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BACKGROUND Asia Pacific as the new worlds center of political economy gravity The need of peace, stability, and

economic progress The salience of ASEAN o Speaking at the height of regional economic crisis three decades after the formation of ASEAN, Singapores oreign !inister S" #ayak$mar offered a rare acco$nt of the principles that are considered to be integral to the ASEAN %ay" &n his words, 'the Asean %ay stresses informality, organi(ation minimalism, incl$siveness, intensive cons$ltations leading to consens$s and peacef$l resol$tion of disp$tes )Acharya, p"*+, o the ASEAN model, or the so-called 'ASEAN %ay, which emphasi(ed informality and organi(ational minimalism )Acharya, p"-," o %hat enables the ASEAN members to assert the '$ni.$e character of their own brand of regionalism, especially when compared with the legal-rational instit$tionalism of %estern regional instit$tions )s$ch as the E/,, is not 0$st their adherence to the legal norms of non-interference and non-intervention, b$t the principle and practice of consens$s that is '0$stified with reference to a regional c$lt$ral style which has enthroned consens$s as the mod$s operandi of the Association )Acharya, p"1*, o ormer /N Secretary-2eneral 2eneral 3ofi Annan noted that 4ASEAN is not only a well-f$nctioning indispensable reality in the region, it is a real force to be reckoned with far beyond the region" )%eatherbee, p" 56, o regional instit$tion facilitates7 the development of tr$st, especially thro$gh norms of cond$ct8 the development of a 'regional c$lt$re b$ilt aro$nd common val$es s$ch as democracy, developmentalism or h$man rights8 the development of regional f$nctional pro0ects that enco$rage belief in a common destiny )e9amples incl$de common

c$rrency, ind$strial pro0ects,8 and the development of social learning, involving 'redefinition and 'reinterpretation of reality, e9change of self-$nderstandings, perception of realities and normative e9pectations among the gro$p of states and their diff$sion from co$ntry to co$ntry, generation to generation )Acharya, p" 1+," The issues of imbalances in the development and p o! ess of communities" economic communit#$ political and secu it#$ and socio%cultu al communit# o Economic interdependence may significantly facilitate the development of sec$rity comm$nities" &ndeed, :alem contends that sec$rity comm$nities re.$ire a 'high degree of political and economic integration as a necessary precondition of peacef$l relationships" Theories of regional integration have viewed economic regionalism )incl$ding the creation of free trade areas, c$stoms $nions and economic $nions, as a necessary precondition for improved prospects for regional peace and sec$rity )Acharya, p"+1, &ssues of political and development !ap o or &ndonesia, one of the challenges in reali(ing this framework is narrowing the development gap in the border areas that are directly ad0acent to neighboring co$ntries" The province of %est 3alimantan sho$ld be a concern given the province has a high level of connectivity to Sarawak, !alaysia, which is far more developed" ;espite sharing a border with Sarawak, %est 3alimantan Provinces gross domestic prod$ct )2;P, is appro9imately /S<6,=== a year lags far behind Sarawak with an appro9imate 2;P of aro$nd <66,=== a year" The development gap between Sarawak and %est 3alimantan can be regarded as evidence of the inability of an ASEAN mechanism to be en0oyed by the broader comm$nity" )The #akarta Post, !arch 6- 1=6+, o Not only is the gap higher between the >!?@ )>ambodia, !yanmar, ?aos and @ietnam, co$ntries b$t also among ASEAN-* co$ntries" )The #akarta Post, !arch 6- 1=6+,

o !ore immediate concerns for the prospective solidarity of the ASEAN 6= are the political differences that divide ASEAN members, both in terms of their domestic political systems and their strategic perceptions" )%eatherbee, p" 5A, &ssues of TAC$ and non%inte fe ence o ASEAN have critici(ed for never invoking its formal disp$te-settlement mechanism, the 'Bigh >o$ncil provided $nder the Treaty of Amity and >ooperation" o As one ASEAN foreign minister p$t it in 655C, 'DnEon-interference in the affairs of another co$ntry wasFthe key factor as to why no military conflict had broken o$t between any two member states since 65*C )Acharya, p"-C," o As new political entities with 'weak state str$ct$re and an e.$ally problematic lack of strong regime legitimacy the primary so$rces of threat to the national sec$rity of the ASEAN states were not e9ternal, b$t internal )Acharya, p"-A, The .$estion of 1=6- and post-1=6The needs of buildin! and consolidatin! secu it# communit# and ne'us (ith othe communit# o As !ichael ?eifers a$thoritative acco$nt of the origins of ASEAN points o$t, the political and sec$rity role of ASEAN was fo$nded $pon 'a common adherence to conventional international norms which incl$ded 'respect for 0$stice and the r$le of law in the relationship among co$ntries of the region and adherence to the principles of the /nited Nations >harter )Acharya, p" 1-," o Sec$rity comm$nities are like other social comm$nities in which members 'have attrib$tes in common, who display m$t$al responsiveness, confidence, and esteem, and who self-conscio$sly self-identify" ;e$tsch viewed the development of sec$rity comm$nities as an e9ercise in identity b$ilding, defined as 'some degree of generali(ed common identity or loyalty )Acharya, p"1C,

A!enda fo democ ac#$ development$ and peace buildin!)concepts$ no ms$ and p actices o &nvestigating regional sec$rity comm$nity-b$ilding instit$tions re.$ires st$dying the role that international and transnational instit$tions play in the social constr$ction of sec$rity comm$nities" Gy establishing, artic$lating and transmitting norms that define what constit$tes acceptable and legitimate state behavio$r, international organi(ations may be able to shape state practices" Even more remarkable, however, international organi(ations may enco$rage states and societies to imagine themselves as part of a region" This s$ggests that international organi(ations can be a site of interest and identity formation" Partic$larly striking are those cases in which regional organi(ations have been established for instr$mental reasons and later and $ne9pectedly gained an identity component by becoming a new site for interaction and so$rce of imagination" )Acharya, pp" 11-1+," o To p$t it differently, norms not only establish e9pectations abo$t how partic$lar actors will behave, they also 'teach states, which are e9posed to norms, new interests and identities )Acharya, p" 1H,"

The need of dialog$es, incl$sive programs and activities, and long-term cooperation The need to engage vario$s s$pporting partner

Refe ences" Acharya, Amitav" 1==+" Constructing a Security Community in Southeast Asia: ASEAN and the Problem of Regional Order" ?ondon7 Io$tledge %eatherbee, ;onald )ed," The #akarta Post" ASEAN and the Development ap in !order Areas" !arch 6-th, 1=6+" Ietrieved from http7JJwww"the0akartapost"comJnewsJ1=6+J=+J6-Jasean-anddevelopment-gap-border-areas"html