make the next goals

a little easier.

• If you learned something that would lead you to change other goals, do

so.

• If you noticed a deficit in your skills despite achieving the goal, decide

whether to set goals to fix this.


Failure to meet goals does not matter much, as long as you learn from it. Feed

lessons learned back into your goal setting program. Remember too that your

goals will change as time goes on. Adjust them regularly to reflect growth in

your knowledge and experience, and if goals do not hold any attraction any

longer, then let them go.

Pathways for achievement on dates:

The achievement of excellence is an aspiration for all educational communities.

We know that all children and students, given the appropriate time and support,

can achieve academic and social success. It is up to us to ensure that, regardless

of individual circumstance, they all receive the support they require to achieve

the highest standards possible.

• Improve overall student achievement

• Provide engaging, stimulating and flexible learning programs and

pathways

• Support student to be equipped to respond to changing employment

markets

• Increase the export of international education services

Literacy, Numeracy and Social Proficiency

Individuals with difficulties in reading and writing are likely to experience

disadvantage later in their lives. Therefore, every young person needs to finish

compulsory schooling with an adequate level of literacy, numeracy and social

proficiency.

Individual Learning Plans and Pathways


For some students the traditional pathways do not meet their specific needs and

they can become at risk of not completing their schooling. Therefore all students

should have an individually designed learning plan, including curriculum

redesign, and pathways that link to their strengths and needs, aligning this to

community and industry requirements as appropriate.

Education Strategy

The department will also implement the strategy in order to provide a co-

coordinated approach to address the existing educational gap between

Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal students in literacy, numeracy, and school

completion rates.

Internationalization of education

Through strengthening international co-operation and diplomatic relations,

forming networks for trade and investment, and developing employment skills

for an emerging global workforce, we are broadening and enriching the

experiences, opportunities and outlook of individuals across all sites.

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

What is self-managed learning?

Explain about Targets, aims and requirements in learning.

What are the issues in Independent learning?

Explain about the learning needs.

What is learning and Performance goal orientation?

Dates for achieving the goal.

How to review the goal plans?


What are the ways for goal achievement on dates?

4.2 LEARNING STYLES:

Learning objectives:

After reading this section you can able to know,

 Overview of learning and learning styles.

 Applications of learning styles.


 Types of learning styles.

Learning and learning styles – An overview:

Learning is acquiring new knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, preferences or

understanding, and may involve synthesizing different types of information. The

ability to learn is possessed by humans, animals and some machines. Progress

over time tends to follow learning curves.

Learning styles are simply put, various approaches or ways of learning. They

involve educating methods, particular to an individual that are presumed to

allow that individual to learn best. It is commonly believed that most people

favor some particular method of interacting with, taking in, and processing

stimuli or information. Based on this concept, the idea of individualized

"learning styles" originated in the 1970s, and has gained popularity in recent

years. It has been proposed that teachers should assess the learning styles of their

students and adapt their classroom methods to best fit each student's learning

style. The alleged basis for these proposals has been extensively criticized.

Applications: Learning Styles in the Classroom

Various researchers have attempted to provide ways in which learning style

theory can take effect in the classroom. Two such scholars are Dr. Rita Dunn and

Dr. Kenneth Dunn. In their book, teaching Students through Their Individual

Learning Styles: A Practical Approach, they give a background of how learners


are affected by elements of the classroom and follow it with recommendations of

how to accommodate students’ learning strengths.

Dunn and Dunn write that “learners are affected by their: (1) immediate

environment (sound, light, temperature, and design); (2) own emotionality

(motivation, persistence, responsibility, and need for structure or flexibility); (3)

sociological needs (self, pair, peers, team, adult, or varied); and (4) physical

needs (perceptual strengths, intake, time, and mobility).

They analyze other research and make the claim that not only can students

identify their preferred learning styles, but that students also score higher on

tests, have better attitudes, and are more efficient if they are taught in ways to

which they can more easily relate. Therefore, it is to the educator’s advantage to

teach and test students in their preferred styles.

Although learning styles will inevitably differ among students in the classroom,

Dunn and Dunn say that teachers should try to make changes in their classroom

that will be beneficial to every learning style. Some of these changes include

room redesign, the development of small-group techniques, and the

development of Contract Activity Packages. Redesigning the classroom involves

locating dividers that can be used to arrange the room creatively (such as having

different learning stations and instructional areas), clearing the floor area, and

incorporating student thoughts and ideas into the design of the classroom.

Small-group techniques often include a “circle of knowledge” in which students

sit in a circle and discuss a subject collaboratively as well as other techniques

such as team learning and brainstorming. Contract Activity Packages are

educational plans that facilitate learning by using the following elements: 1) clear
statement of what the students needs to learn; 2) multisensory resources

(auditory, visual, tactile, kinesthetic) that teach the required information; 3)

activities through which the newly-mastered information can be used creatively;

4) the sharing of creative projects within small groups of classmates; 5) at least 3

small-group techniques; 6) a pre-test, a self-test, and a post-test.

Another scholar who believes that learning styles should have an effect on the

classroom is Marilee Sprenger, as evidenced by her book, Differentiation

through Learning Styles and Memory.

Sprenger bases her recommendations for classroom learning on three premises:

1) Teachers can be learners, and learners can be teachers. We are all both. 2)

Everyone can learn under the right circumstances. 3) Learning is fun! Make it

appealing. She details various ways in which teachers can teach so that students

will remember. She categorizes these teaching methods according to which

learning style they fit—visual, auditory, or tactile/kinesthetic.

Methods for visual learners include ensuring that students can see words written

down, using pictures when describing things, drawing time lines for events in

history, writing assignments on the board, using overhead

transparencies/handouts, and writing down instructions

Methods for auditory learners include repeating difficult words and concepts

aloud, incorporating small-group discussion, organizing debates, listening to

books on tape, writing oral reports, and encouraging oral interpretation.

Methods for tactile/kinesthetic learners include providing hands-on activities

(experiments, etc.), assigning projects, having frequent breaks to allow

movement, using visual aids and objects in the lesson, using role play, and
having field trips. By using a variety of teaching methods from each of these

categories, teachers are able to accommodate different learning styles.

Eight Styles of Learning:

Linguistic Learner

• likes to: read, write and tell stories.

• is good at: memorizing names, places, dates and trivia.

• learns best by: saying, hearing and seeing words.

Logical/Mathematical Learner

• likes to: do experiments, figure things out, work with numbers, ask

questions and explore patterns and relationships.

• is good at: math, reasoning, logic and problem solving.

• learns best by: categorizing, classifying and working with abstract

patterns/relationships.

Spatial Learner

• likes to: draw, build, design and create things, daydream, look at

pictures/slides, watch movies and play with machines.

• is good at: imagining things, sensing changes, mazes/puzzles and reading

maps, charts.
• learns best by: visualizing, dreaming, using the mind's eye and working

with colors/pictures.

Musical Learner

• likes to: sing, hum tunes, listen to music, play an instrument and respond

to music.

• is good at: picking up sounds, remembering melodies, noticing

pitches/rhythms and keeping time.

• learns best by: rhythm, melody and music.

Bodily/Kinesthetic Learner

• likes to: move around, touch and talk and use body language.

• is good at: physical activities (sports/dance/acting) and crafts.

• learns best by: touching, moving, interacting with space and processing

knowledge through bodily sensations.

Naturalistic Learner

• likes to: be outside, with animals, geography, and weather; interacting

with the surroundings .

• is good at: categorizing, organizing a living area, planning a trip,

preservation, and conservation.

• learns best by: studying natural phenomenon, in a natural setting,

learning about how things work.

Interpersonal Learner
• likes to: have lots of friends, talk to people and join groups.

• is good at: understanding people, leading others, organizing,

communicating, manipulating and mediating conflicts.

• learns best by: sharing, comparing, relating, cooperating and interviewing.

Intrapersonal Learner

• likes to: work alone and pursue own interests.

• is good at: understanding self, focusing inward on feelings/dreams,

following instincts, pursuing interests/goals and being original.

• Learns best by: working alone, individualized projects, self-paced

instruction and having own space.

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1) What is learning?

2) Define learning style.

3) What are the uses of learning styles?

4) What are the different kinds of learning styles?

4.3 ACTIVIST:

Learning objectives:

After reading this section you can able to know,

 The concept of Activists.


 Overview of Activism.

 Types of activism

 Transformational activism

Activism, in a general sense, can be described as intentional action to bring about

social change, political change, economic justice, or environmental wellbeing.

This action is in support of, or opposition to, one side of an often controversial

argument.

“Activists are people engaged in activism”

The word "activism" is often used synonymously with protest or dissent, but

activism can stem from any number of political orientations and take a wide

range of forms, from writing letters to newspapers or politicians, political

campaigning, economic activism (such as boycotts or preferentially patronizing

preferred businesses), rallies, blogging and street marches, strikes, both work

stoppages and hunger strikes, or even guerrilla tactics.

In some cases, activism has nothing to do with protest or confrontation: for

instance, some religious, feminist or vegetarian/vegan activists try to persuade

people to change their behavior directly, rather than persuade governments to

change laws. The cooperative movement seeks to build new institutions which

conform to cooperative principles, and generally does not lobby or protest

politically.

Types of activism
• Civil disobedience

• Community building

o Activism industry

o Conflict transformation

o Cooperative movement

o Craftivism

o Voluntary simplicity

• Economic activism

o Boycott

o Divestment (a.k.a. Disinvestment)

• Franchise activism, Lobbying

• Media activism

o Culture jamming

o Hacktivism

o Internet activism

• Non-violent confrontation , Peace activist and Peace movement, Political

campaigning

• Propaganda

o Guerrilla communication

• Protest

o Demonstration

o Direct action

o Theater for Social Change

o Protest songs

• Strike action

• Youth activism

o Student activism
o Youth-led media

Transformational activism

Transformational activism is the idea that people need to transform on the inside

as well on the outside in order to create any meaningful change in the world.

One example of transformational activism is peacekeeping which, as defined by

the United Nations, is "a way to help countries torn by conflict creating

conditions for sustainable peace." Peacekeepers monitor and observe peace

processes in post-conflict areas and assist ex-combatants in implementing the

peace agreements they may have signed. Such assistance comes in many forms,

including confidence-building measures, power-sharing arrangements, electoral

support, strengthening the rule of law, and economic and social development.

Accordingly UN peacekeepers (often referred to as Blue Helmets because of their

light blue helmets) can include soldiers, civilian police officers, and other civilian

personnel.

Another example is encouraging choices to live in racially diverse communities.

Such communities may literally "transform" communities by opening the minds

of residents to new ideas, new cultures, new historical perspectives, and a

broader view of life that ultimately can benefit social relations. Another example

of transformational activism is transformational economics. This is the idea that

you can change the way resources flow in a society by doing inner work. People

examine their emotional reactions to what their needs are. This may allow them

to see that things they felt they needed are not really needed. This then alters the

flow of goods in a society because of the underlying change in needs.

Transformational politics is the field of guiding people to look inwardly what


they feel is true power. They may discover that real power is seeing the deep

connection of everyone with each other and of being able to tap that place. In this

case power is not power over someone, but rather power to unleash collective

creativity in creating a new society.

Transformational activism is about looking for the common values underneath,

and then working from there so that both parties are able to get what they want.

In the process one or both parties may find their inner landscape and paradigms

changing. Transformational open-sourced activism is the idea that you can tap

into the power of mass collaboration and collective creativity in a way that

transforms the people involved into more loving, peaceful, compassionate states.

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1) The concept of Activists.

2) Overview of Activism.

3) Types of activism

4) Transformational activism

4.4 PRAGMATIST:

Learning objectives:

After reading this section you can able to know,

 The concept of Pragmatist.

 The concept of Pragmatism.


 Aspects of pragmatism include anti-Cartesian, radical empiricism,

instrumentalism, anti-realism, verificationism, conceptual relativity,

and fallibilism

Pragmatist - an adherent of philosophical pragmatism - realist - a philosopher

who believes that universals are real and exist independently of anyone thinking

of them.

Pragmatist - a person who takes a practical approach to problems and is

concerned primarily with the success or failure of her actions - realist - a person

who accepts the world as it literally is and deals with it accordingly.

Pragmatism is the philosophy of considering practical consequences or real

effects to be vital components of meaning and truth. Pragmatism is generally

considered to have originated in the late nineteenth century with Charles

Sanders Peirce, who first stated the pragmatic maxim. It came to fruition in the

early twentieth-century philosophies of William James and John Dewey and, in a

more unorthodox manner, in the works of George Santayana. Other important

aspects of pragmatism include anti-Cartesian, radical empiricism,

instrumentalism, anti-realism, verificationism, conceptual relativity, a denial of

the fact-value distinction, a high regard for science, and fallibilism.

Aspects of Pragmatism:

Radical empiricism is a pragmatist doctrine put forth by William James. It

asserts that experience includes both particulars and relations between those

particulars, and that therefore both deserve a place in our explanations. In

concrete terms: any philosophical worldview is flawed if it stops at the physical


level and fails to explain how meaning, values and intentionality can arise from

that.

Radical empiricism is a postulate, a statement of fact and a conclusion, says

James in The Meaning of Truth. The postulate is that "the only things that shall be

debatable among philosophers shall be things definable in terms drawn from

experience". The fact is that our experience contains disconnected entities as well

as various types of connections; it is full of meaning and values. The conclusion

is that our worldview does not need "extraneous trans-empirical connective

support, but possesses in its own right a concatenated or continuous structure."

Instrumentalism is the view that concepts and theories are useful instruments

whose worth is measured not by whether the concepts and theories are true or

false (or correctly depict reality), but by how effective they are in explaining and

predicting phenomena. Instrumentalism relates closely to pragmatism, especially

in the work of John Dewey and his student Addison Webster Moore. This

methodological viewpoint often contrasts with scientific realism, which defines

theories as specially being more or less true. However, instrumentalism is more

of a pragmatic approach to science, information and theories than an ontological

statement. Often instrumentalists (like pragmatists) have been accused of being

relativists, even though many instrumentalists are also believers in sturdy

objective realism.

Anti-realism is used to describe any position involving either the denial of an

objective reality of entities of a certain type or the denial that verification-

transcendent statements about a type of entity are either true or false. This latter

construal is sometimes expressed by saying "there is no fact of the matter as to


whether or not P." Thus, we may speak of anti-realism with respect to other

minds, the past, the future, universals, mathematical entities (such as natural

numbers), moral categories, the material world, or even thought. The two

construal are clearly distinct and often confused. For example, an "anti-realist"

who denies that other minds exist (i. e., a solipsist) is quite different from an

"anti-realist" who claims that there is no fact of the matter as to whether or not

there are unobservable other minds (i. e., a logical behaviorist.

A verificationist is someone who adheres to the verification principle proposed

by A.J. Ayer in Language, Truth and Logic (1936), a principle and criterion for

meaningfulness that requires a non-analytic, meaningful sentence to be

empirically verifiable. The term can also, more rarely, refer to a person believing

in an altered form, such as the falsification principle. It was hotly disputed

amongst verificationists whether the empirical verification itself must be possible

in practice or merely in principle, for example, a claim that the world came into

existence a short time ago exactly as it is today (with misleading apparent traces

of a longer past), would be judged meaningless by a verificationist because it is

neither an analytic claim nor a verifiable claim. Ayer distinguished between

strong and weak verification.

Strong verification refers to statements which are directly verifiable, that is, a

statement can be shown to be correct by way of empirical observation. For

example, 'There are human beings on Earth.'

Weak verification refers to statements which are not directly verifiable, for

example 'Yesterday was a Monday'. The statement could be said to be weakly

verified if empirical observation can render it highly probable.


Conceptualism is a doctrine in philosophy intermediate between nominalism

and realism that says universals exist only within the mind and have no external

or substantial reality.

Modern conceptualism was either explicitly or implicitly embraced by most of

the early modern thinkers like René Descartes, John Locke or Gottfried Leibniz --

often in a quite simplified form if compared with the elaborate Scholastic

theories. Sometimes the term is applied even to the radically different philosophy

of Kant, who holds that universals have no connection with external things

because they are exclusively produced by our a priori mental structures and

functions. However, this application of the term "conceptualism" is not very

usual, since the problem of universals can, strictly speaking, be meaningfully

raised only within the framework of the traditional, pre-Kantian epistemology.

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1) Define the concept of Pragmatist and Pragmatism.

2) Explain the Aspects of pragmatism in detail.

3) Write a short note on Radical empiricism and Instrumentalism.

4) Explain the concept of Anti-realism, verificationist, and Conceptualism.

4.5 THEORIST:

Theorist is a framework for assumption-based logical reasoning. It can be used

for many automated reasoning tasks in artificial intelligence, including default

(non-monotonic) reasoning and abduction. It has been applied to diagnosis

problems, user modeling, recognition, multimedia presentations.


Theories.

I. Behavioralist

II. Constructivist

III. Post-modern

IV. Adult Learning

I. Behaviorism as a learning theory

The school of adult learning theory that adopted these principles has become

known as the school of behaviorism, which saw learning as a straightforward

process of response to stimuli. The provision of a reward or reinforcement is

believed to strengthen the response and therefore result in changes in behavior –

the test, according to this school of thought, is as to whether learning had

occurred. Spillane (2002) states, “the behaviorist perspective, associated with B.

F. Skinner, holds that the mind at work cannot be observed, tested, or

understood; thus, behaviorists are concerned with actions (behavior) as the sites

of knowing, teaching, and learning” (p. 380). One of the keys to effective teaching

is discovering the best consequence to shape the behavior. Consequences can be

positive or negative – punishing or rewarding. “Extinction” occurs when there is

no consequence at all – for example if you knock at the door and no one answers,

pretty soon you simply stop knocking (Zemke, 2002). This theory has latterly

been criticized as overly simplistic. Nevertheless, its influence can be seen in

educators’ insistence that feedback is critical to learning. The stimulus-response

method is used frequently in adult learning situations in which the students

must learn a time sensitive response to a stimulus. Aircraft emergency

procedures, for example, are divided into two parts. The first, the time sensitive

portion, must be immediately performed by rote memory upon recognition of a


stimulus – a warning light, horn, buzzer, bell, or the like. These procedures are

taught and reinforced with rote drills and successfully passing the tests is the

reinforcement. The second portion of the procedure, which may be viewed as

diagnostic action is performed with mandatory reference to checklists and other

reference material and depends on what may be viewed as higher level learning

and understanding of aircraft systems and performance characteristics.

Behavioral theory and training is a key component of animal training and skill

training in humans. Teaching animals to sit for a kibble is very similar to

clapping and hugging your child for their first steps or bike ride. Slot machines

are based on intermittent reinforcement, which in turn leads gamblers to put

more quarters in the machine to be reinforced by the ching ching of winning.

Kearsley (1994) identified three fundamental principles common in behaviorist

learning:

1. Positive reinforcement of the desired behavior will most likely prompt the

same behavior.

2. Learning should be presented in small manageable blocks.

3. Stimulus generalization of learning can produce secondary conditioning.

The goal of this learning method is to transform the learner’s behavior to a

“desired” behavior. The learner is rewarded often for exhibiting the desired

behavior when they accomplish a learning block. This method is heavily used in

the federal government to quickly train employees on the latest policies and

procedures (i.e. government credit card use, anti-terrorism, and sexual

harassment).
II. Constructivism:

Constructivism is a new learning theory that attempts to explain how adult

learners learn by constructing knowledge for themselves. This section will

explore the constructivist learning theory by defining constructivism, providing

varying views of constructivism, and illustrating how constructivism relates to

independent learning and higher education.

Constructivism is a synthesis of multiple theories diffused into one form. It is the

assimilation of both behaviorialist and cognitive ideals. The “constructivist

stance maintains that learning is a process of constructing meaning; it is how

people make sense of their experience” (Merriam and Caffarella, 1999, p. 260).

This is a combination effect of using a person’s cognitive abilities and insight to

understand their environment. This coincides especially well with current adult

learning theory. This concept is easily translated into a self-directed learning

style, where the individual has the ability to take in all the information and the

environment of a problem and learn.

View Point

Two viewpoints of constructivist theories exist. They include the individual

constructivist view and the social constructivist view. The individualist

constructivist view understands learning to be an intrinsically personal process

whereby “meaning is made by the individual and is dependent upon the

individual’s previous and current knowledge structure” (p. 261) and as a result

can be considered an “internal cognitive activity” (p. 262). The social


constructivist view, however, premises that learning is constructed through social

interaction and discourse and is considered, according to Drivers and others

(1994), to be a process in which meaning is made dialogically (Merriam &

Caffaerall, 1999).

Constructivist theory and independent learning

When applying this theory to independent learning, it is essential to understand

that we need to consider the cultural environment in which this learning takes

place. Isolated learning is an oxymoron. Merriam and Caffarella (1999) suggest

that adult learning, while self-directed, must have input from outside influences.

That may take the form of investigation, social interaction, or more formal

learning environments.

The constructivistic learning approach involves educators building school

curriculum around the experience of their students. Constructivists believe

learner-centric instructional classroom methods will strengthen the commitment

and involvement of self-motivated learners because of their high level of

interaction. Today, there is a trend for incorporating technology into the

classrooms to support instructional learning methods. Yet, recent studies have

revealed technology is not effectively integrated with the concepts of

constructivism.

III.Post Modern:

Postmodernism, by the nature of the movement itself, is not easy to define. To

understand postmodernism in the context of adult learning, it may be beneficial


to first understand that the postmodern movement is much larger than adult

learning. It is inclusive of a wide variety of disciplines and areas of study

including art, architecture, music, film, literature, sociology, communications,

fashion, technology, and education (Klages, 2003). Because postmodernism is as

much a philosophical movement as it is a learning theory, it is impossible to

discuss the movement without also discussing the underlying philosophy and

ubiquity of the postmodern movement.

Post-modernism differs from most approaches to learning in two fundamental

ways. The first is that rationality and logic are not important to attaining

knowledge. The second is that knowledge can be contradictory. Because of the

contextual nature of knowledge, individuals can hold two completely

incongruent views of one subject at the same time (Kilgore, 2001).The

postmodern approach to learning is founded upon the assertion that there is not

one kind of learner, not one particular goal for learning, not one way in which

learning takes place, nor one particular environment where learning occurs

(Kilgore, 2001).

Kilgore (2001) makes several assertions about the postmodern view of

knowledge:

1. Knowledge is tentative, fragmented, multifaceted and not necessarily

rational.

2. Knowledge is socially constructed and takes form in the eyes of the

knower.

3. Knowledge is contextual rather than “out there” waiting to be

discovered.
Hence, knowledge can shift as quickly as the context shifts, the perspective of the

knower shifts, or as events overtake us.

IV. Adult learning:

Typical adult learning theories encompass the basic concepts of behavioral

change and experience. Adult learning theories in and of themselves have very

little consensus amongst them. There is great debate on an actual determined

amount of theories that are even possible, as well as labeling those theories into

groups like Hilgard and Bower’s (1966) stimulus-response and cognitive theories

as large categories of their eleven theories. Another groups dynamic labels

theories as mechanistic and or organismic (Merriam and Caffarella, 1999).

Overall it seems that the theory of adult learning is broken down into two

elements; 1)a process that creates change within the individual, and 2)a process

to infuse change into the organization.

Andragogy

Andragogy, (andr - 'man'), contrasted with pedagogy, means "the art and science

of helping adults learn" (Knowles, 1980, p. 43). Knowles labeled andragogy as

an emerging technology which facilitates the development and implementation

of learning activities for adults. This emerging technology is based on five

andragogical assumptions of the adult learner:

1. Self-Concept: As a person matures, his or she moves from dependency to self-

directness.

2. Experience: Adults draw upon their experiences to aid their learning.


3. Readiness: The learning readiness of adults is closely related to the

assumption of new social roles.

4. Orientation: As a person learns new knowledge, he or she wants to apply it

immediately in problem solving.

5. Motivation (Later added): As a person matures, he or she receives their

motivation to learn from internal factors.

These five assumptions dovetail with the thoughts and theories of others.

Merriam and Caffarella (1999) point to three keys to transformational learning:

experience, critical reflection and development. The aspect of experience (the

second assumption to andragogy) seems like an important consideration in

creating an effective learning opportunity for adults.

I.6 REFLECTOR:

Learning objective:

After reading this section you can know about,

 The concept of reflector.

 Reflector behavior during learning.


 Strategies considered in reflector learning - Advance Organization,

Self-management, Self-evaluation, Grouping, Asking questions for

clarification, Transfer, Translation, Inferencing, Note-taking,

Deduction and Re-combination

Reflectors are those who like learning by obseving others and think before

taking actions.

Reflectors like to stand back and look at a situation from different

perspectives. They like to collect data and think about it carefully before

coming to any conclusions. They enjoy observing others and will listen to

their views before offering their own.

Reflectors like to stand back to ponder experiences and observe them from

many different perspectives. They collect data, both first hand and from

others, and prefer to think about it thoroughly before coming to a conclusion.

The thorough collection and analysis of data about experiences and events is

what counts so they tend to postpone reaching definitive conclusions for as

long as possible. Their philosophy is to be cautious. They are thoughtful

people who like to consider all possible angles and implications before

making a move. They prefer to take a back seat in meetings and discussions.

They enjoy observing other people in action. They listen to others and get the

drift of the discussion before making their own points. They tend to adopt a

low profile and have a slightly distant, tolerant unruffled air about them.

When they act it is part of a wide picture which includes the past as well as

the present and others’ observations as well as their own.


Reflector (A person who likes to observe, analyze and research).

Reflectors like thinking things through, careful research and unemotional

observation. If you think that this is your style, the strategies that you might

like include:

Strategies:

Advance Organization, Self-management, Self-evaluation, Grouping,

Asking questions for clarification, Transfer, Translation, Inferencing, Note-

taking, Deduction and Re-combination

Advance Organization Doing a preview of what you are going to learn. For

example, if you want to improve your pronunciation, you can read the

introduction to different pronunciation books, and find out that you need to

study the sounds of consonants, vowels, intonation, stress and linking.

Self-management This is understanding the conditions that help you learn,

and organizing them. For example, if you like music, learning in a place with

music. You will also need materials like books and maybe a computer. CILL

has good learning conditions (but no coffee!).

Self-evaluation (Self-assessment or testing) Deciding if you have finished

learning a topic because your English is good enough to do the things you

need.

Transfer: This means using ideas that you already have to make learning

easier. For example, if you know that a paragraph (like a hamburger) usually

has an introduction, a middle containing supporting detail, and a conclusion,


you can use this knowledge to skim (read very quickly, by missing out non-

important information, to understand the general topic) a text because you

know that you only have to read the introduction and conclusion of both the

whole text and the paragraphs.

Inferencing: You can also use the strategy of reading a newspaper story in

your own language first for prediction. You can predict the contents of the

same story in an English newspaper. Reading to confirm your predictions is

easier than reading with no background information. Click here for more

information on reading newspapers.

Reflectors learn best from activities where they:

• are allowed or encouraged to watch / think / ponder on activities

• have time to think before acting, to assimilate before commenting

• can carry out careful, detailed research

• have time to review their learning

• need to produce carefully considered analyses and reports

• are helped to exchange views with other people without danger, by prior

agreement, within a structured learning experience

• can reach a decision without pressure and tight deadlines.

• observing individuals or groups at work

• they have the opportunity to review what has happened and think about

what they have learned

• producing analyses and reports doing tasks without tight deadlines

Reflectors learn least from, and may react against, activities where:
• acting as leader or role-playing in front of others

• doing things with no time to prepare

• being thrown in at the deep end

• being rushed or worried by deadlines

• they feel ‘forced’ into the limelight

• they must act without time for planning

• they are asked for an instant reaction, or ‘off the cuff’ thoughts

• they are given insufficient data on which to base a conclusion

• in the interests of expediency, they have to make short cuts or do a

superficial job.

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1) Define reflector.

2) What is reflector behavior during learning and against learning?

3) Explain the Strategies considered in reflector learning.

4) Write a short note on the following reflector strategies - Advance

Organization, Self-management, Self-evaluation, Grouping, Asking

questions for clarification, Transfer, Translation, Inferencing, Note-

taking, Deduction and Re-combination.

I.7 KOLBS LEARNING CYCLE:

Learning objective:

After reading this section you can able to understand,

 The concept of Kolb learning cycle.

 The process of Kolb learning cycle.


 The Development stages in learning cycle.

 The learning cycle theory – Diverging, Assimilating, Converging,

Accommodating.

The Kolb learning cycle

Kolb believed that learning was composed of four discrete experiential methods:

immersing oneself in a 'concrete' experience in a completely non-judgmental

way, being able to consider that experience and reflect on it from a number of

different angles, then work out rational theories based on the observations and

finally put the ideas into practice to make decisions and take actions.

Process:

Kolb saw the learning process as consisting of people moving between the modes

of concrete experience (CE) and abstract conceptualization (AC), (as one

dimension of activity) and reflective observation (RO) and active

experimentation (AE), (as the second dimension of activity). Thus the

effectiveness of learning relied on the ability to balance these modes, which Kolb

saw as opposite activities in the best way possible.

Thus learners tended to fall into one of four groups depending on which ends of

the spectra the individual fell. Someone who tended to use the AE and AC

modes was said to be using a convergent style, which emphasizes the practical

application of ideas and solving problems. If you tended more towards the

opposite (CE and RO) you were described as having a divergent style of learning,

which meant you were more innovative and imaginative in your approach to

doing things. Assimilation style involved an approach that was AC and RO

dominant, which used the inductive style of reasoning where people pulled a
number of different observations and thoughts into an integrated whole. Finally

people who were 'doers' and used trial and error rather than thought and

reflection were using the CE and AE modes. This was referred to as an

accommodative style. Thus Kolb saw learning as the way people tended to view

how to learn based on their background and experiences rather than as

personality traits.

Development stages:

Kolb explains that different people naturally prefer a certain single different

learning style. Various factors influence a person's preferred style: notably in his

experiential learning theory model (ELT) Kolb defined three stages of a person's

development, and suggests that our propensity to reconcile and successfully

integrate the four different learning styles improves as we mature through our

development stages. The development stages that Kolb identified are:

1. Acquisition - birth to adolescence - development of basic abilities and

'cognitive structures'

2. Specialization - schooling, early work and personal experiences of

adulthood - the development of a particular 'specialized learning style'

shaped by 'social, educational, and organizational socialization'

3. Integration - mid-career through to later life - expression of non-dominant

learning style in work and personal life.

Whatever influences the choice of style, the learning style preference itself is

actually the product of two pairs of variables, or two separate 'choices' that we
make, which Kolb presented as lines of axis, each with 'conflicting' modes at

either end:

Concrete Experience - CE (feeling) -----V-----Abstract Conceptualization - AC

(thinking)

Active Experimentation - AE (doing)-----V----- Reflective Observation - RO

(watching)

Kolb learning cycle theory:

Kolb theorized that the four combinations of perceiving and processing

determine one of four learning styles of how people prefer to learn. Kolb believes

that learning styles are not fixed personality traits, but relatively stable patterns

of behavior that is based on their background and experiences. Thus, they can be

thought of more as learning preferences, rather than styles.

o Diverging (concrete, reflective) - Emphasizes the innovative and

imaginative approach to doing things. Views concrete situations from

many perspectives and adapts by observation rather than by action.

Interested in people and tends to be feeling-oriented. Likes such activities

as cooperative groups and brainstorming.


o Assimilating (abstract, reflective) - Pulls a number of different

observations and thoughts into an integrated whole. Likes to reason

inductively and create models and theories. Likes to design projects and

experiments.

o Converging (abstract, active) - Emphasizes the practical application of

ideas and solving problems. Likes decision-making, problem-solving, and

the practicable application of ideas. Prefers technical problems over

interpersonal issues.

o Accommodating (concrete, active) - Uses trial and error rather than

thought and reflection. Good at adapting to changing circumstances;


solves problems in an intuitive, trial-and-error manner, such as discovery

learning. Also tends to be at ease with people.

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1) Explain the concept of Kolb learning cycle.

2) Describe the process of Kolb learning cycle.

3) What are the development stages in learning cycle?

4) Explain the Kolb’s learning cycle theory with a diagram.

4.8 EFFECTIVE LEARNING:

Learning objectives:

After reading this section you can able to know,

 The concept of effective learning.

 Overview and Definition:


 The ways to learn effectively.

Effective learning needs to meet the needs of individuals. This is widely

accepted. Really effective learning is driven by the individual. When individuals

have an element of control over the learning experience, the learning outcomes

become more potent. Peer-to-peer learning is also very powerful. This is also

widely accepted. Combining a focus on individual needs with support from co-

learners can lead to mutually beneficial, lasting benefits. Action learning helps

individuals to identify their own challenges draws on the ideas and experience of

others to create solutions to these challenges. It is a valuable method of learning

which benefits individuals, teams and entire organizations.

If you aren't doing well in school, or are struggling, then don't dismiss yourself

as dumb, or the teachers as useless - it may be a variety of subtle things that are

drawing potential away from your learning. Students who don't ace tests are

often labeled as lazy or inattentive. Make things more interesting for you and you

will start learning more effectively. Simple things, like learning to listen, taking

notes and being more organized can maximize your learning potential more than

you'd ever imagine.

We are constantly learning and sometimes it’s easy, like discovering that there’s a

button on the microwave just for popcorn. When it comes to scholastics, we

sometimes need a nudge, some encouragement to be proactive in our learning.

Here are some tips to succeed as a learner.

Tips for effective learning:


Step 1 set clear and attainable goals. Set goals that inspire you. Continuously

measure the success of your goals to keep yourself motivated.

Step 2 Understand why the course or training program is important to you.

Discover the advantages of learning as a means to better yourself by applying

what you have learned to your job, home life, or activities at which you

participate.

Step 3 Tell other people about your study goals. Telling others will increase

the odds that you will succeed to look good in front of your peers, while at the

same time receive encouragement from them.

Step 4 Understand and prepare for the difficulties of studying. Your job or

family may make you fell like you don't have time to participate in training. Talk

to your family members to explain to them your goal and desire to learn. There is

great benefit in family support.

Step 5 Use all the learning tools available to you. Check to see if your

employer has a mentoring program or education assistance program. Take

advantage of your local library. And of course, there’s the Internet.

Step 6 Create a schedule. Plan in advance when and where you will study and

stick to the schedule. This is particularly useful for web based training or when

using material borrowed from the library.

Step 7 Make learning a priority. After setting your goals and creating your

schedule, stick with it!

Step 8 Learn from others. Network with students or friends who share your

goals. Become a mentor or protégé is an excellent way to learn from others.


REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1) Explain the concept of effective learning

2) What are the ways for learning effectively?

4.9 SKILLS OF PERSONAL ASSESSMENT:

Learning objectives:

After reading this section you can able to know,

 The concept of effective learning.

 Assessment questions and its importance.

 Types of Personality Assessment Tests.


Overview and Definition:

“What is he like?” As social beings, we are continuously interested in the

behavior and personality of those we meet. We are curious if someone is quiet,

honest, proud, anxious, funny, indifferent, perceptive, or introspective. Those

characteristics influence our experience of others and affect the quality of our

relationships with them. When these characteristics tend to persist to varying

degrees over time and across circumstances, we tend to think of them as

personality.

Certainly, we informally evaluate others’ personality all the time, but the clinical

assessment of personality using psychometrically robust tools is an important

component of the professional practice of psychology. When one speaks of

personality assessment in psychology, activities include the diagnosis of mental

illnesses, prediction of behavior, measurement of unconscious processes, and

quantification of interpersonal styles and tendencies.

"Be not afraid of greatness. Some are born great, some achieve greatness, and

some have greatness thrust upon them." William Shakespeare, Twelfth Night.

A quote from Shakespeare might seem like a grandiose start to a guide

concerning the mundane matter of whether you should start or buy your own

business. But while the bard was talking about a rather more idealistic concept of

success, his three routes to greatness apply equally well to the potential

entrepreneur.
Many people never really aspire to being their own boss, and are really quite

happy in employment – until a certain event makes them consider the possibility

of running their own company or being self-employed. In other words, they

could be about to have greatness forced upon them. Preparation for them is even

more important.

It could be redundancy, a colleague’s own successes running his own ship, or a

change of manager. On the other hand, it could simply be boredom and the

desire for new challenges – or serious wealth.

However, when you first applied for your current job, you were screened and

interviewed by a manager. Now, on your own, you are the one who has to decide

your own suitability for the task ahead. You need to be completely honest about

your own abilities – and your weaknesses.

This is not an easy process for most people, so here’s a list of questions you

should ask yourself:

1. Are you persistent and determined? Can you set your objectives and

follow your chosen business plan until they are achieved, come hell or

high water?

2. Can you remain positive in periods of adversity? Can you remain sociable

and business-like with clients and suppliers when the business is not

going as well as it should?

3. Can you cope with the hours required? On average new business owners

work 60 hours a week. Some, of course, work even more than this – that’s

why it’s an average.


4. The reverse of this is – can you cope with not having any free time? And

having to deal with the priorities of the business at any time, however

inconvenient it might be?

5. Will your loved ones understand that your business, at least sometimes,

has to come first? Will your relationship or marriage survive?

6. Can you work on your own for long periods, away from the sociable

atmosphere of an office or other workplace?

7. Away from hierarchy and rigid work arrangements, can you be self-

disciplined? Are you self-reliant, and can you inspire and enthuse

yourself?

8. You probably feel confident in your abilities in your existing role. But can

you go back, mentally, to square one and be prepared to learn as much as

possible?

9. You may be thinking that running your own business will lead to

freedom. But you will be in the grip of your creditors – the bank, usually –

until you have repaid any loan. Can you deal with this?

10. You may be used to receiving a weekly or monthly pay cheque of a fixed

or minimum value. Will you be driven mad if you cannot completely

predict your financial fortunes from one day to another?

11. All of the above, together, mean only one thing: stress. Well, hopefully two

things – stress and money. The money, though, will come later. The stress

will have to be dealt with now. Do you thrive or suffer under pressure?

You are either inhuman or lying if you have answered yes to all of the above

without any qualms whatsoever. Everyone will have their doubts if they read

through the above list.


The point is to recognise that you will have these pressures and weakness and to

identify whether you have the strength within you to live with or mitigate them.

Eventually – if the business is successful – these pressures will subside. And, of

course, they will vary from job to job. A first-time freelance journalist or

accountant will, by the nature of their work, be far less prone to some of these

issues than someone starting up a restaurant.

Nevertheless, if you read through the list and see it as a challenge, you’re

undoubtedly a born entrepreneur – you’ll be motivated by the idea of achieving

something in the face of all those pressures.

On the other hand, some people have aimed at that sort of achievement from an

early age. For one in five British schoolchildren, running their own business is

already a dream. Many will go into a career, or pursue a university degree, with

the sole aim of one day being in charge of their own affairs. They will probably,

from day one, be acquiring the skills and knowledge, whether they’re in the field

of motor mechanics or accountancy, so that the dream can one day become

reality.

Types of Personality Assessment Tests:

Given the myriad reasons that a client might be seen for personality assessment,

it should not be surprising that there are a number of diff erent forms of tests

available. Traditionally, tests have fallen into one of two categories:

Projective and objective tests. However, there is a movement in the assessment

field to replace these terms with the more accurate labels, performance- based and

self-report, respectively. Furthermore, with increasing innovation and


development in testing, this simple dichotomy is probably no longer sufficient

because it cannot capture the important category of behavioral assessment.

Performance-based (“projective”) tests generally have an unstructured response

format, meaning that respondents are allowed to respond as much or as little as

they like (within certain parameters) to a particular test stimulus. Traditionally,

these tests were defined by the projective hypothesis articulated by Frank (1939):

We may... induce the individual to reveal his way of organizing experience by

giving him a field . . . . with relatively little structure and cultural patterning so

that the personality can project upon that plastic field his way of seeing life, his

meanings, significances, patterns, and especially his feelings. Thus we elicit a

projection of the individual’s private world. (p. 402–403)

Although many authors of modern performance-based measures might not fully

agree on the projective nature of their tests, all seem to agree that the less

structured nature of these measures is thought to allow for important individual

characteristics to emerge in a manner that can be coded and interpreted by a

clinician. This is why the term performance-based measurement may be more

accurate; although test authors diff er on the extent to which projection occurs

during testing, all seem to agree that this form of test requires the client to

respond (i.e., “perform”) to a stimulus.

Personal skills:

Employers are looking for workers who have that special something: the skills,

tendencies and attributes that help to keep productivity—and


profits—up. What are they? Businesses are looking for employees with strong

"personal" skills, according to ACT research. Keep these in mind, because

employers certainly are.

Carefulness: Do you have a tendency to think and plan carefully before acting?

This helps with reducing the chance for costly errors, as well as keeping a steady

workflow going.

Cooperation: Willingness to engage in interpersonal work situations is very

important in the workplace.

Creativity: You've heard of "thinking outside the box"? Employers want

innovative people who bring a fresh perspective.

Discipline: This includes the ability to keep on task and complete projects

without becoming distracted or bored.

Drive: Businesses want employees who have high aspiration levels and work

hard to achieve goals.

Good attitude: This has been shown to predict counterproductive work

behaviors, job performance and theft.

Goodwill: This is a tendency to believe others are well-intentioned.

Influence: Groups need strong leaders to guide the way. Influence includes a
tendency to positively impact social situations by speaking your mind and

becoming a group leader.

Optimism: A positive attitude goes a long way toward productivity.

Order: "Where did I put that?" A tendency to be well organized helps employees

to work without major distractions or "roadblocks."

Safe work behaviors: Employers want people who avoid work-related accidents

and unnecessary risk-taking in a work environment.

Savvy: This isn't just about job knowledge, but knowledge of coworkers and the

working environment. It includes a tendency to read other people's motives from

observed behavior and use this information to guide one's thinking and action.

Sociability: How much you enjoy interacting with coworkers affects how well

you work with them.

Stability: This means a tendency to maintain composure and rationality in

stressful work situations.

Vigor: This is a tendency to keep a rapid tempo and keep busy.

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1) Define the concept of effective learning.

2) What are the ways to learn effectively?


3) What the Assessment questions individual has to set for learning?

4) Explain about the personal skills required for a job?

5) What are the types of Personality Assessment Tests?

4.10 PLANNING (Effective learning):

Learning objectives:

After reading this section you can able to know,

 Planning for effective learning.

 Phases in Learning.

 Personal Learning plan.

Planning:

Planning in organizations and public policy is both the organizational process

of creating and maintaining a plan; and the psychological process of thinking


about the activities required to create a desired goal on some scale. As such, it

is a fundamental property of intelligent behavior. This thought process is

essential to the creation and refinement of a plan, or integration of it with

other plans, that is, it combines forecasting of developments with the

preparation of scenarios of how to react to them.

Effective learning often requires more than just making multiple connections

of new ideas to old ones; it sometimes requires that people restructure their

thinking radically. That is, to incorporate some new idea, learners must

change the connections among the things they already know, or even discard

some long-held beliefs about the world. The alternatives to the necessary

restructuring are to distort the new information to fit their old ideas or to

reject the new information entirely.

Students come to school with their own ideas, some correct and some not,

about almost every topic they are likely to encounter. If their intuition and

misconceptions are ignored or dismissed out of hand, their original beliefs are

likely to win out in the long run, even though they may give the test answers

their teachers want. Mere contradiction is not sufficient; students must be

encouraged to develop new views by seeing how such views help them make

better sense of the world.

Learning is:

• An activity of construction, not one of reception

• Handled with others, or (even when alone) in the context of others

• driven by learner's agency (intentions and choices).


Effective learning is all of these at their best, plus the monitoring and review

of whether approaches and strategies are proving effective for the particular

goals and context. How can you help learners become more effective at

checking whether their strategies are effective?

Phases in Learning:

When planning teaching for learning, our task as teachers, is to focus on the

experience for learners, rather than on what we are going to say and do.

Learners go through four phases:

 Do Review Learn Apply

In a circular, ever-developing manner. The following matrix plots these four

phases on each of the aspects which evidence has shown to promote effective

learning.

Active Collaborative Learner Learning

learning learning responsibili about

ty learning
Do Tasks are Tasks in small Learners Learners

designed for groups connect exercise are

learner to create a choice and encouraged


activity, using larger whole plan their to notice

or creating (by roles or by approaches aspects of

materials, parts) their

texts, learning as

performances they engage

in tasks
Review Learners stop Learners bring Learners Learners

to notice what ideas together monitor describe

happened, and review their what they

what was how the group progress and notice and

important, has operated review their review their

how it felt, etc. plans learning

(goals,

strategies,

feelings,

outcome,

context)
Learn New insights Explanations of Factors Richer

and topic and of affecting conceptions

understanding how the group progress are of learning

s are made functioned are identified are voiced

explicit voiced across and new and further

the group strategies reflective

devised inquiry is

encouraged
Apply Future action Future Plans are Learners

is planned in possibilities for revised to plan to


light of new group and accommodat notice more

understanding community e recent and to

. Transferring learning are learning experiment

that considered with their

understanding approaches

to other to learning

situations is

examined

Personal learning plan:

Name.....................................................................................................................................
Subject...................................................................................................................................

Aims
This plan is to help me learn the following:

Deadline
I will complete this work by:

Organisation of work
I will be working (tick):
On my own
With a partner
In a group
In a combination of these ways

Resources
I will be using:

Work
I have to produce:
Assessment
I will be assessed by:

Other things to remember

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1) How do you plan for effective learning?

2) What are the Phases considered while planning for Learning?

3) How to develop a sample learning plan?

4.11 ORGANISATON AND EVALUATION:

Learning objectives:

After reading this section you can able to know,

 The concept of learning organization.

 The importance of learning organization.

 Characteristics.
 Aspects of continuous learning.

 The concept of learning Evaluation.

 Kinds of Evaluations.

 Uses of Evaluations.

 Criteria of Evaluation Independence.

A Learning Organization is the term given to a company that facilitates the

learning of its members and continuously transforms itself. Learning

Organizations develop as a result of the pressures facing modern organizations

and enables them to remain competitive in the business environment. A Learning

Organization is has five main features; systems thinking, personal mastery,

mental models, shared vision and team learning.

Benefits of being a Learning Organization

There are many benefits to improving learning capacity and knowledge sharing

within an organization. The main benefits are;

• Maintaining levels of innovation and remaining competitive

• Being better placed to respond to external pressures

• Having the knowledge to better link resources to customer needs

• Improving quality of outputs at all levels

• Improving corporate image by becoming more people orientated

• Increasing the pace of change within the organization.

Importance of effective learning organization:

The organizations that will truly excel in the future will be the organizations

that discover how to tap people’s commitment and capacity to learn at all

levels in an organization.” – Peter Senge


“The rate at which organizations learn may become the only sustainable

source of competitive advantage.” - Peter Drucker

“The need for learning organizations is due to the world becoming more

complex, dynamic and globally competitive.” – Gary Ahlquist

Learning organization:

Many pundits – among the most respected business thinkers:

Peter Drucker – “The Information Age”

 Competitive advantage is created through “information-based

organizations”

 Four Critical Areas:

– Develop rewards, recognition and career opportunities that

stimulate information sharing

– Create a unified vision of how the organization will share

information

– Create the management structure that enables cross-boundary

information sharing

– Ensure the continuous supply and training of staff and volunteers

that can use the information

Peter Senge – “The Fifth Discipline”


 “Learning organizations are where people continually expand their

capacity to learn”

 “Five disciplines are key to achieving an effective learning organization”

– Personal Mastery – enhancing ability to be objective

– Mental Models – continually scrutinizing our assumptions and

picture of the world

– Shared Vision – creating a new picture for the future

– Team Learning – creating the capacity to “think together”

– Systems Thinking – knowledge and tools that allow people to see

inter-relationships

Aspects of continuous learning:

Important aspects of continuous learning are :

1. Having some basic values in your life or priorities in your work

2. Doing something in the world, applying new information and skills

3. Taking the time to inquire and reflect about your life and experiences

4. Getting up-to-date feedback, that is, understood and useful information

about yourself and your experiences

5. Removing personal obstacles to your accepting and understand the

feedback

6. Having the courage and humility to change

Characteristics a Learning Organization

A Learning Organization exhibits five main characteristic; systems thinking,

personal mastery, mental models, a shared vision and team learning.


Systems thinking The idea of the Learning Organization originally

developed from a body of work called systems thinking. This is a conceptual

framework that allows people to study businesses as bounded objects.

Learning Organizations employ this method of thinking when assessing their

company and will have developed information systems that measure the

performance of the organization as a whole and of its various components.

Personal mastery is the commitment by an individual to the process of

learning. There is a competitive advantage for an organization whose

workforce can learn quicker than the workforce of other organizations

Individual learning is acquired through staff training and development

however learning cannot be forced upon an individual if he or she is not

receptive to learning..

Mental models are the terms given to ingrained assumptions held by

individuals and organizations. In order to have become a Learning

Organization, these mental models will have been challenged. Individuals

tend to have espoused theories, which they intend to follow, and theories-in-

use which is what they actually do.

Shared vision the development of a shared vision is important in

incentivising the workforce to learn as it creates a common identity which can

provide focus and energy for learning. The most successful visions build on

the individual visions of the employees at all levels of the organization and

the creation of a shared vision is likely to be hindered by traditional

structures where a company vision is imposed.


Team learning is the accumulation of individual learning. The benefit of

sharing individual learning is that employees grow more quickly and the

problem solving capacity of the organization is improved through better

access to knowledge and expertise. Learning Organizations have structures

that facilitate team learning with features such as boundary crossing and

openness.

EVALUATION:

Evaluation - The process of determining the worth or significance of an

activity, policy, or program.

An assessment, as systematic and objective as possible, of a planned,

ongoing, or completed intervention.

Kinds of Evaluations

•Formative – focus on improved performance before and during

Implementation (project, program or policy)

• Summative - – focus on outcomes (consequences)

• Prospective – answer questions

• Is this program/project/policy worth evaluating?

• Will the gains be worth the effort/resources expended?

Purpose of evaluation:

 Ethical

 Managerial

 Decisional

 Educative and Motivational


Uses of Evaluations:

 Give feedback on the performance of policies, programs, and projects

 Make policies, programs, and projects accountable for how they use

public funds

 Help stakeholders learn more about policies, programs, and projects

 Carried out around the needs of the primary intended user

 Clarify theory of change (logic model) for projects, programs, and policy

Evaluation Provides Information on:

• Strategy – Are the right things being done?

• Operations – Are things being done right?

• Learning – Are there better ways?

Monitoring and Evaluation:

• Monitoring – routine, ongoing, and internal activity of tracking key

indicators.

 Internal activity - used to collect information on a program’s

activities, outputs, and outcomes to measure performance of the

program

• Evaluation

 periodic and time bound

 can be internal, external, or participatory

 periodic feedback to key stakeholders


Development Evaluation:

• A sub-discipline of classical evaluation

• Uses a variety of methodologies and practices

• Mixed methodologies work best

Independent evaluation:

 an evaluation carried out by entities and persons free of the control of

those responsible for the design and implementation of the evaluation

 the credibility of an evaluation depends in part on how independently it

has been carried out

Criteria of Evaluation Independence:

• Organizational independence

• Behavioral independence

• Avoidance of conflicts of interest

• Protection from external influence

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1) Explain the concept of learning organization.

2) Define the importance of learning organization.

3) What are the characteristics of learning organization?

4) Describe the aspects of continuous learning.

5) Explain the concept of learning Evaluation.


6) What are the kinds of Evaluations available?

7) Explain the uses of Evaluations.

8) Criteria of Evaluation Independence – explain.

4.12 ONLINE RESEARCH METHODS:

Learning objectives:

After reading this section you can able to know,

 The concept of online research methods.

 Types of online research methods.

 Uses of online research.

 Common uses of internet.

 The bulletin board concept.


 Importance of bulletin board in classroom.

 Uses of bulletin board in online.

 Introduction to newsgroup.

 Types of newsgroup.

 Working of newsgroups.

Online research methods (ORMs) are ways in which researchers can collect data

via the internet. They are also referred to as Internet research. Many of these

online research methods are related to existing research methodologies but re-

invent and re-imagine them in the light of new technologies associated with the

internet.

Some specific types of method include:

• Online ethnography

• Online focus groups

• Online interviews

• Online questionnaires

• Web-based experiments

• Online clinical trials - or see below

• Technology used for online research methods

Internet research is the practice of using the Internet, especially the World Wide

Web, for research. To the extent that the Internet is widely and readily accessible

to hundreds of millions of people in many parts of the world, it can provide

practically instant information on most topics, and is having a profound impact

on the way in which ideas are formed and knowledge is created.


Research is a broad term. Here, it is used to mean "looking something up (on the

Web)". It includes any activity where a topic is identified, and an effort is made to

actively gather information for the purpose of furthering understanding.

Common applications of Internet research include personal research on a

particular subject (something mentioned on the news, a health problem, etc),

students doing research for academic projects and papers, and journalists and

other writers researching stories. It should be distinguished from scientific

research - research following a defined and rigorous process - carried out on the

Internet; from straightforward finding of specific info, like locating a name or

phone number; and from research about the Internet.

Compared to the Internet, print physically limits access to information. A book

has to be identified, then actually obtained. On the Net, the Web can be searched,

and typically hundreds or thousands of pages can be found with some relation to

the topic, within seconds. In addition, email (including mailing lists), online

discussion forums and other personal communication facilities (instant

messaging, IRC, newsgroups, etc) can provide direct access to experts and other

individuals with relevant interests and knowledge.

Further difficulties in internet research center around search tool bias and

whether the searcher has sufficient skill to draw meaningful results from the

abundance of material typically available. The first resources retrieved may not

be the most suitable resources to answer a particular question. For example,

prominence is often a factor used in structuring internet search results but

prominent information often gives a biased view of controversial issues.

It should be noted that thousands of books and other print publications have

been made available online that would be extremely difficult to locate otherwise,
including out-of-print books, and classic literature and textbooks that would be

much less accessible in their printed form.

Online ethnography refers to a number of related online research methods that

adapt ethnography to the study of the communities and cultures created through

computer-mediated social interaction. Prominent among these ethnographic

approaches are "online ethnography" (see, e.g., Correll 1995),"virtual

ethnography" (see, e.g., Hine 2000), and "netnography" (Kozinets 1997). As

modifications of the term ethnography, online ethnography and virtual

ethnography (as well as many other methodological neologisms) designate

online fieldwork that follows from the conception of ethnography as an

adaptable method. These methods tend to leave most of the specifics of the

adaptation to the individual researcher. Netnography suggests the use of specific

procedures and standards, and argues for consideration of particular

consensually-agreed upon techniques, justifying the use of a new name rather

than a modification of the term ethnography (Kozinets 2002).

An online focus group is one type of focus group, and is a sub-set of online

research methods. A moderator invites prescreened, qualified respondents who

represent the target of interest to log on to conferencing software at a pre-

arranged time and to take part in an online focus group. Some researchers will

offer incentives for participating (see onlinecashfind.com ) but this raises a

number of ethical questions. Discussions generally last one hour to 90 minutes.

The moderator guides the discussion using a combination of predetermined

questions and unscripted probes. In the best discussions, as with face to face

groups, respondents interact with each other as well as the moderator in real

time to generate deeper insights about the topic. Online focus groups are
appropriate for consumer research, business to business research and political

research. Interacting over the web avoids a significant amount of travel expense.

It allows respondents from all over the world to gather, electronically for a more

representative sample. Often respondents open up more online than they would

in person, which is valuable for sensitive subjects. Like in-person focus groups,

online groups are usually limited to 8-10 participants. 'Whiteboard' exercises and

the ability to mark up concepts or other visual stimuli simulate many of the

characteristics of in-person groups. In addition to the savings on travel, online

focus groups often can be accomplished faster than traditional groups because

respondents are recruited from online panel members who are often qualified to

match research criteria.

An online interview is a form of online research method. It takes many of the

methodological issues raised in traditional face to face or F2F interviews and

transfers these online with some key differences. It principally focuses on the

conduct of one-to-one exchanges as one-to-many exchanges are usually called

online focus groups. There are different forms of online interviews: synchronous

online interviews (for example via chat technology) and asynchronous online

interviews (for example via email). In addition, online interviews can be

distinguished according to the number of interviewees that participate, as online

interviews can be conducted in a group setting or one a one-to-one basis.

Online questionnaires with the increasing use of the Internet, online

questionnaires have become a popular way of collecting information. The design

of an online questionnaire often has an affect how the quality of data gathered.

There are many factors in designing an online questionnaire guidelines, available

question formats, administration, quality and ethic issues should be reviewed.


Online questionnaires should be seen as a sub-set of a wider-range of online

research methods.

A Web-based experiment is an experiment that is conducted over the Internet.

Psychology and Linguistics are probably the disciplines that have used these

experiments most widely, although a range of other disciplines use web-based

experiments. This form of experimental setup has become increasingly popular

because researchers can cheaply collect large amounts of data from a wide range

of locations and people. A web-based experiment is a type of online research

method.

Clinical trials are conducted to allow safety and efficacy data to be collected for

new drugs or devices. These trials can only take place once satisfactory

information has been gathered on the quality of the product and its non-clinical

safety, and Health Authority/Ethics Committee approval is granted in the

country where the trial is taking place. Depending on the type of product and the

stage of its development, investigators enroll healthy volunteers and/or patients

into small pilot studies initially, followed by larger scale studies in patients that

often compare the new product with the currently prescribed treatment. As

positive safety and efficacy data are gathered, the number of patients is typically

increased. Clinical trials can vary in size from a single center in one country to

multicenter trials in multiple countries.

USE OF THE INTERNET:

E-mail
The concept of sending electronic text messages between parties in a way

analogous to mailing letters or memos predates the creation of the Internet. Even

today it can be important to distinguish between Internet and internal e-mail

systems. Internet e-mail may travel and be stored unencrypted on many other

networks and machines out of both the sender's and the recipient's control.

During this time it is quite possible for the content to be read and even tampered

with by third parties, if anyone considers it important enough. Purely internal or

intranet mail systems, where the information never leaves the corporate or

organization's network, are much more secure, although in any organization

there will be IT and other personnel whose job may involve monitoring, and

occasionally accessing, the e-mail of other employees not addressed to them. The

World Wide Web

The World Wide Web is a huge set of interlinked documents, images and other

resources, linked by hyperlinks and URLs. These hyperlinks and URLs allow the

web servers and other machines that store originals, and cached copies of, these

resources to deliver them as required using HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol).

HTTP is only one of the communication protocols used on the Internet.

Web services also use HTTP to allow software systems to communicate in order

to share and exchange business logic and data.

Software products that can access the resources of the Web are correctly termed

user agents. In normal use, web browsers, such as Internet Explorer, Firefox and

Apple Safari, access web pages and allow users to navigate from one to another

via hyperlinks. Web documents may contain almost any combination of

computer data including graphics, sounds, text, video, multimedia and

interactive content including games, office applications and scientific

demonstrations. Through keyword-driven Internet research using search engines

like Yahoo! and Google, millions of people worldwide have easy, instant access to
a vast and diverse amount of online information. Compared to encyclopedias

and traditional libraries, the World Wide Web has enabled a sudden and extreme

decentralization of information and data.

Advertising on popular web pages can be lucrative, and e-commerce or the sale

of products and services directly via the Web continues to grow.

Remote access

The Internet allows computer users to connect to other computers and

information stores easily, wherever they may be across the world. They may do

this with or without the use of security, authentication and encryption

technologies, depending on the requirements.

This is encouraging new ways of working from home, collaboration and

information sharing in many industries. An accountant sitting at home can audit

the books of a company based in another country, on a server situated in a third

country that is remotely maintained by IT specialists in a fourth. These accounts

could have been created by home-working bookkeepers, in other remote

locations, based on information e-mailed to them from offices all over the world.

Some of these things were possible before the widespread use of the Internet, but

the cost of private leased lines would have made many of them infeasible in

practice.

Collaboration

The low cost and nearly instantaneous sharing of ideas, knowledge, and skills

has made collaborative work dramatically easier. Not only can a group cheaply

communicate and share ideas, but the wide reach of the Internet allows such

groups to easily form in the first place. An example of this is the free software

movement, which has produced Linux, Mozilla Firefox, OpenOffice.org etc.

File sharing

For more details on this topic, see File sharing.


A computer file can be e-mailed to customers, colleagues and friends as an

attachment. It can be uploaded to a website or FTP server for easy download by

others. It can be put into a "shared location" or onto a file server for instant use by

colleagues. The load of bulk downloads to many users can be eased by the use of

"mirror" servers or peer-to-peer networks.

These simple features of the Internet, over a worldwide basis, are changing the

production, sale, and distribution of anything that can be reduced to a computer

file for transmission. This includes all manner of print publications, software

products, news, music, film, video, photography, graphics and the other arts.

This in turn has caused seismic shifts in each of the existing industries that

previously controlled the production and distribution of these products.

Streaming media

Many existing radio and television broadcasters provide Internet "feeds" of their

live audio and video streams (for example, the BBC). They may also allow time-

shift viewing or listening such as Preview, Classic Clips and Listen Again

features. These providers have been joined by a range of pure Internet

"broadcasters" who never had on-air licenses. This means that an Internet-

connected device, such as a computer or something more specific, can be used to

access on-line media in much the same way as was previously possible only with

a television or radio receiver.

Internet Telephony (VoIP)

VoIP stands for Voice-over-Internet Protocol, referring to the protocol that

underlies all Internet communication. The idea began in the early 1990s with

walkie-talkie-like voice applications for personal computers. In recent years

many VoIP systems have become as easy to use and as convenient as a normal
telephone. The benefit is that, as the Internet carries the voice traffic, VoIP can be

free or cost much less than a traditional telephone call, especially over long

distances and especially for those with always-on Internet connections such as

cable or ADSL.

VoIP is maturing into a competitive alternative to traditional telephone service.

Interoperability between different providers has improved and the ability to call

or receive a call from a traditional telephone is available. Simple, inexpensive

VoIP network adapters are available that eliminate the need for a personal

computer.

Internet by region

Common methods of home access include dial-up, landline broadband (over

coaxial cable, fiber optic or copper wires), Wi-Fi, satellite and 3G technology cell

phones. Public places to use the Internet include libraries and Internet cafes,

where computers with Internet connections are available. There are also Internet

access points in many public places such as airport halls and coffee shops, in

some cases just for brief use while standing. Various terms are used, such as

"public Internet kiosk", "public access terminal", and "Web payphone". Many

hotels now also have public terminals, though these are usually fee-based. These

terminals are widely accessed for various usage like ticket booking, bank deposit,

online payment etc. Wi-Fi provides wireless access to computer networks, and

therefore can do so to the Internet itself. Hotspots providing such access include

Wi-Fi cafes, where would-be users need to bring their own wireless-enabled

devices such as a laptop or PDA. These services may be free to all, free to

customers only, or fee-based. A hotspot need not be limited to a confined

location.
Political organization and censorship

In democratic societies, the Internet has achieved new relevance as a political

tool. The presidential campaign of Howard Dean in 2004 in the United States

became famous for its ability to generate donations via the Internet. Many

political groups use the Internet to achieve a whole new method of organizing, in

order to carry out Internet activism.

Some governments, such as those of Iran, North Korea, Myanmar, the People's

Republic of China, and Saudi Arabia, restrict what people in their countries can

access on the Internet, especially political and religious content. This is

accomplished through software that filters domains and content so that they may

not be easily accessed or obtained without elaborate circumvention.

Leisure activities

The Internet has been a major source of leisure since before the World Wide Web,

with entertaining social experiments such as MUDs and MOOs being conducted

on university servers, and humor-related Usenet groups receiving much of the

main traffic. Today, many Internet forums have sections devoted to games and

funny videos; short cartoons in the form of Flash movies are also popular. Over 6

million people use blogs or message boards as a means of communication and

for the sharing of ideas. The pornography and gambling industries have both

taken full advantage of the World Wide Web, and often provide a significant

source of advertising revenue for other websites. Although many governments

have attempted to put restrictions on both industries' use of the Internet, this has

generally failed to stop their widespread popularity.

People use chat, messaging and e-mail to make and stay in touch with friends

worldwide, sometimes in the same way as some previously had pen pals. Social
networking websites like My space, Face book and many others like them also

put and keep people in contact for their enjoyment.

USE OF BULLETIN BOARDS:

The most common display system found in an instructional setting is probably a

bulletin board display. Basically, the bulletin board is a vertical surface to which

an assortment of visuals can be attached and displayed.

Improve effectiveness and enjoyment of lessons with these bulletin board ideas

and examples. They'll make your classroom visually appealing and stimulating

to your students. Below, you'll find bulletin boards for a wide range of topics,

from cookies and ecology to measurement and diversity! Whether you teach

science, reading, art, or social studies, you're sure to find the perfect bulletin

board to fit your current theme or topic of discussion.

Techniques:

Several important techniques for production and use of displays, handouts, and

worksheets are related to the order in the table below:

(Step 1) • Look over "idea" books and methods texts in the

library.

Idea • Watch for ideas in classes you attend, and education

magazines.
• Clip cartoons, drawings, and other visuals. ideas

from newspapers, magazines, electronic clippers,

(Step 2) graphic files, CD, and the Internet.

• Brochures, pamphlets, and other free materials.

Production • Opaque projector for enlarging graphics.

• Rubber cement for mounting.

• Dry mount press for mounting and lamination.

• Bulletin board for items that can be pinned up for

individual study.

(Step 3) • Tri-folded display board.

• Flannel board for thin, colorful objects.

Display and • Hook 'N Loop board for 3-D objects.

Use • Duplicated handouts for worksheets, maps, study

guides, line drawings, and other teacher prepared

material that might be enhanced by the use of color.

Designing Displays for Teaching

Designing displays for teaching or for your students to interact with involves: a)

Thinking and Planning, b) Preparing materials, and c) Putting it up.

Thinking and Planning:

• Narrow the subject

• Think of the objectives.... choose a theme. Decide the types of questions

that could be answer by studying the display. Include some of the

questions in the layout of the board when you put it up.


• Avoid visual clichés and formal balance. (Balance)

• Keep it simple and uncluttered. (Simplicity)

• Consider using directional device such as lines, arrows, call outs, and/or

numbers to emphasize the important points. (Emphasis)

• Use shape, texture, and form, to create unity and emphasis in the display.

(Unity)

• Include as many 3 dimensional objects as you can.

• Mount materials at eye level; consider the types of students who will use

the display.

• Use big and neatly look captions (including heads and sub-heads)

prepared using freehand letterings, or computer.

• To establish correct size and layout, design the board on paper in the same

proportions as the actual board as an aid in putting it up.

Preparing Materials:

• Use bright colors

• Use colored paper as a background for an interesting texture, and uniform

surface.

• Use simple letters, nothing fancy (You are required to design your own

letters).

• Laminate and mount the items used in displays for longer life and

durability.

Often the bulletin board that is designed and used to assist the presenter and

then remains up as a reference for the students as they work through a unit of

study.
The followings are for teachers who need to plan and use the bulletin board for

various teaching strategies to adhere to:

• The bulletin board that is designed to assist in a presentation to a large

group needs to have large, bold visual and captions.

• The bulletin board that is designed to generate an interaction often has a

headline that asks a question, and the other elements continue with the

question rather than providing answers.

• The bulletin board that is intended for independent study must have

the basic characteristics of any self instructional media. It must present

information, require a response and provide feedback without the

physical presence of the instructor.

• The bulletin board that is designed for drill and practice can be a large

electric board. This type of display will allow your students to master

information they have already learned.

After all, the main function of the bulletin board is the transmission of

information in a presentation mode.

What Is A Computer Bulletin Board?

Computer bulletin boards are more commonly referred to as a bulletin board

system, or "BBS" (for short). A BBS is a computer that uses a special program

which allows other computers to call it up by using regular phone lines. A BBS is

like a storage facility that permits people to send and receive messages through

their computers, as well as send and receive files.

General Uses of BBSes


There are many uses for BBSes. You can use them like a regular (cork) bulletin

board. You can use them to post jokes, notices, news flashes, and so on... You can

also use them much the same way that you would use a CB. People can hold a

"conversation" over the computer by sending messages back and forth just by

typing the sentences into the computer, and posting them on a BBS. BBSes can

also be used to send and receive private messages. You can use a BBS to gather

information about a certain topic, as well as ask other people to help you with

something. A lot of people exchange files and programs, and play games with

people through the computer. You can also use BBSes to buy and sell things.

The Business Use of BBSes

Many businesses use BBSes to send electronic mail to distributors, and

distributing networks. They use them also to talk to business prospects.

Businesses use BBSes for a variety of reasons. Auto Repair Shops, Mail-Order

Companies, Government Offices, Travel Agencies, Banks, and Sales

Organizations are among the different types of businesses that frequently use

BBSes to do business.

NEWSGROUPS:

Although most of the hype and attention that the Internet gets today is about e-

commerce and business, there are two main reasons that most of us use it:

communication and information. We rely on the Internet to send e-mail and

instant messages, and search through the World Wide Web to find information

for work or play. One source of both information and communication is

newsgroups. A newsgroup is a continuous public discussion about a particular


topic. You can join a newsgroup at any time to become part of a huge

conversation between hundreds or even thousands of people

A usenet newsgroup is a repository usually within the Usenet system, for

messages posted from many users in different locations. The term may be

confusing to some, because it is usually a discussion group. Newsgroups are

technically distinct from, but functionally similar to, discussion forums on the

World Wide Web. Newsreader software is used to read newsgroups.

Types of newsgroups

Typically, a newsgroup is focused on a particular topic of interest. Some

newsgroups allow the posting of messages on a wide variety of themes,

regarding anything a member chooses to discuss as on-topic, while others keep

more strictly to their particular subject, frowning on off-topic postings. The news

admin (the administrator of a news server) decides how long articles are kept on

his server before being expired (deleted). Different servers will have different

retention times for the same newsgroup; some may keep articles for as little as

one or two weeks, others may hold them for many months. Some admins keep

articles in local or technical newsgroups around longer than articles in other

newsgroups.

Newsgroups generally come in either of two types, binary or text. There is no

technical difference between the two, but the naming differentiation allows users

and servers with limited facilities the ability to minimize network bandwidth

usage. Generally, Usenet conventions and rules are enacted with the primary
intention of minimizing the overall amount of network traffic and resource

usage.

Newsgroups are much like the public message boards on old bulletin board

systems. For those readers not familiar with this concept, envision an electronic

version of the corkboard in the entrance of your local grocery store.

Newsgroups frequently become cliquish and are subject to sporadic flame wars

and trolling, but they can also be a valuable source of information, support and

friendship, bringing people who are interested in specific subjects together from

around the world.

How newsgroups work

Newsgroup servers are hosted by various organizations and institutions. Most

Internet service providers host their own news servers, or rent access to one, for

their subscribers. There are also a number of companies who sell access to

premium news servers.

Every host of a news server maintains agreements with other news servers to

regularly synchronize. In this way news servers form a network. When a user

posts to one news server, the message is stored locally. That server then shares

the message with the servers that are connected to it if both carry the newsgroup,

and from those servers to servers that they are connected to, and so on. For

newsgroups that are not widely carried, sometimes a carrier group is used for

cross posting to aid distribution. This is typically only useful for groups that

have been removed or newer alt.* groups. Cross posts between hierarchies,

outside of the Big 8 and alt.* hierarchies, are failure prone.


REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1) Explain about online research methods.

2) What are the types of online research methods?

3) Describe the uses of online research.

4) Explain about the common uses of internet.

5) Describe the bulletin board concept and its importance.

6) Explain the uses of bulletin board in online.

7) What is meant by newsgroup?

8) Explain the types of newsgroup.

9) How the newsgroups works?

4.13 ASSESSMENT OF LEARNING:

Learning objectives:

 The assessment of learning.

 Assessment to Improve Learning

 Evidence-based practice skills

 Excellence in Learning: Provision, Achievement and Pathways


 Disappointment.

 Dealing with disappointment

Assessment: A working definition of Assessment for learning from a widely

cited article contends:

"The term ‘assessment’ refers to all those activities undertaken by teachers,

and by their students in assessing themselves, which provide information to

be used as feedback to modify the teaching and learning activities in which

they are engaged.

Assessment of learning

• assessment that is accompanied by a number or letter grade

(summative)

• compares one student’s achievement with standards

• results can be communicated to the student and parents

• occurs at the end of the learning unit

IMPROVED ABILITY RANGE WITH PERSONAL LEARNING:

Changing Assessment to Improve Learning

The breadth and diversity of experience among delegates is reflected in the wide

range of constructive suggestions they came up with regarding (1) changing

exams, (2) changing continuous assessment formats and (3) their own individual

action plans resulting from their thinking and experience during the conference.

The intended outcomes of the session were presented as follows:

• to explore how assessment provides a driving force for learning.


• to work out ways of making better links between assessment and learning.

• to collect and collate action points planned by Conference delegates.

Planning:

• Set learning and performance goals for set periods such as terms,

semesters and the year.

• Use knowledge of their learning preferences to increase effectiveness and

efficiency.

• Use a weekly and yearly planner to show when assignments are due.

• Develop realistic study habits.

• Establish a routine of planning and completing set work including

homework, and ongoing study.

• Locate a study zone where they live.

• Decide what to study and when.

• Organise information in a way that helps them to understand it.

• Place limits on study time.

First, the analogue of 'assessment being the engine that drives learning' was

explored with the audience, some of the symptoms of engine-failure being

pictured as follows.

The engine is laboring....

• greater load (for example, larger class sizes)

• steeper hills (shorter time-spans due to semesterisation, modularization,

or both)

• scary speeds (the need to cover syllabus content more rapidly)


• more traffic-lights (short-term planning, policy changes, funding

uncertainties)

• tired drivers (increased workload, decreased morale

• more oil needed (funding!)

• better maps needed (continuity and direction need improving)

The drivers are struggling....

• less training (less time and energy - and funding - for educational

development)

• sudden bends (short-term crisis management in universities)

• rapid changeovers (new practices being introduced without adequate

preparation)

• greater competition (between institutions, between staff, and between

students)

• fewer prizes (less rewards for best practice in teaching or assessment)

• more unsigned crossroads (greater uncertainty of purpose or rationale)

• fewer breaks (changed contracts, increased administrative pressure)

Factors leading to successful learning

Delegates were reminded of four factors crucial to ensure effective learning by

students:

• wanting to learn (motivation, commitment)

• learning-by-doing (practice, learning from mistakes, trial and error

• learning through feedback (other people's comments)

• making sense of ('digesting' what is being learned.


The 'ripples on the pond' model of learning, developed by the presenter, was

discussed with the aid of the diagram below.

The purpose of an Assessment for Learning (AFL) task is to provide feedback to

both the teacher and learner regarding the learner’s progress towards achieving

the learning objective(s).

EVIDENCE OF IMPROVED LEVELS OF SKILL:

Evidence-based practice skills and knowledge improved markedly with a

targeted education intervention and outreach support. Continuing professional


education, particularly workshops can improve knowledge but the impact on

behavior is less impressive.

Thompson O'Brien and colleagues recommended that researchers investigate

components of workshops that contribute to effectiveness, such as practicing

skills during and after a workshop, providing follow-up outreach support, and

providing feedback on behavior change. These collective strategies are often

referred to as a 'multifaceted' intervention, where 'champions' of evidence-based

practice market concepts to the profession, links are maintained with learners

after training, and reminders and feedback are used to encourage behavior

change. The effectiveness of a multifaceted intervention, aimed at improving

evidence-based practice behaviors has received limited attention by researchers.

It is hypothesized that post-intervention, participants would demonstrate

improved skills and knowledge, report fewer barriers to adopting evidence

-based practice, particularly lack of skills and knowledge, use their skills more

frequently at work, and that these changes would be maintained over time.

The adapted Fresno test

An adapted version of the Fresno test of competence in evidence-based medicine

was used to objectively measures skills and knowledge. Example: The original

Fresno test was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a university curriculum

on evidence-based medicine, and includes 12 short-answer questions, focused

around clinical scenarios relevant to family practice residents.


Activity diary

Behavior change was measured using a concurrent activity diary, and provided

in paper or electronic format. Participants were asked to record only those

activities that related to evidence-based practice, such as searching, reading

research-related articles, critical appraisal and teaching others about evidence-

based practice.

The following information was recorded in columns in participants' diaries, then

subsequently analyzed: date and nature of activity; what prompted the activity;

start and finish times; whether the activity was conducted alone or not; if and

how practice changed as a result of engaging in the activity

Written assignment

Engagement in the first three steps of the process of evidence-based practice

(writing a focused question, searching for evidence, and critically appraising the

evidence). This outcome was recorded as completed/not completed.

Self-reported skills, knowledge and confidence

Based on the self-report questionnaire, there was an immediate increase in the

proportion of the skills, knowledge and confidence had improved post-

workshop. These changes and proportions were maintained at follow-up.

Communication skills for the workplace:

A valuable opportunity for your students to practise their skills in preparation

for the workplace. Enables them to build on existing knowledge, record evidence

of their achievements and develop confidence within a supportive environment.

Physical Activity
Engaging in activities involving unique physical movements, timing, and

coordination encourages dendrite growth in the brain. The more dendrites, the

more connections your brain can make. The more connections, the more flexible

and efficient your thinking and learning will be. So while hard work and

disciplined study is a virtue, balancing it with activities such as the following can

amplify your mental effectiveness:

• Playing a musical instrument (encourages development of precise timing)

• Athletics (the more timing and coordination involved the better).

• Drawing and sculpturing (eye hand coordination)

• Traveling and experiencing different cultures

LEARNING ACHIEVMENTS AND DISAPPOINTMENTS:

"Life Achievement" to mean learning which adults have acquired from

experiences outside of traditional college courses. Substantial learning often

results from positions individuals have held or activities in which they have

engaged. For example, life achievement learning could have resulted from work

experience, volunteer work or some life event that resulted in college level

learning.

The learning you acquired from experiences related to your caring role may

enable you to receive credit for life achievement. Credit for life achievement has

been granted for learning associated with experiences in community service,

establishment of a business, hobbies, involvement in the arts, job training

programs, non-credit adult education courses, paraprofessional work, politics,

professional work, self-initiated learning projects, travel, and volunteer service.

Excellence in Learning: Provision, Achievement and Pathways


The achievement of excellence is an aspiration for all educational communities.

We know that all children and students, given the appropriate time and support,

can achieve academic and social success. It is up to us to ensure that, regardless

of individual circumstance, they all receive the support they require to achieve

the highest standards possible.

• Improve overall student achievement

• Provide engaging, stimulating and flexible learning programs and

pathways

• Support student to be equipped to respond to changing employment

markets

• Increase the export of international education services

The Structure of Observed Learning Outcome (SOLO) taxonomy is a model

that describes levels of increasing complexity in student's understanding of

subjects. It was proposed by John B. Biggs and K. Collis and has since gained

popularity.

The model

The model consists of 5 levels of understanding.

• Pre-structural - The task is not attacked appropriately; the student hasn’t

really understood the point and uses too simple a way of going about it.

• Uni-structural - The students response only focus on one relevant aspect

• Multi-structural - The students response focus on several relevant aspects

but they are treated independently and additively. Assessment of this

level is primarily quantitative.


• Relational - The different aspects have become integrated into a coherent

whole. This level is what is normally meant by an adequate

understanding of some topic.

• Extended abstract - The previous integrated whole may be conceptualized

at a higher level of abstraction and generalized to a new topic or area.

Disappointment:

Dealing with It

Here are some steps we all can take to deal with disappointment more

productively and successfully.

Get over yourself. The biggest obstacle you may need to get past is yourself. In

my case the tractor didn’t care about my big day. Things happen. The sooner we

get the focus off of ourselves – ending our mental pity party – and onto the

situation at hand, the better off we will be.

Get a revised plan. The disappointment of poor profitability or poor initial

quality or any sort of undesirable result likely means you need a new plan to

move forward or to prevent your disappointment from occurring again. Use the

energy of your disappointment to create a new and improved plan.

Get all you can. Chances are your disappointment isn’t the complete picture.

Don’t throw away the good in the situation by focusing only on the bad. In my

case I still was able to share my tractor, talk about American Agriculture, enjoy a

great day and participate in the parade. If I let my disappointment over-run me, I

wouldn’t have recognized all of the value that was there. The same will be true

for you.
Get past it. At some point (probably sooner than later) you need to let it go. Stop

thinking and worrying about it. Let it go and move on. Making light of the

situation may help too. I told people on the parade route and afterwards that we

were conserving gas by towing my tractor!

Get focused on learning. Disappointments will come; and once they have

arrived, it is too late to prevent them. The previous suggestions are all about

dealing with the disappointment in the moment. This suggestion focuses on

getting proactive for the next time. Ask yourself questions like: What could I

have done differently? What would have prevented this situation? Why was I so

disappointed? What would I do differently next time? These are valuable

learning questions.

My tractor still sits proudly at the Fairgrounds the next day. I’ll replace the

battery and check some other things, and hopefully it will be ready to go in one

more parade before we take it for further electrical repair. Each time I drive this

tractor in a crowd, I’ll remember “driving” it in silence through downtown

Indianapolis and across the Fairground. But I’ll remember the lessons more than

the disappointment – because I used the suggestions I’ve shared with you.

These five suggestions will help you deal with your next disappointment –

whether it is in your professional or personal life – more effectively and

productively.

Dealing with disappointment


When things don't turn out the way you hoped, it may seem like the end of the

world. Here are some things you can do to keep disappointment from getting

you down.

• Stop. Calm Down. Give yourself some time. Things might not seem nearly so

bad tomorrow.

• Get your feelings out in a way that doesn't hurt you or anybody else.

• Talk about it with your parents or a good friend.

• Ask yourself if this is really worth getting angry or upset about.

• Think about what you can learn from the experience and how you can do

better next time.

• Don't judge yourself. Failing at something does not mean that you are a

failure.

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1) What is meant by assessment of learning?

2) How to Improve learning skills?

3) What is meant by Evidence-based practice skills?

4) What are the Provisions, Achievements and Pathways in learning?

5) Describe about the learning organization and disappointment.

6) How to deal with disappointments?