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INTRODUCTION TO THE CEMENT

A cement plant in Kenmore, Washington. In the most general sense of the word, a cement is a binder, a substance which sets and hardens independently, and can bind other materials together. The word "cement" traces to the Romans, who used the term "opus caementicium" to describe masonry which resembled concrete and was made from crushed rock with burnt lime as binder. The olcanic ash and pul eri!ed brick additi es which were added to the burnt lime to obtain a hydraulic binder were later referred to as cementum, cimentum, cement and cement. "ements used in construction are characteri!ed as hydraulic or non-hydraulic. The most important use of cement is the production of mortar and concrete#the bonding of natural or artificial aggregates to form a strong building material which is durable in the face of normal en ironmental effects.

"oncrete should not be confused with cement because the term cement refers only to the dry powder substance used to bind the agregate materials of concrete. $pon the addition of water and%or additi es the cement mi&ture is referred to as concrete, especially if aggregates ha e been added.

HISTORY
Early uses It is uncertain where it was first disco ered that a combination of hydrated non#hydraulic lime and a po!!olan produces a hydraulic mi&ture, but concrete made from such mi&tures was first used on a large scale by Roman engineers. They used both natural po!!olans 'trass or pumice( and artificial po!!olans 'ground brick or pottery( in these concretes. )any e&cellent e&amples of structures made from these concretes are still standing, notably the huge monolithic dome of the *antheon in Rome and the massi e +aths of "aracalla. The ast system of Roman a,ueducts also made e&tensi e use of hydraulic

cement. The use of structural concrete disappeared in medie al -urope, although weak po!!olanic concretes continued to be used as a core fill in stone walls and columns. Modern cement )odern hydraulic cements began to be de eloped from the start of the Industrial Re olution 'around ./00(, dri en by three main needs1

2ydraulic renders for finishing brick buildings in wet climates 2ydraulic mortars for masonry construction of harbor works etc, in contact with sea water.

3e elopment of strong concretes. In +ritain particularly, good ,uality building stone became e er more

e&pensi e during a period of rapid growth, and it became a common practice to construct prestige buildings from the new industrial bricks, and to finish them

with a stucco to imitate stone. 2ydraulic limes were fa ored for this, but the need for a fast set time encouraged the de elopment of new cements. )ost famous among these was *arker4s "Roman cement." This was de eloped by 5ames *arker in the .6/0s, and finally patented in .678. It was, in fact, nothing like any material used by the Romans, but was a "9atural cement" made by burning septaria # nodules that are found in certain clay deposits, and that contain both clay minerals and calcium carbonate. The burnt nodules were ground to a fine powder. This product, made into a mortar with sand, set in :#.: minutes. The success of "Roman "ement" led other manufacturers to de elop ri al products by burning artificial mi&tures of clay and chalk. 5ohn ;meaton made an important contribution to the de elopment of cements when he was planning the construction of the third -ddystone <ighthouse '.6::#7( in the -nglish "hannel. 2e needed a hydraulic mortar that would set and de elop some strength in the twel e hour period between successi e high tides. 2e performed an e&hausti e market research on the a ailable hydraulic limes, isiting their production sites, and noted that the

"hydraulicity" of the lime was directly related to the clay content of the limestone from which it was made. ;meaton was a ci il engineer by profession, and took the idea no further. Apparently unaware of ;meaton4s work, the same principle was identified by <ouis =icat in the first decade of the nineteenth century. =icat went on to de ise a method of combining chalk and clay into an intimate mi&ture, and, burning this, produced an "artificial cement" in ./.6. 5ames >rost, working in +ritain, produced what he called "+ritish cement" in a similar manner around the same time, but did not obtain a patent until ./??. In ./?@, 5oseph

Aspdin patented a similar material, which he called *ortland cement, because the render made from it was in color similar to the prestigious *ortland stone. All the abo e products could not compete with lime%po!!olan concretes because of fast#setting 'gi ing insufficient time for placement( and low early strengths 're,uiring a delay of many weeks before formwork could be remo ed(. 2ydraulic limes, "natural" cements and "artificial" cements all rely upon their belite content for strength de elopment. +elite de elops strength slowly. +ecause they were burned at temperatures below .?:0 A", they contained no alite, which is responsible for early strength in modern cements. The first cement to consistently contain alite was made by 5oseph Aspdin4s son William in the early ./@0s. This was what we call today "modern" *ortland cement. +ecause of the air of mystery with which William Aspdin surrounded his product, others 'e.g. =icat and I " 5ohnson( ha e claimed precedence in this in ention, but recent analysis of both his concrete and raw cement ha e shown that William Aspdin4s product made at 9orthfleet, Kent was a true alite#based cement. 2owe er, Aspdin4s methods were "rule#of#thumb"1 =icat is responsible for establishing the chemical basis of these cements, and 5ohnson established the importance of sintering the mi& in the kiln. William Aspdin4s inno ation was counter#intuiti e for manufacturers of "artificial cements", because they re,uired more lime in the mi& 'a problem for his father(, because they re,uired a much higher kiln temperature 'and therefore more fuel( and because the resulting clinker was ery hard and rapidly wore down the millstones which were the only a ailable grinding technology of the time. )anufacturing costs were therefore considerably higher, but the product set

reasonably slowly and de eloped strength ,uickly, thus opening up a market for use in concrete.

TYPES O MODERN CEMENT


Portland cement "ement is made by heating limestone with small ,uantities of other materials 'such as clay( to .@:0A" in a kiln, in a process known as calcination. The resulting hard substance, called 4clinker4, is then ground with a small amount of gypsum into a powder to make 4Brdinary *ortland "ement4, the most commonly used type of cement 'often referred to as B*"(. *ortland cement is a basic ingredient of concrete, mortar and most non# speciality grout. The most common use for *ortland cement is in the production of concrete. "oncrete is a composite material consisting of aggregate 'gra el and sand(, cement, and water. As a construction material, concrete can be cast in almost any shape desired, and once hardened, can become a structural 'load bearing( element. *ortland cement may be gray or white. Portland cement !lends These are often a ailable as inter#ground mi&tures from cement manufacturers, but similar formulations are often also mi&ed from the ground components at the concrete mi&ing plant. Portland "last#urnace Cement contains up to 60C ground granulated blast furnace slag, with the rest *ortland clinker and a little gypsum. All compositions

produce high ultimate strength, but as slag content is increased, early strength is reduced, while sulfate resistance increases and heat e olution diminishes. $sed as an economic alternati e to *ortland sulfate#resisting and low#heat cements. Portland lyash Cement contains up to D0C fly ash. The fly ash is po!!olanic, so that ultimate strength is maintained. +ecause fly ash addition allows a lower concrete water content, early strength can also be maintained. Where good ,uality cheap fly ash is a ailable, this can be an economic alternati e to ordinary *ortland cement. Portland Po$$olan Cement includes fly ash cement, since fly ash is a po!!olan, but also includes cements made from other natural or artificial po!!olans. In countries where olcanic ashes are a ailable 'e.g. Italy, "hile, )e&ico, the

*hilippines( these cements are often the most common form in use. Portland Silica ume cement. Addition of silica fume can yield e&ceptionally high strengths, and cements containing :#?0C silica fume are occasionally produced. 2owe er, silica fume is more usually added to *ortland cement at the concrete mi&er. Masonry Cements are used for preparing bricklaying mortars and stuccos, and must not be used in concrete. They are usually comple& proprietary formulations containing *ortland clinker and a number of other ingredients that may include limestone, hydrated lime, air entrainers, retarders, waterproofers and coloring agents. They are formulated to yield workable mortars that allow rapid and consistent masonry work. ;ubtle ariations of )asonry cement in the $; are

*lastic "ements and ;tucco "ements. These are designed to produce controlled bond with masonry blocks. E%&ansi'e Cements contain, in addition to *ortland clinker, e&pansi e clinkers 'usually sulfoaluminate clinkers(, and are designed to offset the effects of drying shrinkage that is normally encountered with hydraulic cements. This allows large floor slabs 'up to 80 m s,uare( to be prepared without contraction Eoints. (hite !lended cements may be made using white clinker and white supplementary materials such as high#purity metakaolin. Colored cements are used for decorati e purposes. In some standards, the addition of pigments to produce "colored *ortland cement" is allowed. In other standards 'e.g. A;T)(, pigments are not allowed constituents of *ortland cement, and colored cements are sold as "blended hydraulic cements". )ery #inely *round cements are made from mi&tures of cement with sand or with slag or other po!!olan type minerals which are e&tremely finely ground together. ;uch cements can ha e the same physical characteristics as normal cement but with :0C less cement particularly due to their increased surface area for the chemical reaction. - en with intensi e grinding they can use up to :0C less energy to fabricate than ordinary *ortland cements. Non-Portland hydraulic cements Po$$olan-lime cements+ )i&tures of ground po!!olan and lime are the cements used by the Romans, and are to be found in Roman structures still standing 'e.g. the *antheon in Rome(. They de elop strength slowly, but their ultimate strength

can be ery high. The hydration products that produce strength are essentially the same as those produced by *ortland cement. Sla*-lime cements+ Fround granulated blast furnace slag is not hydraulic on its own, but is "acti ated" by addition of alkalis, most economically using lime. They are similar to po!!olan lime cements in their properties. Bnly granulated slag 'i.e. water#,uenched, glassy slag( is effecti e as a cement component. Su&ersul#ated cements+ These contain about /0C ground granulated blast furnace slag, .:C gypsum or anhydrite and a little *ortland clinker or lime as an acti ator. They produce strength by formation of ettringite, with strength growth similar to a slow *ortland cement. They e&hibit good resistance to aggressi e agents, including sulfate. Calcium aluminate cements are hydraulic cements made primarily from limestone and bau&ite. The acti e ingredients are monocalcium aluminate "aAl?B@ '"A in "ement chemist notation( and )ayenite "a.?Al.@BDD '".?A6 in ""9(. ;trength forms by hydration to calcium aluminate hydrates. They are well#adapted for use in refractory 'high#temperature resistant( concretes, e.g. for furnace linings. Calcium sul#oaluminate cements are made from clinkers that include ye4elimite '"a@'AlB?(8;B@ or "@AD in "ement chemist4s notation( as a primary phase. They are used in e&pansi e cements, in ultra#high early strength cements, and in "low# energy" cements. 2ydration produces ettringite, and speciali!ed physical properties 'such as e&pansion or rapid reaction( are obtained by adEustment of the a ailability of calcium and sulfate ions. Their use as a low#energy alternati e to

*ortland cement has been pioneered in "hina, where se eral million tonnes per year are produced. -nergy re,uirements are lower because of the lower kiln temperatures re,uired for reaction, and the lower amount of limestone 'which must be endothermically decarbonated( in the mi&. In addition, the lower limestone content and lower fuel consumption leads to a "B ? emission around half that associated with *ortland clinker. 2owe er, ;B ? emissions are usually significantly higher. ,Natural, Cements correspond to certain cements of the pre#*ortland era, produced by burning argillaceous limestones at moderate temperatures. The le el of clay components in the limestone 'around D0#D:C( is such that large amounts of belite 'the low#early strength, high#late strength mineral in *ortland cement( are formed without the formation of e&cessi e amounts free lime. As with any natural material, such cements ha e ery ariable properties. -eo&olymer cements are made from mi&tures of water#soluble alkali metal silicates and aluminosilicate mineral powders such as fly ash and metakaolin. En'ironmental and social im&acts "ement manufacture causes en ironmental impacts at all stages of the process. These include emissions of airborne pollution in the form of dust, gases, noise and ibration when operating machinery and during blasting in ,uarries, and damage to countryside from ,uarrying. -,uipment to reduce dust emissions during ,uarrying and manufacture of cement is widely used, and e,uipment to trap and separate e&haust gases are coming into increased use. -n ironmental

protection also includes the re#integration of ,uarries into the countryside after they ha e been closed down by returning them to nature or re#culti ating them. uels and ra. materials A cement plant consumes D to 8 F5 of fuel per tonne of clinker produced, depending on the raw materials and the process used. )ost cement kilns today use coal and petroleum coke as primary fuels, and to a lesser e&tent natural gas and fuel oil. ;elected waste and by#products with reco erable calorific alue can be used as fuels in a cement kiln, replacing a portion of con entional fossil fuels, like coal, if they meet strict specifications. ;elected waste and by#products containing useful minerals such as calcium, silica, alumina, and iron can be used as raw materials in the kiln, replacing raw materials such as clay, shale, and limestone. +ecause some materials ha e both useful mineral content and reco erable calorific alue, the distinction between alternati e fuels and raw materials is not always clear. >or e&ample, sewage sludge has a low but significant calorific alue, and burns to gi e ash containing minerals useful in the clinker matri&. /ocal im&acts *roducing cement has significant positi e and negati e impacts at a local le el. Bn the positi e side, the cement industry may create employment and business opportunities for local people, particularly in remote locations in de eloping countries where there are few other opportunities for economic de elopment. 9egati e impacts include disturbance to the landscape, dust and

noise, and disruption to local biodi ersity from ,uarrying limestone 'the raw material for cement(.

CEMENT INDUSTRY "ement output in ?00@ In ?00? the world production of hydraulic cement was .,/00 million metric tons. The top three producers were "hina with 60@, India with .00, and the $nited ;tates with 7. million metric tons for a combined total of about half the world total by the world4s three most populous states.

INTRODUCTION ;uper "ement Industries was set up in .7/8. In the last decade the company has grown tenfold. The total cement capacity of the company is ./.: million tonnes. Its plants are some of the most efficient in the world. With en ironment protection measures that are on par with the finest in the de eloped world. The company4s most distincti e attribute, howe er, is its approach to the business. ;uper "ement follows a uni,ue homegrown philosophy of gi ing people the authority to set their own targets, and the freedom to achie e their goals. This simple ision has created an en ironment where there are no limits to e&cellence, no limits to efficiency. And has pro ed to be a powerful engine of growth for the company. As a result, ;uper "ement is the most profitable cement company in India, and one of the lowest cost producer of cement in the world.

0CHIE)EMENTS In essence, cement is a simple business. $nlike other industries it does not suffer rapid technological obsolescence or shifting consumer trends. Therefore, it constantly attracts new in estments. Which results in surplus capacity. This means only the ery efficient players can prosper. Bur people recogni!e this. And their efforts to constantly raise efficiency has not only raised the bar at ;uper "ement. +ut across the industry as well. En'ironment &rotection measure that con#orm to the .orlds !est+ The pollution le els at all our cement plants are e en lower than the rigorous ;wiss standards of .00 mg%9)D. The air is so clean that a rose garden flourishes right ne&t to the main plant.

"enchmar1in* 2uality standards #or the industry+ ;uper "ement Industries has recei ed the highest ,uality award # the 9ational Guality Award. The only cement company to do so. Its also the first to recei e the I;B 700? ,uality certification.

Rein'entin* cement trans&ortation+ Almost 70C of cement in India tra els by rail or road. And in bags. Bur people reali!ed that the only way to speed up transportation was a completely different approach. The result1 a bulk transporting system ia the sea. )aking us the first company to introduce the concept of bulk cement mo ement by sea in India.

M0N0-EMENT PO/ICY
When we started out, we approached the cement business with an open mind. ;ome things struck us immediately. To compete with the older, established players who had already written off their plant cost, it was important to ha e the lowest capital cost per ton of cement. Bur plants would ha e to be set up in record time. Bur capacity utili!ation would ha e to be abo e .00C. And our power consumption would ha e to set a record low. Fi en this line of thinking, empowerment was not Eust a fashionable term, it was the only way to achie e our goals. If costs had to be controlled, it seemed absurd for engineers to check back with their seniors for e ery little decision. The time lost would be far more e&pensi e than any errors they would make. It was the same with controlling power consumption. Who better than the engineers to suggest ways to cut costs. They knew the plants inside out. It made sense to listen to them.

OUR STREN-TH
*eople In 2imachal, for instance, they4 e managed to push up production and bring down power costs. At a plant that was already functioning abo e capacity. At the same plant they4 e managed to cut stabili!ing time 'a critical task in a cement plant( from upto ./ months to a mere D months. At our cement shipping terminals in FuEarat, with a few minor modifications, they4 e succeeded in e&porting clinker, and importing higher ,uality and far cheaper coal and furnace oil for our capti e power plants. At our )umbai terminal meanwhile, they4 e increased the handling capacity to .00,000 tonnes as against the terminals stated capacity of 80, 000 tonnes. With no additional capital e&penditure. In the last decade they4 e managed to keep our power bills to irtually the same amounts they were in .7/7. All of which pro es once again, that an asset is worth only as much as the people who use it.

IN R0STRUCTURE
B er @0C of the production cost of cement is power. It ,uickly became clear to us that if we were to run a profitable company, wed need to keep power costs to the minimum. ;o we focused our efforts on impro ing efficiency at our kilns to get more output for less power. 9e&t we set up a capti e power plant at a substantially lower cost than the national grid. We sourced a cheaper and higher ,uality coal from ;outh Africa. And a better furnace oil from the )iddle -ast. The result is that today were in a position to sell our e&cess power to the local state go ernment. Bur sea#borne bulk cement transportation facilities meanwhile has brought many coastal markets within the easy reach. It has also made ;uper "ement Industries India4s largest e&porter of cement consistently for the last fi e years.

)ISION 0ND MISSION

=ision without an action is dream. 3ream without action is mere fantasy. Action with a ision is making a difference. We ha e been keeping our dreams ali e with our undying faith and belief in our potential, determination and dedication. We ha e made a difference with our constant surge to step ahead, in the course of which, we ha e now launched a new set of pro#acti e plans to Esta!lish its3 o'erseas &resence across the *lo!e !y the year 4564+ We ha e set our eyes on decentrali!ation of the current production base by undertaking strategic alliances# The tie#ups and ac,uisitions of unorgani!ed and small si!ed manufacturing units mushrooming all o er the country and getting all of them under our own umbrella through technical up gradation implementation of Guality )anagement ;ystem and effecti e distribution through the inno ati e ;tockyard )odel. In the list of top priority is the brand positioning of the products under the ;uper "ement Industries brand name. ;tress has been laid upon the publicity and ad ertising methods to create a better recall of the brand and products. The brand has now been positioned as "+est Guality at +est *rice".

"USINESS STREN-TH

;uper "ement Industries prides in its highly efficient marketing team with inno ati e and out of the bo& ideas to think ahead of the time and turn challenges into opportunities. The company has its centrali!ed marketing office at Furgaon backed with a committed chain of o er ?:00 dealers and distributors spread across the entire country. The company has been consistently creating better brand awareness of its products, which now enEoy a comprehensi e reach across the country. ;uper "ement Industries focussed marketing strategies ha e catapulted it to enEoy a price premium for H;uper "ement IndustriesI brand products o er non# branded products in the market. In line with its philosophy to ha e a well oiled and informed marketing network, the company publishes in#house news Eournal J HIspat ;andeshI, both in 2indi K -nglish for binding the ;uper "ement Industries fraternity into a family.

"USINESS MODE/
<eaders create re olutionary concepts, articulate the concepts,

passionately own the concepts and relentlessly dri e them to completion. ;uper "ement Industries has been a pioneer in this re olutionary concept of >ranchisee )odel ha ing attained success in the middle tier steel segment on a regional front. With e&hausti e study of the market trends and categorising the steel manufacturing companies, ;uper "ement Industries offers them an en elopeL sealed with its brand name and assistance in technology, ,uality, consistency and marketing of ;uper "ement Industries range of products. This mode of concept ser es dual purpose# the franchisee units benefit a lot by a ailing ;uper "ement Industries brand premium and strong marketing network, while ;uper "ement Industries. benefits from the royalty that gets from these franchisees for using its brand name. The model also gi es a uni,ue identity to the franchisee units and helps them in le eraging their le el of operations and ,uality to sustain well amidst rising competition in the steel sector. And ultimately it also benefits the customer, who gains the most by getting top ,uality products at the most effecti e prices. The new >ranchisee )odel adopted by ;uper "ement Industries is really changing the way itsI partners do business regionally. The trusted name of ;uper "ement Industries is spelling a new tale of success by le eraging their facilities

to perform on a far impro ed le el and thus bringing in more producti ity in their day#to#day operations.

"ENE ITS TO R0NCHISEE

This alliance pro ides the franchisee units with ;uper "ement Industries e&pertise and e&perience for an efficient business.

A ready platform in the niche market gi ing a facelift to this unorganised sector%new enterprises.

;uper "ement Industries brand le erage to the franchisee units is also immense.

It also gi es them access to ;uper "ement Industries nationwide marketing network.

They can a ail ;uper "ement Industries ,uality assurance and technological e&pertise.

They also get assistance of ;uper "ement Industries centralised promotion support. ;uper "ement Industries wider presence helps them an easy K fast a ailability of bank funding.While the >ranchisees gain a lot from the >ranchisee )odel, ;uper "ement Industries on the other hand also benefits in terms of increased brand presence, increased income earned from <oyalty and also a wider distribution network that eases stocking at regional centres.

T2- ;TB"KMAR3 )B3-<

The stockyard model adopted by ;uper "ement Industries is also a step towards achie ing more de#centrali!ation in itsI daily acti ities. +y initiating direct marketing policy of setting up stockyards at arious strategic locations, ;uper "ement Industries has led to easy a ailability of goods throughout the country. -fficient mobility of products between the production units and market is the prime moti e of ;uper "ement Industries behind setting up stock yards across the -ntire country. ;uper "ement Industries strategically placed stockyards help itsI corporate clients%institutions in impro ing their in entory control due to fast deli ery at site in minimum time. "ontrolled by our centrali!ed marketing mechanism, ;uper "ement Industries stockyards ha e pro ed beneficial to itsI long list of corporate clients%institutions.

OR-0NI70TION0/ STRUCTURE

"ranch Mana*er

; to < ield E%ecuti'es Domain Head 8Senior Resource Consultants9 Domain Head 8Senior Resource Consultants9

Domain Head 8Senior Resource Consultants9

our :unior Resource Consultants

our :unior Resource Consultants

our :unior Resource Consultants

S(OT 0N0/YSIS
Stren*ths )ulti location support through branches and network of associates. 3omain e&pertise in +>;I sector. Ability to conduct focused search for key skills and positions. -&pertise with all sources of recruitments.

(ea1nesses <acks process orientation and technical assessment capability. <acks software for data management. <acks effecti e marketing orientation. 3omains other than +>;I are lightly ser ed. Bperations limited to the regional scene.

O&&ortunities <ack of local competition. Frowing trend of 2R outsourcing. +ooming retail sector.

Threats -stablished national companies. 3e eloping local companies.

;lowing down of national economy. Traditional approach to 2R by local manufacturing industry. >ractured local industry with micro and small units being the mainstay.