You are on page 1of 31

Menon Pistons Limited, Plant II, MIDC Kupwad

Report of In-Plant Training


IN

Menon Pistons Limited, Plant II , Kupwad By


1. wale!ar "ai#$a% P. '.Bagwan (u$el . +.Kulal (an,ay -. &.Ta!ale B$anudas B. ).*erwade Pramod B. ..Pat!i (aura#$ .

Submitted in partial fulfillment for confirring -egree of Ba/$elor of Te/$nology 0Me/$ani/al1 2f ($i%a,i 3ni%ersity Kol$apur

-epartment of Me/$ani/al 4ngineering T(5s (an,ay B$o!are 6roup of Institutes, Mira,. '711-'71'

Menon Pistons Limited, Plant II, MIDC Kupwad

IN-48

(r.no.
1. ' 9ompany Profile -epartment

T2PI9

Page no.

2.1 Piston oundr! 2.2"eat #reatment 2.$ Piston Mac%ine s%op 2.&Surface treatment 2.' Pin %eat treatment 2.( Pin mac%ine s%op 2.) #ool room *#ool crib 2.+ ,ualit! Contrtol

+ & )

9ase (tudy 9on/lusion Referen/e

Menon Pistons Limited, Plant II, MIDC Kupwad

1. 92MP N: PR2;IL4
Lo/ation < Menon Pistons Limited, Plant II "-1, MIDC, Kupwad .loc/, Sangli 0 &1( &1(, Ma%aras%tra, India. Mission = 9ore "alues< 1ISI234 #o be t%e world5s leading pro6ider of auto component manufacturing * total engineering solutions to automobile manufacturers across t%e world. MISSI23 4 #o pro6ide inno6ati6e products of world class 7ualit! at reasonable prices. ,ualit! Polic!4 primar! responsibilit! at Menon Pistons Limited is to offer cost effecti6e 7ualit! products to its customers8 wards = Laurels< #%e irst Compan! in India to de6elop 9ing Carrier Pistons .:S# 1endor ;ward from Maruti <d!og Ltd in t%e 1==&-=' >S%ip 0 to 0 <se8 Status b! C<MMI3S I3DI; L#D since 1==' aster De6elopment ;ward from Kirlos/ar 2il :ngines Ltd

IS2?#S4 1(=&= Certified b! #<1 Suddeutsc%land in 2@@' 2<#S#;3DI3A S<PPLI:9 29 :BC:LL:3# P:9 29M;3C: award from C<MMI3S Aroup in Cul! 2@@(

Menon Pistons Limited, Plant II, MIDC Kupwad

Resear/$ and -e%elopment<Man! applications re7uire %ig% %ardness at surface * also core strengt% * toug%ness to wit%stand impact stress. #o ac%ie6e t%is propert!, process used to includes carburiDing, c!aniding, nitrating, and carbonitriding. In carburiDing process, carbon is diffused into part5s surface to a controlled dept% b! %eating part in carbonaceous media. Eit% t%is arrangement, MPL will %a6e access to t%e latest in Piston #ec%nolog!, %ig% strengt% materials, e7uipment and mac%iner! for Design?De6elopment and manufacture of Pistons to cater to t%e needs of manufacturers to satisf! t%eir re7uirements of Piston designs wit% and wit%out >Cooled Aaller!8 to compl! wit% t%e emission legislations pre6alent and t%ose in t%e offing in future. #o satisf! t%e demands of t%e :ngine manufacturers for low pollution and %ig% efficienc!, MPL %a6e been putting a lot of efforts to produce Pistons wit% lig%t weig%t, %ig% intensit! and low friction b! performing c%ec/s for structural design of Pistons, anal!sis of internal stress, mec%anical and #%ermal Load and 6erification of Pistons of designs b! #%ree dimensional inite element met%od in cooperation wit% t%eir partner M?s. Dong Fang Piston Co. Ltd. Design and manufacturing acti6ities are continuall! impro6ed b! %a6ing in -%ouse testing facilit! for t%e 6alidation of t%e product before offering t%e product to t%e Customer. MPL %a6e been acti6el! associated wit% t%eir Customers in carr!ing out trials using t%eir test facilit! for arri6ing at mutuall! acceptable performance le6els. #%e eGperienced Design team of !oung :ngineers at MPL pro6ides two dimensional and t%ree dimensional solid modeling facilities and anal!sis utiliDing t%e Pro-: Eildfire02 foundation pac/age for t%e Surface modules, ad6ance Modeling eGtension and t%e rele6ant C;D and C;: facilities. Eit% t%e eGperienced team, MPL wor/s as a complete solution pro6ider to its Customers b! underta/ing t%e product de6elopment from conceptual stage to product realiDation wit% t%e s%ortest possible lead time. MPL stri6es %ard to pursue Customer satisfaction t%roug% t%eir Process Control and non destructi6e ,ualit! c%ec/s as well as maintenance and impro6ement of t%e ,ualit! S!stems. .! use of rigorous ,ualit! Standards and S!stems at 6arious stages of

&

Menon Pistons Limited, Plant II, MIDC Kupwad manufacturing wit% t%e computeriDed 2n-Line 0Statistical Process Control. #ec%ni7ues, MPL ensures t%at products w%ic% reac% t%e customers are defect free and %a6e been produced wit% t%e %ig%est International ,ualitati6e Standards. MPL %as been awarded and Certified b! t%eir 6alued Customers for t%eir ,ualit! related acti6ities and %a6e been recogniDed as t%e most >,ualit! Conscious and Consistent8 Supplier. ;ll Plants of MPL %a6e been certified for >IS2?#S 1(=&=8 2@@2 and t%e s!stems and procedures based on #PM, SiG Sigma principles are practiced in all locations. Produ/t Range<In 1=+', MPL set up its Second Plant in Sangli w%ic% is around (@ Kilometers from Kol%apur and manufactures around 2@@,@@@ Pistons annuall! primaril! for catering to t%e Diesel :ngines for Industrial purposes, irrigation?;gricultural and Small Diesel Aenerator Sets. ;part from t%e manufacture of Pistons, t%is Plant is full! e7uipped to manufacture Audgeon Pins in t%e diameter range of 1( mm to +@ mm wit% well supported Laborator! and sop%isticated manufacturing and measuring e7uipment to %eat treat?Mac%ine?Arind?Super finis% Audgeon Pins guaranteeing t%e Aeometrical accuracies and mec%anical strengt%?%ardness for long and trouble free operation on t%e :ngine. MPLHs Product 9ange boasts of Piston ;ssemblies for di6erse arra! of %ig% #ec% features catering to t%e wide 6ariet! of applications suc% as 0 1. *ea%y -uty -iesel 4ngines for Power 6eneration>2ff *ig$way "e$i/les>6as 4ngines

Image.1 ME Piston

img 2. ;rticulated Piston

'

Menon Pistons Limited, Plant II, MIDC Kupwad or "ea6! Dut! Diesel :ngines for Power Aeneration?2ff "ig%wa! 1e%icle applications, MPL de6elop and produce Pistons wit% diameters ranging from 1$@ mm to 1=@ mm featuring Single ;lfin and Dual ;lfin Ara6it! Die Cast Pistons. MPL manufacture t%ese Pistons on a dedicated manufacturing facilit! wit% special purpose C3C Mac%ines to produce compleG 2D Profiles, and Pin bores wit% 26al .ore, trumpet bore or reliefHs as per t%e re7uirement. #%e complicated Core Profiles featuring on t%ese Pistons are generated appl!ing $D modeling facilities using Pro-: Eildfire-2 foundation pac/age for surface modeling, ad6anced modeling eGtension and #ool Design Pac/age for manufacturing to ac%ie6e targeted sections and effecti6e control on t%e weig%t of t%e Piston for optimum balance of reciprocating masses. Some of t%e special features w%ic% are pro6ided in t%e design of t%ese bigger siDe Pistons IDiameters of 11@ mm to 1)@ mm rangeJ #wo pieces constructions of Pistons I;9#IC<L;#:D PIS#23SJ wit% forged C%rome Mol! Steel Crown coupled wit% ;luminium ;llo! S/irt %eld toget%er b! a Piston Pin w%ere t%e guidance and sealing function are separated from one anot%er. .ecause of t%is design, t%e s/irts is better s%ielded from %ot Piston crown and ring Kone and can, t%erefore, be installed wit% smaller clearances t%an t%e one-piece Piston, w%ic% %as a positi6e effect on ,uiet running. '. *ea%y>Medium>Lig$t 9ommer/ial "e$i/les wit$ -iesel 4ngines.

Img $. Cooled Aaller! Cut Section

Img &.#;#; &SP :uro III Piston

In 6iew of t%e ensuing legislations and t%e /eenness of t%e Ao6ernment to pro6ide en6ironmentall! friendl! ambience, t%e modern Internal Combustion :ngines need to introduce 3ew #ec%nologies for compl!ing wit% t%e emission legislations.

Menon Pistons Limited, Plant II, MIDC Kupwad #%e new #ec%nologies call for design of Pistons to wit%stand increased specific power output, increased inLection pressures, %ig% pressure turbo c%arging wit% after coolers, to compl! wit% stringent emission regulations w%ile satisf!ing t%e re7uirements of low fuel and lube oil consumption. +. Bi-w$eeler 0& (tro!e1 > (mall 4ngine ppli/ations<

Img ' . #1S 1ictor?.oGer? "ero "onda

Img (. Copeland Pistons

; wide range of Pistons for 2 Stro/e and & Stro/e :ngines in t%e diameter range of &@ to (@ mm for powering t%e Scooters, Motor C!cles and 9efrigeration ;ir Compressors are made from :utectic and "!pereutectic ;luminium ;llo! w%ic% are 6er! cost effecti6e and pro6ide 6alue for t%e mone!. #%ese Pistons are offered in attracti6el! pac/ed containers as assemblies consisting of Pistons, Audgeon Pin. MPL produces about 1.$ million pistons annuall! of &1mm diameter for 9efrigeration ;ir compressor sealed units. #%ese are manufactured on special purpose mac%ines wit% close tolerance and eGtremel! good surface finis% to pro6ide H,uiteH running of t%e compressors.

Menon Pistons Limited, Plant II, MIDC Kupwad

&. 6udgeon pins<

Img ).gudgeon pins. #%e! mainl! manufactured pistons, Pistons rings * gudgeon pins. #%e! are 1ander for 1$ companies from w%ic% maLor are automobile companies. #%e! suppl! pistons for #elco, .aLaL, Ma%indra * Ma%indra, * Kirlos/ar oil :ngines * Coment Diesel :ngines, Cummins India Ltd.

Eor/ing S%ifts
#%ere are $ s%ifts per da!. In all t%ree s%ifts production is done continuousl!. #urno6er of compan! is about 12 to 1' corers per !ear. Compan! is %a6ing IS24 =@@ * #S-1(=&= certificate called #<1.

' -4P RTM4NT(


'.1 PI(T2N ;23N-R: T$e die < #%is process allows t%e die to readil! accept t%e molten material w%en it is poured. #%e dies used are ' pieces and t%ree pieces. #%ese dies are made from cast iron wit% steel inserts for t%e gudgeon pin %oles and t%e cores. #%e cores dictate t%e placement of t%e gudgeon pin and can be located to gi6e offset pins or s7uare pins.

Menon Pistons Limited, Plant II, MIDC Kupwad

Img +. Die

9$arge Material #%e raw material re7uired for pistons casting consist of ;luminum ingots, reLected pistons * cut off proLections, etc.

9$emi/al 9omposition ;s per t%e c%emical results in c%emical composition are depends on t%e re7uired properties of piston li/e %ardness. or eGample c%emical composition of

l-B3TT2N ( MPL4 LM-1+>1?) is gi%en #elow< ;l 0 +&.()M Cu 0 @.('M 3i 0 @.='M Pb 0 @.@1M Si 0 11.)'M Mn 0 @.1'M Kn 0 @.1$M Sn 0 @.@@2M e 0 @.&(M Mg 0 1.2M #i 0 @.@1M

ppro%al of Material ;fter receipt of material, material s%ould be c%ec/ed for its c%emical composition i.e. material appro6ed in t%e lab b! testing. "ere we can see t%at material recei6ed from Soppier is reLected.

Menon Pistons Limited, Plant II, MIDC Kupwad ;llo! melting #%e c%arge material is melted in melting furnace w%ic% is oil fired, open %eart% furnace. In t%is furnace t%e furnace oil * air at %ig%er temperature w%ic% causes for combustion. #%e temperature arc%i6al is )&@ to )(@ degree C * time re7u lloy $olding In t%is process molten metal is broug%t * collected into %olding furnace. #%is operation is done to %old t%e molten metal * maintain re7uired temp to /eep in melting condition. ;fter collecting molten metal in %olding furnace t%e CL:32L powder is spread o6er it for remo6al of slug Ii.e. drossJ, etc. from melt. ired is %alf %our. #%e capacit! of furnace is 2@@-$@@ Kegs. T$e pro/ess 4 #%e process starts b! %eating t%e material to )@@ degrees Celsius. #%is is well abo6e t%e melting point of t%e aluminum, but below its boiling point. #%e material is t%en scooped up wit% a ladle from t%e crucible It%e pot t%at %olds t%e molten materialJ. #%is is t%en poured into t%e die t%roug% t%e spur.

1@

Menon Pistons Limited, Plant II, MIDC Kupwad

Img =. Pouring of molten metal in die #%e material is t%en allowed to cool before it is remo6ed from t%e die and placed into a bin of %ot water. #%is water is used to facilitate a more e6en settling of t%e %ot metal. ;fter t%e castings %a6e %ad time to cool t%e! are placed into a %eat treatment plant o6ernig%t. #%is process tempers t%e casting and ensures t%e piston will %a6e impro6ed 7ualities.

11

Menon Pistons Limited, Plant II, MIDC Kupwad

Img 1@. Cutting eGtra proLections ;fter it is remo6ed from t%e %eat treatment t%e casting %as its runner remo6ed. #%is process ta/es little time and is full! automated.

'.' *4 T TR4 TM4NT< #%e casting produced is %a6ing lower %ardness. Ee re7uire %ardness up to '@ "9.. or t%is purpose t%e %eat treatment is done on casting. ;t first solution treatment is done at &+@ to &=@ NC in pit t!pe electric furnace. #%en t%ese pistons are 7uenc%ed in water to a6oid soft spots due to bubble formation w%ile castings are rapidl! dipped in * out in water. ;fter solution treatment * 7uenc%ing, t%e precipitation treatment is done on casting. or t%is purpose t%e furnace <sed in boG t!pe, electricall! %eated furnace. #%e temperature ac%ie6ed is 1+@-2@@ NC * duration is ) %rs. ;fter t%e precipitation treatment we get re7uired %ardness i.e. up to '@ "9..

12

Menon Pistons Limited, Plant II, MIDC Kupwad '.+PI(T2N M 9*IN4 (*2P< 9N9 Turning< #urning of t%e casting is carried out on C3C IComputer 3umeric ControlJ mac%iner!. #%is e7uipment is t%e most accurate and fastest a6ailable for t%is application wit% 6er! tig%t tolerances and eGtremel! fast spindle speeds. #%e castings are placed in t%e lat%e on a bung and %eld in place b! a solid rod t%roug% t%e gudgeon pin %ole. ; draw bolt is acti6ated in t%e c%uc/ w%ic% draws t%e rod toward t%e c%uc/ and %olds t%e piston in place.

Img 11. #urning 6roo%ing < #o locate t%e piston rings on t%e piston t%ere is need to formation of groo6es. #%ese groo6es are formed in two successi6e operations as roug% groo6ing * finis% groo6ing. #%is groo6ing is of 1 to & or more in number depending on design * re7uirement of piston.

Img 12.groo6ing

1$

Menon Pistons Limited, Plant II, MIDC Kupwad -rilling< Drilling includes all oil %oles in places suc% as t%e gudgeon pin bosses and oil ring groo6es. Slotting is w%ere slots are placed in t%e s/irt or in t%e oil ring groo6e. 9ran! relie%ing< Cran/ relie6ing is carried out on a specialiDed mac%ine w%ic% scallops t%e s/irt of t%e piston to t%e re7uired s%ape and dept% b! using two opposed cutters Placed on a common s%aft. 6rinding<

Img 1$. Arinding #%is process in6ol6es t%e final siDe being mac%ined on t%e piston. #%e grinder mac%ines t%e s/irt of t%e piston onl! and in t%e maLorit! of cases is cam ground. Cam grinding ensures t%e piston will OgrowO e6enl! in t%e bore of t%e engine.

;orm Turning < Suc% operation is called cam or cop! turning. In suc% operation a masterpiece or cam made of wear less material * follower made of fiber are used * connected wit% turning tool b! spring * connections. Reaming< #%is operation is done for lubrication purpose. Suc% t!pe of drilling is perpendicular or inclined to t%e piston aGis depending on re7uirement of piston *

1&

Menon Pistons Limited, Plant II, MIDC Kupwad design. #%is operation is done as per re7uirement t%at some pistons re7uire a single %ole w%ile some re7uire a double %oles parallel *one below ot%er.

Img 1&. 9eaming #%e final mac%ining process for t%e piston is t%at of reaming. #%is process in6ol6es t%e piston being placed in a bat% of oil and reamed at different siDes to reac% t%e final siDe re7uired. Since t%e pin boring process is onl! roug% it is necessar! to ream t%e pin bore a number of times to ac%ie6e t%e surface finis% and siDe re7uired. Burnis$ing < It is super finis%ing operation. "ere t%e rollers mounted on spindle s%afts are act t%e tool for finis%ing bore. Kerosene is used as coolant for t%is operation. 2 or $ microns material is remo6ed in t%is operation.

1'

Menon Pistons Limited, Plant II, MIDC Kupwad '.& (3R; 94 TR4 TM4NT< Tin Plating < During t%is operation first anodiDing is done * t%en after tin plating is done. .! performing t%is operation we pro6ide t%in plating of tin on piston as per our re7uirement. <suall! t%is t!pe of plating is done for K2:L, 92CK:#, * A9::1:S pistons. or anodiDing t%e solution contains4 Eater P sulp%uric acid P oGalic acid #%is oGalic acid is used to maintain t%e temperature of solution. ;lso plating is done for K2:L pistons * in t%is acetic acid is used is solution. :.g. #;#; pistons are coated wit% grap%ite powder * t%en %eated.

Dispatc%
;fter cleaning, inspection, * punc%ing t%e pac/ing * dispatc%ing is done * send t%e piston storage. '.) PIN *4 T TR4 T M4NT< "eat #reatment is t%e controlled %eating and cooling of metals to alter t%eir p%!sical and mec%anical properties wit%out c%anging t%e product s%ape. "eats #reatment is often associated wit% increasing t%e strengt% of material, but it can also be used to alter certain manufacturabilit! obLecti6es suc% as impro6e mac%ining, impro6e formabilit! and restore ductilit! after a cold wor/ing operation. 9ar#uri@ing< #%e met%od of increasing t%e carbon on t%e surface of steel is called as CarburiDing. It consist of %eating t%e steel in austenitic region carburiDing medium. -iffusion< . #%e diffusion is carried out for 2%rs. #%e temp is =1'NC same as carburiDing. *ardening< #%e %ardening is carried out at +&@NC. #%e soc/ing time is $@min. in contact wit%

1(

Menon Pistons Limited, Plant II, MIDC Kupwad Tempering< #%e obLect of tempering or drawing is to reduce brittleness in %ardened steel * to remo6e internal strain caused b! sudden cooling in 7uenc%ing bat%. #empering process consist in %eating steel b! 6arious means to a certain temperature * cooling it. #empering is carried out in oil bat% mostl!. (u#@ero treatment< #%e subDero treatment is carried out at -)@ NC to -+@NC. Due to subDero treatment, t%e retained austenite get transformed to Martensite. '.. PIN M 9*IN4 (*2P< ;fter doing %eat treatment on pin a lot of gudgeon pin stored for furt%er mac%ining in pin storage department. Menon piston produces 1+) no. of pins of 6arious companies including "ero "onda, K2:L, Le!land &@@, and #ata indica )', :scort s$12clas, 9oc/et +@ etc. irst of all in introduced for Center less grinding in w%ic% eGcessi6e material up to 1@@-1'@?mu.m will remo6ed. Pro/esses in pin ma/$ine s$op < 1. (urfa/e 6rinding '. 9enterless grinding +. I.- = 2.- /$amfer

'.A T22L R22M = T22L 9RIB<


In t%is department or s%op, all e7uipment re7uired for production on mac%ine is stored. #%e! issued as per re7uirement. In t%is s%op, no. of e7uipment li/e spigot, clamp, clamp rod, clamp pin, A2-32A2 gauges, center plate, Lig plate, fiGture, mandrills, locators, 6arious roug%ing * finis%ing tool groo6ing forming tool. In t%is s%op Master cam re7uired for form turning also stored. *ori@ontal (pindle, Re/ipro/ating Ta#le<6rinder< #%e spindle of mac%ine is %oriDontal and table reciprocates. #%is grinder is used to grind t%e s%an/ of tool wit% respect to its tip Magnetic s%uc/ is used to %old tool on t%e mac%ine.

1)

Menon Pistons Limited, Plant II, MIDC Kupwad

Tool = 9utter 6rinder< 2n t%is mac%ine operation li/e s%an/ radius, nose radius of tool is gi6en to tool. #ool is fiGed on fiGture and fed it again, t%e cone s%aped grinding w%eel. #%e angle re7uire is gi6en b! fiGture plate to tool * we get re7uired radius. or c%ec/ing form of tool li/e a form tool used form turning. #%e magnified s%ape is inspected on screen * re7uired s%are is obtained. #%e magnification obtained up to 1@B. .! using optical profile because dis%ing operation depends upon form tool. '.B C3 LIT: 92NTR2L< MPL stri6es %ard to pursue Customer satisfaction t%roug% t%eir Process Control and non destructi6e ,ualit! c%ec/s as well as maintenance and impro6ement of t%e ,ualit! S!stems. .! use of rigorous ,ualit! Standards and S!stems at 6arious stages of manufacturing wit% t%e computeriDed 2n-Line 0Statistical Process Control. #ec%ni7ues, MPL ensures t%at products w%ic% reac% t%e customers are defect free and %a6e been produced wit% t%e %ig%est International ,ualitati6e Standards. MPL %as been awarded and Certified b! t%eir 6alued Customers for t%eir ,ualit! related acti6ities and %a6e been recogniDed as t%e most >,ualit! Conscious and Consistent8 Supplier. ;ll Plants of MPL %a6e been certified for >IS2?#S 1(=&=8 2@@2 and t%e s!stems and procedures based on #PM, SiG Sigma principles are practiced in all locations. In t%is department inspection as well as 7ualit! control of piston * pins is done. Inspection * calibration of measuring are also done. In t%e inspection, soleG pneumatic comparator wit% ring gauge is used. 9ing gauge is of perfect re7uired dimension. #%e tolerance re7uired for pins is @.@@2mm. ;lso taper in pin * o6alit! of pin t%roug% ring gauge. or calibration, 6arious mac%ines are used to calibrate 6arious instruments used for measuring purpose. #%e! are 6er! accurate* appro6ed. #%e! are as follows4-ial /ali#ration Tester<#%is instrument is used for calibration of dial gauge used in line production. #%e dial indicator is %olding on stand 6erticall!. #%e pointer of de6ice of

1+

Menon Pistons Limited, Plant II, MIDC Kupwad instruments is touc% to st!lus of dial indicator to be c%ec/ed. #%e instrument %a6e one dial %a6ing 6arious mar/ing or scale on it. #%e list count of instruments is @.@@1mm I1 micronJ, w%ic% is 1?1@ t% of L.C. of dial gauge. #%e instrument dial is generall! related wit% fiGed scale * respecti6e readings are c%ec/ed on dial gauge reading, t%e reading of instrument c%ec/ed. Compared wit% dial gauge reading. #%e dial gauge to be c%ec/ed is wit%in tolerance t%en it accepted ot%erwise reLected. Roug$ness Tester Ma/$ine<#%is is full! automatic, surface teGture measuring mac%ine. #a!lor"obson, Limited ma/es t%is mac%ine. 2n t%is mac%ine, part to be c%ec/ed i.e. pin is mounted. #%e st!le w%ic% %a6ing sensor at its end is mounted. #%e lengt% is measured is feed to mac%ine. ;fter some period, w%en st!lus is mo6ed o6er t%e Surface of t%e pin t%e result is directl! printed out wit% grap%. result. Profile teDture testing ma/$ine< 2n t%is instrument, we c%ec/ t%e piston for o6alit!, taper, its diameter etc. it is 6er! sensiti6e, w%ic% respond 7uic/l! to c%ange. It is as simple dial indicator. #%e piston %eld between st!lus pointer * measurements are ta/en. Pin 2.-. /omparator< ;s discussed earlier, t%e pins c%ec/ed b! t%ese instruments also taper, o6alit! of pin is also c%ec/ed wit% t%e %elp of t%is de6ice. #%e comparator used for t%is is pneumatic comparator. #%is ring gauge is used for t%is purpose. #%e tolerance is wit%in @.@@2 mm. #%e least count of mac%ine is @.@@1 mm. #%e %undred M inspection is done on t%is mac%ine. Ee directl! get 6alues suc% as 9a, 9MS, CLS 6alue wit% t%eir respecti6e grap% from w%ic% we compare standard

1=

Menon Pistons Limited, Plant II, MIDC Kupwad

+ 9 (4 (T3-:
*4 T TR4 TM4NT 2; PIN< "eat #reatment is t%e controlled %eating and cooling of metals to alter t%eir p%!sical and mec%anical properties wit%out c%anging t%e product s%ape. "eats #reatment is often associated wit% increasing t%e strengt% of material, but it can also be used to alter certain manufacturabilit! obLecti6es suc% as impro6e mac%ining, impro6e formabilit! and restore ductilit! after a cold wor/ing operation. #%us it is a 6er! enabling manufacturing process t%at can not onl! %elp ot%er manufacturing process, but can also impro6e product performance b! increasing strengt% or ot%er desirable c%aracteristics. Steels are particularl! suitable for %eat treatment, since t%e! respond well to %eat treatment and t%e commercial use of steels eGceeds t%at of an! ot%er material. Material used for pin is low carbon steel rod. In t%is industr!, t%ese rods are cut * bored in re7uired siDe from ot%er factor!. .ecause of carbon M in steel rod about @.2M s%ows propert! li/e softness, ductile, malleable, %ardness of pin is 12@1&@ ."3 * tensile strengt% is &2@-&'@ M3?m2.Ee re7uired %ardness from gudgeon pin is about '+-(' "9C. So it goes for following %eat treatment process. 9ar#uri@ing< #%e met%od of increasing t%e carbon on t%e surface of steel is called as CarburiDing. It consist of %eating t%e steel in austenitic region in contact wit% carburiDing medium, %olding at t%is temperature for a sufficient period in austenitic region ,t%e solubilit! of carbon is more and %ence t%e carbon from medium diffuse into t%e steel i.e. in t%e austenite. "ig% carbon content on surface does not mean %ig% %ardness of surface, unless t%e carbon is present in t%e Martensitic form. "ence after carburiDing %ardness treatment is necessar! to bring carbon in t%e Martensitic form. Pro/edure< #%e pins are wired on t%e plate fiGture. #%e load contains 1+@ pins t%e load is placed in pit furnace. #%e furnace is %eated b! electrical coils I& coilsJ.#%e temp of furnace is maintained at =1'NC. #%e load is /ept about (%rs.in t%e furnace for carburiDing acetone and met%anol is used. #%e met%anol is used to create en6ironment

2@

Menon Pistons Limited, Plant II, MIDC Kupwad and acts as carrier gas. #%e acetone gi6es t%e carbon and nitrogen. #%e carbon is pressuriDed on pins at a pressure of 1@-2@ bar. #%e nitrogen is lig%t in weig%t so it comes at top, w%en it comes out from furnace t%e nitrogen is con6erted into water droplets w%ic% are not desirable so nitrogen is burn in flame.

Img 1'. pit furnace #%e temp of furnace is =1'NC so t%ere is c%ance to %eat t%e top portion of furnace. or t%is water cooling Lac/et is pro6ided at t%e top of furnace. "ence bottom portion of furnace is %eated and top portion is cool. #%e caps of furnace %a6e a special arrangement in w%ic% one piston pin is placed w%en load is /ept in furnace. #%is %elps to test w%et%er t%e proper carbon la!er is formed or not rat%er to remo6e w%ole load single pin is tested t%en load is remo6ed. -iffusion< ;fter carburiDing t%e carbon la!er formed on t%e pins is not uniform. #o ma/e t%e uniform la!er of carbon t%e pressure is reduced to Dero. #%e diffusion is carried out for 2%rs. #%e temp is =1'NC same as carburiDing. *ardening< #%e %ardening is carried out at +&@NC. #%e soc/ing time is $@min. .asic steps in "ardening4 #o %eat steel to some temperature abo6e it5s transformation point so t%at it becomes entirel! austenitic in structure. #o 7uenc% t%e steel at same rate faster t%an critical rate to produce Martensitic structure.

21

Menon Pistons Limited, Plant II, MIDC Kupwad MaGimum temperature to w%ic% a steel is %eated before 7uenc%ing to %arden it is called %ardening temperature. #%is temperature depends on C%emical composition. ;mount of eGcess ferrite. MaGimum grain siDe permitted. *ardening in salt #at$<

Img 1(. salt bat% furnace Molten bat% of 6arious salt miGture are used eGtensi6el! for %eat treating operation. Commercial salt bat% miGture are a6ailable t%at meet a wide range of temperature * ot%er metallurgical re7uirement. .at% ma! contain miGture of sodium, potassium, * calcium c%loride or nitrates sodium, potassium, calcium in 6ar!ing proportion to w%ic% sodium carbonate * sodium c!anide are added to pre6ent decarburiDation.

Tempering< #%e obLect of tempering or drawing is to reduce brittleness in %ardened steel * to remo6e internal strain caused b! sudden cooling in 7uenc%ing bat%. #empering process consist in %eating steel b! 6arious means to a certain temperature * cooling it. #empering is carried out in oil bat% mostl!.

22

Menon Pistons Limited, Plant II, MIDC Kupwad

Pro/edure in $eat treatment department< Initiall!, cutting pieces of low carbon steel bar punc%ed. Companies punc% our logo, mont%, *!ear in t%e form of Mp-C-(. Punc%ed pins are now %anged to rod at some distance. Suc% different rods are %anged to tra!, w%ic% is directl! used for %eat treatment. #%is tra! of pin is now first carburiDed. or w%ic% gas carburiDing furnace is used. In gas carburiDing, for production of carbon, acetone * met%anol are used, w%ic% flow is fiGed suc% as @.(-1 lit?%r. * @.$'-@.' lit?%r. respecti6el!. 9eaction is carried out at about =1@-=2@ degree C * carbon monoGide is gi6en out. QC5 from QC25 is reacting wit% Q e5 of pin. Eater cooling s!stem used for t%is furnace time for carburiDing process is about +-1@ %rs. ;fter CarburiDing process, tra! of pin is cooled in coolant furnace * t%en pins goes for %ardening. ;fter cooling pins, t%e! are separated * t%en t%e! are %ardened in salt bat% furnace or pol!mer 7uenc%ing. In salt bat% furnace, natural salt * sodium c!anide is used to maintain temperature. #%e temperature of furnace is +(@-++@NC. or pol!mer 7uenc%ing, pins carried wit%in (@sec. in pol!mer tan/. Pol!mer used for it is pol! al/aline gl!col.12-1+M pol!mer is used. #%e composition of 7uenc%ing medium is4

2@M s!nt%etic oil P +@M water


;fter %ardening, produced, %ad get %ardness (@-('."3. ;fter %ardening, produced internal stress is remo6ed b! tempering processR again tr! of pin is placed in furnace. Depend on siDe of pin, temp. * time is maintained. or or #ata5s pinCIL pintime S 1.'%r. * temp. S 1'@ time S &%r. * temp. S 2$@

;fter t%is %eat treatment %ardness of pin is measure. If in case %ardness is %ig% tempering is carried * if lower %ardening is carried out. In standard room we see case dept% * core %ardness b! QMIC92 ";9D3:SS #:S#:95.

2$

Menon Pistons Limited, Plant II, MIDC Kupwad (u#@ero treatment< #%e subDero treatment is carried out at -)@ NC to -+@NC. Due to subDero treatment, t%e retained austenite get transformed to Martensite. If t%e 7uenc%ed steel is %eld at room temp for some time before cooling less austenite I transformed to Martensite i.e. t%e austenite gets stabiliDed. #%ere fore, t%e subDero treatment s%ould be done immediatel! after %ardening. PIN M 9*IN4 (*2P< ;fter doing %eat treatment on pin a lot of gudgeon pin stored for furt%er mac%ining in pin storage department. Menon piston produces 1+) no. of pins of 6arious companies including "ero "onda, K2:L, Le!land &@@, and #ata indica )', :scort s$12clas, 9oc/et +@ etc. irst of all in introduced for Center less grinding in w%ic% eGcessi6e material up to 1@@-1'@?mu.m will remo6ed.

6rinding<
Arinding is t%e operation of remo6ing metal in t%e form of minute c%ips b! feeding t%e wor/ against a rotating abrasi6e w%eel /nown as t%e grinding w%eel. 9enter Less 6rinding<

ig. Centerless grinding Centerless grinding is t%e met%od of grinding eGterior c!lindrical, tapered * formed surface on wor/ pieces t%at are not %eld * rotated on centers.

2&

Menon Pistons Limited, Plant II, MIDC Kupwad #%e wor/ is placed upon t%e wor/ rest * latter, toget%er wit% t%e regulating w%eel is feed forward, forcing t%e wor/ against t%e grinding w%eel. #%e aGial mo6ement of t%e wor/ past t%e grinding w%eel is obtained b! tilting t%e regulating w%eel at a slig%t angle from %oriDontal. ;n angular adLustment of @ to + or 1@ degree is pro6ided in t%e mac%ine for t%is purpose. T49*NI9 L M 9*IN4... (P49I;I9 TI2N( ;2R 94NT4R4L4(( 6RIN-IN6

D:SC9IP#I23
Arinding range diameter Arinding w%eel siDe I2D G E G I.D.J 9egulating w%eel siDe I2D G E G I.D.J MaGimum Lengt% in indeed grinding

M2D:L SL-)'
2-)' mm $'@ G 1@@ G 12) mm 22' G 1@@ G )(.2 mm

1@@ mm MaGimum Lengt% in t%roug% feed grinding Arinding w%eel speed 9egulating w%eel speed Arinding w%eel motor 9egulating w%eel motor Coolant pumps motor. "!draulic power pac/ 9egulating w%eel ;ngle tilting <pper Slide swi6eling ;pproG. Eeig%t ;pproG. Mac%ine siDe mm. IL G . G "J #able no.1 1+@@ 9.P.M. 2@-&@-(@ 9.P.M. I1ariable speedJ ' "P?$.) Kw 1&&@ 9.P.M. - $P%ase 1 "P lange G 1&&@9.P.M. - $ P%ase @.1' "P $ P%ase @.' "P lange $ P%ase ' degree $ degree 1+@@ /g. 1+'@ G 11@@ G 1(@@ mm $@@ mm G )' mm

2'

Menon Pistons Limited, Plant II, MIDC Kupwad d%antages of 9enter less 6rinding< 1. ;s a true floating condition eGist during t%e grinding process less metal to remo6ed. 2. #%e E?P. being supported t%roug% its entire lengt% as grinding ta/es place t%ere is no tendenc! for deflection of t%e wor/ * small, fragile or slender E?P. can be grounded easil!. $. #%e process is continuous * adapted for production wor/. &. #%ere is no re7uirement of an! %olding de6ices li/e c%uc/, mandrel etc. *ardness test< ;fter first center less grinding pin will c%ec/ed for %ardness test, it is 6er! important to c%ec/ %ardness of t%e pin is wit%in desired limit or not. "ence in Menon Piston Compan! t%e! adopted 9oc/well "ardness test. Since in t%is met%od, %ardness of metal is correlated wit% t%e dept% of indentation. "arder t%e material dept% of indentation for a gi6en load. d%antages of Ro/!well $ardness test4 1. .rale indenter is used for testing of %ard material. 2. "ardness number is obtained directl! on t%e dial * %ence is free from personal errors. $. #est is 6er! fast. &. 2peration needs 6er! little training for operating t%ese instruments. 9enter less grinding 'nd< be

Img 1).Centerless grinding

2(

Menon Pistons Limited, Plant II, MIDC Kupwad

;fter completing surface g rinding gudgeon pin again tends to center less grinding 2nd. It is important to pass gudgeon pin 2to$ times to center less grinding process to ac%ie6e desired dimensions. "ence in 2nd center less grinding material up to (@T will remo6ed. 2.- =I.- 9$amfer< It is 6er! important to remo6e s%arp corners of pin considering strengt% of material becauseR as t%e stresses induced in pin first of all s%arp corners damaged. "ence c%amfer on t%e outer * inner diameter of pin is pro6ided. or t%is operation speed lat%e used %a6ing different collects for %olding different pins of 6arious diameters. eed was controlled pneumaticall!.

Center less grinding $rd4

Img 1+. Centerless grinding ;s t%e 2.D. * I.D. c%amfering is done gudgeon pin again tends to center less grinding $rd time to remo6e t%e material wit%in range of 1& to &2mm. ;t t%is time gudgeon pins dimensions are wit%in tolerance including material w%ic% will remo6e during lapping operation.

2)

Menon Pistons Limited, Plant II, MIDC Kupwad 9ra/! dete/tion< 3ow as t%e center less grinding is completed it is 6er! important to c%ec/ internal defects in gudgeon pin. #%ese defects are not possible to detect in macro inspect %ence non-destructi6e met%od is adopted for t%is purpose. "ence magnetic particle inspection met%od is used in t%is met%od special fluorescent ferromagnetic powders are applied b! wet met%od. #%e component is inspected in dar/ room wit% ultra6iolet lig%t of wa6e lengt% between $'@@ to &@@@ ;U. Suc% a powder emits greenis%-!ellow lig%t under t%e influence of ultra6iolet lig%t * gi6es a better contrast to detect a flaw, since gudgeon pins are placed on copper rod * magnetiDed in circular met%od as current pass t%roug% copper rod for a w%ile, according to s/in effect alternati6e current I;.CJ flow from surface of t%e component. "ence magnetic pole is formed at t%e crac/ or flaw w%ic% causes t%e magnetic powder to concentrate on t%is area * t%e flaw gets easil! detected. E%en flow gets magnetiDed in circular manner t%en lengt%wise crac/s are easil! detected. If an! defects are obser6ed in pin surface t%en pins get reLected, * ot%er pin passing successfull! send for furt%er operation i.e. lapping?super finis%ing. Lapping>super finis$ing< Lapping is t%e operation of siDing * finis%ing a small diameter %ole alread! %ardened b! remo6ing 6er! small amount of material b! using a lap. It is abrading process t%at is used to produce geometricall! true surface, correct minor surface imperfections, impro6e dimensional accurac! or pro6ide a close fit between two contact surfaces. In lapping mac%ine t%e laps Ipracticall! called ad stonesJ are placed in se7uence total + no laps are placed out of w%ic% last $ laps are for finis%ing purpose. Laps are placed in two saddles containing & laps eac%. :6er! lap tends pressure on t%e pin pneumaticall!. ; dial placed on t%e c!linders indicated pressure in eac% c!linder Iin barJ.Audgeon pins are placed wit% t%e %elp of rollers. 1ibration speed of laps * acceleration of rollers maintained proportional to get desired result. During lapping operation material up to @ to 'T will remo6ed.

2+

Menon Pistons Limited, Plant II, MIDC Kupwad or super finis%ing oil inLected on t%e gudgeon pi w%en t%e! roll on t%e rollers i.e."onilo-=+1 during rec!cling oil it is filtered $ times. Due to t%is oil we get %ig% 7ualit! of surface finis% on t%e pin. #%is is t%e last operation on gudgeon pin, after t%is operation pin are c%ec/ed under 6isual detection. "isual inspe/tion< During 6isual detection pins are cleaned b! using clot% * detected t%e defects li/e crac/s or dept% cuts on t%e surface of t%e gudgeon pin, if an! defects are not obser6ed on t%e surface of t%e pin will get reLected. If an! defects are not obser6ed on pin t%en pins sends for furt%er detection in standard room to c%ec/ dimensions of t%e pin are or not. (tandard room dete/tion< #%ese air conditioning rooms speciall! build for c%ec/ing dimensions 6er! accuratel! on %ig%l! calibrated gauges li/e surtronics $P, air plug gauge * optical flat etc. In surtronic $P mac%ine surface finis% of pin will c%ec/ed, pin was placed on t%e 1 bloc/ and rotated in contact wit% t%e %oriDontal member w%ose deflection are indicated on t%e dial, since less deflection results as desired finis%ing is ac%ie6ed. 2uter diameter will c%ec/ed wit% t%e %elp of air plug gauge. Pin passed t%roug% t%e circular plate as t%e pressure is applied on air 6al6e air get eGperience bac/ pressure %ence t%is c%ange will obser6ed on t%e dial connected to air plug. latness of t%e pin will c%ec/ed wit% t%e %elp of optical flat * ultra6iolet ra!s, in t%is met%od pin 6erticall! placed on t%e optical flat plate * ultra6iolet ra!s passed from t%e area of contact t%e appearance of t%e ultra6iolet ra! on screen will indicated t%e actual surface of t%e pin. Since t%e speed am flatness measuring c%art was pro6ided for anal!Ding t%e appearing s%ape on t%e screen during c%ec/ing.

2=

Menon Pistons Limited, Plant II, MIDC Kupwad

&.92N9L3(I2N
;s >Industrial Case stud!8 is introduced in t%e s!llabus, its good mo6e as it will %elp t%e students to interact wit% industr!. So t%at students can get actual practical /nowledge rat%er t%an t%eoretical one. In industr! I %a6e studied 6arious mac%ines, t%eir operations, t%eir wor/ing. It was a nice eGperience to stud! t%e management s/ills. ;lso t%e wor/ing aspects, problems occurring in industr! * %ow t%e! are o6ercome. I can conclude t%at t%e 6ocational training program pro6ides opportunit! to learn more * more t%ings w%ic% can not be studied in boo/s.

$@

Menon Pistons Limited, Plant II, MIDC Kupwad

).R4;4R4N94

$1