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Present perfect simple or continuous Often there is very little difference between the present perfect simple and

the present perfect continuous. In many cases, both are equally acceptable.

They've been working here for a long time but Andy has worked here for even longer. I've lived here for 10 years and she has been living here for 12 years.

To emphasize the action, we use the continuous form.


We've been working really hard for a couple of months. She's been having a hard time.

To emphasize the result of the action, we use the simple form.


I've made fifteen phone calls this morning. He's written a very good report.

Look at the difference in these examples.


I've been reading this book for two months but I've only read half of it. It's very difficult to read. She's been trying to convince him for 20 minutes but she hasn't managed to yet. They've been talking about this for month and they still haven't found a solution.

When an action is finished and you can see the results, use the continuous form.

The phone bill is enormous. You've been calling your boyfriend in Australia, haven't you? You're red in the face. Have you been running?

When you use the words 'ever' or 'never', use the simple form.

I don't know them. I've never met them. Have you ever heard anything so strange in your life.

BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR STRUCTURES AND VOCABULARY

A SHORT COURSE IN ENGLISH FOR ADULT STUDENTS


Prof. Juan Gmo. Moya Montaa

STUDENTS NAME

DEPARTAMENTO COMUNICACIONAL DEL EJRCITO

INDEX
Pg
Content Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5 Unit 6 Unit 7 Unit 8 Unit 9 Unit 10 Unit 11 Unit 12 Unit 13 Unit 14 Unit 15 Unit 16 Unit 17 Unit 18 Unit 19 Unit 20 Unit 21 Apendices 9 15 27 37 47 59 77 91 103 115 127 141 157 175 191 203 215 225 237 253 263 277 297
A short course in english for adult students

TABLE OF CONTENTS
PART ONE: ELEMENTARY LEVEL
UNIT 1
TO BE (Present, Past and Future) THE ENGLISH ALPHABET THE PHONETIC ALPHABET What?, Who?, How?, When?, Why?, How old? How long? What time? This, That, These, Those; A(N); The ; At, On, In ; Until, For Now, today; yesterday, the day before yesterday; last week / last year / last Monday, tomorrow, the day after tomorrow, next week, two days ago

UNIT 2

THERE TO BE (Present, Past and Future) SOME - NOT ANY - NO - ANY CARDINAL NUMBERS VOCABULARY: - People

How much? How many? Much, many, little, few, a lot, lots of, very little, very few

UNIT 3

HAVE GOT / HAS GOT ADJECTIVES ARTICLES I - Denite and Indenite TELLING THE TIME VOCABULARY: - Adjectives

Uncountable nouns: money, sugar, milk, water, work, etc. Countable nouns: people, men, students, books,etc. Oclock, quarter past / to, half past, minutes past / to In the morning / afternoon / evening; at night Noon / midday, midnight

UNIT 4

PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE Now, at present, at the moment, at this time, temporarily, for the time INFINITIVES AND GERUNDS being. TIME AND DATES How old?, How tall?, How far?, How long?, How high?, How fast?, ORDINAL NUMBERS How deep?, How thick?, How wide?, How big?, What color?, What size?, QUESTION WORDS 1 What shape?, What is / are ......... like? For describing people and things. VOCABULARY: - Numerals, Time and Dates

UNIT 5

SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY QUESTION WORDS II For requesting information. ARTICLES II - General and specic RELATIVE PRONOUNS: Who and Which VOCABULARY: - Time expressions (I) - Clothes

Every day, every week, every month, etc. Always, generally, usually, often, sometimes, never, etc. Once a day, twice a week, three times a year, etc. What?, Who?, Which?, Why?, Where?, How? Whom?, Whose?, How much?, How many?, How often?, How long?, What time?, What kind of?, What sort of?, etc.

UNIT 7

PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE IMPERATIVE FORM ARTICLES III - Nationalities, professions, titles and ranks; streets, cities, countries and geographical names. EXCLAMATORY FORM VOCABULARY: - The house

At that time, at 10:30 last night, etc., When Peter arrived this morning, when they got married, etc. Open the door, please. Please, dont do that. An American, a Chilean, an Englishman, etc. A doctor, an engineer, a secretary, etc. Mr. Scott, Cpt. Jones, Dr. White, etc. On Fifth Avenue, In Salt Lake City, In Canada, in the USA, in North Carolina, in the West Indies. What a tall woman!, What beautiful owers! What nice weather! How tall she is! How quickly time passes!

UNIT 8

SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE I: Will RELATIVE PRONOUNS: Who, Whom, Whose SOMEBODY / SOMEONE, SOMETHING, SOMEWHERE AND DERIVED WORDS VOCABULARY: - The City

John will come here tomorrow / the day after tomorrow / next week / next month / at this time tomorrow / at this time next year, etc. He said that he was tired. He told me that he was tired. Who is he? Whom did you see? Whose is that car? Whose care is it? : The man with whom Mary is working now, The man whose car is parked outside. Somebody / someone, something, somewhere, not anybody / not anyone, not anything, not anywhere, nobody / no one, nothing, nowhere

UNIT 9

SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE II : AM / IS / ARE+GOING TO....... IT TAKES........ / IT TOOK....... / IT WILL TAKE...... = DEMORAR COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES VOCABULARY: - Food

John is going to come here tomorrow / the day after tomorrow / next week, etc. It takes me 20 minutes to..... How long does it take to....? Short - shorter than- the shortest Intelligent, more intelligent than, the most intelligent As fast as....... Good - better - best, etc.

UNIT 10

SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE III : AM / IS / ARE+ING MODAL VERBS: CAN, MUST, MAY, SHOULD, OUGHT TO HAVE TO = TENER QUE VOCABULARY: - Parts Of The Body - Time Expressions II

John is coming here tomorrow / the day after tomorrow, etc. Bob can swim very well; Peter must be here at 8:15 tomorrow; You may use the phone now; They should t / ought to be more careful of what they say I have to buy another dictionary. This one is too old

UNIT 11

FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE MAKING REQUESTS ASKING FOR PERMISSION OFFERING TO DO SOMETHING INVITING OR SUGGESTING TO DO SOMETHING TOGETHER ALSO, TOO, AS WELL, SO; NOT...EITHER, NEITHER / NOR BUT POSITION OF DIRECT AND INDIRECT OBJECTS VOCABULARY: Our Health

They will be working at this time tomorrow / the day after tomorrow, etc. Can / Will / Could / Would you open the door please? Would you mind opening the door, please? Can I / May I / Do you mind if I open the window? Shall I / Do you want me to / Would you like me to open the window? Shall we / Would you like to / Why dont we / Lets go to a disco tonight; How about going to a disco tonight? The boy also speaks Italian; He speaks Italian, too / as well; The boy speaks Italian and so does the girl. Peter doesnt like golf and I dont like it either; Peter doesnt like golf and neither do I. The boy speaks Italian, but the girl doesnt.. Bob sent some owers to his girlfriend; Bob sent his girlfriend some owers; Bob sent her some owers.

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A short course in english for adult students

PART TWO: INTERMEDIATE LEVEL


UNIT 12
PRESENT PERFECT TENSE PLURALIZATION OF NOUNS USE OF INFINITIVES AND GERUNDS I VERB + GERUND VOCABULARY: - Prepositions and Connectors I have seen that movie Mary hasnt nished typing it yet Have they arrived already? Just,before, lately, once, twice, three times, never, already, not yet, yet / already?, since, for, ever Book / books; brush / brushes; knife / knives; baby / babies; day / days; etc. Irregular plural forms Enjoy playing, keep talking, etc. Go skiing, go shopping, etc.

UNIT 13
PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE USE OF INFINITIVES AND GERUNDS II A. Verb + to-innitive B. Verb + somebody + bare innitive C. Verb + gerund / bare innitive D. Verb + somebody + bare innitive / to-innitive E. Verb + ing / to-innitive TAG ENDINGS VOCABULARY: - Sports and Recreation I have been working all day They agreed to meet outside the theater. He will let them play He wants us to go, too I saw her crossing / cross the road. Ill help you do / to do that I like to playing / to play golf The oor needs cleaning / to be cleaned He works well, doesnt he? He didnt come to the meeting, did he?

UNIT 14
PAST PERFECT TENSE ADVERBS: FORMATION AND COMPARISON REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS PAST TENSE OF GOING TO VOCABULARY: - Nature He had seen the lm before The train had already left when he arrived Quickly, carefully, certainly, etc. Fast, hard, early, late, soon More quickly, more carefully, etc. Sooner, harder, earlier, etc. He cut himself; He himself did it; He lives all by himself We were going to play football but it began to rain

UNIT 15
PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE PAST TENSE OF SHOULD / OUGHT TO WOULD RATHER / HAD BETTER MODAL VERBS II: COULD DO SOMETHING - COULD HAVE DONE SOMETHING - MUST / CAN / MUST HAVE, / CANT HAVE DONE SOMETHING - MAY, MIGHT, MAY HAVE / MIGHT HAVE DONE SOMETHING VOCABULARY: - The Weather He had been working all day He should have studied harder. / He ought to have done it Youd better take a taxi if you want to be there before your train leaves We could go to the movie We could have gone to the movie He must be very tired He cant be hungry already He must have gone home He cant have done that alone It may / might be true You must have / might have left it in the shop

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UNIT 16

FUTURE PERFECT TENSE SEQUENCE OF VERB TENSES THE PRESENT TENSE AFTER WHEN, AS SOON AS, UNTIL, ETC. USE OF ELSE, OR ELSE / OTHERWISE VOCABULARY: - The Workshop

They will have nished the work by then He says hes tired / He said he was tired. When I see her tomorrow....... Do you need anything else? Ill take a taxi, or else Ill miss my ight.

UNIT 17

THE PASSIVE VOICE BE SUPPOSED TO VOCABULARY: - The Armed Forces I

The book was published in 1998 The train is supposed to arrive at 9:45

UNIT 18

CONDITIONAL SENTENCES SUBJUNCTIVE AFTER WISH VERB + PRESENT OF SUBJUNCTIVE VOCABULARY: - The Armed Forces II

If you study hard youll pass the course If you studied harder youd get better marks If you had studied harder you would have passed the course I wish I could swim I wish I had seen her I wish it would stop snowing I suggest that she wait a few minutes.

UNIT 19

REPORTED SPEECH A. STATEMENTS B. QUESTIONS C. COMMANDS, ORDERS VOCABULARY: - Regular and Irregular Verbs

He He He He

said he wanted to go told me that he wanted to go asked me where they were told me to sit down

UNIT 20

USEFUL ENGLISH PHRASES AND EXPRESSIONS IN ENGLISH FOR TRAVELLERS

At a social gathering At a hotel At a restaurant How to get to places At the station / airport Shopping

UNIT 21

ASSESSMENT TEST

Students Question Booklet Answer Sheet Answer Key Teachers Text Script

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A short course in english for adult students

BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR STRUCTURES AND VOCABULARY

PART ONE

ELEMENTARY LEVEL

Bl 14

UNIT 1
PART I. TO BE (A fi)
A. Timpul prezent: AM /m/ , IS /iz/, ARE /a:r/ 1.Verbul TO BE are 3 forme de prezent: AM - IS - ARE
I am /ai m/ You are /i :r/ He is /hi: z/ She is /shi: z/ It is /it z/ ( Eu sunt) (Tu esti) (El este) (Ea este) (Obiecte) We are /wi: :r/ You are /i :r/ They are /i
:r/

(NOi suntem) (Uds. son/estn) (Ellos/as son/estn)

En conversacin, normalmente se usan las contracciones Im. Youre, Hes, Shes, Its, Were, Theyre. Escuche, repita y aprenda:
What? /wt/ Ce? Who? /hu:/ Quin?; Where? /war/ Unde?;How? /hu/ Cum?; This /is/ aceasta, That /t/ acela; These /:z/ acestea; Those /uz/ acelea A/ a/(in fata la o cons) o/un;, An /an/ (in fata la vocala) o/un;, The /e (antes de cons.) , i/ (antes de vocal) el, la, los, las; At /t/ en; In /in/ en; On /on/ encima de; Now /nu/ ahora; Today /tudi/ Hoy da; Thanks /ks/ gracias; Thank you /k iu:/ gracias; Fine /fin/ bien; Very well /vri ul/ muy bien; Much better /match bter/ mucho mejor

What is this? /wt iz is/ Qu es esto? Whats that? /wots t/ Qu es eso? What are these? /wt a:r :z/, Qu son stos? What are those? /wt a:r uz/, Qu son esos? Is this a pen? /iz is a pn/ Is that a house? /is t a hus/ Are these books? /a:r :z bks/ Are those cars? /:r uz k:rz/ Who is that man? /h iz t mn/ Whos that woman? /h:z t wman/ . Who are those men? /h: a:r uz mn/ Where is Bob? /war iz bb/ Wheres the car? /warz e k:r/ Wheres the book? /warz e bk/ Where are the cars? /war a:r e k:rz/ Where are the students? /war a:r e sti:dents/ How are you? /hu :r iu:/ Hows John? /huz dlln/ How are the children? /hu a:r e tchldrn/

It is a pen. /its a pn/ Es un lpiz Its an ambulance. /its an mbiulans/ Es una ambulancia They are books. /ei a:r bks/ Son libros Theyre cars. /eir k:rz/ Son autos Yes, Yes, Yes, Yes, it is. Its a pen /is,it iz. its a pn/ It is. Its a house. /is it iz its e hus/ they are. Theyre books. /is, ei :r. eir bks/ they are.Theyre cars. /is, ei :r.eir k:rz/

Hes Mr. Jones, the new instructor. /hi:z e ni: instrktor/ Shes Miss Black, the secretary. /shi:z e skretri/ Theyre Bob, Jim and Tom, the students. /eir e sti:dents/ Hes at home. /hi:z at hum/ Its in the garage. /its in e gridll/ Its on the desk. /its on e dsk/ Theyre in the car park. /ir in e k:r p:rk/ Theyre in the lab. /ir in e lb/ Im ne, thanks. /im fin, ks/ Hes much better, thanks. /h:z mtch bter, ks/ Theyre very well, thank you. /eir vri wl k iu/

2. La forma negativa se expresa usando la palabra not. Normalmente formando las contracciones ISN T /znt/ o AREN T /:rent/ Iam not /ai m nt/ You are not /i :r nt/ He is not /hi: iz nt/ She is not /sh: iz nt/ It is not /it iz nt/ We are not /w: a:r nt/ They are not /ei a:r nt/ ---------------------------You arent /iu :rent/ He isnt /h: znt/ She isnt /sh: znt/ It isnt /it znt/ We arent /w: :rent/ They arent /ei :rent/ Im not /aim nt/ Youre not /ir nt/ Hes not / h:z nt/ Shes not /sh:z nt/ Its not /its nt/ Were not /w:r nt/ Theyre not /eir nt/
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Escuche, repita y aprenda:

is not /iz nt/, isnt /znt/ ; are not /a:r nt/, arent /:rent/; here /har/ aqu; there /ar/ all; over there /uver ar/ all ---------------------------They arent students. He isnt here. They arent there. It isnt a train. He isnt very well. They arent in the lab. Im not a pilot Theyre not students. Hes not here. Theyre not there. Its not a train. Hes not very well. Theyre not in the lab.

I am not a pilot. /pilot/ They are not students /sti:dnts/. He is not here /har/. They are not there /(ar/ It is not a train. /trin/ Bob is not very well /vri wl/ The students are not in the lab /lb/.

Escuche, repita y aprenda estas preguntas y respuestas: Is this a pen? /pn/ Is that a tank? /tk/ Are these books? /bks/ Are those chairs? /tcharz/ No, No, No, No, it isnt. (Its not a pen.) Its a pencil. /pnsl/ it isnt. (Its not a tank.) Its a truck. /trk/ they arent. (Theyre not books.) Theyre magazines. /mgazinz/ they arent. (Theyre not chairs). Theyre tables /tiblz/.

3. La forma interrogativa se expresa mediante simple inversin de orden con el sujeto de la oracin. Am I? /am ai/ Are you? /:r i:/ Is he? /z h:/ Is she? /z sh:/ Is it? /z it/ * Arent I? * /:rent ai / Arent you? /:rent iu:/ Isnt he? /znt hi:/ Isnt she? /znt shi:/ Isnt it? /znt it/ Are we? /:r w:/ Are you? /:r i:/ Are they? /:r ei/ Arent we? /:rent wi:/ Arent you? /:rent i:/ Arent they? /.rent ei/

Debido a que no existe una contraccin para AM NOT, habitualmente se usa ARENT en este caso. En conversacin coloquial se usa la contraccin AINT /int/ Ejemplo: Arent I your friend? Aint I your friend?

Escuche, repita y aprenda: Am I right? /m i rit/ Estoy correcto? Are you all right? /.r iu: :l rit/ Ests bien? Is he a captain? /z hi: a kptin/ Es l un capitn? Are they busy? /:r ei bzi/ Estn ellos ocupados? Is my answer correct? /z mai :nser korkt/ Arent I right? /:rent ai rit/ No estoy en lo cierto? Arent you tired? /:rent iu tiard/ No ests cansado? Isnt she a nurse? /znt shi. a ne:rs/ No es ella una enfermera? Arent they happy? /:rent ei hpi/ No estn ellos felices? Isnt this question correct? /znt is kwstchion korkt/

EXERCISES Ex. 1. Use the correct form of the verb TO BE (am/is/are) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The teacher in the classroom now. John and Mary good friends. The men tired. Those vehicles slow-moving.(vehculos lentos) Those weapons powerful. (armas-poderosas) 6. Doctor Smith busy right now. 7. The train ten minutes late. 8. an undergraduate student. 9. The instructors name John Doe. 10. The instructors in the staff-room. (sala de profs.)

Ex. 2. Answer these questions, as in the example Is Tom a pilot? 1. Are you in the ofce? 2. Is that man Mr. Clark? 3. Are we ready to go? 4. Am I a good instructor? 5. Are the students in class? 6. Is Miss Jones a secretary? 7. Is this a modern plane?
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A short course in english for adult students

Yes, he is. Hes a pilot. Yes, Yes,

8. Are the manuals updated?(actualizados) 9. Is the bank open? 10.Are you hungry? (hambriento) Ex. 3. Answer the questions as in the example: Are they instructors? (students) 1. Are the boys angry? enojados (hungry) hambrientos 2. Are you thirsty? sedientos (hungry) 3. Is Bob at home? en casa (at work) en el trabajo 4. Are the children happy? felices (sad) tristes 5. Is your brother a doctor? (an engineer) 6. Are your friends American? (British) 7. Are you a navy ofcer?(an army ofcer) 8. Is the table clean? limpia (dirty) sucia 9. Are the men old? viejos (young) jvenes 10.Is Cpt. Bowman on duty? de servicio (off duty) de franco No, they are not. (They arent instructors) They re students No, ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( (

) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) )

Ex. 4 Ask questions, as in the example below: The Browns - at home 1. The manager / in his ofce 2. Peter and John / in class 3. The course / interesting 4. Your friends / from Canada 5. The computer / connected to Internet 6. The package / light or heavy (liviano o pesado) 7. The pictures / clear (ntidas, claras) 8. The children / in the playground.(patio) 9. The CDs / in the drawer (gaveta) 10. The maps / in the library (biblioteca) Are the Browns at home?

Ex. 5. Ask questions using the wh-words What?, Who?, Where?, How?, as in the example: Its a plane. 1. Its a knife 2. Theyre books 3. The cigarettes are in the bag 4. Im ne, thanks 5. The cats under the sofa 6. Its a chair 7. That boys my brother 8. The books are on the table 9. The children are tired 10.That womans my wife Whats this? o Whats that?

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Ex. 6. Complete and practise these dialogues with a partner. 1. Robert Jack Robert Jack 2. Frank John Frank John Frank 3. Peter Michael Peter Michael Peter Michael Peter Michael 4. Jack Jim Jack Jim Jim Jack Janet : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : How do you do? My name Robert Brown. How do you do? My name Jack Richardson. Where I American. I from Appleton, Wisconsin. Oh. That very interesting. Hello. My name Frank. What your name? My name John. How you? I ne, thanks. you a student here? No, I not. I an instructor. Oh. Pleased to meet you, Sir. Hello, Mike Hello, Peter. Who that girl? She Mary. She a new student. Where she from? She from Australia. she single? No, she . She married. Oh. Thats bad news. Where you, Jim? I here, in the library. you alone? No, I .I with my friend Janet. Come and meet her. (pausa) This Janet. She my classmate . She from London. Hello, I glad to meet you, Jane. How you? I ne, Jack. Im glad to meet you, too.

you from, Mr. Brown?

B. EL TIEMPO PASADO: WAS /woz/ - WERE /wer/ 1. El verbo TO BE tiene las siguientes formas en el tiempo pasado: WAS /woz/ - WERE /wer/
I was /ai wz/ (yo era/estaba/fui/estuve) You were /i: w:r/ (T eras/estabas/fuiste/estuviste) He was /h: wz/ (El era/estaba/fue/estuvo) She was /shi: wz/ (Ella era/estaba/fue/estuvo) It was /it wz/ (era/estaba/fue/estuvo)

We were /wi: w:r/ (Nos. ramos/estbamos/fuimos/estuvimos) You were /i: w:r/ (Uds. eran/estaban/fueron/estuvieron) They were /ei
w:r/ (Ellos/as an/estaban/fueron/estuvieron)

Escuche, lea y aprenda:


When? /wn/, Cundo? Why? /wi/, Por qu?; How old? /hu uld/ Last week /l:st w:k/ ; la semana pasada Two days ago /t: diz agu/ The day before yesterday /e di bifr jsterdei/ anteayer Last night

Qu edad? Hace dos das Yesterday /jsterdei/ ayer; /la:st nit/ anoche

I was very busy yesterday. /ai woz vri bzi isterdei/ John was at home all day today. /dlln woz at hum :l di tudi/ We were in Paris last year /wi w:r in pris la:st ar/ Mary was the best student in my class. / mri woz e bst sti:dent in mai kls/ They were very good friends. /ei w:r vri gud frndz/ Mr. Jackson was here three weeks ago. /mster djkson woz har r: w:ks agu/

(Yo estuve muy ocupado ayer) (John estuvo en casa todo el da hoy) (Nosotros estuvimos en Paris del ao pasado) (Mary era la mejor alumna de mi curso) (Ellos eran / fueron muy buenos amigos) (Mr Jackson estuvo aqu hace 3 semanas).

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A short course in english for adult students

2. La forma negativa se expresa usando NOT despus de WAS o WERE. Normalmente se usan las contracciones WASNT /wznt/ o WERENT /w:rent/. Escuche, lea y aprenda: I was not very busy last week. /ai woz nt vri bzi l:st w:k/ (Yo no estuve muy ocupado la semana pasada) John wasnt at home this morning. /dlln wznt at hum is mrnin/ (John no estuvo en casa esta maana) We werent in New York last year. /wi w:rent in ni: irk l:st ar/ (Nosotros no estuvimos en N.Y. el ao pasado) Mary wasnt a good student at high school. /mri wznt a gd sti:dent at hi sk:l/ (Mary no era una buena alumna en el liceo) They werent very hardworking. /ei w:rnt vri h:rdwrki/ (Ellos no eran muy trabajadores) 3. La forma interrogativa se expresa invirtiendo el orden de WAS / WERE con el sujeto Escuche, lea y aprenda: Were you in class this morning? /we:r i: in kls is mrnin/ Was John sick yesterday? /woz dlln sk isterdi/ Was Mary a good student at school? /woz mri a gd sti:dent at sk:l/ Where were you at this time yesterday? /war w:r i at is tim isterdi/ Why was Jim absent from work? /wi woz dllm bsent from w:rk/
(Estuviste en clase esta maana?) (Estuvo John enfermo ayer?) (Era Mary una buena alumna en el colegio?) (Dnde estabas a esta hora ayer?) (Por qu estuvo Jim ausente del trabajo?)

EXERCISES: Ex. 1. Complete these sentences with the proper form of the verb TO BE, present or past: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. John in New York the day before yesterday but he in Chicago today. They free today, but they at work yesterday. Today Monday. Yesterday Sunday. Where the Johnsons last weekend? Where they today? The elevator out of order last night, but it working well now. John nt in the ofce at ten this morning because he at a meeting. Bob very sick yesterday, but he much better today.

Ex. 2. Change the following sentences into a) Negative b) interrogative 1. The secretary was busy at midday. 2. They were good friends at school. 3. The weather was ne that day. 4. The men were tired after the long walk. 5. Mary was late for the train this morning. 6. Henry was at the movie at 7 P.M.

Ex. 3. Ask questions using wh-words like What? Where? When?,Why?, How?, How old, Who? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Tom was at home at midnight last night. John was in the car at that moment. Liz was in bed because she was sick. The Smiths were in Chile in 1985. George was a little better this morning. Mr Clark was about 85 years old when he died.

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C. EL TIEMPO FUTURO: WILL BE /will bi:/ 1. El tiempo futuro del verbo TO BE se expresa mediante el uso del Verbo Modal WILL seguido del innitivo BE. Normalmente se usa la contraccin ll en la conversacin diaria informal.
I will be /ai wil b:/ (Yo ser / estar) You will be /i: wil b:/ (T sers / estars) He will be /hi: wil b:/ (El ser / estar) She will be /sh: wil b:/ (Ellas ser / estar) It will be /it wil b:/ (Ser / estar) We will be /w: wil b:/ (Nos.seremos / estaremos) You will be /i: wil b:/ (Uds. sern / estarn) They will be /ei
wil b:/ (Ellos / as sern estarn)

Tambin se pueden usar las siguientes contracciones: Ill be /il b:/ Escuche, lea y aprenda:
How long? /hu l/ Cunto tiempo? Until /antl/ hasta; For /for/ por What time? /wt tim/ Qu Next week /nekst wi:k/ la prxima semana; The day after tomorrow /e di :fter tumrou/ pasado
hora? Tomorrow /tumrou/ maana; maana

Youll be /iu:l b:/

Hell be /h:l b:/

Theyll be /eil b:/

I will be very busy this afternoon. /i wil b: vri bzi is a:ftern:n/ . Estar muy ocupado esta tarde John will be in class until 1 oclock. /dlln wil b: in kl:s antil wn oklk/ John estar en clases hasta la 1 Itll be hot tomorrow. /tl b: hot tumrou/ Estar caluroso maana Ill be on leave for two weeks. /ail b: on l:v for t: w:ks/ Yo estar con permiso por dos semanas 2. La forma negativa se expresa usando la palabra NOT despus del verbo modal WILL Normalmente se usa la contraccin WONT /wunt/. Escuche, lea y aprenda: I will not be very busy tomorrrow. /ai wil nt b: bzi tumrou/ No estar muy ocupado maana Mary will not be at home today. /mri wil nt b: at hum tudi/ Mary no estar en casa hoy da. They wont be here all day. /ei wunt b: har :l dei/ Ellos no estarn aqu todo el da It wont be cold tonight. /it wunt b: kuld tunit/ No estar frio esta noche 3. La forma interrogativa se expresa usando el verbo modal WILL o la contraccin WONT delante del sujeto. Escuche, lea y aprenda: Will you be free tomorrow evening? /wil i: b: fr: tumrou :vnin/ Estars libre maana en la noche? Will the test be difcult? /wil e tst b: dkalt/ Ser dicil la prueba? Will they be here on Monday? /wil ei b: har on mndei/ estarn ellos aqu el lunes? Wont you be at the meeting? /wunt i. bi: at e m:tin/ No estars t en la reunin? When will they be here again? /wn wil ei b: har agin/ Cundo estarn ellos aqu nuevamente? How long will they be in Washington? /hu lo wil ei b: in wshiton/ Canto tiempo estarn ellos en Washington? What time will you be back? /wt tim wil iu: b: bk/ A qu hora estar Ud. de regreso? EXERCISES: Ex. 1. Complete the sentences as in the example: John is not at home today, but he 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
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(will be at home)

tomorrow. next semester. the day after tomorrow. this evening. after lunch. in ten minutes. next Monday. next month.

Tom and Jack arent in the same class this semester, but they John isnt absent today, but he It is not very cold now, but it We are not busy right now, but we I am not in my ofce at the moment, but I Mr.Johnson was not at the meeting last week, but he The weather was not very nice last month, but it
A short course in english for adult students

Ex. 2. Change the following sentences into the negative and the interrogative forms. 1. John will be in class today. 2. Itll be hot tomorrow. 3. My friends will be here before 12. 4. The program will be interesting. 5. Maryll be in the ofce all morning. 6. Ill be in the rst team. 7. They will be in the next town before midday.

Ex. 3. Ask questions using Where?,When?,Why? How?, How long?, What time?, etc. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. All the shops will be closed tomorrow because its Sunday. I will be free next Tuesday morning. The students will be in the lab this afternoon. They will be here at ten-thirty. The weather will be very nice this month. Mary will be in New York next weekend. She will be back in Chile on Wednesday. They will be at home all day because the weather is not good. Mr. Johnson will be absent from work for three days?

Ex. 4. Answer the following questions, in English. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Where were you at this time yesterday? When will you be on vacation again? How are you today? Who was absent from class last Monday? Why is your friend in bed at this time? Where were you last weekend? Who was with you at the party last Saturday? When is the next general meeting? Where will you be at this time tomorrow? Why were you absent from class last Friday?

Ex. 5. Translate the following sentences into English: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Ellos estarn muy ocupados maana en la maana. Esos nios no son muy buenos alumnos. Dnde estn tus amigos ahora? Quin estuvo aqu esta maana? Nosotros no estuvimos aqu la semana pasada. Ella ser una excelente secretaria. Ellos fueron buenos amigos en el colegio Los informes no estaban listos todava. Mr Jackson estuvo en la ocina todo el da. Cundo estn ellos libres todo el da? Quin era ese hombre? Este no es un libro muy interesante. Alguien estuvo aqu ayer en la tarde. Cundo estar Ud. en esa ciudad nuevamente?
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PART II.

THE ENGLISH ALPHABET

Vowels:

A
/i/

E
/i:/

I
/i/

O
/u/

U
/i/

Consonants:

B
/bi:/

C
/si:/

D
/di:/

G
/dlli:/

P
/pi:/

T
/ti:/

V
/vi:/

F
/ef/

L
/el/

M
/em/

N
/en/

S
/es/

X
/eks/

Z
/zed/*

J
/dlli/

H
/eitch/

K
/kei/

Y
/ui/

Q
/ki/

W
/dbliu/

R
/a:r/

* En Ingls Americano la letra Z se pronuncia /zi:/

PRACTICE EXERCISES: Ex. 1. Puede leer estas series de letras? 1. E - I - O - A - E - I - E - O - U - I - U - A -E 2. P - G - B - V - T - C - Z - L - F - N - S - X - D - B - C - L - M - X - V -B 3. J - Y - Q - W - H - K - Y - R - C - L - H - G - N - Y - Q - T - X - W - R - Z - J - K - F 4. E - C - L - M - X - V - B - A - I - B - D - X - S - N - F - O - G - U - Q - Y - W - A 5. U - I - E - J - O - G - K - A - T - E - P - I - W - O - Q - A - X - O - I - A Ex. 2. Escuche, lea y aprenda: 1. How do you spell your rst name? /hu diu: spl io:r fe:rst nim/ 2. My last name is Vasquez, thats V-A-S-Q-U-E-Z. /mi la:st nim is vskes, ts vi: i s ki i: zd/ 3. Tom works for IBM in LA. /tm w:rks for i b: m in l i/ Ex. 3. Practique estos dilogos con algn amigo: 1. A: My brothers name is Ignacio.
/mi brerz nim iz ignsio/

2. A: When did you buy your VCR?


/wn did i: bi io:r v: s: .r/

B: Can you spell that, please


/kn iu: spl t pl:z/

B: Last month. I bought it at the PX


/l:st mn i b:t it at e p: ks/

A: I-G-N-A-C-I-O
/ai dll: n i s: i u/

A: Was it very expensive?


/wz it ekspnsiv/

B: Thank you
/kiu:/

B: No, it only cost me eighty-ve dollars


/nu it unli kst mi:iti fiv dlarz/

Ex. 4. Puede deletrear estas palabras? Yorkshire Mexico Washington Quebec geography Chicago Kalamazoo Venezuela Japan Shanghai whisky Tokyo

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A short course in english for adult students

Ex. 5. Estudie estas siglas (acronyms) de uso frecuente: USA B.C. A.D. FBI OK ITT a.m. BBC UCLA VAT UFO NCO PTO p.m. PLO USSR VCR NBT CO ADC EST ATM OAS IBM CIA IRA MIT APC DC COD GPS GMT MIA Ph.D OBE CEO UK UNO DEA MP FOB CIF

Puede agregar algunas otras siglas de uso frecuente?

THE PHONETIC ALPHABET


This alphabet is used in radio / telephone communication to spell difcult words: as in A B C D E F G H I J K L M
/az in/

como en Alfa /lfa/ Bravo /brvou/ Charlie /tch:rli/ Delta /dlta/ Echo /kou/ Foxtrot /fkstrot/ Golf /glf/ Hotel /houtl/ India /ndia/ Juliett /dllulit/ Kilo /klou/ Lima /lma/ Mike /mik/

for N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

/fo:r/

para November /nouvmber/ Oscar /skar/ Papa /ppa/ Quebec /kuibk/ Romeo /rmiou/ Sierra /sira/ Tango /tgou/ Uniform /unifo:rm/ Victor /vktor/ Whisky /wski/ X-ray /ks ri/ Yankee /iki/ Zulu /zlu/

as as as as as as as as as as as as as

in in in in in in in in in in in in in

for for for for for for for for for for for for for

Examples: 1. My name is JUAN. I spell: J for Juliett; U for uniform; A for alfa and N for November: JUAN 2. The commanders last name is CLARK. I spell: C as in Charlie; L as in Lima, A as in Alfa; R as in Romeo and K as in Kilo: CLARK

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Bl 24

KEY TO ANSWERS
UNIT 1 Part 1
A. Ex. 1. 1. is 2.are 3. are 4. are 5. are 6. is 7. is 8. am 9. is 10.are Ex. 2. 1. Yes, I am. Im in the ofce. 2. Yes, he is. Hes Mr. Clark. 3. Yes, we are-Were ready to go. 4. Yes,you are. Youre a good instructor. 5. Yes, they are. Theyre in class. 6. Yes, she is. Shes a secretary. 7. Yes, it is. Its a modern plane. 8. Yes, they are. Theyre updated. 9. Yes, it is. Its open. 10. Yes, I am. Im hungry. Ex. 3. 1. No, theyre not. They arent angry. Theyre hungry. 2. No, Im not. Im not thirsty. Im hungry. 3.No, hes not. He isnt at home. Hes at work. 4. No, theyre not. They arent happy, Theyre sad. 5. No, hes not. He isnt a doctor. Hes an engineer. 6. No, theyre not. They arent American. Theyre British. 7. No, Im not. Im not an navy ofcer. Im a army ofcer. 8. No, its not. It isnt clean. Its dirty. 9. No, theyre not. They arent old. Theyre young. Ex. 4. 1. Is the manager in his ofce? 2. Are Peter and John in class? 3. Is the course interesting? 4. Are your friends from Canada? 5. Is the computer connected to internet? 6. Is the package light or heavy? 7. Are the pictures clear? 8. Are the children in the playground? 9. Are the CDs in the drawer? 10. Are the maps in the library? Ex. 5. 1. Whats this / that? 2. What are these / those? 3. Where are the cigarettes?.? 4. How are you? 5. Wheres the cat? 6. Whats this / that? 7. Whos that boy? 8. Where are the books? 9. How are the children? 10. Whos that woman? Ex. 6. 1.R: is J: is - are R: am - am J: is 2. F: is - is J: is - are F: am - Are J: am - am 3. M: is P: is - is M: is P: is M: is P: isnt - is 4. Ja: are Ji: am Ja: are Ji: am not - am (pause) is - is - is Ja: am - are Ja: am B. Ex. 1. 1. Was - is 2. Are - were 3. Is - was 4. Were - are 5. Was - is 6. Was - was 7. Was - is Ex. 2. 1. The secretary wasnt..... / Was the secretary ....? 2. They werent..... / Were they....? 3. The weather wasnt ...... / Was the weather....? 4. The men werent ..... / Were the men .....? 5. Mary wasnt ..... / Was Mary....? 6. Henry wasnt ...... / Was Hernry....? Ex. 3. 1. Where was Tom at....? 2. Who was in the car.....? 3. Why was Liz in bed? 4. When were the Smiths ....? 5. How was George....? 6. How old was Mr Clark when....? C. Ex. 1. 1. will be in the same class 2. will be absent 3. will be very cold 4. will be very busy 5. will be in my ofce 6. will be at the meeting 7. will be very nice. Ex. 2. 1. John wont be..... / Will John be ....? 2. It wont be ..... / Will it be....? 3. My friends wont be... / Will my friends be....? 4. The program wont be ... / Will the program be...? 5. Mary wont be... / Will Mary be...? 6. I wont be... / Will I be ....? Ex. 3. 1. Why will all the shops be closed tomorrow? 2. When will you be free? 3. Where will the students be this afternoon? 4. At what time will they be here? 5. How will the weather be this month? 6. When will Mary be in New York? 7. When will she be back in Chile? 8. Why will they be at home all day? 9. How long will Mr Johnson be absent from work? Ex. 4. (open answers) Ex. 5. 1. Theyll be very busy tomorrow morning. 2. Those children are not very good students. 3. Where are your friends now? 4. Who was here this morning? 5. We werent here last week. 6. Shell be an excellent secretary 7. They were good friends at school. 8. The reports werent ready yet. 9. Mr Jackson was in the ofce all day. 10. When are they free all day? 11. Who was that man? 12. This isnt a very interesting book. 13. Somebody was here yesterday afternoon / evening . 14. When will you be in that city again?
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Bl 26

UNIT 2
PART I. THERE TO BE (HABER, EXISTIR)
A. PRESENT TENSE: THERE IS - THERE ARE Estas expresiones se usan para indicar la existencia de algo. Son equivalentes a la expresin HAY, en castellano. THERE IS /ear z/ se usa con sustantivos singulares o incontables. THERE ARE /ear :r/ se usa con sustantivos plurales. Normalmente, en el singular, se usa la contraccin THERES /arz/. There is a book on the desk /ear z e bk on e dsk/ (Hay un libro sobre el escritorio) Theres a car in the car park. /arz e k:r in e k:r pa:rk/ (Hay un auto en el estacionamiento) Theres some water in the glass. /arz sam wter in e gls/ (Hay agua en el vaso) There are 10 students in my class. /ear :r tn stidents in mai kls/ (Hay 10 alumnos en mi curso) There are some chairs in the room /ear :r sam tcharz in e rm/ (Hay algunas sillas en la sala) La forma negativa se expresa con THERE IS NOT / THERE ISNT /ear znt/ o THERE ARE NOT / THERE ARENT /ear :rent/ There is not a book on the desk. /ear iz nt e bk on e dsk/ There isnt a car in the car park. / ar znt e k:r in e k:r pa:rk/ There isnt any water in the glass. /ar znt ni wter in e gls/ Theres no water in the glass /arz nu wter in e gls/ There are not 10 students in my class. /ear a:r nt tn stidents in mai kls/ There arent 10 students in my class. /ear :rent tn stidents in mai kls/ There arent any chairs in the room. /ear :rent ni tcharz in e rm/ There are no chairs in the room. /ear a:r nu tcharz in e rm/ La forma interrogativa se hace mediante simple inversin del verbo con la palabra THERE. Is there a book on the desk? /z er e bk on e dsk/ Is there a car in the car park? /z er e k:r in e k:r pa:rk/ Is there any water in the glass? /z r ni wter in e gls/ Are there 10 students in the class? /:r er tn stidents in mai kls/ Are there any chairs in the room? /:r er ni tcharz in e rm/ Hay dos palabras interrogativas estrechamente relacionadas con There is y There are: HOW MUCH? /hu match/ (Cunto? Cunta?) y HOW MANY? /hu mni/ (Cuntos? Cuntas?) How How How How How How much whisky is there in the glass? much ice is there in the glass? much water is there? many doors are there in this room? many windows are there? many chairs are there? Theres very little (whisky). Theres a lot (of ice). There isnt any (water). Theres no water. Theres only one (door). There are three (windows). There arent any (chairs). There are no chairs.

Como ud. ha advertido, la palabra SOME /sm/ (algo, algunos / as) solamente se usa en forma armativa. En las interrogaciones se debe usar la palabra ANY /ni/. En la forma negativa se puede usar NOT ANY /not ni/ o NO /nu/. Estudie la siguiente tabla:
Afrmative Negative SOME NOT ANY NO Interrogative ANY? Theres some water in the glass. /arz sam wter in e gl:s/ There are some trees in the garden /ar :r sam tr:z in e g:rdn/ There isnt any water in the glass. /ear znt ni wter in e gl:s/ There arent any trees in the garden. /ear :rent ni tr:z in e g:rdn/ There s no water in the glass. /arz nu wter in e gl:s/ There are no trees in the garden. /ear :r nu tr:z in e g:rdn/ Is there any water in the glass? /iz earz ni wter in e gl:s/ Are there any trees in the garden? . /a:r ear ni tr:z in e g:rdn/
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27

Note el uso de LITTLE /ltl/ (poco/a), FEW /:/ (pocos/as) y A LOT OF /e lt ov/ (bastante/bastantes) Theres very little water in the glass /arz vri ltl wter in e gl:s/ Hay muy poca agua en el vaso Theres a lot of ice in my glass. /arz e lt ov is in mai gl:s/ Hay bastante hielo en mi vaso There are very few desks in the room. /ear a:r vri : desks in e r:m/ Hay muy pocos escritorios en la sala There are a lot of chairs in the room. /ear a:r e lt ov tcharz in r:m/ Hay bastantes sillas en la sala. La expresin a lot of normalmente se usa en oraciones armativas. En las oraciones negativas e interrogativas se preere usar las palabras much o many, segn sea el caso
Theres a lot of sugar in the bowl /arz e lt ov shgar in e bul/ There are a lot of books on the shelf. /ar :r e lt ov buks on e
shlf/

Afrmative

a lot of not much not many much? many?

Negative

There isnt much sugar in the bowl. /ar znt mutch shgar in e bul/ There arent many books on the shelf. /ar :rent mni buks on e shlf/ Is there much sugar in the bowl? /iz ar mutch shgar in e bul/ Are there many books on the shelf? /:r ar mni buks on e shlf/

Interrogative

El artculo indenido A/AN (un,una) no tiene una forma para el plural, por lo tanto se omite. Normalmente el artculo A/AN se reemplaza por las palabras SOME /sam/ algunos/as, SEVERAL /sverl/ varios/as, MANY /mni/ muchos/as. There is a tree in the garden. There There There There are are are are trees in the garden some trees in the garden several trees in the garden. many trees in the garden.

Cuando THERE IS/THERE ARE van seguidas directamente por un sustantivo, en las negaciones generalmente se usa la palabra NO /nu/ Theres water in that bottle. Theres no water in that bottle. There are owers in the garden. There are no owers in the garden Finalmente, estudie la siguiente tabla
some a lot of much a little very little no/not any some several many a lot of a few very few no/not any

There is

milk in this bottle

There are

owers in the garden.

EXERCISES Ex. 1. Complete the sentences using THERE IS or THERE ARE: 1. 2. 3. 4.


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A short course in english for adult students

some books on the shelf. very little money left in the box. only one student in the lab now. very few people at the conference.

5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

no more milk in the jug. no more cassettes in the box. no time left. several helicopters in the aireld. some letters for you on the desk. a lot of mistakes in your composition.

Ex. 2. Change the following statements into the negative form. 1. Theres a lot of fruit in the basket. 2. There are a lot of students absent. 3. Theres some more meat in the fridge. 4. There are some extra chairs in the room. 5. Theres a telephone in the room. 6. There are a lot of people in the room. 7. There are some more clean glasses. 8. There are 30 days in February. 9. Theres some more money in my pocket. 10. Theres central heating in the room. Ex. 3. Change the following sentences into the interrogative form. 1. Theres a hotel near the Training Center. 2. There are some students absent today. 3. Theres a lot of free time in the mornings. 4. Theres some more coffee in the cup. 5. There are more than 10 students. 6. There are more women than men. 7. There is another chair in that room 8. There are some more books. 9. There are 24 hours in a day. 10. Theres a train for Paris in the morning. Ex. 4. Complete the following questions and answers. Use HOW MUCH......IS THERE? Or HOW MANY.......... ARE THERE? in the questions, and THERES or THERE ARE in the Answers . Ej.: (How many) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. dictionaries (are there)? money ? doors in the lab? milk in the jug? video tapes ? work today? people in the room?. butter in the dish? secretaries here? women in that group? men in the crew? (There are) 8, sir. very little. just one. no milk in it. very few. a lot of work. a lot. just a little. two. ve or six. four men.

Ex. 5. Use LITTLE, FEW, A LOT in the blank spaces. 1. 2. 3. 4. There are very Theres Theres very Theres books in the school library. milk left in the bottle. ice in my glass. of noise in this room.
A short course in english for adult students

29

5. There are 6. There are only a 7. There are 8. Theres 9. There are 10. Theres just a

of trees in that park. tickets available. students absent from class today. of sugar in my coffee. Its too sweet. of errors in my bill. whisky left in the bottle.

B. PAST TENSE: THERE WAS - THERE WERE El pasado de THERE IS/THERE ARE se expresa usando THERE WAS /ear wz/ / THERE WERE /ear we:r/ La negacin se expresa usando la palabra NOT despus de WAS y WERE. Normalmente se usan las contracciones THERE WASNT /ear wzent/ THERE WERENT /ear w:rent/. La interrogacin se expresa invirtiendo el orden de las palabras WAS y WERE con la palabra THERE. Escuche, lea y aprenda There was a lot of noise in the room /ear was e lot ov nis in e r:m/ Haba bastante ruido en la sala. There were many people absent. /ear we:r mni p:pl bsent/ Haba muchas personas ausentes. There wasnt any beer in the can. /ear wznt ni bar in e kn/ No haba nada de cerveza en la lata. There werent many books on the desk. /ear w:rnt mni buks on e dsk/ No haba muchos libros sobre el escritorio. Was there a TV in the room? / woz ear e t: v: in e r:m / Haba un televisor en la habitacin? How many people were there at the party? / hu meni p:pl we:r ear ate p:rti / (Cunta gente haba en la esta?).

EXERCISES: Ex. 1. Change into the Past Tense: 1. Theres a lot of work in the ofce today. 2. There are two books missing from the shelf. 3. How much milk is there in the fridge? 4. There arent many hotels in this town. 5. Is there enough money for the trip? 6. How many people are there on board? 7. There isnt much time to talk. 8. There are very few people in the pub. 9. Are there many errors in the bill? 10. Theres very little whisky left. Ex. 2. Answer these questions, using the information given in parenthesis: 1. How many students were there in this class last year? (about 20) 2. Were there many people at the meeting last Monday? (No, not more than 30) 3. How much free time was there during the Basic Training Period? (very little, of course) 4. Was there enough bread for all the people? (yes, more than enough) 5. How many students were there in the laboratory? ( not any) 6. How many days were there in February that year? (29, it was a leap year) 7. Were there many cars in the street at that time? ( Yes, lots of cars)

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A short course in english for adult students

C. FUTURE TENSE: THERE WILL BE El futuro de THERE IS/THERE ARE se expresa con la forma THERE WILL BE /ear wil b:/. En la conversacin diaria WILL se une con la palabra THERE, formando la contraccin THERELL BE /earl b:/. Escuche, lea y aprenda: There will be a very good program on TV tonight /ear wil b: e veri gud prugram on t: v: tunat/. Habr un muy buen programa
en la TV esta noche.

There will be two more tests next week. /ear wil b: t: m:r tsts nekst w:k/ . Habr dos pruebas ms la prxima semana. Therell be another meeting this evening. /earl b: aner m:ti is :vni/ . Habr otra reunin esta tarde. Therell be some more rain next weekend. /earl b: sm m:r rin nkst wiknd/. Habr algo ms de lluvia el prximo n de
semana

La forma negativa se expresa usando la palabra NOT despus del verbo modal WILL, normalmente formando la contraccin WONT /wunt/ En las preguntas, el verbo modal WILL precede a la palabra THERE. Escuche, lea y aprenda: There will not be a good program on TV tonight. /ear wil not b: e gud prugram on t: v: tunit/. There will not be another meeting this evening. /ear wil not b: aner m:ti is :vni/ There wont be two more tests next week. /ear wunt b: t: m:r tests nekst w:k/ Will there be a good program on TV this evening? /wil ear b: a gud prugram on t: v: is :vnin/ Will there be any more rain next weekend? /wil ear b. eni m:r rin nekst wi:kend/ How many tests will there be next week? /hu mni tsts wil ear b: nekst w:k/ EXERCISES: Ex.1. Change into the future tense. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. There is a lot of free time in the evening. There are some women at the meeting. There isnt any food left in the fridge. How many people are there at the reception? How much money is there in the box? Is there any more work? Are there more than ten students in your class?

Ex. 2. Use the right tense of There To Be (Present, Past or Future). 1. How many women 2. 3. 4. How much free time 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. How many students 10. Ex. 3. Translate the previous sentences into Spanish. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
A short course in english for adult students

at the party last Saturday? a lot of noise in this room now. several trees in the park now. next time? very little food in the fridge now. not any more exercises in the book now. a lot of noise at the disco last night. very few owers in our garden. in your class last year? much milk left. Just one or two bottles.

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6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Ex. 4. Answer these questions in English. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. How many days are there in a week? How many days will there be in February next year? How many students were there in your class last year? How many computers are there in your ofce? How many people were there in the room at 8:30? Will there be another meeting this week? Was there much work to do in the ofce last Monday? Are there any spelling mistakes in the letter?

No, Yes, No, No,

9. How much money is there in your wallet? 10. How many eggs are there in a dozen? Ex. 5. Translate the following sentences into English 1. Habr otra reunin general el prximo viernes. 2. Haba solamente dos hoteles en ese pueblo. 3. Hay un restaurant cerca de aqu? 4. Cunto dinero hay en la billetera? 5. No haba mucha gente en el edicio a esa hora. 6. No habr otro concierto hasta la prxima semana. 7. No hay tiempo para conversar. 8. Haba muy poco tiempo libre durante la maana. 9. Cunto s autos haba en el estacionamiento esa tarde? 10. Haba muy pocos nios en la calle ese da. 11. No habr muchos partidos de ftbol este n de semana. 12. Hay mucho ruido en esta sala ahora..

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A short course in english for adult students

PART II. NUMBERS


Escuche, lea y aprenda: 1 one /un/ 6 six /siks/ 11 eleven /ilvn/ 16 sixteen /sikstn/ 20 twenty /tunti/ 70 seventy /svnti/ 2 two /tu:/ 7 seven /svn/ 12 twelve /tulv/ 17 seventeen /sevntn/ 30 thirty /rti/ 80 eighty /iti/ 3 three /ri:/ 8 eight /it/ 13 thirteen /ertn/ 18 eighteen /eitn/ 40 forty /frti/ 90 ninety /ninti/ 4 four /fo:r/ 9 nine /nin/ 14 fourteen /fo:rtn/ 19 nineteen /naintn/ 50 fty /ffti/ 5 ve /fiv/ 10 ten /ten/ 15 fteen /ftn/

60 sixty /sksti/

100 one hundred /un hndred/ 1,000 one thousand /un uzand/ 200,000 two hundred thousand /t: hndred uzand/

200 two hundred /t hndred/ 2,000 two thousand /t uzand/ 2,000,000 two million /t mlion/

5,362 ve thousand three hundred and sixty-two /faiv uzand ri: hndred and sksti t:/ 45,971 forty ve thousand nine hundred and seventy-one /frti fiv uzand nain hndred and sventi un/ Importante:
1. 2. 3. Las palabras twenty, thirty, forty, etc siempre van seguidas de un guin antes del nmero unitario. Ej, 21. twenty-one, 32 thirty-two, 45 fortyve, 68 sixty-eight, 94 ninety-four. Las palabras hundred, thousand, million y billion no se pluralizan en ingls. Ej. 400 four hundred; 5,000 ve thousand, 3,000,000 three million. La palabra hundred siempre va seguida de and; las palabras thousand, million y billion no van seguidas de and. Ej. 365 three hundred and sixty-ve; 5,387 ve thousand, three hundred and eighty-seven; 463,265 four hundred and sixty-three thousand, two hundred and sixty-ve. Las palabras hundred, thousand y million se pluralizan solamente en las siguientes expresiones, para indicar lo mismo que lots of... Ej. There are hundreds of / lots of trees in the park; There were thousands of / lots of people in the stadium; There are millions of / lots of stars in our galaxy Al escribir cifras en ingls, el punto es coma y la coma es punto. Ej. 12.5% ; 70.45 km; US$ 4,365.80

4.

5.

Ex. 1 Read and then write these numbers a) 12 h) 597 a) c) e) g) h) i) j) k) l) m) n) b) 56 i) 846 c) 79 j) 1,285 d) 94 k) 6,394 b) d) f) e) 33 l) 24,973 f) 28 m) 256,875 g) 148 n) 5,687,328

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BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words PEOPLE


GENERAL person /p:rsn/ people /p:pl/ child /children /tchild/tchildrn/ boy /boi/ girl /g:rl/ FAMILY AND RELATIVES grandparents /grandparents/ grandfather /grandfa:er/ grandmother /grandmer/ grandchildren /grandtchildren/ grandson /grndsan/ granddaughter /grand d:ter/ parents /parents/ husband /hzband/ wife /waif/ father /f:er/ mother /mer/ children /tchldren/ son /sn/ daughter /d:ter/ brother /brer/ sister /sster/ uncle /kl/ aunt /a:nt/ nephew /nu/ niece /ni:s/ cousin /kzin/ Bunici bunel bunica nepoti nepot nepoat parinti sot sotie tata mama copii dad, daddy /dd, ddi/ mom, mommy /mam, mmi/ grandpa /grnpa:/ granny /grni/ father-in- law /f:er in l:/ mother-in-law /maer in l:/ son-in-law /san in l:/ daughter-in-law /d:ter in l:/ brother-in-law /brer in l:/ sister-in-law /sster in l:/ step-father /step f:er/ step-mother /step mer/ step-son /step san/ step-daughter /step d:ter/ step-brother /step brer/ step-sister /step sster/ foster-father /fster f:er/ foster-mother /fster mer/ god-father /god f:er/ god-mother /god mer/ Tatic,tati mami bunel abuelita suegro suegra yerno nuera cuado cuada padrastro madrastra hijastro hijastra hermanastro hermanastra padre adoptivo madre adoptiva padrino madrina persoana Lume,oameni Copil/copii baiat fata man/men /mn/men/ woman/women /wuman/wmen/ gentleman /dllntlman/ lady /lidi/ kids /kidz/ Barbat/i femeie/i doamna copii

fiu
Fiica frate sora unchi matusa nepot nepoata verisor

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A short course in english for adult students

KEY TO ANSWERS

UNIT 2
Part I
A. Ex. 1. 1. There are 2. There is 3. There is 4. There are 5. There is 6. There are 7. There is 8. There are 9.There are 10. There are Ex. 2. 1. There isnt much... 2. There arent many... 3. There isnt any more... / Theres no more... 4.There arent any extra... / There are no extra... 5. There isnt a... 6. There arent many... 7. There arent any more... / There are no more... 8. There arent 30... 9. There isnt any more... / Theres no more... 10. Theres no central... Ex. 3. 1. Is there a hotel...? 2. Are there any students...? 3. Is there much free...? 4. Is there any more...? 5. Are there more than...? 6. Are there more...? 7. Is there another...? 8. Are there any more...? 9. Are there 24...? 10. Is there a train...? Ex. 4. 1. How much... is there? Theres... 2. How many... are there...? Theres... 3. How much... is there...? Theres... 4. How many... are there? There are... 5. How much... is there...? Theres... 6. How many... are there...? Thre are... 7. How much... is there...? Theres... 8. How many... are there...? There are... 9. How many... are there...? There are... 10. How many... are there...? There are... Ex. 5. 1. few 2. little 3. little 4. a lot 5. a lot 6. few 7. few 8. a lot 9. a lot 10. little B. Ex. 1. 1. There was... 2. There were... 3. How much milk was there...? 4. There werent... 5. Was there enough...? 6. How many people were there...? 7. There wasnt... 8. There were... 9. Were there...? 10. There was... Ex. 2. 1. There were about 20 . 2. No, there werent more than 30 3. There was very little, of course. 4. Yes, there was more than enough. 5. There werent any 6. There were 29. It was a leap year. 7. Yes, there were lots of cars. C. Ex. 1. 1. There will be a lot... 2. There will be some... 3. There wont be any... 4. How many people will there be...? 5. How much money will there be...? 6. Will there be any...? 7. Will there be more than...? Ex. 2. 1. Were there 2. Theres 3. There are 4. Will there be 5. Theres 6. There are 7. There was 8. There are 9.were there 10. There isnt Ex. 3. 1. Cuntas mujeres haba en la esta el sbado pasado? 2.Hay bastante ruido en esta sala ahora. 3. Hay varios rboles en el parque ahora 4. Cunto tiempo libre habr la prxima vez? 5. Hay muy poca comida en el refrigerador ahora 6. No hay ms ejercicios en el libro ahora 7. Haba bastante ruido en la discoteca anoche 8. Hay muy pocas ores en nuestro jardn 9. Cuntos alumnos haba en tu curso el ao pasado? 10. No hay mucha leche sobrante. Slo una o dos botellas. Ex. 4. 1. There are seven days. 2. Therell be 28 days. 3. There were... students. 4. Theres just one / There are... computers. 5. There were...people. 6. No, there wont be another meeting 7. Yes, there was a lot of work. 8. No, there arent any. / No, there are no spelling mistakes. 9. There isnt much money in it. 10. There are twelve eggs. Ex. 5. 1. There will be another general meeting next Friday. 2. There were only two hotels in that town. 3.Is there a restaurant near here. 4. How much money is there in the wallet? 5. There werent many people in the building at that time. 6. There wont be another concert until next week. 7. There is no time to talk. 8. There was very little free time during the morning. 9. How many cars were there in the car park that afternoon / evening? 10. There were very few children in the street that day. 11. There wont be many football games / matches this week end. 12. Theres a lot of noise in this room now.
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Part II.
Ex. 1. a) twelve b) fty-six c) seventy-nine d) ninety-four e) thirty-three f) twenty-eight g) one hundred and forty-eight h) ve hundred and ninety-seven i) eight hundred and forty-six j) one thousand, two hundred and eighty-ve k) six thousand, three hundred and ninety-four l) twenty-four thousand, nine hundred and seventy-three m) two hundred and fty-six thousand, eight hundred and seventy-ve n) ve million, six hundred and eighty-seven thousand, three hundred and twenty-eight.

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A short course in english for adult students

UNIT 3
PART I. HAVE GOT = TENER
Esta expresin verbal se usa especialmente en ingls britnico ( y solamente en el tiempo presente) para indicar posesin o propiedad, es decir, signica TENER. En el Presente Armativo se conjuga de la siguiente manera: I have got /ai hav gt/ You have got /i: hav gt/ He has got /hi: haz gt/ She has got /shi: haz gt/ It has got /it haz gt/ We have got /wi: hav gt/ You have got /i: hav gt/ They have got /i hav gt/ Escuche, lea y aprenda: I have got a car. /ai hav gt e k:r/ Peter has
(Yo tengo un auto) got many friends. /p:ter haz gt mni frndz/ (Peter tiene muchos amigos)

Ive got /aiv gt/ Youve got /iu:v got/ Hes got /hi:z gt/ Shes got /shi:z gt/ Its got /its gt/ Weve got /wi:v gt/ Youve got /i:v gt / Theyve got /iv gt/

(yo tengo) (t tienes) (l tiene) (ella tiene) (l / ella tiene) (nos. tenemos) (uds. tienen) (ellos tienen)

Ive got a car /aiv gt e k:r/ Peters got many friends. /p:terz gt.../ Theyve got a big house. /eiv gt.../ My dogs got long ears. /mai dgz gt.../

They have got a big house. /ei hav gt e bg hus/ My dog


(Ellos tienen una casa grande) has got long ears. /mai dg haz gt lo arz/ (Mi perro tiene orejas largas)

The rooms have got central heating. /e r:mz hav gt sntrl h:ti/
(Las habitaciones tienen calefaccin central)

En la forma negativa se usa HAVE NO GOT y HAS NOT GOT. Normalmente se usan las contracciones HAVENT GOT /hvent gt/ y HASNT GOT /hzent gt/ Escuche, lea y aprenda: I have not got a car. /ai hav not gt.../ I havent got a car. /ai hvent gt...r/ Peter has not got many friends. /p:ter haz not gt.../ Peter hasnt got many friends. /p:ter hzent gt.../ They have not got a big house. /ei hav not gt.../ They havent got a big house. /ei hvent got.../ My dog has not got long ears. /mai dg haz not gt.../ My dog hasnt got long ears. /mai dg hzent gt.../ The rooms have not got central heating. /e r:mz hav not gt .../ The rooms havent got central heating. /e r:mz hvent gt.../ La forma interrogativa se hace por simple inversin del sujeto y HAVE o HAS: Escuche, lea y aprenda: Have you got a car? /hav i gt.../ Has Peter got many friends? /haz p:ter gt.../ Have they got a big house? /hav ei gt.../ Has the dog got long ears? /haz e dg gt.../ Have the rooms got a TV? /hav e ru:mz got.../ How much money have you got? How many brothers and sisters has Bob got? EXERCISES: Ex.1 Complete the following sentences using HAVE GOT or HAS GOT 1. John 2. Hans a new uniform. long black hair .
A short course in english for adult students

No, I havent got one ( one = a car) Yes, hes got a lot. (of friends) No, they havent. Theyve got a small one. Yes, it has. Its got very long ones. (ones = ears) No, they havent got one. But theyve got a radio. Ive got very little (money). Ive only got 5 dollars. Hes got one sister and two brothers.

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3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

The soldiers We The book I Mary My friends My at The car

a very good instructor. a small house in the country. 200 pages. three children, a son and two daughters. a new blue dress. a lot of money. two bedrooms. four wheels.

Ex. 2 Change into the negative form 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Shes got blue eyes and black hair. Theyve got a lot of friends there. My fathers got a modern car. Bobs got a big family. Weve got a small classroom. Ive got some cigarettes. Nancys got a computer. The house has got a garden. My friends have got a telephone. The students have got some experience.

Ex. 3 Change into the interrogative form: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Youve got many things to do today. Bobs got some money. Youve got a lighter. Theyve got our telephone number. Bobs got our address. Bobs sister has got a car. Theyve got a big family. The boy has got black shoes. Youve got your passport here. The students have got a new instructor.

Ex. 4 Ask questions with HOW MUCH...? / HOW MANY...? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Theyve got two cars. Ive got three children. A car has got four wheels . Bobs got ve dollars. The at has got two bathrooms. Weve got 2 bottles of milk. They ve got very little free time.

Ex. 5 Answer these questions: 1. How much money have you got in your pockets? 2. How many children have you got? 3. Has your wife / husband got a car? 4. Has your parents house got a garden? 5. Have you got a dog or a cat? 6. Have you got any friends in Europe? 7. How many rooms has your house got? 8. Have you got a big library at home? 9. Have you got any brothers or sisters? 10. Have you got a computer at home?

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A short course in english for adult students

PART II.
A. ADJECTIVES En ingls, los adjetivos siempre preceden a los sustantivos: Tom is a tall man. Mary is a beautiful woman This is an interesting book That is a big car Adems, son invariables, es decir la misma palabra se usa en el singular, plural, masculino o femenino. Por lo tanto, el adjetivo tall /to:l/ se podra traducir como alto, alta, altos, altas. The man is very tall. The woman is very tall. The men are very tall. The women are very tall. Adems, todos los sustantivos actan como adjetivos cuando preceden a otro sustantivo. En estos casos no deben pluralizarse (porque los adjetivos nunca se pluralizan!!). An apple A dollar An exercise A hotel B. ARTICLES (I) 1. EL ARTCULO INDEFINIDO A (un, una) se usa para referirse a un artculo cualquiera, no especco. Ej. This is a book. /is iz a bk/ (Este es un libro). Thats a girl. /ts a g:rl/ (Esa es una nia). Theres a car in the street. /arz a k:r in e str:t/ (Hay un auto en la calle). El artculo A se transforma en AN antes de una palabra iniciada con un sonido vocal o una h muda. Ej. This is an apple. /is iz an pl/ (Esta es una manzana). Thats an orange. /ts an rindll/ (Esa es una naranja). This is an old car /is iz an uld k:r/ (Este es un auto viejo). He is an honest man. /h: iz an nest mn/ (El es un hombre honrado). La letra u se considera vocal en palabras como umbrella /ambrla/, pero tambin se pronuncia como una semiconsonante en palabras como uniform /inifo:rm/. Por lo tanto se deber decir: This is an umbrella /is iz an ambrla/ (Este es un paraguas) y This is a uniform /is iz a inifo:rm/ (Este es un uniforme). Hay palabras que comienzan con una letra o pronunciada como /w/, en cuyo caso se trata como semi-consonante. Compare: This is an orange. /is iz an rindll/ (Esta es una naranja). This is a one-way ticket. /is iz a wn wei tkit/ (Este es un boleto de ida). El articulo indenido a/an no tiene plural. Ej. This is a house /is iz a hus/ (Esta es una casa). These are houses. /i:z a:r husiz/ (Estas son casas). That is a tree /t iz a tr:/ (Ese es un rbol). Those are trees /uz a:r tr:z/ (Esos son rboles). Thats an animal /ts an nimal/ (Ese es un animal). Those are animals /uz a:r nimalz/ (Esos son animales). Debido a que a / an no tiene una forma para el plural, en su lugar se usan normalmente palabras como some /sam/ (algunos/as), several /sveral/ (varios/as) o many /mni/ (muchos/as). Ejemplo. There is a tree in the garden There There There There are are are are trees in the garden some trees in the garden several trees in the garden many trees in the garden An apple tree A one-dollar bill One exercise book A hotel manager Three apple trees A ve-dollar bill Ten exercise books Two hotel managers

2. EL ARTCULO DEFINIDO THE (el, la los, las) se usa para referirse a objetos especcos, determinados. Se usa tanto con sustantivos singulares como con plurales. Ej. There is a book on the desk. The book is old. There are several books on the desk. The books are old. Compare: Show me a photograph (Mustrame una fotografa) (cualquiera fotografa) Show me the photograph (Mustrame la fotografa) (una fotografa especca)
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Exe. 1. Use the indenite articles a or an 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. pencil apple egg envelope umbrella hour honor house banana big banana exercise easy exercise difcult exercise university old university new university 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. car used car modern car young woman old woman one-dollar bill ve-dollar bill hotel instrument musical instrument answer question impertinent question usual question unusual question hard lesson

Ex. 2. Change the following sentences into the plural. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. That is a picture This is a car. Is this an envelope? That man isnt a teacher. Ive got a friend in San Francisco. Theyve got a horse on the farm. Peters got a new pen. This boy isnt a new student. This is an interesting novel. Is that woman a nurse? Is that man an engineer? Theres a yellow ower in the garden. Is that an apple tree or a pear tree? I havent got a cigarette.

Ex. 3. Change these sentences into the plural, use some, many or several 1. Theres a tree in the garden. 2. Theres a woman in the ofce. 3. There was a car accident last Sunday. 4. There is a new student in this class. 5. There will be an interesting program tonight 6. Ive got a question for you. 7. Theyve got an interesting book in the library 8. The boys got a book in English. 9. There is a letter for you, Mr. Smith. 10. Ive got a coin in my pocket. 11. Ive got a magazine on my desk. 12. Theres a text book on the teachers desk. 13. The student has got a new notebook. 14. There is a student in the laboratory now. 15. Please show me a photograph.

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A short course in english for adult students

PART III.

TELLING THE TIME (Diciendo la hora)

What time is it, please? /wt tim iz it pl:z/ Qu hora es por favor? Whats the time, please? /wts e tim pl:z/ Cul es la hora por favor? Its ten to eight /its tn tu it/ Son diez para las ocho Lea, escuche y aprenda: oclock /oklk/ 01:00 07:15 06:30 09:45 quarter past /kurter p:st/ half past /ha:f p:st/ 05:00 10:15 12:30 03:45 quarter to /kurter t:/

Its one oclock Its quarter past seven Its half past six Its quarter to ten to /tu:/

Its ve oclock Its quarter past ten Its half past twelve Its quarter to four minutes to /mnits tu:/

past /p:st/

minutes past /mnits p:st/

Nota: La palabra minutes generalmente se omite despus de 5 o mltipos de 5.

05:10 02:40 01:27 07:38

Its ten (minutes) past ve Its twenty (minutes) to three Its twenty-seven minutes past one Its twenty-two minutes to eight.

11:25 09:55

Its twenty-ve (minutes) past eleven Its ve (minutes) to ten

midday /mddei/ medioda noon /nu:n/ medioda midnight /mdnait/ medianoche a.m. /i m/ p.m. /p: m/ in the morning /in e m:rni/ (en la maana, hasta las 12:00) in the afternoon /in i a:ftern:n/ (en la tarde, de 13:00 - 17:00) in the evening /in i :vni/ (en la tarde / noche, de18:00 - 21:00) at night /at nit/ (en la noche, despus de las 21:00) 12:00 05:00 04:00 07:00 10:00 Its midday / Its noon Its ve oclock a.m. /ei. em/ Its four oclock p.m. /pii em/ Its seven oclock p.m. /pii em/ Its ten oclock p.m. /pii em/ 24:00 Its midnight Its ve oclock in the morning Its four oclock in the afternoon Its seven oclock in the evening Its ten oclock at night

a.m. p.m. p.m. p.m.

EXERCISES Ex. 1. Match the times in Column A with the sentences is Column B
A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. A 12:20 08:30 09:45 02:15 07:05 08:55 03:10 04:50 04:00 12:40 06:25 10:35 B C D 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Its twenty to one Its a quarter past two Its ten past three Its ve to nine Its ten to ve Its twenty-ve to eleven Its ve past seven Its half past eight Its twenty past twelve Its a quarter to ten Its twenty-ve past six Its four oclock F G H I J K L

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Ex. 2. Write down the times and read: What time is it? Whats the time? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 09:00 Its 08:50 03:30 11:45 01:15 09:05 10:14 24:00 02:57 08:00 a.m. 04:00 p.m. 11:00 p.m. 03:25 12:00 03:20 10:05 01:45 11:30 05:25 08:15 04:35 01:38 10:18 09:00

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A short course in english for adult students

BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words ADJECTIVES


ENGLISH angry /gri/ bad /bd/ big /big/ blunt /blant/ bright /brit/ busy /bzi/ clear /klar/ cold /kould/ comfortable /kmfortbl/ cool /ku:l/ curved /krvd/ cheap /tshi:p/ dark /da:rk/ dear /dar/ deep /di:p/ difcult /dkalt/ dull /dal/ early /:rli/ easy /:zi/ empty /mti/ even /:vn/ expensive /ikspnsiv/ fast /fst/ fat /ft/ foolish /flish/ free /fri:/ full /ful/ good /gud/ happy /hpi/ hard /ha:rd/ hard-working /h:rd we:rki/ healthy /hli/ heavy /hvi/ high /hai/ hot /hot/ huge /hiudll/ hungry /hgri/ ill, sick /il, sik/ interesting /ntresti/ large /la:dll/ SPANISH airado, enojado malo grande romo, sin punta brillante ocupado claro frio, helado cmodo fresco curvo barato oscuro caro, apreciado profundo dicil opaco, fome temprano, precursor fcil vaco parejo, par (nmeros) caro rpido, jo, gordo tonto, leso libre, gratis lleno, completo bueno feliz duro, dicil esforzado saludable, sano pesado, intenso alto caliente enorme hambriento enfermo, indispuesto interesante grande ENGLISH late /leit/ lazy /lizi/ light /lait/ long /lo/ narrow /nrrou/ new /niu:/ nice /nis/ odd /o:d/ old /ould/ pleased /pli:zd/ poor /par/ pretty /prti/ rich /ritch/ right /rait/ rough /ra:f/ sad /sd/ sharp /sha:rp/ short /sho:rt/ silly /sli/ sleepy /sl:pi/ slow /slou/ small /smo:l/ soft /soft/ straight /streit/ strange /streindll/ stupid /stiu:pid/ tall /to:l/ thick /ik/ thin /in/ thirsty /:rsti/ tiny /tini/ tired /tiard/ ugly /gli/ uneven /an:vn/ warm /wo:rm/ wide /waid/ wise /waiz/ wonderful /wnderful/ wrong /ro/ young /ja/ SPANISH tarde, atrasado ojo claro,liviano largo angosto, estrecho nuevo bonito, agradable raro, impar (nmeros) viejo satisfecho,contento pobre, insatisfactorio bonito rico, adinerado correcto,derecho tosco, brusco, agitado triste agudo, puntiagudo corto; bajo de estatura tonto, leso, ingenuo sooliento lento pequeo suave recto extrao estpido alto grueso delgado sediento diminuto cansado feo disparejo, no plano temperado ancho, amplio sabio, sensato maravilloso equivocado, incorrecto joven

COLO(U)RS
What colour is the car? What colours is the Chilean ag? black /blk/ white /wait/ green /gri:n/ blue /blu:/ red /red/ brown /brun/ yellow /ylou/ negro blanco verde azul rojo caf amarillo Its white. Its blue, white and red. orange /rindll/ gray, grey /grei/ purple /p:rpl/ pink /pik/ dark blue /d.rk bl:/ light blue /lit bl:/ anaranjado gris, plomo morado rosado azul oscuro azul claro,celeste

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Bl 44

KEY TO ANSWERS

UNIT 3
Part I.
Ex. 1. 1. has got 2. has got 3. have got 4. have got 5. has got 6. have got 7. has got 8. have got 9. has got 10. has got Ex. 2. 1. She hasnt got blue... 2.They havent got many friends... 3. My father hasnt got a...4. Bob hasnt got a... 5. We havent got a... 6. I havent got any cigarettes. / Ive got no cigarettes 7. Nancy hasnt go a... 8. The house hasnt got... 9. My friends havent got...10. The students havent got any experience. / The students have got no experience. Ex. 3. 1. Have you got many...? 2. Has Bob got any money? 3. Have you got a...? 4. Have they got our...? 5. Has Bob got our...? 6. Has Bobs sister got a...? 7. Have they got a...? 8. Has the boy got black...? 9. Have you got your...? 10. Have the students got a...? Ex. 4. 1. How many cars have they got? 2. How many children have you got? 3. How many wheels has a car got? 4. How much money has Bob got? 5. How many bathrooms has the at got? 6. How much milk have we got? / how many bottles of milk have we got? 7. How much free time have they got? Ex. 5. (open answers)

Part II.
B. Ex. 1. 1. a 2. an 3.an 4. an 5. an 6. an 7. an 8. a 9. a 10. a 11. an 12. an 13. a 14. a 15. an 16.a 17. a 18. a 19. a 20. a 21. an 22.a 23. a 24. a 25. an 26. a 27. an 28. a 29. an 30. a 31. an 32. a Ex. 2. 1. Those are pictures 2. These are cars 3. Are these envelopes? 4. Those men arent teachers 5. Ive got friends in S.F. 6. Theyve got horses... 7. Peters got new pens 8. These boys arent new students 9. These are interesting novels 10. Are those women nurses? 11. Are those men engineers? 12. There are yellow owers... 13. Are those apple trees or pear trees? 14. I havent got cigarettes Ex. 3. 1. There are some trees... 2. There are many women... 3. There were several car accidents... 4. There are some new students... 5. There will be many new students... 6. Ive got several questions... 7. Theyve got some interesting books... 8. The boy has got some books... 9. There are several letters... 10. Ive got some coins... 11. Ive got several magazines... 12. There are many text books... 13. The student has got some new notebooks 14. There are many students... 15. Please, show me some photographs.

Part III.
Ex. 1. A - 9 B - 8 C - 10 D - 2 E - 7 F - 4 G - 3 H - 5 I - 12 J - 1 K - 11 L - 6 Ex. 2. 1. Its nine oclock 2. Its ten to nine 3. Its half past three 4. Its quarter to twelve 5. Its quarter past one 6. Its ve past nine 7. Its forteen minutes past ten 8. Its twelve oclock / midnight 9. Its three minutes to three 10. Its eight oclock in the morning 11. Its four oclock in the afternoon 12. Its eleven oclock at night 13. Its twenty-ve past three 14. Its twelve oclock / noon 15. Its twenty past three 16. Its ve past ten 17. Its quarter to two 18. Its half past eleven 19. Its twenty-ve past ve 20. Its quarter past eight 21. Its twenty-ve to ve 22. Its twenty-two minutes to two 23. Its eighteen minutes past ten 24. Its nine oclock

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UNIT 4
PART I. EL TIEMPO PRESENTE CONTINUO (THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE)
Introduccin: Los Tiempos Contnuos Son tiempos continuos o progresivos todos aquellos tiempos verbales que se expresan con una forma del verbo TO BE y el GERUNDIO DE UN VERBO PRINCIPAL. Estos tiempos verbales se usan para especicar qu estamos, estbamos o estaremos haciendo en un momento determinado. Es conveniente recordar aqu que el gerundio de un verbo principal se forma agregando -ING al innitivo. Este sujo se pronuncia /i/ . Hay tres grupos de verbos, segn la ortografa usada en la formacin del gerundio: Grupo A: Verbos terminados en consonante que agregan -ing al innitivo: to speak /spi:k/ (hablar) to eat /i:t/ (comer) to work /we:rk/ (trabajar) speaking /spi:ki/ (hablando) eating /:ti/ (comiendo) working /w:rki/ (trabajando)

Grupo B: Si el innitivo termina en -e muda, esta letra se omite al formar en gerundio: living /lvi/ (viviendo) writing /riti/ (escribiendo) Bl 47 Grupo C: Si el innitivo est formado por consonante+vocal+consonante o cons. +cons. + vocal + cons., la ltima consonante debe ser duplicada: to live /liv/ (vivir) to write /rit/ (escribir) To To To To sit /sit/ (sentarse) cut /kat/ (cortar) stop /stop/ (detener,parar) swim /suim/ (nadar) sitting /sti/ (sentndose) cutting /kti/ (cortando) stopping /stpi/ (deteniendo, parando) swimming /sumi/ (nadando)

EL TIEMPO PRESENTE CONTINUO O PROGRESIVO. El tiempo Presente Continuo o Progresivo est formado por el Presente del verbo TO BE (AM/S/ARE) ms un GERUNDIO de un verbo principal y se usa para expresar acciones que se estn realizando NOW /nu/ (ahora) o AT THIS TIME /at is tim/ (a esta hora), AT THE MOMENT /at e mument/ (en este momento). AT PRESENT /at przent/ (en estos das, actualmente), TEMPORARILY /temporrili/ (temporalmente), FOR THE TIME BEING /for e tim b: i/ (mientras tanto,transitoriamente). Escuche, lea y aprenda: Theyre living in New York at present. /i a:r livi in niu irk at przent/ (Ellos estn viviendo en N.Y. en la actualidad). Marys working in Room 10 now. /mriz w:rki in rm tn nu/ (Mary est trabajando en la Of.10 ahora) Herberts having lunch at the moment. /h:rberts hvi lntch at e mument/ (Herbert est almorzando en este momento) For the time being, Im living with my brother John. /for e tim b:i im lvin wi mai brer dlln/ (Transitoriamente, estoy viviendo con mi hermano John) La forma negativa se expresa usando NOT despus del verbo TO BE. El uso de las contracciones ISNT y ARENT es frecuente en la conversacin diaria. Escuche, lea y aprenda: They are not living in New York at present. Theyre not living in New York at present. They arent living in New York at present. Mary is not working in Room 10 now. Marys not working in Room 10 now. Mary isnt working in Room 10 now. For the time being, I am not living with my brother John. Im not living with my brother John

La forma interrogativa se expresa mediante simple inversin del verbo TO BE (AM,IS,ARE) con el sujeto. En las preguntas negativas se usan las contracciones ISNT/ARENT delante del sujeto. Escuche, lea y aprenda: Are they living in New York at present? Is Mary working in Room 10 now? Are you living with your brother John? Am I doing the exercise correctly? Arent they living in New York at present? Isnt Mary working in Room 10 now? Arent you living with your brother John? Arent I doing the exercise correctly?

Cuando deseamos formular preguntas introducidas por una palabra interrogativa como What, Where, When, How, How often, etc., debemos mantener el mismo orden de palabras usado en las preguntas simples. Escuche, lea y aprenda: John is living in New York at present. The children are playing soccer. I am wearing a sweater because its cold.

Where is John living at present? What are the children playing? Why are you wearing a sweater?

La pregunta ms frecuente en este tiempo verbal es: WHAT ARE YOU DOING? /wt ar i du: i/ (qu ests haciendo?) EXERCISES Ex. 1. Escuche, lea y aprenda estos verbos: INFINITIVE To answer /:nser/ To arrive /erriv/ To ask /a:sk/ To ask for /a:sk fo:r/ To buy /bi/ To close /klouz/ To come /kam/ To cut /kat/ To do /du:/ To drink /drik/ To drive /driv/ To dry /dri/ To eat /i:t/ To nish /fnish/ To x /ks/ To give /giv/ To go /gou/ To help /help/ To invite /invit/ To learn /le:rn/ To leave /li:v/ To listen to /lsn tu/ To live /liv/ To look at /luk at/ To make /meik/ To open /upn/ To pay /pei/ To play /pli/ To put /put/ To read /ri:d/ To receive /ris:v/
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GERUND answering /:nseri/ arriving /errivi/ asking /:ski/ asking for /:ski fo:r// buying /bii/ closing /kluzi/ coming /kmi/ cutting /kti/ doing /d:i/ drinking /drki/ driving /drivi/ drying /drii/ eating /:ti/ nishing /fnishi/ xing /fksi/ giving /gvi/ going /gui/ helping /hlpi/ inviting /inviti/ learning /l:rni/ leaving /l:vi/ listening to /lsni tu/ living /livi/ looking at /lki at/ making /miki/ opening /upni/ paying /pii/ playing /plii/ putting /pti/ reading /r:di/ receiving /ris:vi/

SPANISH responder/respondiendo llegar/llegando preguntar/preguntando; pedir/pidiendo, solicitar/solicitando comprar/comprando cerrar/cerrando venir/viniendo cortar/cortando hacer/haciendo (actividades) beber/bebiendo conducir/conduciendo secar/secando comer/comiendo terminar/terminando reparar/reparando; arreglar/arreglando/ jar/jando dar/dando ir/yendo ayudar/ayudando invitar/invitando aprender/aprendiendo partir/partiendo; dejar/dejando escuchar/escuchando vivir, viviendo mirar/mirando hacer/haciendo abrir/abriendo pagar/pagando jugar/jugando; tocar/tocando (un instr.) poner/poniendo leer/leyendo recibir/recibiendo

To rain /rin/ To run /ran/ To say /si/ To sell /sel/ To send /send/ To sing /si/ To sit /sit/ To sleep /sli:p/ To speak /spi:k/ To spend /spend/ To start /sta:rt/ To stay /sti/ To study /stdi/ To take /tik/ To talk /to:k/ To tell /tel/ To think /ik/ To travel /trvel/ To try to /tri tu/ To wait for /weit fo:r/ To walk /wo:k/ To wash /wosh/ To watch /wotch/ To wear /war/ To work /we:rk/ To write /rit/

raining /rini/ running /rni/ saying /sii/ selling /sli/ sending /sndi/ singing /si/ sitting /sti/ sleeping /sl:pi/ speaking /sp:ki/ spending /spndi/ starting /st:rti/ staying /stii/ studying /stdii/ taking /tiki/ talking /t:ki/ telling /tli/ thinking /ki/ travelling /trveli/ trying to /trii tu/ waiting for /witi fo:r/ walking /w:ki/ washing /wshi/ watching /wtchi/ wearing /wari/ working /w:rki/ Writing /riti/

llover/lloviendo correr/corriendo decir/diciendo vender/vendiendo enviar/enviando cantar/cantando sentarse/sentndose dormir/durmiendo hablar/hablando gastar/gastando;pasar/pasando(tiempo) empezar/empezando,comenzar/comenzando permanecer/permaneciendo (quedarse) estudiar/estudiando tomar/tomando;llevar/llevando conversar/conversando decir/diciendo;contar/contando (narrar) pensar/pensando; creer/creyendo viajar/viajando tratar de/tratando de; intentar/intentando esperar/esperando caminar/caminando lavar/lavando observar/observando usar/usando(ropas) trabajar/trabajando; funcionar/funcionando escribir/escribiendo

Ex. 2. Escuche, lea y aprenda estas actividades frecuentes: Getting up /gti ap/ Having a bath/a shower /hvi e ba:/e shuer/ Getting dressed /gti drst/ Having breakfast/lunch/dinner /hvi brkfast//lantch/dner/ Going home/to work/to the ofce /gui hum/tu we:rk/tu i s/ Driving home/to work/to the ofce /drivi hum/tu we:rk/tu i s/./ Reading letters/the newspaper /r:di ltez/e niuzpiper/ Working in the ofce /w:rki in i s/ Talking with friends /t:ki wi frndz/ Leaving the ofce /l:vi i s/ Doing the shopping /d:i e shpi/ Buying the paper/cigarettes /bii e piper/sgarts/ Watching TV /wtchi t: v:/ Listening to the news/to the radio /lsni tu e ni:z/ridiou/ Writing to a friend /riti tu e frnd/ Calling up a friend /kli p e frnd/ Playing cards/soccer /plii krdz/sker Walking to the park /w:ki tu e pa:rk/ Running across the park /rni akrs e p:rk/ Doing exercise /d:i ksersaiz/ Working out /wrki ut/ Visiting a museum /vziti a miu:zam/ Studying for a test /stdii for e tst/ Washing the car /wshi e k:r/ Cleaning the house /klini e hus/ Making the bed /miki e bd/ Tidying up the room /tidii p e r:m/ Cooking a meal /kki a mi:l/ Preparing some drinks /pripari sam drks/ Going to bed /gui tu bd/ levantndose tomando un bao/una ducha vistindose desayunando/almorzando/cenando yendo a casa/al trabajo/a la ocina yendo en auto a casa/trabajo/of. leyendo cartas/el diario trabajando en la ocina conversando con amigos saliendo de la ocina haciendo las compras comprando el diario/cigarrillos mirando TV escuchando las noticias/la radio escribiendo a un/a amigo/a llamando a un/a amigo/a (por fono) jugando cartas/football caminando al parque corriendo a travs del parque haciendo ejercicio (gimnasia) visitando un museo estudiando para una prueba lavando el auto limpiando la casa haciendo la cama ordenando el cuarto cocinando una comida preparando algunos tragos acostndose
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Ex. 3. Complete the following sentences, using the Present Continuous tense of the verb provided. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. I to the news at the moment. (listen) The students to school now. (go) Mr. Smith for the bus. (wait) For the time being, Mary as a secretary. (work). Our friends Disney World today. (visit) The train at the station at this time. (arrive) You the exercises well now. (do) They the weekend in Miami. (spend) Look! The bus over there! (come) Listen! Those children Spanish! (speak) Theres a man in the garden. He the grass. (cut) There are several students in the gym. They (work out)

Ex. 4. Change into a) negative and b) interrogative 1. The children are watching TV 2. Johns having breakfast now. 3. Bills answering the phone. 4. Im helping John with the work 5. The girls washing the dishes. 6. The cadets sleeping in class. 7. Its raining very hard now. 8. The students are writing a composition. 9. Youre doing the exercise correctly. 10. The dogs drinking milk. 11. The boys singing an English song. 12. Were making a lot of progress.

Ex. 5. Ask questions using questions word like What, Where, Why, etc. 1. Marys eating an apple now. 2. John and his friends are watching TV. 3. Theyre living in Bristol at present. 4. Im answering a letter. 5. The students are reading a story. 6. George is travelling by plane. 7. He isnt working because its Sunday. 8. Billys wearing the new sweater. 9. Im singing because Im happy. 10.The men are running now. 11.Im trying to open the window. 12.Theyre looking at the horses.

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Ex. 6. Complete the dialogs using the verbs provided in the Present Continuous tense. Study them and practise them with a friend: 1. Hans Bob Hans Bob 2. Jane Peter Jane Peter Jane Peter : : : : : : : : : : Hello, Bob! Where you To the post ofce. I (go) there, too. Why Its in the garage. They Wheres Billy? Hes in his room. What he No, he isnt. He He always Well, he ? ( go) nt you ( x) the brakes. (drive) your car?

?(do) I dont think he (study) for a test. ! (study). Thats why he (plan) to study engineering, you know..

(sleep). (do) so well at school this year

3. Robert : Where are the children? Mary : Billy (watch) TV in the living-room. And Bettys in the kitchen. I think she (cook) dinner. And Jims in his room. He (sleep), of course! Robert : Well, lets go for a walk,then. Mary : Great! Lets do that.

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PART II.
A. TIME AND DATES day /di/ da week /w:k/ semana month /man/ mes year /yar/ ao season /s:zn/ estacin

There are 365 days /diz/ in a year. There are 52 weeks /w:ks/ in a year /jar/ There are twelve months /mns/ in a year. The months of the year are: January /dlliuari/ February /fbruari/ March /m:rtch/ April /iprl/ May /mi/ June /dll:n/ Enero Febrero Marzo Abril Mayo Junio July /dlluli/ August /:gast/ September /septmber/ October /oktuber/ November /nouvmber/ December /dismber/ Julio Agosto Septiembre Octubre Noviembre Diciembre

There are four seasons /s:zonz/ in a year: Winter /unter/ Invierno, Spring /spri/ Primavera, Summer /smer/ Verano, and Autumn /:tom/ (or Fall /f:l/) Otoo There are seven days in a week. The days of the week are: Monday /mndi/ Tuesday /ti:zdi/ Wednesday /wnzdi/ Lunes Martes Mircoles Thursday /rzdi/ Friday /fridi/ Saturday /s terdi/ Jueves Viernes Sbado Sunday /sndi/ Domingo

Monday is the rst (primer) day of the week. Tuesday is the second (segundo) day. The third (tercer) day of the week is Wednesday, and Thursday is the fourth (cuarto) day. Friday is the fth (quinto) day, and the sixth (sexto) day is Saturday. The seventh (sptimo) and last (ltimo) day of the week is Sunday. Ordinal Numbers: Los nmeros ordinales, adems de usarse para indicar orden o lugar de precedencia, se usan para expresar fechas. Los nmeros ordinales son: 1st. 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th First /f:rst/ Second /skond/ Third /:rd/ Fourth /f:r/ Fifth /f/ Sixth /six/ Seventh /sven/ Eighth /it/ Ninth /nin/ Tenth /tn/ 11th 12th 13th 14th 15th 16th 17th 18th 19th 20th Eleventh /ilven/ Twelfth /tulf/ Thirteenth /e:rt:n/ Fourteenth /fort:n/ Fifteenth /ft:n/ Sixteenth /sikst:n/ Seventeenth /sevent:n/ Eighteenth /eit:n/ Nineteenth /naint:n/ Twentieth /tuntie/ 21st 22nd 23rd 24th 25th 26th 27th 28th 29th 30th 31st Twenty-rst /tunti f:rst/ Twenty-second /tunti skond/ Twenty-third /tunti :rd/ Twenty-fourth /tunti f:r/ Twenty-fth /tunti ff/ Twenty-sixth /tunti sks/ Twenty-seventh /tunti sven/ Twenty-eighth /tunti it/ Twenty-ninth /tunti nin/ Thirtieth /rtie/ Thirty-rst /:rti f:rst/

Escuche, lea y aprenda The date today is Wednesday the rst of May, two thousand two /e dit tudi iz wnzdi e f:rst ov mi t. uzand t:/ o tambin, Wednesday, May the rst, two thousand two /wnzdi mi e f:rst t. uzand t:/ (La fecha de hoy es Mircoles primero de Mayo de 2002) I was born on the fteenth of August, nineteen seventy-ve /ai woz b:rn on e ft:n ov :gast nintin sventi fiv/, o tambin, on August the fteenth, nineteen seventy-ve /on :gast e ft:n nintin sventi fiv/ (Yo nac el 15 de Agosto de 1975). Janes birthday is on the twenty-fth of June /dllinz b:rei is on e tunti ff ov dll:n/, o tambin, on June the twentyfth /on dll:n e tunti ff/ (El cumpleaos de Jane es el 25 de Junio)

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EXERCISES Ex. 1. Write the following dates, as in the examples: 1. 12.09.1963 2. 05.05.1938 3. 02.11.1906 4. 18.07.1900 5. 10.08.2000 6. 01.01.2001 7. 18.09.1810 8. 05.12.1978 9. 12.03.1893 10. 04.30.1999 11. 08.27.1987 12. 02.28.1956 13. 10.12.1492 14. 07.02.1956 The twelfth of September, nineteen sixty-three

April the thirtieth, nineteen ninety-nine

Ex. 2. Answer the following questions: 1. When is your birthday? 2. When was your father born? 3. What day is today? 4. Whats the date today? 5. How many days are there in a week? 6. What are the seasons of the year? 7. Whats your favo(u)rite season? 8. What are the days of the week? 9. What are the months of the year? 10. Whats the rst month of the year? 11. Whats the third day of the week? 12. Whats the last month of the year? 13. How many months are there in a year? 14. How many hours are there in a day? 15. When is New Years Day? 16. Whens our Independence Day?

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B. Question Words (1) Describing people and things Escuche, lea y aprenda
ENGLISH How old? /hu uld/ How tall? /hu to:l/ How far? /hu fa:r/ How long? /hu l/ How high? /hu hi/ How fast? /hu f(st/ How deep? /hu di:p/ How thick? /hu (ik/ How wide? /hu wid/ How big...? /hu big?/ How well...? /hu wel/ How heavy...? /hau hvi/ What color? /hwot klor/ What size? /hwot siz/ What shape? /hwot ship/ What is /are...like?*
/wot. Iz /a:r...lik/

SPANISH Qu edad? Qu estatura? Qu distancia? Qu longitud? Qu altura? Qu velocidad? Qu profundidad? Qu espesor / grosor? Qu anchura / ancho? Cun grande? Cun bien? Cunto pesa? Qu color? Qu tamao / talla? Qu forma? Cmo es / son...? (Descripcin de cosas) (Descripcin de personas en cuanto a su carcter)

EXAMPLE How old are you? Im 21 years old How tall are you? Im 1.70 meters tall How far is the airprt? Its about 20 km. away How long is the river? Its 85 km. long. How high is that hill? Its about 1,200 mt. high How fast is the train moving? At about 90 k/h How deep is the lake? Its 120 mt. deep How thick is that wall? Its about 40 cm. thick How wide is the road? About 15 mt. wide How big is the house? It has got ve rooms How well do you drive? I drive very well How heavy is the box? It weighs 5 kilos What color is the car? Its light blue What size is this shirt? Its extra large What shape is a football? Its round What is the house like? Its very comfortable What are the rooms like? Theyre very small Whats Mary like? Shes very nice and friendly.

Nota importante:

Como Ud. habr advertido, en ingls se debe usar el verbo BE (am/is/are/was/were, etc.) para describir objetos. En castellano normalmente se usa el verbo tener: How old are you? I am 35 = Que edad tiene Ud? Yo tengo 35

Ex. 1. Study these words:


Nouns age /idll/ edad length /le/ longitud width /wi/ anchura thickness /iknis/ grosor distance /dstans/ distancia speed /sp:d/ velocidad depth /dep/ profundidad height /hit/ estatura;altura size
/saiz/

tamao, talla forma peso

shape weight

/ship/

/wit/

Adjectives old /ould/ anciano, viejo; young /ya/ joven old /ould/ viejo; new /ni:/ nuevo long /lo/ largo; short /sho:rt/ corto wide /wid/ ancho; narrow /nrrou/ angosto thick /ik/ grueso; thin /in/ delgado distant /dstant/ distante; nearby /narbai/ cercano fast /fa:st/ veloz; slow /slu/ lento deep /d:p/ profundo; shallow /shlou/ poco profundo tall /t:l/ alto; short /sh:rt/ bajo de estatura high /hi/ alto; low /lu/ bajo small /sm:l/ pequeo; big /big/ grande tiny /tini/ diminuto; huge /hiu:dll/ enorme round /rund/ redondo; square /skwear/ cuadrado; rectangular /rektngiular/ rectangular, triangular /traingiular/ triangular; oval heavy /hvi/ pesado; light /lit/ liviano

/uval/

ovalado

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BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words:


NUMERALS CARDINAL NUMBERS 1 one /wan/ uno 1st 2 two /tu:/ dos 2nd 3 three /ri:/ tres 3rd 4 four /fo:r/ cuatro 4th 5 ve /faiv/ cinco 5th 6 six /siks/ seis 6th siete 7 seven /svn/ 7th 8 eight /eit/ ocho 8th nueve 9 nine /nain/ 9th diez 10 ten /ten/ 10th once 11 eleven /ilvn/ 11th doce 12 twelve /twlf/ 12th trece 13 thirteen /:rt:n/ 13th catorce 14 fourteen /fort:in/ 14th quince 15 fteen /ft:n/ 15th diecisis 16 sixteen /sikst:n/ 16th diecisiete 17 seventeen /sevnt:n/ 17th dieciocho 18 eighteen /eit:n/ 18th diecinueve 19 nineteen /naint:n/ 19th veinte 20 twenty /twnti/ 20th veintiuno 21 twenty-one /twnti wn/ 21st veintids 22 twenty-two /twnti t:/ 22nd 30 thirty / :rti/ treinta 30th 31 thirty-one / :rti wn/ treinta y uno 31st cuarenta 40 forty /f:rti/ 40th 50 fty /ffti/ cincuenta 50th sesenta 60 sixty /sksti/ 60th setenta 70 seventy /svnti/ 70th ochenta 80 eighty /iti/ 80th noventa 90 ninety /ninti/ 90th cien 100 one hundred /wan hndrid/ 100th mil 1,000 one thousand /wan uznd/ 1,000th un milln 1,000,000 one million /wan mlion/ 1,000,000th ORDINAL NUMBERS rst /f:rst/ primero second /sknd/ segundo third /:rd/ tercero fourth /fo:r/ cuarto fth /f/ quinto sixth /siks/ sexto sptimo seventh /svn/ eighth /it/ octavo noveno ninth /nin/ dcimo tenth /tn/ dcimo primero eleventh /ilvn/ dcimo segundo twelfth /twelf/ dcimo tercero thirteenth /:rt:n/ dcimo cuarto fourteenth /fo:rt:n/ dcimo quinto fteenth /ft:n/ dcimo sexto sixteenth /sikst:n/ dcimo sptimo seventeenth /sevnt:n/ dcimo octavo eighteenth /eit:n/ dcimo noveno nineteenth /naint:n/ vigsimo twentieth /twntie/ vigsimo primero twenty-rst /twnti f :rst/ twenty-second /twnti sknd/ vigsimo segundo thirtieth / :rtie/ trigsimo thirty-rst / :rti f :rst/ trigsimo primero cuadragsimo fortieth /f:rtie/ ftieth /fftie/ quincuagsimo sexagsimo sixtieth /skstie/ septuagsimo seventieth /svntie/ octogsimo eightieth /itie/ nonagsimo ninetieth /naintie/ centsimo one hundredth /wan hndre/ one thousandth /wan uznd/ milsimo millonsimo one millionth /wan mlion/

TIME AND DATES 1. Units of time second /sknd/ minute /mnit/ hour /uar/ day /dei/ week /wi:k/ 2. Days of the week Monday /mndi/ Tuesday /tu:zdi/ Wednesday /wnzdi/ Thursday / :rzdi/ Friday /fridi/ Lunes Martes Mircoles Jueves Viernes Saturday /s trdi/ Sunday /sndi/ Sbado Domingo segundo minuto hora da semana month /mn/ season /s:zon/ year /yar/ century /sntchuri/ mes estacin, temporada ao siglo

Nota: En Ingls, los das de la semana y los meses del ao siempre se escriben con maysculas.
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3. Seasons of the year summer /smer/ autumn /fall/:tm/ /f:l/ verano otoo winter /wnter/ spring /spri/ invierno primavera

4. Months of the year January /dllniuari/ February /fbruari/ March /ma:rtch/ April /iprl/ May /mei/ June /dllu:n/ 5. Dates Today is Monday, 2nd May, 2001 (the second of May, two thousand one) He was born on January 26th, 1957 (January the twenty-sixth, nineteen fty-seven) Enero Febrero Marzo Abril Mayo Junio July /dlluli/ Julio August /:gast/ Agosto September /septmber/ Septiembre October /oktuber/ Octubre November /nouvmber/ Noviembre December /dismber/ Diciembre

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KEY TO ANSWERS

UNIT 4
Part I
Ex. 3. 1. am listening 2. are going 3. is waiting 4. is working 5. are visiting 6. is arriving 7. are doing 8. are spending 9. is coming 10. are speaking 11. is cutting 12. are working out Ex. 4. 1. The children arent watching TV / Are the children watching TV? 2. John isnt having breakfast now / Is John having breakfast now? 3. Bill isnt answering the phone / Is Bill answering the phone? 4. Im not helping John... / Am I helping John...? 5. The girl isnt washing the dishes / Is the girl washing the dishes? 6. The cadet isnt sleeping... / Is the cadet sleeping...? 7. It isnt raining... / Is it raining...? 8. The students arent writing... / Are the students writing...? 9. You arent doing the exercises... / Are you doing the exercises...? 10. The dog isnt drinking milk / Is the dog drinking milk? 11. The boy isnt singing... / Is the boy singing...? Ex. 5. 1. Whats Mary eating now? 2. What are John and his friends doing? 3. Where are they living at present? 4. What are you doing? 5. What are the students reading? 6. Hows George travelling? 7. Why isnt he working? 8. Which sweater is Billy wearing? 9. Why are you singing? 10. What are the men doing now? 11. What are you trying to do? 12. What are they looking at? Ex. 6. 1. Hans: are - going Hans : am going / are - driving Bob: are sing 2.. Jane: is - doing / is sleeping Peter: is studying Jane: is - studyiung / is doing Peter: is planning .3. Mary: is watching / is cooking / is sleeping

Part II
Ex. 1. 2. The fth of May, nineteen thirty-eight 3. The second of November, nineteen oh six 4. The eighteenth of July, nineteen hundred 5. The tenth of August, two thousand 6. The rst of January, two thousand one 7. The eighteenth of September, eighteen ten 8. The fth of December, nineteen seventy-eight 9. The twelfth of March, eighteen ninety-three 11. August the twenty-seventh, nineteen eighty-seven 12. February the twenty-eighth, nineteen fty-six 13. October the twelfth, forteen ninety-two 14. July the second, nineteen fty-six Ex. 2. 1. Its on... 2. He was born on... 3. Todays... 4. The date today is... 5. There are seven days 6. The seasons of the year are Winter, Spring Summer and Autumn / Fall 7.... is my favority season. 8. The days of the week are Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday and Sunday. 9. The months of the year are January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November and December 10.The rst month of the year is January 11. The third day of the week is Wednesday 12. The last month of the year is December 13. There are twelve months in a year 14. There are twenty-four hours in a day 15. New Years day is on the rst of January. 16. Our Independence Day is on September the eighteenth.

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Bl 58

UNIT 5
PART I. EL TIEMPO PRESENTE SIMPLE (THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE)
Este tiempo se usa para expresar acciones que ocurren a diario, en forma habitual. Las expresiones de tiempo que ms se usan en este tiempo verbal son aquellas que llevan la palabra EVERY /vri/, como every day /vri di/ (todos los das), every morning /vri m:ni/ (todas las maanas), every weekend /vri wiknd/ (todos los nes de semana). Tambin se usan con este tiempo los ADVERBIOS DE FRECUENCIA (que no indican cuando, sino que con qu frecuencia ocurren las acciones indicadas por el verbo). Son adverbios de frecuencia: always /:lwiz/ (siempre), generally /dllnerali/ (generalmente), usually /ushuali/ (usualmente), often /fn/ ( a menudo), sometimes /smtaimz/ (a veces), rarely /rarli/ (rara vez), seldom /sldom/ (raramente), hardly ever /h:rdli ver/ (casi nunca), never /nver/ (nunca). Las expresiones que llevan la palabra every habitualmente van ubicadas al nal de la oracin, mientras que los adverbios de frecuencia van ubicados siempre antes del verbo principal.Tambin son frecuentes en este tiempo verbal los adverbios de tiempo formados por once /wns/ (una vez), twice /twis/ (dos veces), three times /ri: timz/ (tres veces), several times /svral timz/ (varias veces), many times /mni timz/ (muchas veces), etc, seguidas de las frases a day /e di/ (al da), a week /e wi:k/ (a la semana), a month /e mn/ (al mes), etc. En la forma armativa, el SUJETO (I, You, The students, You and I, etc.) va seguido por el INFINITIVO de un verbo principal. Es importante destacar aqu que en el Presente Simple armativo no se usa el verbo modal DO/DOES (est tcito). Cuando decimos I speak Spanish every day estamos diciendo I do speak Spanish every day. Cuando decimos, The secretary answers the telephone estamos diciendo The secretary does answer the telephone. Esto se comprueba cuando queremos expresar oraciones negativas o interrogativas: I do not speak Spanish every day/Do I speak Spanish every day?; The secretary does not answer the telephone/Does the secretary answer the telephone? Escuche, lea y aprenda: I speak Spanish every day. /ai sp:k spnish vri di/ (Yo hablo espaol todos los das) We go to the beach every summer. /wi: gu tu e b:tch vri smer/ (Nos.vamos a la playa todos los veranos) I often see Mary at the club. /ai fn s: mri at e klb/ (Yo a menudo veo a Mary en el club) They always come here on Saturday. /i lwiz km har on s terdi/ (Ellos siempre vienen ac los sbados) The students play soccer once a week. /e stidents pli sker wns e wi:k/ (Los alumnos juegan ftbol una vez a la semana) Cuando el sujeto es tercera persona del singular (he, she, it, the boy, the telephone,etc) se debe agregar una -s o -es al verbo principal. Escuche, lea y aprenda: He speaks Spanish and English well. /hi: sp:ks spnish and nglish wel/ (El habla espaol e ingls bin) The secretary answers the telephone. /e skretri nserz e tlifoun/ (La secretaria contesta el telfono) The bus stops here. /e bs stps har/ (El bus para aqu) Bob washes the car on saturday. /bb wshiz e ka:r on s terdi/ (Bob lava el auto los sbados) * My wife watches TV in the evening. /mai wif wtchiz t: v: in i :vni/ (Mi mujer mira TV en las tardes) * John plays tennis every Friday afternoon. /dlln pliz tniz vri fridi a:ftern:n/ (John juega tnis todos los viernes en las tardes)** John studies French on Friday morning. /dlln stdiz frntch on fridi m:ni/ John estudia francs los viernes en la maana)** The sun rises in the east. /e sn riziz in i :st/ (El sol aparece en el este) *** John changes the batteries once a month. /dlln tchidlliz e btriz wns e mn/ (John cambia las bateras una vez al mes) ***
Notas: En la 3ra. persona del singular (he, she, it), se deben considerar las siguientes reglas: * Los verbos terminados en -s, -sh, -ch-, -x, o -z deben agregar -es al verbo. Este sujo plural se pronuncia /iz/ y es una slaba ms: washes /wshiz/, watches /wtshiz/. ** Los verbos terminados en -y precedida de consonante transforman dicha letra en -ies : study - studies. Si la -y est precedida de vocal se agrega -s: play /plei/, plays /pliz/. *** Los verbos regulares terminados en -se, -ce, -ge slo agregan -s en la tercera persona del singular, pero ese sujo se pronuncia /iz/ y pasa a ser una slaba ms: rise /riz/ - rises /riziz/, change /tchindll/ - changes /tchindlliz/. Los verbos have, do, y go tienen las siguientes formas en la 3ra. Persona del singular: has /hz/, does /daz/, goes /guz/.
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En la forma negativa se debe usar el verbo modal DO /du/ seguido de la palabra NOT (normalmente formando la contraccin DONT /dunt/ ) ms el innitivo del verbo principal. En la tercera personal del singular se debe usar DOES /dz/ seguido de NOT (normalmente formando la contraccin DOESNT /dznt/ ) ms el Innitivo del verbo principal (sin agregar -s / -es) Escuche, lea y aprenda: I speak Spanish every day. We go to the beach every summer. The students play soccer every day. He speaks English well. The bus stops here. My wife watches TV in the morning. Bob changes the batteries once a month My friends have a new car. Mary has many friends in Canada. We have lunch at school every day. I do not speak /du: nt sp:k/ Spanish every day. We dont go /dunt gu/ to the beach every summer. The students dont play /dunt pli/ soccer every day. He does not speak /daz nt sp:k/ English well The bus doesnt stop /dznt stp/ here. My wife doesnt watch /dznt wtch/ TV in the morning. Bob doesnt change /dznt tchindll/ the batteries once a month. My friends dont have /dunt hv/ a new car. Mary doesnt have /dznt hv/ many friends in Canada We dont have lunch /dunt hv lntch/ at school every day.

Para expresar interrogaciones debemos anteponer los verbos modales DO/DOES al sujeto. En las preguntas negativas se deben anteponer las contracciones DONT/DOESNT Escuche, lea y aprenda: Do you speak /diu sp:k/ Spanish every day?. Do we go /du wi gu/ to the beach every summer?. Do the students play /du e sti:dents pli/ soccer every day?. Does he speak /dz hi: sp:k/ English well? Does the bus stop /dz e bs stp/ here?. Does your wife watch /dz ior wif wtch/ TV in the morning? Does Bob change /dz bob tchindll/ the batteries once a month? Do your friends have /du ior frndz hv/ a new car? Does Mary have /dz mri hv/ many friends in Canada? Do you have lunch /diu hv lntch/ at school every day? Dont you speak /dunt iu sp:k/ Spanish at home? Doesnt Mary work /dznt mri wrk/ on Saturday?
Nota: El verbo to have (tener) es un verbo principal, por lo tanto necesita el verbo modal do / does en las negaciones e interrogaciones. Recuerde que en ingls britnico genertalmente se preere usar la expresin have got / has got (Ver Unit 3). Cuando se usa el verbo to have para expresar la idea de servirse, comer, beber, o experimentar, como en to have breakfast (desayunar), o to have a good time (pasarlo bien, divertirse), se debe usar do / does en las negaciones e interrogaciones ) My friends have a new car My friends dont have a new car Mary has many friends in Canada Mary doesnt have many friends in Canada = = = = My friends have got a new car My friends havent got a new car. Mary has got many friends in Canada. Mary hasnt got many friends in Canada

Cuando deseamos formular preguntas introducidas por palabras interrogativas como WHAT, WHERE, WHEN, HOW, HOW MUCH, etc., debemos mantener el mismo orden usado en las interrogaciones simples. Escuche, lea y aprenda: What language do you speak at home? /wt lguidll di sp:k at hum/ When do they go to the beach? /wn du ei gu tu e b:tch/ Where does the bus stop? /war daz e bs stp/ Why does John change the batteries every month? /wi daz dlln tchindll e bteriz vri mn/ La pregunta ms habitual en este tiempo verbal es : WHAT DO YOU DO? /wt diu du/ (Qu hace ud.?)
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EXERCISES

Ex. 1. Study the following expressions of time: Every Monday /vri mndi/ Every Tuesday /vri ti:zdi/ Every Wednesday /vri wnzdi/ Every Thursday /vri rzdi/ Every Friday morning /vri fridi m:ni/ Every Saturday afternoon /vri s terdi aftenn/ Every Sunday evening /vri sndi :vni/ Every morning /vri m:ni/ Every afternoon /vri afternn/ Every evening /vri :vni/ Every day /vri di/ Every night /vri nit/ Every week /vri wi:k/ Every month /vri mn/ Every year /vri yiar/ Once a day /wns e di/ Twice a week /twis e wiik/ Three times a year /ri: timz e yar/ Several times a month /svrl timz e mn/ Always /:lweiz/ Frequently /frkwentli/ Usually /ishuali/ Generally /dllnerali/ Sometimes /smtaimz/ Often /fn/ Rarely /rarli/ Hardly ever /hrdli ver/ Seldom /sldom/ Never /nver/ In the summer /in e smer/ In the autumn/fall /in i :tom /fo:l/ In the winter /in e wnter/ In the spring /in e spri/ Todos los lunes Todos los martes Todos los mircoles Todos los jueves Todos los viernes en la maana Todos los sbados en la tarde. Todos los domingos en la tarde Todas las maanas Todas las tardes (13:00 - 17:00) Todas las tardes (18:00 - 21:00) Todos los das Todas las noches Todas las semanas Todos los meses Todos los aos Una vez al da Dos veces a la semana Tres veces al ao Varias veces al mes Siempre Frecuentemente Usualmente Generalmente A veces A menudo Raramente Casi nunca Rara vez Nunca En el verano En el otoo En el invierno En la primavera

Ex. 2. Complete the conjugation of the following verbs: Afirmative a. I work here every day You Bill Ann We They b. I watch TV after dinner. You Bill Ann We They Negative I dont work here every day You Bill Ann We They I dont watch TV after dinner. Interrogative Do I work here every day? you Bill Ann we they Do I watch TV after dinner? ? ? ? ? ?

? ? ? ? ?

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c. I go to the movies every night You Bill Ann We They d. I play tennis on Saturday You Bill Ann We They e. I study English every day. You Bill Ann We They f. I have dinner at work. You Bill Ann We They g. I do the exercises well. You Bill Ann We They

I dont

Do I

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

Ex. 3. Complete the following sentences using the Simple Present Tense of the verbs given in parentheses. Then translate them into Spanish 1. The children 2. We seldom 3. I 4. John 5. The students sometimes 6. Peter 7. The train 8. Myriam 9. I never 10. The manager generally 11. My wife and I often 12. Mr Smith at this time every morning. (get up) to the North in the summer. (go) breakfast at 7:15 every morning. (have) the newspaper on the train every day. (read) rugby at school. (play) bridge with his friends every Friday night. (play) in London at 7:50 every morning. (arrive) the oor once or twice a week. (wash) Spanish at school. (speak) the ofce after 8:00 p.m. (leave) in that restaurant. (eat) TV after dinner every evening. (watch)

Ex. 4. Change the following sentences into a) negative, b) interrogative, and c) Wh-questions: 1. Mary likes to drink coffee with milk. ? ? 2. They live near here. ? ?
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3. Peter watches TV every night. ? ? 4. The bus leaves at 7:45 ? ? 5. That man speaks German. ? ? 6. They work out every morning. ? ? 7. Bob always drinks beer. ? ? 8. They have two cars. ? ? 9. Peter does everything well. ? ? 10. They come here twice a week. ? ?

Ex. 5. Ask questions using wh-words like WHAT, WHERE, WHEN, HOW, etc. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. She lives near Wimbledon. They play golf twice a week. They get up at 7:15 every morning. The students need more practice. John goes to Pucn in the summer. Mary comes to work by bus. We go to the club on Friday. They go to the park on Sunday. Mary goes shopping on Saturday. They need twenty dollars. They have two cars now. He walks to work because he hasnt got a car. They dont like the car because its too small. She usually sleeps six hours every night. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

Ex. 6. Answer these questions in English: 1. How many weeks are there in a year? 2. Bob is in the ofce. Whats he doing? 3. How many legs has a dog got? 4. Are there any trees in your garden? 5. The children are in the park. What are they doing? 6. What do you do after dinner every evening? 7. How much free time is there in an intensive course? 8. How often does your English teacher use the VCR in c? 9. Where do you usually spend your summer vacatio 10. When does a person go to see a doctor?

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Ex. 7. Complete the sentences using one of the following: cause(s) open(s) close(s) speak(s) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Ann I never The swimming pool Bad driving My grand parents The Olympic Games

drink(s)

live(s)

take(s) place

German very well. coffee. at 9:00 a.m and many accidents. in a very small apartment. every four years.

at 6:30 p.m. every day.

Ex. 8. Put the verb into the correct form. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Janet tea very often. .(not / drink) What time in Britain? (the banks / close) A:Where from? (Martin / come) B: Hes Scottish. A: What ? (you / do) B:Im an electrical engineer. It me an hour to get to work. (take) How long you? (it / take) I the piano (play) but I it very well (not / play). I dont understand this sentence. What (this word / mean)?

Ex. 9. Use one of the following verbs to complete these sentences. Sometimes you need the negative: believeeat go ow make rise grow tell translate 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. The earth Rice The sun Bees Vegetarians An atheist An interpreter A liar is someone who The River Amazon round the sun. in Britain. in the east. honey. meat. in God. from one language into another. the truth. into the Atlantic Ocean.

Ex. 10. (Review) Use the Present Continuous or the Simple Present, of the verb given in parentheses: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.
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My brother Jim in Boston at present. (work) The secretary generally the ofce at 7:30 every evening. (leave) Mr. Scott the news on TV at the moment. (watch) We seldom to the coast in the winter. (go) Look! John over there. (come) Mary to visit us once or twice a month. (come) For the time being, Tom as a mechanic. (work) Where they at present? (live) Where they usually in the summer? (go) What the boy at the moment? (do) Look! It to rain! Lets go inside. (begin) The bar at 6:45 and at 10:30 every day. (open / close) We not anything special right now. We just TV. (do / watch) Hello, Bob! What you there now? (do) You must always speak to him in English. He not Spanish. (understand) Listen! Somebody the piano upstairs. Who can it be? (play) What you doing when you are at home? (like) Why you English now? Are you planning to go to the USA? (study) Why you always home so late every night? (Get) Look at that man. He a green uniform. He must be a police ofcer. (wear)
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Ex. 11. (Review) Complete the sentences by using the Simple Present or the Present Continuous of the verbs provided. 1. Shhh!! The little boy (sleep) . He (sleep) for ten hours every night. 2. Right now Im in class and I (sit) at my desk. I usually (sit) at the same desk in class every day. 3. Mustafa comes from Saudi Arabia .He (speak) Arabic. Arabic is his native language, but right now he (speak) English. 4. Our teacher (stand, not) up right now. He (sit) on the corner of his desk. 5. Its 7 oclock now. Mrs. Blacks at home. She (eat) dinner. She always (eat) dinner with her family around six oclock. 6. It (rain, not) right now. The sun (shine) and the sky (be) blue. 7. (Rain, it), much in the South in the winter? 8. Look out of the window. (Rain, it) now? Should I take my umbrella? 9. Its 7:30 a.m. now and the Wilsons are in their kitchen. Mrs. Wilson (sit) at the breakfast table. She (read) the morning paper. She (read) the newspaper every morning. Mr Wilson (pour) a cup of coffee. He (drink) two cups of coffee every morning before he (go) to work. Theres a cartoon on TV now, but the children (watch, not) it. They (play) with their toys instead. They usually (watch) cartoons in the morning, but this morning they (pay, not) any attention to the TV. Mr and Mrs Wilson (watch, not) TV either. They (like, not ) to watch cartoons. 10. Alice (take, not) the bus to work every day. She usually (walk) instead. (Take, you) the bus to get to work every day, or (walk, you) sometimes?

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PART II.
A. QUESTION WORDS. (II) Study the following list of interrogative words
ENGLISH What?
/wot/

SPANISH Qu? Cul / es? Quin / es /? Cul / es? Cundo? Por qu? Dnde? Cmo? De quin? A quin? Cunto / a? Cuntos / as? Con qu frecuencia? Cunto tiempo? Qu hora? Qu clase / tipo de? Qu clase / tipo de? De dnde? Hacia dnde? Con quin? Acerca de quin? Para quin? Para qu? Con qu? Acerca de qu? Hacia qu? Cmo es/son...? (Descripcin de personas - fsico)

EXAMPLE What is that? ; What do you want to eat? What s your name?; Whats your opinion? Who is that man?; Who wants to play? Which book is mine? Which car do you like best? When is your birthday? When do you watch TV? Why is Tom absent today? Why are you leaving? Where is Mr Smith? Where do you live? How are you today? How do you feel today? Whose is that car? Whose address do you need? Whom did you see? To whom is Bob speaking? How much money is there in the wallet? How many students are there in your class? How often do you play tennis? How long does the program last? What time is it? At what time do you get up? What kind of books do you like to read? What sort of programs do you watch on TV? Where are they from? Where are you going to? Who do you practice golf with? Who are they talking about? Who is this letter for? What is this for? What do you use a knife for? What do you take photographs with? What are they talking about? What are you looking at? What does Betty look like? Shes tall and thin.

Who? /hu:/ Which? /witch/ When? /wen/ Why? /wai/ Where? /war/ How? /hau/ Whose? /hu:z/ Whom? /hu:m/ How much? /hu mtch/ How many? /hu mni/ How often? /hu fn/ How long? /hu long/ What time? /wot tim/ What kind of? /wot kind ov/ What sort of? /wot sort ov/ Where...from?* /war ..from/ Where...to?* /war .. tu/ Who...with?* /hu:...wi/ Who...about?* /hu: .. abut/ Who...for?* /hu:.. for/ What...for?* /wot...for/ What...with?* /wot...wi/ What... about?* /wot...abut/ What...at?* /wot...at/ What do /does...look like?
/wt du /daz...lk lik/

Nota:

Muy a menudo, las preguntas que comienzan con Preposicin + Whom/What,/Where, normalmente trasladan la preposicin al nal. Ejemplos: From where is she? = Where is she from?; About what are they talking? = What are they talking about?; With whom will you go? = Who will you go with? (Al trasladar la preposicin, whom vuelve a ser who)

Ex. 1. Ask the corresponding wh-question for each of the following answers 1. Susan is very thin and has got blue eyes. 2. They need twenty-ve dollars. 3. Ann likes apples, oranges and pears 4. We go to the South in the summer. 5. Mr Jackson gets up at 6:45 every morning. 6. My friends come from San Diego, California 7. Jack visits his parents twice a month. 8. The boys usually talk about football. 9. The boy sometimes wears his fathers shoes 10. It takes me about 20 minutes to get there. 11. I go there three times a week. 12. Bob plays golf with his boss on Sunday. 13. Mr Jenkins writes about his trips round the world. 14. They look at the stars with the telescope. 15. We take photographs with a camera. 16. I like Mary because shes very friendly.
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? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

17. 18. 19. 20.

Mr Williamson usually travels by plane. Ann writes detective stories. The students go to the gym after lunch. Bob goes to bed early when hes tired.

? ? ? ?

B. ARTICLES (II) El artculo denido THE se usa para referirse a sustantivos determinados o especcos y se usa con sustantivos singulares o plurales, es decir, se traduce como el, la, los y las . El artculo indenido A/AN se usa con sustantivos singulares no determinados ni especcos. Ejemplos: The secretary works in the laboratory every day. The secretaries work in the laboratory every day The book which I want is on the table. The books which I want are on the table. Lea y compare: I need a dictionary. (Necesito un diccionario) (general) That is a car. (Ese es un auto) (general) I need the dictionary which is on the shelf. (Necesito el diccionario que est sobre la repisa) (especco) That is the car which I like best. (Ese es el auto que me gusta ms) (especco) No se debe usar ningn articulo con los sutantivos incontables (water, milk, money, experience, happiness, etc) o sustantivos plurales (books, cats, students, people, men, etc.) cuando estamos rerindonos a ellos en forma general. Pero s debemos usar el articulo denido the cuando nos referimos a sustantivos en forma particular o especca. Lea y compare: General Water is good for the health. an important metal. Books are expensive in Chile. Girls work harder than boys. Especco water in this glass is not clean. Gold is gold in this ring is of good quality. books on that shelf are very expensive girls in this group work very hard.

The The The The

Ex. 1. Supply the denite article (the) where necessary in the following: Example: fresh air is good for the health. (Fresh air is good for the health.)

1. air in this room is not good. 2. history is an interesting subject. 3. We are studying history of France. 4. We have good light in our classroom. 5. light in this room is not good. 6. I always drink water with my meals. 7. water in this glass is dirty. 8. leather in these shoes is very good. 9. We get leather from the skins of animals. 10.We all need fresh air. 11. air in large cities is not very fresh. 12. We like animals. 13. animals in that photograph are wild animals. 14. We eat meat almost every day. 15. sh in the refrigerator is fresh. 16. children like to watch cartoons. 17.Do you sell stamps here?
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18.I like collecting 19. stamps and 20.Mr.Jones has got

stamps and coins coins in this collection are interesting. English books and magazines. magazines are very easy to read.

C. PRONOMBRES RELATIVOS WHO Y WHICH 1. Cuando queremos especicar acerca de qu persona, animal o cosa estamos hablando, debemos usar las pronombres relativos WHO o WHICH. Ambas palabras se traducen en espaol con la palabra QUE. En ingls, el pronombre relativo WHO se usa con las personas, mientras que con los animales y las cosas debemos usar WHICH.. Lea los siguientes ejemplos: The man who is talking with John is an engineer. The people who are waiting outside the theater want to buy tickets for the concert. This is the book which we use in class. The dog which is in the garden is a cocker spaniel. 2. Normalmente el relativo which se omite cuando precede a un nombre o pronombre: This is the book which we use in class. This is the book we use in class.

3. Las frases who is/are y which is/are generalmente se omiten en oraciones como las que se expresan a continuacin The book which is on the desk is a bilingual dictionary. ? I dont know the man who is in Mr. Smiths ofce. ? The woman who is crossing the road is my wife. ? The plane which is ying over the city is a spy plane. ? The women who are wearing a white uniform are nurses. ? The cars which are imported from Japan are really good. ? The men who are trained at our school are good pilots. ? Ex. 1 Fill in the blanks with WHO or WHICH: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. The girl The book The man Is this the camera Is that the bus The chair on John is the student The books Is it Mr Williamson The magazine The movie Is this the newspaper Are these the envelopes The people The men Are these the boys The man Is this the computer Do you know the woman That is exactly the car is with him is his sister. I want is on the table. is driving the car is my father. you are planning to buy? goes to the airport? I am sitting is very comfortable. speaks English well. are listed in that catalogue are in English. wants to see the manager? is on the sofa is a sports magazine. is on at the Rex today is very good. you read every day? you need? are described in the story are very interesting. are working in that room are engineers. study with you? is walking down the road is the postman. you use every day? is coming over there? I would like to have. (I would like = me gustara) The book on the desk is a bilingual dictionary. I dont know the man in Mr. Smiths ofce. The woman crossing the road is my wife. The plane ying over the city is a spy plane. The women wearing a white uniform are nurses. The cars imported from Japan are really good. The men trained at our school are good pilots.

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Ex. 2. Translate the sentences in the previous exercise into Spanish. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. Ex. 3, Rewrite the sentences in Ex. 1, omitting the relative pronoun WHICH, or the word groups WHO IS/ARE o WHICH IS/ARE whenever it is possible, as in the example: 1. The girl with him is his sister 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. Ex. 4. Translate the following sentences into English. Underline the word(s) which can be omitted in everyday conversation. 1. El hombre que est conversando con Mary es el Dr. Smith. 2. Los libros que estn sobre esa silla son mos. 3. El libro sobre el que ellos estn conversando es un best-seller 4. Las personas que estn trabajando en esa ocina son ingenieros.

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5. Ella es la secretaria que trabaja con el Profesor Stephens 6. Este es el bus que nos lleva al trabajo todas las maanas. 7. Estos son los libros que nosotros usamos en las clases de ingls. 8. Conoces t al hombre que est trabajando en el laboratorio de idiomas? 9. Los zapatos que nosotros fabricamos son de muy buena calidad. 10.Es este el computador que usted quiere comprar?

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BASIC VOCABULARY : Study these words


CLOTHES /klou(z/ Vestuario suit /siu:t/ coat /kout/ jacket /dllkit/ trousers /truserz/ shirt /sh:rt/ T-shirt /ti: sh:rt/ tie /ti/ sweater /suter/ hat /ht/ socks /sks/ shoes /shu:z/ boots /bu:ts/ gloves /glavz/ umbrella /ambrla/ scarf /sk:rf/ belt /belt/ glasses /gl:siz/ earring /arri/ sunglasses /sangl.siz/ fur coat /f:r kut/ swimsuit /swimsiut/ trunks /trnks/ traje abrigo chaqueta pantalones camisa polera corbata suter sombrero soquetes zapatos botas guantes paraguas bufanda cinturn lentes aro, arete lentes para sol abrigo de piel traje de bao traje de bao dress /dres/ blouse /bluz/ skirt /sk:rt/ raincoat /rinkout/ cardigan /k:rdigan/ handkerchief /hndkertchi:f/ stockings /stkiz/ briefs /bri:fs/ cap /kp/ galoshes /gloshiz/ sneakers /sn:kerz/ sandals /sndalz/ waistcoat /wiskout/ slip /slip/ kerchief /k:rtchi:f/ bracelet /brislet/ wrist watch /rstwotch/ nger ring /fger ri/ parka /p:rka /, anorak /norak/ leather jacket /ler dllkit/ necklace /nklis/ vestido blusa falda impermeable chaleco de lana pauelo medias calzoncillo gorra galochas zapatillas sandalias chaleco de terno enagua pauelo brazalete reloj pulsera anillo parka chaqueta de cuero collar

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KEY TO ANSWERS

UNIT 5
Part I
Ex. 2. Afrmative You work here every day Bill works here every day Ann works here every day We work here every day They work here every day You watch TV after dinner Bill watches TV after dinner Ann watches TV after dinner We watch TV after dinner They watch TV after dinner You go to the movies every.. Bill goes to the movies... Ann goes to the movies... We go to the movies... They go to the movies... You play tennis on Saturday Bill plays tennis... Ann plays tennis... We play tennis... They play tennis... You study English every day Bill studies English... Ann studies English... We study English... They study English... You have dinner at work... Bill has dinner at work... Ann has dinner at work... We have dinner at work... They have dinner at work... You do the exercises well Bill does the exercises well Ann does the exercises well We do the exercises well They do the exercises well Negative You dont work here... Bill doesnt work here... Ann doesnt work here... We dont work here... They dont work here... You dont watch TV... Bill doesnt watch TV... Ann doesnt watch TV... We dont watch TV... They dont watch TV... You dont go to the movies... Bill doesnt go to the movies... Ann doesnt go to the movies... We dont go to the movies... They dont go to the movies... You dont play tennis... Bill doesnt play tennis... Ann doesnt play tennis... We dont play tennis... They dont play tennis... You dont study English... Bill doesnt study English... Ann doesnt study English... We dont study English... They dont study English... You dont have dinner... Bill doesnt have dinner... Ann doesnt have dinner... We dont have dinner... They dont have dinner... You dont do the exercises... Bill doesnt do the exercises... Ann doesnt do the exercises... We dont do the exercises... They dont do the exercises... Interrogative Do you work here...? Does Bill work here...? Does Ann work here...? Do we work here...? Do they work here...? Do you watch TV...? Does Bill watch TV...? Does Ann watch TV...? Do we watch TV...? Do they watch TV...? Do you go to the movies...? Does Bill go to the movies...? Does Ann go to the movies...? Do we go to the movies...? Do they go to the movies...? Do you play tennis...? Does Bill play tennis...? Does Ann play tennis...? Do we play tennis...? Do they play tennis...? Do you study English...? Does Bill study English...? Does Ann study English...? Do we study English...? Do they study English...? Do you have dinner at work? Does Bill have dinner at work? Does Ann have dinner at work? Do we have dinner at work? Do they have dinner at work? Do you do the exercises well? Does Bill do the exercises well? Does Ann do the exercises well? Do we do the exercises well? Do they do the exercises well?

Ex. 3. 1. get up 2. go 3. have 4. reads 5. play 6. plays 7. arrives 8. washes 9. speak 10. leaves 11.eat 12.watches Ex. 4. 1. Mary doesnt like... /Does Mary like.../ What does Mary like to drink? 2. They dont live... /Do they live ..?/ Where do they live? 3. Peter doesnt watch... /Does Peter watch...?/ What does Peter do every night? 4. The bus doesnt leave... /Does the bus leave...?/ What time does the bus leave? 5. That man doesnt speak... /Does that man speak...? What language does that man speak? 6. They dont work out... /Do they work out...?/ When do they work out? 7. Bob doesnt always drink... /Does Bob always drink...?/ What does Bob always drink? 8. They dont have... /Do
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they have...?/ How many cars do they have? 9. Peter doesnt do... /Does Peter do...?/ How does Peter do everything? 10. They dont come... /Do they come...?/ How often do they come here? Ex. 5. 1. Where does she live? 2. How often do they play golf 3. At what time do they get up every morning? 4. What do the students need? 5. Where does John go in the summer? 6. How does Mary come to work? 7. When do you go to the club? 8. What do they do on Sunday? 9. What does Mary do on Saturday? 10. How much money do they need? 11. How many cars do they have now? 12. Why does he walk to work? 13 Why dont they like the car? 14. How many hours does she usually sleep every night? Ex. 6. 1. There are fty-two weeks in a year. 2. Hes working 3. Its got four legs 4. Yes, there are some trees/No, there arent any trees 5. Theyre playing /running/ etc. 6. I usually watch TV /read a book/ etc. 7. There is very little free time 8. He hardly ever/never uses it. 9. I usually spend my summer vacation in... 10. He/she goes to see a doctor when he/she is sick Ex. 7. 1. speaks 2. drink 3. opens - closes 4. causes 5. live 6. take place Ex. 8. 1. doesnt drink 2. do the banks close 3. does Martin come 4. do you do 5. takes/does it take 6. play - dont play 7. does this word mean? Ex. 9. 1. goes 2. doesnt grow 3. rises 4. make 5. dont eat 6. doesnt believe 7. translates 8. doesnt tell 9. ows Ex. 10. 1. is working 2. leaves 3. is watching 4. go 5. is coming 6. comes 7. is working 8. are-living 9. do-go 10. isdoing 11. is beginning 12. opens-closes 13. are-doing/are-watching 14. are-doing 15. does-understand 16. is playing 17. do-like 18. are-studying 19. do-get 20. is wearing Ex. 11. 1. is sleeping/sleeps 2. am sitting/sit 3. speaks/is speaking 4. is not standing/is sitting 5. is eating/eats 6. is not raining / is shining / is 7. Does it rain 8. Is it raining 9. is sitting / is reading / reads / is pouring / drinks / goes / are not watching / are playing / watch / are not paying / are not watching / dont like 10. does not take / walks / Do you take / do you walk

Part II.
A. Ex. 1. 1. What does Susan look like? 2. How much money do they need? 3. What kind of fruit does Ann like? 4. Where do you go in the summer? 5. At what time does Mr Jackson get up every morning? 6. Where do your friends come from? 7. How often does Jack visit his parents? 8. What do the boys usually talk about? 9. Whose shoes does the boy sometimes wear? 10. How long does it take you to get there? 11. How often do you go there? 12. Who does Bob play golf with on Sunday? 13. What does Mr Jenkins write about? 14. What do they look at with the telescope? 15. What do you take photographs with? 16. Why do you like Mary? 17. How does Mr Williamson usually travel? 18. What kind of stories does Ann write? 19. Where do the students go after lunch? 20. When does Bob go to bed early? B. Ex. 1. 1. The air 2. History 3. the history 4. good light 5. The light 6.water 7. The water 8. The leather 9. leather 10. fresh air 11. The air 12. animals 13. The animals 14. meat 15. The sh 16. Children 17. stamps 18. stamps - coins 19. The stamps - the coins 20. English books / The magazines C. Ex. 1. 1. The girl who is with him is his sister 2. The book which I want is on the table 3. The man who is driving the car is my father 4. Is this the camera which you are planning to buy? 5. Is that the bus which goes to the airport? 6. The chair on which I am sitting is very comfortable 7. John is the student who speaks English well. 8. The books which are listed in that catalogue are in English 9. Is it Mr Williamson who wants to see the manager? 10. The magazine which is on the sofa is a sports magazine 11. The movie which is on at the Rex today is very good. 12. Is this the newspaper which you read every day? 13. Are these the envelopes which you need? 14. The people who are described in the story are very interesting. 15.The men who are working in that room are engineers. 16. Are these the boys who study with you? 17. The man who is walking down the road is a postman 18. Is this the computer which you use every day? 19. Do you know the woman who is coming over there? 20. That is exactly the car which I would like to have.
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Ex. 2. 1. La nia que est con l es su hermana 2. El libro que quiero est sobre la mesa 3. El hombre que est conduciendo el auto es mi padre 4. Es esta la cmara que ests planeando comprar? 5. Es ese el bus que va al aeropuerto? 6. La silla sobre la que estoy sentado es muy comfortable 7. John es el alumno que habla ingls bien. 8. Los libros que estn incluidos en ese catlogo estn en ingls 9. Es el Sr. Williamson quien quiere ver al gerente? 10. La revista que est sobre el sof es una revista deportiva 11. La pelcula que est en cartelera hoy da en el Rex es muy buena. 12. Es este el diario que ud. lee todos los das? 13. Son estos los sobres que ud. necesita? 14. Las personas que estn descritas en el cuento son muy interesantes. 15. Los hombres que estn trabajando en esa sala son ingenieros. 16. Son estos los nios que estudian contigo? 17. El hombre que est bajando el camino es el cartero.18. Es este el computador que ud. usa todos los das? 19. Conoces a la mujar que viene all? 20. Ese es exactamente el auto que me gustara tener Ex. 3. 1. The girl with him is his sister 2. The book I want is on the table 3. The man driving the car is my father 4. Is this the camera you are planning to buy? 5. Is that the bus which goes to the airport? 6. The chair I am sitting on is very comfortable 7. John is the student who speaks English well. 8. The books listed in that catalogue are in English 9. Is it Mr Williamson who wants to see the manager? 10. The magazine on the sofa is a sports magazine 11. The movie on at the Rex today is very good. 12. Is this the newspaper you read every day? 13. Are these the envelopes you need? 14. The people described in the story are very interesting. 15.The men working in that room are engineers. 16. Are these the boys who study with you? 17. The man walking down the road is a postman 18. Is this the computer you use every day? 19. Do you know the woman coming over there? 20. That is exactly the car I would like to have. Ex. 4. 1. The man who is talking with Mary is Dr Smith. 2. The books which are on that chair are mine. 3. The book about which they are talking is a best-seller / The book they are talking about is a best-seller 4.The people who are working in that ofce are engineers. 5. She is the secretary who works with Professor Stephens 6. This is the bus which takes us to work every morning 7. These are the books which we use in the English lessons 8. Do you know the man who is working in the language laboratory? 9. The shoes which we make are of very good quality. 10. Is this the computer which you want to buy?

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UNIT 6
PART I. EL TIEMPO PASADO SIMPLE (The Simple Past Tense)
Este tiempo se usa para expresar una accin que se realiz o que ocurri en el pasado. Las expresiones ms usadas en este tiempo verbal son aquellas que llevan antepuesta la palabra LAST, como last week (la semana pasada), last year (el ao pasado), last weekend (el n de semana pasado, last night (anoche), last Monday morning (el lunes pasado en la maana),etc. Tambin se usan en este tiempo verbal las expresiones que llevan la palabra AGO, como two days ago (hace dos das), several weeks ago (hace varias semanas), a long time ago (hace mucho tiempo). Adems estn las expresiones yesterday (ayer), the day before yesterday (anteayer), yesterday morning/afternoon/evening (ayer en la maana / tarde / noche), that day (ese da), o una hora o fecha pasada, como at 10:15 this morning (a las 10:15 de esta maana), on September 18th, 1810 (el 18 de Septiembre, 1810) Escuche, lea y aprenda: 1. I bought the car last year /ai b:t e k:r l:st ar/ (Yo compr el auto el ao pasado) 2. Peter came here three days ago. /p:ter kim har r: diz agu/ (Peter vino ac hace tres das) 3. They saw a good lm yesterday. /i s: e gud flm isterdi/ (Ellos vieron una buena pelcula ayer) 4. Mary cleaned the house yesterday morning. /mri kl:nd e hus isterdi m:rni/ (Mary limpi la casa ayer en la maana. 5. We worked hard that day. /w: w:rkt h:rd at di/ (Nosotros trabajamos duro ese da) 6. They stopped talking when the teacher arrived /ei stpt t:ki wen e t:tcher rrivd/ (Ellos dejaron de conversar cuando el profesor lleg.) Como ud. pudo advertir a travs de los ejemplos anteriores, el Tiempo Pasado Simple se expresa con el SUJETO ms el PASADO de un verbo principal. Al igual que en el tiempo Presente Simple, aqu el pasado del verbo modal Do (DID) no se usa en la forma armativa (est tcito) Cuando decimos I bought the car last year estamos diciendo I did buy the car last year, como comprobaremos al expresar las negaciones e interrogaciones: I did not buy the car last year; Did I buy the car last year?
Importante: Es necesario aqu aprender el pasado, tanto de los Verbos Regulares (aquellos que agregan -ed/-d para formar el Pasado y el Pasado Participio) como de los Verbos Irregulares (aquellos verbos que no siguen dicha regla). En los Ejemplos 1,2,3 los tres pasados corresponden a Verbos Irrregulares, mientras que los de los ejemplos 4, 5 y 6 son de Verbos Regulares : 1.To buy - bought - bought; 2. To come - came - come; 3. To see - saw - seen; 4. To clean - cleaned - cleaned; 5. To work - worked - worked 6. to stop - stopped - stopped La pronunciacin del sujo -d/-ed es /d/ o /t/ (nunca /ed/ !!). Los verbos terminados en -t, -te, -d,-de, como to want,to complete,to need,to decide tambin agregan -ed/-d, pero este sujo debe ser pronunciado /id/ como en wanted /wntid/, completed /kompl:tid/, needed /n:did/, decided /disidid/. Los in nitivos que tienen cons+vocal+cons o cons+cons+voc+cons deben duplicar la ltima consonante: to stop - stopped (ver formacin de gerundios UNIT 4).

La forma negativa se expresa usando DID NOT /did nt/ seguido del INFINITIVO (No el Pasado) de un verbo principal. A menudo, en la conversacin diaria, se usa la contraccin DIDNT /ddnt/. Escuche, lea y aprenda: I didnt buy the car last year. /ai ddnt bi.../ Peter didnt come here three days ago. /p:ter didnt km.../ They didnt see a good lm yesterday. /i ddnt s:.../ Mary didnt clean the house yesterday morning. /mri didnt kl:n.../ We didnt work hard that day. /w: ddnt w:rk.../ La forma interrogativa se expresa anteponiendo el verbo modal DID o DIDNT al sujeto y el verbo principal, al igual que en la forma negativa, va en INFINITIVO. Escuche, lea y aprenda: Did you buy your car last year? /dd i: bi.../ Did Peter come here three days ago? /dd p:ter km.../ Did they see a good lm yesterday? /dd i s:.../ Did Mary clean the house yesterday morning? /dd mri kl:n... /
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Did you work hard that day? /dd i w:rk.../ Didnt you buy your car last year? /ddnt i bi.../ Didnt Peter come here three days ago? /ddnt p:ter km.../ Cuando se formula una pregunta introducida por una palabra interrogativa como WHAT, WHERE, WHEN, HOW, etc., se debe mantener el mismo orden de palabras de las interrogaciones simples: Escuche, lea y aprenda: When did you buy your car? /wn dd i: bi.../ Why did Peter come here 3 days ago? /wi dd p:ter km.../ Where did they see a good lm yesterday? /war dd i s:.../ Why didnt Mary clean the house yesterday morning? /wi ddnt mri kl:n.../ When did you work hard? /wn dd i w:rk.../ La pregunta ms habitual de este tiempo verbal es: WHAT DID YOU DO? /wt did i du/ (Qu hizo ud.?) EXERCISES: Ex. 1. Study the Past Tense form of the following regular verbs which are most frequently used. INFINITIVE To answer /:nser/ To arrive /arriv/ To ask /a:sk/ To carry /krri/ To clean /kli:n/ To close /kluz/ To dry /dri/ To enjoy /endlli/ To nish /fnish/ To hate /heit/ To help /hlp/ To hope /hup/ To invite /invit/ To listen /lsn/ To locate /loukit/ To look /luk/ To love /lv/ To need /ni:d/ To prefer /prifar/ To rain /rein/ To receive /ris:v/ To remember /rimmber/ To repair /ripar/ To repeat /rip:t/ To request /rikwst/ To smoke /smuk/ To start /sta:rt/ To stay /sti/ To study /stdi/ To suggest /sadllst/ To talk /to:k/ To try /tri/ To use /i:z/ To visit /vzit/ To wait /weit/
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PAST TENSE answered /:nserd/ arrived /arrivd/ asked /a:skt/ carried /krrid/ cleaned /kli:nd/ closed /kluzd/ dried /drid/ enjoyed /endllid/ nished /fnisht/ hated /hitid/ helped /helpt/ hoped /hupt/ invited /invitid/ listened /lsnd/ located /loukitid/ looked /lukt/ loved /lvd/ needed /n:did/ preferred /prifard/ rained /rind/ received /ris:vd/ remembered /rimmberd/ repaired /ripard/ repeated /rip:tid/ requested /rikwstid/ smoked /smukt/ started /st:rtid/ stayed /stid/ studied /stdid/ suggested /sadllstid/ talked /t:kt/ tried /trid/ used /i:zd/ visited /vzitid/ waited /witid/

SPANISH contestar, responder llega preguntar, pedir transportar, llevar limpiar cerrar secar disfrutar, gustar terminar odiar, no gustar ayudar esperar, desear invitar escuchar ubicar, localizar mirar amar, gustar necesitar preferir llover recibir recordar reparar, arreglar repetir solicitar, pedir fumar comenzar, partir quedarse, permanecer estudiar sugerir conversar tratar, esforzarse usar, utilizar visitar esperar, atender

To walk /wo:k/ To want /wont/ To wash /wosh/ To watch /wotch/ To wish /wish/ To work /we:rk/

walked /w:kt/ wanted /wntid/ washed /wsht/ watched /wtcht/ wished /wsht/ worked /w:rkt/

caminar querer lavar observar, mirar desear trabajar, funcionar

Ex. 2. Study the Past Tense form of the following Irregular verbs which are most frequently used : INFINITIVE To begin /bign/ To bring /bri/ To build /bild/ To buy /bi/ To come /kam/ To cut /kat/ To do /du:/ To drink /drik/ To drive /driv/ To eat /i:t/ To fall /fo:l/ To feel /:l/ To nd /find/ To forget /forgt/ To get /get/ To give /giv/ To go /gu/ To have /hv/ To hear /har/ To keep /ki:p/ To know /nu/ To learn /le:rn/ To leave /li:v/ To lend /lend/ To lose /lu:z/ To make /meik/ To meet /mi:t/ To pay /pi/ To put /put/ To read /ri:d/ To run /ran/ To say /si/ To see /si:/ To sell /sel/ To send /send/ To shut /shat/ To sing /si/ To sit /sit/ To sleep /sli:p/ To speak /spi:k/ To spend /spnd/ To stand up /stnd p/ To swim /swim/ To take /tik/ To teach /ti:tch/ To tell /tel/ To think /ik/ To shine /shin/ To understand /anderstnd/ PAST TENSE began /bign/ brought /bro:t/ built /bilt/ bought /bo:t/ came /kim/ cut /kat/ did /did/ drank /drk/ drove /druv/ ate /eit/ fell /fel/ felt /felt/ found /fund/ forgot /forgt/ got /got/ gave /giv/ went /wnt/ had /hd/ heard /he:rd/ kept /kept/ knew /ni:/ learnt /le:rnt/ learned /le:rnd/ left /lft/ lent /lent/ lost /lost/ made /mid/ met /met/ paid /pid/ put /put/ read /red/ ran /rn/ said /sed/ saw /so:/ sold /suld/ sent /snt/ shut /shat/ sang /s/ sat /st/ slept /slpt/ spoke /spuk/ spent /spnt/ stood up /stu:d p/ swam /swm/ took /tuk/ taught /to:t/ told /tuld/ thought /o:t/ shone /shon/ understood /anderstd/ SPANISH empezar, comenzar traer construir comprar venir cortar hacer beber manejar, conducir comer caer sentir(se) hallar, encontrar olvidar conseguir, obtener, (get to = llegar a un lugar) dar ir tener, comer,servirse oir guardar, mantener saber, conocer aprender,saber, enterarse partir, salir, dejar prestar perder, extraviar hacer, fabricar reunirse,conocer pagar poner, colocar leer correr, administrar decir ver vender enviar cerrar cantar sentarse dormir hablar gastar,pasar tiempo pararse nadar |tomar, llevar ensear contar, narrar, decir pensar, creer brillar entender, comprender
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To wear /war/ To write /rit/

wore /wo:r/ wrote /rut/

vestir, desgastar escribir

Ex. 3. Change the following sentences into the Simple Past Tense. Remember that you have to use the word LAST instead of EVERY in the expressions of time 1. Peter comes here every week. 2. I buy the newspaper every Sunday. 3. They go to Europe every year. 4. Mary visits her parents every month. 5. I write to Mary every week-end. 6. They eat sh every Friday. 7. Bob washes the car every Saturday. 8. We watch TV every night. 9. The postman brings a letter every Monday. 10. We have a test every week. 11. The boy reads a book every month. 12. I give the boy a present every year. 13. Peter drives to Baltimore every Sunday. 14. We enjoy our vacation every summer. 15. It rains a lot here every winter. 16. They receive a letter every week. 17. I sleep well every night. 18. Father tells the boy a story every night. 19. Mother makes an apple pie every Saturday. 20. They sell lots of books every year. Ex. 4. Change the following sentences into a) negative, b) interrogative and c) Wh-questions: 1. We went to work by bus. ? ? 2. Peter came here yesterday. ? ? 3. I wanted to drink tea. ? ? 4. They saw the car accident. ? ? 5. John sold his house for 120,000 dollars. ? ? 6. They bought the car in Paris. ? ? 7. The boy did the exercise well. ? ? 8. We had dinner at the Club. ? ? 9. We wrote the letter in Spanish . ? ? 10. They studied English in London. ? ?
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last week.

Ex. 5. Ask questions using question words like What, Where, When, How, How often, How much, etc. In each case, the underlined part must be the answer of the question asked. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. He went to the zoo yesterday. The children got up at 6:30 He went to the doctor because he was ill. Peter saw the lm last week. They came here by taxi. The boy wanted to play. He didnt go because he was tired. They stayed in Vancouver for a week. Bill spent one hundred dollars. Bob did the same exercise three times. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

Ex. 6. Answer the following questions with complete sentences: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6 7. Where did you go last Saturday evening? When did you begin to study English? How long did it take you to get here today? What did the teacher tell you to do? What did you eat for dinner last night?. Did you watch TV last night? If so, What did you watch? What time did you get up this morning?

Ex. 7. Answer these questions using the information given in parentheses, as in the example: Did you go by bus? (taxi) 1. Did they watch TV last night? (listen to the radio) 2. Did John go out last night? (stay at home) 3. Did you eat sh for supper? (chicken) 4. Did Mary send you a fax? (a letter) 5. Did they walk to the park? (take a bus) 6. Did Peter say yes (No) 7. Did you read the book in English? (French) 8. Did they drink beer? (wine) 9. Did John write a poem? ( a short story) 10. Did the woman buy a dress? ( a jacket) 11. Did you see Mary last Sunday? (yesterday) 12. Did Jack have lunch at home? (at work) 13. Did the old man feel well? (weak and tired) 14. Did the man speak to you in English? (French) 15. Did Mr. Smith come in the morning? (at midday) No, I didnt (go by bus). I went by taxi.

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16. Did you y American Airlines? (United Airlines) 17. Did you give the boy an apple? (some money) 18. Did the secretary leave the ofce early? (late) 19. Did Jane wear a short skirt? (a long one) 20. Did he break his arm in the accident? (his leg)

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PART II. USED TO + INFINITIVE


Esta expresin se usa para referirse a actividades que antes se realizaban en forma regular y que se han dejado de hacer. Equivale al la terminacin -aba o -a del espaol. En las oraciones negativas que siguen a una oracin con USED TO normalmente se usan las expresiones not... anymore, not... any longer o no longer (antes del verbo principal) Escuche, lea y aprenda: I used to play /i iu:st tu plei/ football well when I was young. I dont play well now. (Yo jugaba ftbol bien cuando era joven. Ahora no juego bien) They used to visit /ei i:st tu vzit/ us every summer. They dont visit us in the summer anymore/any longer. (Ellos nos visitaban todos los veranos. Ellos no nos visitan ms en el verano. Bob used to love /i:st tu lv/ her very much. He no longer loves her now. Bob la amaba mucho. Ahora ya no la ama. Jim didnt use to work /ddnt i:s tu w:rk/ very hard at school, but he used to get /i:st tu gt/ very good grades anyway. Jim no estudiaba mucho en el colegio, pero de todos modos obtena buenas notas. Where did you use to spend /did i i:s tu spnd/ your summer vacation when you were young? Dnde pasabas tus vaciones de verano cuando eras joven? EXERCISES Ex 1. Introduce USED TO by changing the italicized verbs. Explain the change in meaning, as in the examples Bob worked in the car factory. Mr. Scott smoked cigars. Bob used to work in the car factory. (He doesnt work there now) Mr. Scott used to smoke cigars. (He doesnt smoke cigars anymore/He doesnt smoke cigars any longer/He no longer smokes cigars)

1. Uncle Paul lived in that house. (not... now) 2. Mary spoke Italian at home. (not... anymore) 3. Ann came to class on time every day. (not... now) 4. Peter was a good student. (no longer) 5. I rode the subway to work. (not... any longer) 6. Bill brought her owers every Friday. (not... anymore) 7. Mother played the piano well. (not... now) 8. Bill helped me with my homework. (not... any longer) 9. John Kerry went to that school. (not... now) 10. We exported shoes to the USA. (no longer)

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PART III. A. POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES AND POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS


Estudie la siguiente tabla:
Subject Pronouns I /ai/ You /i:/ He /hi:/ She /shi:/ It /it/ We /wi:/ You /i:/ They /i/ Possessive Adjectives My /mi/= mi Your /i:r/= su (de Ud.) His /hiz/= su (de l) Her /h:r/= su (de ella) Its /its/= su (de un anim. Our /uar/= nuestro Your /i:r/= vuestro Their /ar/= su (de
ellos)

Possessive Pronouns Mine /min/=mo Yours /i:rz/= suyo, de ud. His /hiz/= suyo, de l Hers /h:rz/= suyo, de ella

o cosa)

--------------------------

Ours /uarz/= nuestro Yours /i:rz/= vuestro Theirs /arz/= suyo (de ellos)

Un possessive adjective (adjetivo posesivo) siempre acompaa a un sustantivo para indicar posesin. Un possessive pronoun (pronombre posesivo) reemplaza a un adjetivo posesivo y un sustantivo que ha sido mencionado con anterioridad. Escuche, lea y aprenda: Ive got a book. This is my book. (mi libro) The book is mine (mo) Mary bought this car last year. It is her car.(su auto). The car is hers. (de ella) Theyve got a house. This is their house (nuestra casa). The house is theirs. (de nosotros) La posesin tambien se expresa usando el Saxon genitive (genitivo sajn), es decir agregando un apstrofe + S (s) a los nombres o sustantivos referidos a personas. Escuche, lea y aprenda: This is the book of John. The house of Mr Smith is very big. That is the car of my brother. This is Johns book. Mr. Smiths house is very big. Thats my brothers car.

Con los sustantivos plurales solamente se debe agregar un apstrofe, salvo que sean sustantivos plurales irregulares. Escuche, lea y aprenda: The book of the student is new. The books of the students are new. This is the house of my parents. The names of the children are Bob and Joe. EXERCISES Ex. 1. Fill in the blanks with the correct possessive adjective. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
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The students book is new. The students books are new. This is my parents house. The childrens names are Bob and Joe.

I walk to chair John walks to desk. You walk to school every morning. Mrs. Clark goes to ofce every day They went back to seats and began to write. The teacher writes with pen. We moved to new house last month.. Mr and Mrs. Jones take children to the park on Sunday.
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9. The dog wags 10. My brother drives

tail. car every day..

Ex.2 . Change the words in italics to Possessive form: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. This is the book of John. This is the pen of Helen. The desk of the teacher is new. Thats the home of my teacher. The friend of my sister is very sick. The ofce of Mr. Smith is very large. This is the notebook of William. Hes the teacher of Helen Hes also the teacher of my friend. This is the wife of Mr Smith The house of my friends is beautiful That is the room of the teachers. Whats the name of that man? What are the names of those men? (This is Johns book.)

Ex. 3. Substitute possessive pronouns for the italicized words: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. This (book) is my book. This (room) is her room. This (ofce) is Johns ofce. He took his book and left my book. These (newspapers ) are their newspapers. These (cigarettes) are Peters cigarettes. That (notebook) is Helens notebook. This (notebook) is my notebook. Is this (pencil) your pencil? Is this (coat) your coat or her coat? These (seats) are our seats. This (desk) is the teachers desk. (This book is mine.)

Ex. 4. Complete the following by adding the necessary possessive pronoun: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. I have a dog; the dog is mine . John has a dog; the dog is . Helen has a cat; the cat is . You have a pen; the pen is . Mr. Jones has a new car; the car is . Mary has a new pen; the pen is . We have two English books; the English books are Helen and Mary have two English books; the English books are I have a dog and a cat; the dog and the cat are You have a dog and a cat; the dog and the cat are

. . . .

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B. SUBJECT PRONOUNS AND OBJECT PRONOUNS Estudie la siguiente tabla.


Subject Pronouns I
/ai/ /i:/

Object Pronouns Me You Him Her It


/it/ /az/ /i:/ /mi:/ /i:/ /him/ /he:r/

You He She It
/it/

/hi:/ /shi:/

We You

/u:/ /i:/

Us

You

They /ei/

Them /em/

Los SUBJECT PRONOUNS (pronombres nominativos) reemplazan al sujeto de una oracin: Los OBJECT PRONOUNS (pronombres complementarios) reemplazan a un direct object (complemento directo) o a un indirect object (complemento indirecto) y, por lo tanto, siempre van ubicados despus de un verbo principal o de una preposicin. EXERCISES Ex. 1. Substitute the correct pronoun for the italicized word or words: 1. John likes Mary. 2. William studies the book 3. She speaks with John. 4. I understand the teacher very well. 5. The teacher likes Mary and William. 6. Bob studies his book every day. 7. Jim goes with Mary and me to the lesson. 8. I like this song very much. 9. James goes with John and Alice to the club. 10. Pedro speaks with Helen in English. 11. I know William and his wife very well. 12. Janet sent the invitations to Mary and me. 13. They are talking about the accident. 14. Is this letter for Mr. Jones or for his wife? Ex. 2. Answer these questions using the expressions of time provided in parentheses. Use object pronouns (me, you, him, her, it, us, them) instead of names 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. When When When When When When When When When When When When did did did did did did did did did did did did you see Peter? (2 days ago) you buy the car? (5 years ago) he visit Mary? (last Sunday afternoon) she send the letters? (last Monday) they wash the car? (2 weeks ago) you visit your parents? (last weekend) he get his diploma? (a long time ago) she spend the money. (last summer) you speak to Tom? (yesterday morning) he invite you? (last month) they eat the apples? (this morning) she meet Robert? (last Friday morning) (I saw him 2 days ago).

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BASIC VOCABULARY : Study these words PROFESSIONS AND OCCUPATIONS actor /(ktor/ actress /(ktres/ architect /:rkitekt/ artist /:rtist/ baker /biker/ barber /b:rber/ butcher /btcher/ chemist /kmist/ clergyman /kl :rdlliman/ clerk /kl :rk/ actor actriz arquitecto artista panadero barbero, peluquero carnicero farmacutico, boticario clrigo, sacerdote vendedor / cocinero conductor /kondktor/ inspector (trenes) doctor /dktor/ doctor dress-maker /drs miker/ modista driver /driver/ chofer, conductor electrician /elektrshn/ electricista engineer /endllinar/ ingeniero farmer /f:rmer / granjero reghter /fiarfiter/ bombero reman /fiarman/ bombero orist /rist/ orista gardener /g:rdner/ jardinero greengrocer /gri:ngruser/ verdulero grocer /gruser/ almacenero hair-dresser /har dreser/ peinadora hostess /hustes/ azafata janitor /dllnitor/ conserje jeweller /dlleler/ joyero journalist /dllrnalist/ periodista judge /dlldll/ juez lawyer /l:yer/ manager /mnidller/ mechanic /meknik/ newsagent /niuzidllent/ newspaper boy /niu:zpiper bi/ painter /pinter/ photographer /fotgrafer/ pilot /pilot/ plumber /plmer/ policeman /polsman/ postman /pustman/ priest /pri:st/ receptionist /rispshonist/ salesman /silzman/ secretary /skretri/ shoe-maker /shu:miker/ singer /si(ger/ steward /sti:ard/ stewardess /sti:ardes/ student /stident/ tailor /tilor/ technician /teknishan/ teacher /ti:tcher/ telephonist /tlifonist/ tourist guide /trist gid/ vicar /vkar/ waiter /witer/ waitress /witres/ watch-maker /wotchmiker/ writer /riter/ abogado gerente mecnico agente de diarios suplementero pintor fotgrafo piloto plomero, gster polica cook /kuk cartero sacerdote, cura recepcionista vendedor secretaria zapatero cantante sobrecargo azafata alumno sastre tcnico profesor telefonista gua turstico vicario, cura garzn garzona relojero escritor

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KEY TO ANSWERS

UNIT 6
Part I
Ex. 1. & 2. Study List of Regular and Irrgular Verbs Ex. 3. 1. Peter came here... 2. I bought the...3. They went to .4. Mary visited her... 5. I wrote to... 6. They ate sh... 7. Bob washed the... 8. We watched TV... 9. The postman brought a... 10. We had a... 11. The boy read / red / a... 12.. I gave the...13. Peter drove to... 14. We enjoyed our... 15. It rained a lot... 16. They received a...17. I slept well... 18. Father told the... 19. Mother made an... 20. They sold lots of... Ex. 4. (didnt = did not) 1. We didnt go to... / Did we go to...? / How did we go to work? 2. Peter didnt come... / Did Peter come...? / When did Peter come here? 3. I didnt want to drink... / Did I want to drink...? / What did I want to drink? 4. They didnt see the... / Did they see the...? / What did they see? 5. John didnt sell his... / Did John sell his...? / How much did John sell his house for? 6.They didnt buy the... / Did they buy the...? / Where did theybuy the car? 7. They boy didnt do the... / Did the boy do the...? / How did the boy do the exercise? 8. We didnt have dinner... / Did we have dinner...? / Where did we have dinner? 9. We didnt write the... / Did we write the...? / What language did we write the letter in? 10. They didnt study... / Did they study... / Where did they study English? Ex. 5. 1. Where did he go yesterday? 2. At what time did the children get up? 3. Why did he go to the doctor? 4. When did Peter see the lm? 5. How did they come here? 6. What did the boy want to do? 7. Why didnt he go? 8. How long did they stay in Vancouver? 9. How much money did Bill spend? 10. How many times did Bill do the same exercise? Ex. 6. (open answers) 1. I went to... 2. I began to study English (... ago / last... / in...) 3. It took me about... 4. He / she told me to... 5. I ate... 6. Yes, I did. I watched... / No, I didnt. 7. I got up at... Ex. 7. 1. No, they didnt (watch TV). They listened to the radio. 2. No, He didnt (go out). He stayed at home. 3. No, I didnt (eat sh). I ate chicken. 4. No she didnt (send me a fax) . She sent me a letter. 5. No, they didnt (walk ) They took a bus. 6. No, he didnt (say yes). He said No 7. No, I didnt (read it in English). I read it in French. 8. No, they didnt (drink beer) . They drank wine. 9. No, he didnt (write a poem). He wrote a short story. 10. No, she didnt (buy a dress). She bought a jacket. 11. No, I didnt (see her last week). I saw her yesterday. 12. No, he didnt (have lunch at home) He had lunch at work. 13. No, he didnt (feel weel) . He felt weak and tired. 14. No, he didnt ( speak to me in english) . He spoke to me in French. 15. No, he didnt (come in the morning). He came at midday. 16. No, I didnt (y American) I ew United Airlines. 17. No, I didnt (give him an apple) . I gave him some money. 18. No, she didnt (leave early) She left late. 19. No, she didnt (wear a short skirt). She wore a long one. 20. No, he didnt (break his arm). He broke his leg.

Part II
Ex. 1. 1. Uncle Paul used to live in that house. He doesnt live there now 2. Mary used to speak Italian at home. She doesnt speak it at home anymore 3. Ann used to come to class on time every day. She doesnt come to class on time every day now 4. Peter used to be a good student. He no longer is a good student 5. I used to ride the subway to work. I dont ride it to work any longer 6. Bill used to bring her owers every Friday. He doesnt bring her owers on Friday any more 7. Mother used to play the piano well. She doesnt play it well now 8. Bill used to help me with my homework. He doesnt help me with it any longer 9. John Kerry used to go to that school. He doesnt go to that school now 10. We used to export shoes to the USA. We no longer export shoes to the USA.

Part III.
A. Ex. 1. 1. my 2.. his 3. your .4.. her 5. their .6. his / her .7. our .8. their .9. its 10. his Ex. 2. 2. This is Helens pen. 3. The teachers desk is new. 4. Thats my teachers home 5. My sisters friend is very sick 6. Mr Smiths ofce is very large 7. This is Williams notebook 8. Hes Helens teacher 9. Hes also my friends teacher 10. This is Mr Smiths wife. 11. My friends house is beautiful 12. Thats the teachers room. 13. Whats that mans name? 14. What are those mens names?
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Ex. 3. 2. This room is hers. 3. This ofce is Johns 4. He took his book and left mine. 5. These newspapers are theirs. 6. These cigarettes are Peters. 7. That notebook is Helens. 8. This notebook is mine. 9. Is this pencil yours? 10. Is this coat yours or hers? 11. These seats are ours. 12. This desk is the teachers. Ex. 4. 1. mine 2. his 3. hers 4. yours 5. his 6. hers 7. ours 8. theirs 9. mine 10. yours B. Ex. 1. 1. her 2. it 3. him 4. him / her 5. them 6. it 7. us 8. it 9. them 10. her 11. them 12. us 13. it 14. him or her?. Ex. 2. 2. I bought it 5 years ago. 3. He visited her last Sunday afternoon. 4. She sent them last Monday 5. They washed it 2 weeks ago 6. I visited them last weekend. 7. He got it a long time ago. 8. She spent it last summer. 9. I spoke to him yesterday morning. 10. He invited me last month. 11. They ate them this morning. 12. She met him last Friday morning.

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UNIT 7
PART 1. EL TIEMPO PASADO CONTINUO O PROGRESIVO (THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE)
Este tiempo verbal se usa para expresar una accin que se estaba realizando en un momento o en una fecha determinada en el pasado. En este tiempo verbal se debe usar el pasado del verbo To Be (WAS /woz/, o WERE /we:r/) ms el gerundio de un verbo principal. Las expresiones de tiempo que normalmente se usan con el pasado contnuo son aquellas que indican una hora exacta en el pasado, como at 10 oclock this morning /at tn oklk is m:ni/, at midday last Sunday /at mddei l:st sndi/, etc. Tambin son importantes las expresiones compuestas por When + SUBJECT + Past Tense como When I got home last night /wen ai got hum la:st nit/. Lea, escuche y aprenda: I was driving to the airport at 10 oclock this morning. /ai woz drivi tu i arpo:rt at ten oklk is m:ni/ (Yo iba conduciendo al aeropuerto a las 10 de esta maana) They were playing football at midday last Sunday. /i we:r pli ftbol at mddei l:st sndi/ (Ellos estaban jugando ftbol al medioda el domingo pasado) He was visiting his parents in Detroit on the 5th of June. /h: woz vziti hiz parents in ditrit on e f ov dll:n/ (El estaba visitando a sus padres en Detroit el 5 de junio) I was sleeping when the telephone rang last night. /i woz sl:pi wen de tlifoun r la:st nit/ (Yo estaba durmiendo cuando son el telfono anoche) We were having lunch when our friend Jack arrived last Sunday. /w: we:r hvi lantch wen uer frnd dllk arrivd l:st sndi/ (Nosotros estbamos almorzando cuando nuestro amigo Jack lleg el Domingo pasado)) La forma negativa se expresa usando la palabra NOT despus de was/were. Normalmente se usan las contracciones WASNT /wznt/ o WERENT /w:rent/: Lea, escuche y aprenda: I was not driving to the airport at 10 oclock this morning. /ai wznt drivi.../ They were not playing football at midday last Sunday. /dei w:rent plii.../ He wasnt visiting his parents in Detroit on the 5th of June. /hi: wznt vziti.../ I wasnt sleeping when the telephone rang last night. /ai wznt sli:pi.../ We werent having lunch when our friend Jack arrived last Sunday. /wi: w:rent hvi lntch... / La forma interrogativa se expresa mediante la inversin del orden del sujeto y los verbos WAS/WERE (o las contracciones WASNT/WERENT) Lea, escuche y aprenda: Was I driving to the airport at 10 oclock this morning? /woz i drivi.../ Were they playing football at midday last Sunday? /we:r i plii.../ Wasnt he visiting his parents in Detroit on the 5th of June? /wznt hi: vziti.../ Werent you sleeping when the telephone rang last night? /w:rent i sl:pi.../ Were we having lunch when our friend Jack arrived last Sunday? /we:r w: hvi lntch.../

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En las preguntas introducidas con palabras interrogativas como What, Where, Why, etc. se debe mantener el mismo orden de las interrogaciones simples: Lea, escuche y aprenda: What were you reading when the teacher entered the room? /wt we:r i r:di.../ Where were they playing football at midday last Sunday? /war we:r ei plii ftbol.../ Why werent they having lunch when Jack arrived? /wi w:rnt ei hvi lntch.../ Why wasnt he working at 9 oclock this morning? /wi wznt h: w:rki.../ La pregunta ms frecuente en este tiempo verbal es: What were you doing...? /wt we:r i: di.../ (Qu estaba haciendo ud....?)

EXERCISES Ex. 1. Complete the following sentences using the verbs given in parentheses in the Past Continuous Tense 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. The sun when Peter got up this morning. (shine) Bill the report when Mr. Jenkins entered the room. (read) The students rugby when it began to rain. (play) We the road when the accident happened. (cross) At that time, everyone to go to work. (get ready) I to the coast when the car broke down. (drive) We near the river that evening. (camp) Ann in Germany when the war broke out. (live) When we got to the station, the train . (leave) We when the lights went out last night. (have dinner) Mrs. Brown the shopping when she had the accident. (do) Mary and John in the park when we saw them yesterday. (walk)

Ex. 2. Change the following sentences into a) negative form, and b) interrogative form : 1. She was having a bath. 2. We were running down the road. 3. The soldiers were doing exercise 4. Alice was making the beds. 5. The children were watching TV. 6. The men were going to work. 7. The boys were studying for a test.

Ex. 3. Ask questions using question words like Who, Where, What, How, etc. In each case, the underlined part must be the answer to your question. 1. They were walking in the park at midday. 2. Mary was eating a sandwich in her room. 3. Peter wasnt working because he was on vacation. 4. The generals were working in the conference room. 5. I was getting dressed when you called me up this morning.
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6. Mrs. White was lying on the sofa because she was tired. 7. The soldiers were jogging when it began to rain. 8. Bob was taking a shower when the re started. 9. When the war broke out, they were living in the north of France. 10. More than ten people were standing outside the building. Ex. 4. Translate the following sentences into English: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Ellos estaban jugando bridge a esa hora. Yo no estaba durmiendo cuando ellos llegaron Juan y sus amigos estaban mirando TV en ese momento . Cuando llegu, todos estaban conversando Qu estaba haciendo ud. a esa hora? Por qu no estaban ellos trabajando ese da? Dnde estaban viviendo tus padres cuando se conocieron? Qu estabas haciendo a esta hora ayer? Yo estaba escuchando las noticias en ese momento.

Ex. 5. Answer the following questions in English. Give complete answers. 1. What were you doing at this time yesterday? 2. Where were you working in December last year? 3. Where were your parents living when they got married? 4. What were you doing when Jack phoned you last night? Ex. 6. (Review) Fill in the blank spaces using the verbs provided in the appropriate verb tense. You must use either the Past Simple or the Past Continuous Tenses only. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. I I They Peter We Bill not When John Peter What What Mr. Johnson (work...become) 12. He very well last night. (sleep) soundly when you to the ofce when I his wife Lynda when he golf when it in the ofce when the boss us last night, we the accident while he you you in New York when he the newspaper while he

last night. (sleep...arrive) them this morning. (go..see) in Chicago (meet... live) to rain yesterday. (play...begin) into the room. (work...walk) ( call on...have dinner) home. (have...drive) last Saturday afternoon? (do) at this time yesterday? (do) chairman of the company. the bus to work. (read...ride)

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PART II.
A. THE IMPERATIVE FORM (LA FORMA IMPERATIVA) La forma imperativa se usa para dar rdenes o para solicitar servicios. Las rdenes o solicitudes se expresan mediante el uso del INFINITIVO sin sujeto ( el pronombre you, esta implcito en la orden). Normalmente se usa la palabra PLEASE, ya sea al inicio o al nal de la orden o solicitud. Escuche lea y aprenda: (You) Come here /km har/ (You) Listen to me /lsn tu m:/ Please, (you) open the window. /pli:z upn e wndou/ (you) Speak more slowly, please /sp:k m:r sluli/

Venga para ac Escchame Por favor, abra la ventana Hable ms lento, por favor

Para expresar una orden negativa se debe usar la contraccin DONT /dunt/ antes del innitivo Escuche lea y aprenda: Dont come here Dont listen to me Please, dont open the window. Dont speak so fast, please EXERCISES Ex. 1. Change the following sentences into the imperative form: Add the word PLEASE at the end of your sentence: You look at the map 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. You drink milk every morning. You spell your rst name. You come here tomorrow morning. You call me up after 9 oclock. You have another cup of coffee. You eat more slowly. You ll up the tank. You study hard every day. You write your answer on the whiteboard. You listen to the story carefully. Look at the map, please No venga para ac No me escuche. Por favor, no abra la ventana No hable tan rpido, por favor. (so /sou/= tan)

Ex. 2. Change the following imperative sentences into the negative form: Speak slowly, please. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Eat my bread and butter, please. Work hard, please Work slowly please. Listen to him please. Come again this afternoon, please Drive fast please. Drink black coffee. Take a taxi. Say that again, please. Give Mary my new address, please Dont speak so slowly please. (so = tan)

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B. ARTICLES (III) No se debe usar ningn artculo delante de los nombres de personas, ciudades, estados, pases, continentes, montes, calles cuando estos son usados como nombres propios. Tampoco se debe anteponer artculo a los nombres de personas cuando stos van precedidos de ttulos (Mr., Sir,, Lady, Mrs.,Ms., Miss, Dr., Prof., President, Senator etc.) o grados (Gen., Cpt. Sgt.,etc.) Escuche lea y aprenda When did they go to Europe? Did you see Mary this morning? They lived in New York City for several years. He lives on Fifth Avenue. They are coming back from China.Theyve climbed Mount Everest. Lady Macbeth fainted when she saw the body of her husband lying on the oor. Mr De Ponti invited Dr. White to a famous Italian restaurant that evening. President Bush and Senator Payne will meet at 10:15 next Tuesday. Gen. Johnson ordered Sgt. Smith to send the message right away. Sin embargo se debe usar el artculo denido the delante de los nombres geogrcos (ros, mares, cordilleras, volcanes, canales. etc.) y tambin delante de los nombres de pases compuestos de Adj.+Sust. (excepto cuando el adjetivo es un punto cardinal). No se usa the delante de los nombres de continentes. Escuche lea y aprenda The Mississippi and the Missouri rivers are in Central United States. The Pacic Ocean is much larger than the Atlantic Ocean. The United States and South Korea will sign a new free trade agreement. They are planning to spend a week in the West Indies. Cuando los nombres de ciudades o pases cumplen la funcin de adjetivos estos van precedidos del artculo denido the. Escuche, lea y compare: New York is a large city. The New York City subways go very fast. (adj.) Santiago is the capital of Chile. The Santiago newspapers are not very expensive. (adj.) EXERCISES Ex. 1. Supply the denite article the where necessary: 1. We plan to spend our vacation in Mexico and North Carolina. (We plan to spend our vacation in Mexico and North Carolina.) 2. Later we want to visit Dominican Republic. 3. Hudson River lies west of New York City. 4. United States, China, United Kingdom and Soviet Union were permanent members of the UN Security Committee.. 5. Some ships can cross Atlantic Ocean from France to Unites States. 6. You should take a trip sometime to West Indies. 7. Panama Canal joins Atlantic and Pacic Oceans. 8. The principal city of Germany is Berlin. 9. He spent several weeks in Italy and several weeks in Spain. 10. We live on Madison Avenue near Central Park Station.
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11. Lots of oil tankers go from Persian Gulf to Mediterranean Sea through 12. They live on Clark Street in Salt Lake City, in Utah. Ex. 2. Fill in the blanks with the correct articles where needed: 1. He lives in Mexico. (He lives in Mexico.) 2. Mexican climate is warm. 3. We walked along Broadway. 4. Broadway buses are slow. 5. New York city trafc is very slow. 6. .London and York are beautiful 7. England is a small country. 8. English language is easy. 9. Europe is a large continent. 10. Some European cities are very interesting to visit. 11. London School of Economics is very famous.

Suez Canal.

English cities.

C. THE EXCLAMATORY FORM (LA FORMA EXCLAMATIVA) Las exclamaciones en ingls se expresan de la siguiente manera. Estudie el siguiente diagrama:

Structure What + a(n) + adj. + singular noun (+ S +V)! What + adj. + plural noun (+S + V)! What + adj. + uncountable noun (+S + V)!

Examples What a beautiful woman (she is)! What an interesting book (you are reading)! What beautiful eyes (you have)! What nice people (we met at the party)! What nice music (this is)! What good coffee (they served)! What terrible weather (we are having)! How silly (I was)! How fast (youre driving Tom)! How expensive (that book is)!

How + adj. / adv. (+S + V)!

EXERCISES Ex. 1. Supply WHAT or WHAT A(N) in the following exclamatory sentences: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14 15. good idea! beautiful day! pretty eyes she has! strange thing to say! easy exercise! difcult lesson! funny name to give a dog! good whisky! happy child! happy children! beautiful music! large room! foolish mistake! hot day! beautiful weather!,

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Ex. 2. Make exclamations using What a(n)...! ; What...!, or How...!, as in the example Peter is a very tall man What a tall man Peter is! How tall Peter is!

1. John is a very intelligent person. 2. They are very beautiful women. 3. This is a very incredible story. 4. I was a very stupid person. 5. This trip is very interesting. 6. Mr Johnson is a very pleasant man. 7. This music is very romantic. 8. These exercises are very difcult. 9. This whisky is very good 10. These photographs are very beautiful 11, New York is a fascinating city. 12. Mary is a very friendly person 13. These shoes are very expensive. 14. The movie was very exciting.

Ex. 3. Supply HOW, WHAT, or WHAT A(N) in the following exclamatory sentences: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. pretty girl! pretty she is! strange remark to make! well she swims! hot it is today! hard sentences these are! beautiful eyes she has! beautifully she sings! foolish thing to say! hot weather we are having! hot day it is today! quickly the time passes! well she speaks English! excellent student he is!

Ex. 4. Change these sentences to exclamatory form by using HOW or WHAT / WHAT A(N), as indicated: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. She plays the piano well. She is an excellent pianist. It is a beautiful day. He runs very fast. She plays the violin beautifully.
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6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18.

It is very cold today. Its a cold day today. He is a very tall man. It was very cold last night. She is very pretty. He is a handsome fellow. She is wearing a beautiful dress. You have a beautiful new car. Grandfather told us a sad story. We were very tired after the walk. It was a very fast train. Ann was a generous woman. Bob acted very foolishly.

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BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words THE HOUSE a) Housing /husi/ Vivienda farm house /f.rm hus/ at /t/ house /hus/ hut /hat/ semi-detached house /smi.../ terrace house /tris hus/ villa /vila/ casa de campo departamento (BR) casa choza, cabaa casa pareada casa en la casa de veraneo

apartment /apa:rment/ departamento (USA) apartment building /apa:rmet bldi/ edicio de dptos.(USA) block of ats /blok ov ts/ edicio de dptos. (BR) bungalow /bgalou/ bungalow condominium /kondomnium/ condominio cottage /ktidll/ casa de campo,quinta detached house /ditttcht hus/ casa aislada b) Parts of the House /parts ov (e hus/ Partes de la Casa ceiling /sli/ door /do:r/ oor /o:r/ front door /frnt d:r/ landing /lndi/ cielo raso puerta piso puerta de calle descanso (de escaleras)

roof /ruf/ staircase /star kis/ wall /wo:l/ window /wndou/

techo escaleras muralla ventana

c) Rooms of the House /ru:mz ov (e hus/ Piezas de la Casa attic /tik/ basement /bisment/ bathroom /b:rum/ bedroom /bdrum/ cellar /slar/ dining-room /dinirum / kitchen /ktchin/ tico subterrneo sala de bao dormitorio bodega(vinos) comedor cocina laundry room /l:ndrirum/ library /libreari/ lounge /lundll/ pantry /pntri/ sitting room /stirum/ study /stdi/ toilet /tilet/ lavandera biblioteca salon (Br) despensa living estudio bao, excusado.w.c.

d) The Sitting-room /e stirum/ El Living arm-chair /:rm tchar/ carpet /k:pit/ CD player /s: d: plier/ chair /tchar/ china /tchina/ clock /klok/ curtains /krtenz/ replace /faiarplis/ picture /pktcher/ silln alfombra (BR) reproductor de CD silla loza na, reloj cortinas chimenea cuadro porcelain /p:rselein/ radio set /ridiou set/ rug /rag/ sofa /sufa/ table /tibl/ telephone /tlifoun/ television set /tlivilln set/ VCR /vi: si: a:r/ porcelana radio alfombra (USA) sof mesa telfono televisor video-grabadora

e) The Bedroom /e bdrum/ El Dormitorio alarm clock /al:rm klk/ bed /bdrum/ bed spread /bdspred/ blanket /blkit/ chest of drawers /tchst ov dr:erz/ night gown /nit goun/ night table /nit tibl/ reloj despertador cama cubrecamas frazada cmoda,cajonera bata de noche velador pillow case /plou kiz/ pillow /plou/ pyjama /pidllmaz/ sheets /shi:ts/ slippers /slperz/ wardrobe /w:drub/ funda almohada pijamas sbanas zapatillas ropero

f) The Kitchen /e ktchin/ La Cocina broom /br:m/ can opener /kn upner/ escoba abrelatas (USA) mixer /mikser/ napkin /npkin/ mquina licuadora servilleta
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cooker/stove/range /kker/stuv/rindll/ cocina (artefacto) cookery book /kkri buk/ libro de recetas corkscrew /korkskr:/ sacacorchos crockery /krkeri/ loza corriente cup /kap/ taza cupboard /kbord/ aparador cutlery /ktleri/ cuchillera dishwasher /dishwsher/ lavadora de vajilla drier /drier/ secadora fork /fo:rk/ tenedor freezer /fr:zer/ congeladora fridge /frdll/ refrigerador frying pan /frii pn/ sartn garbage can /g:rbidll kn/ basurero (USA) glass /gl:s/ vaso glassware /gl:swear/ cristalera tetera knife/knives /nif /nivz/ cuchillo /s microwave oven /mikrouweiv vn/ horno micro ondas g) The Bathroom /e b:rum/ La Sala de Bao bath tub /b: tab/ cold water tap /kuld w:ter tp/ comb /kum/ electric shaver /ilktrik shiver/ faucet /f:set/ hair brush /har brash/ hair dryer /har drier/ hot water tap /hot w:ter tp/ lotion /lushn/ mirror /mror/ safety razor /sifti rizor/ tina de bao llave de agua fria peineta afeitadora llave del agua (USA) cepillo de pelo secador de pelo llave de agua caliente locin espejo mquina de afeitar

oven /vn/ horno pan /pn/ olla plate /plit/ plato pot /pot/ cacerola refrigerator /refridlleritor/ refrigerador rubbish bin /rbish bin/ basurero (BR) saucer /s:ser/ platillo silverware /slverwar/ platera sink /sik/ lavaplatos spoon /sp:n/ cuchara tea pot /t: pot/ tetera para el t teaspoon /t:spun/ cuchara de t tin opener /tin upener/ abrelatas (BR) toaster /tuster/ tostadora trash can /trsh kn/ basurero (USA) tray /trei/ bandeja kettle /ktl/ vacuum cleaner /vkium kl:ner/ aspiradora wall clock /w:l klk/ reloj de pared washing machine /wshi mash:n/ lavadora de ropa

shaving brush /shivibrash/ shaving cream /shivi kr:m/ shower /shuer/ shower cap /shuer kp/ soap dish /sup dish/ tap /tp/ tooth brush /tbrash/ tooth paste /t:pist/ towel rack /tuel rk/ towel /tuel/ wash basin /woshbizin/

hisopo crema de afeitar ducha gorra de bao jabonera llave del agua (Br) cepillo de dientes pasta dental paera toalla lavamanos

h) The Studio /e stdiou/ La Sala de Estudio book shelf /buk shelf/ bookcase /buk kis/ chair /tchear/ computer /kompiter/ desk /desk/ desk lamp /desk lmp/ fax machine /fks mash:n/ le /fail/ ling cabinet /fili kbinet/ j) Outdoors /utd:rz/ El exterior fence /fens/ garage /gar:dll/ garden /g:rdn/ gate /geit/ lawn /l:n/ reja garage jardn puerta (reja) csped orchard /:rtcha:rd/ huerto path /pa:/ sendero swimming pool /suimi p:l/ piscina vegetable garden /vdlletabl g:rdn/ huerta repisa para libros librero silla computador escritorio lmpara de escritorio mquina fax archivador archivo laptop /lp top/ notebook /nutbuk/ note-pad /nutpd/ printer /prnter/ punch /pantch/ scanner /skner/ stapler /stipler/ telephone /tlifoun/ typewriter /tipriter/ PC porttil (US) PC porttil (Br.) block de borrador impresora perforadora escner corchetera telfono mquina de escribir

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UNIT 7
Key to answers PART I
Ex. 1. 1. was shining 2. was reading 3.were playing 4. were crossing 5. was getting ready 6. was driving 7. were camping 8. was living 9. was leaving 10. were having dinner 11. was doing 12. were walking Ex. 2. 1. She wasnt having... / Was she having...? 2. We werent running... / Were we running...? 3. The soldiers werent doing... / Were the soldiers doing...? 4. Alice wasnt making... / Was Alice making...? 5. The children werent watching... / Were the children watching...? 6. The men werent going... / were the men going...? 7. The boys werent studying... / Were the boys studying...? Ex. 3. 1.What were they doing in the park at midday? 2. What was Mary eating in her room? 3. Why wasnt Peter working? 4. Where were the generals working? 5. What were you doing when I called you up this morning? 6. Why was Mrs. White lying on the sofa? 7. What were the soldiers doing when it began to rain? 8. What was Bob doing when the re started? 9. Where were they living when the war broke out? 10. How many people were standing outside the building? Ex. 4. 1.They were playing bridge at that time. 2. I wasnt sleeping when they arrived. 3. John and his friends were watching TV at that moment. 4. When I arrived, everyone was talking. 5. What were you doing at that time? 6. Why werent they working that day? 7. Where were your parents living when they met? 8. What were you doing at this time yesterday? 9. I was listening to the news at that moment. Ex. 5. (Open answers) 1. I was... (at this time yesterday.) 2. I was working... (in December last year). 3. They were living in... (when they got married / then). 4. I was... (when he phoned me last night) Ex. 6. 1. slept 2. was sleeping / arrived. 3. were going / saw 4. met / was living 5. were playing / began 6. was - working / walked 7. called on / were having dinner 8. had / was driving 9. did - do 10. were - doing 11. was working / became 12. read / was riding

PART II
A. Ex. 1. 1. Drink milk every morning, please 2. Spell your rst name please. 3. Come here tomorrow morning please. 4. Call me up after 9 oclock please 5. Have another cup of coffee please. 6. Eat more slowly please 7. Fill up the tank please. 8. Study hard every day please. 9. Write your answer on the whiteboard please. 10. Listen to the story carefully please. Ex. 2. 1. Dont eat my bread and butter please. 2. Dont work so hard please. 3. Dont work so slowly please. 4. Dont listen to him please 5. Dont come again this afternoon please. 6.Dont drive so fast please. 7. Dont drink black coffee please. 8. Dont take a taxi please. 9. Dont say that again please. 10. Dont give Mary my new address please. B. Ex. 1. 2....the Dominican Republic 3. The Hudson River / New York City 4. The United States, China, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union 5. The Atlantic Ocean...France... the United States 6. The West Indies 7.The Panama Canal...the Atlantic and the Pacic oceans 8. Germany...Berlin 9. Italy... Spain 10. Madison Avenue... Central Park Station 11.... the Persian Gulf...the Mediterranean Sea... the Suez Canal 12....Clark Street... Salt Lake City...Utah Ex. 2. 2. The Mexican climate... 3....Broadway. 4. The Broadway buses... 5. The New York City trafc... 6. London... York...English cities 7. England... 8. The English language... 9. Europe... 10. European cities... 11. The London School of Economics... C. Ex. 1. 1. What a... 2. What a... 3. What... 4. What a... 5. What an... 6. What a... 7. What a... 8. What... 9. What a... 10. What... 11. What... 12. What a... 13. What a... 14. What a... 15. What...
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Ex. 2. 1. What an intelligent person John is! / How intelligent John is! 2. What beautiful women they are! / How beautiful they are! / How beautiful those women are! 3. What an incredible story this is! / How incredible this story is! 4. What a stupid person I was! / How stupid I was! 5.What an interesting trip this is ! / How interesting this trip is! 6. What a pleasant man Mr. Johnson is! / How pleasant Mr. Johnson is!. 7. What romantic music this is! / How romantic this music is! 8. What difcult exercises these are! / How difcult these exercises are! 9. What good whisky this is! / How good this whisky is! 10. What beautiful photographs these are! / How beautiful these photographs are! 11. What a fascinating city New York is! / How fascinating New York is! 12. What a friendly person Mary is! / How friendly Mary is! 13. What expensive shoes these are! / How expensive these shoes are! 14. What an exciting movie it was! / How exciting the movie was! Ex. 3. 1.What a... 2. How... 3. What a... 4. How... 5. How... 6. What...7. What... 8. How... 9. What a... 10. What... 11. What a... 12. How... 13. How... 14. What an... Ex. 4. 1. How well she plays the piano! 2. What an excellent pianist she is! 3. What a beautiful day it is today! 4. How fast she runs! 5. How beautifully she plays the violin! 6. How cold it is today! 7. What a cold day it is today! 8. What a tall man he is! 9. How cold it was last night! 10. How pretty she is! 11. What a handsome fellow he is! 12. What a beautiful dress she is wearing! 13. What a beautiful new car you have! 14. What a sad story grandfather told us! 15. How tire we were after the walk! 16. What a fast train it was! 17. What a generous woman Ann was! 18. How foolishly Bob acted!

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UNIT 8
PART 1. EL TIEMPO FUTURO SIMPLE THE SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE
Este tiempo verbal se usa para referirse a acciones que ocurrirn en el futuro. Las expresiones de tiempo frecuentes en este tiempo verbal son tomorrow /tumrou/ maana, the day after tomorrow /e di fter tumrou/ pasado maana, next week /nkst w:k/ la prxima semana, next month /nkst man/ el prximo mes, next year /nekst yar/ el prximo ao, in three months /in r: mns/ dentro de tres meses, by the end of this year /bai i nd ov is yar/ hacia nes de este ao, etc El Futuro Simple se puede expresar de tres maneras, segn la idea que se desee transmitir: 1. SUBJECT + WILL + INFINITIVE para referirse a decisiones, promesas o determinaciones. Peter will come to Chile next month. /p:ter wil km tu tchile nekst mn/ Peter vendr a Chile el prximo mes 2. SUBJECT + AM / IS / ARE+ GOING TO + INFINITIVE para referirse a planes, intenciones, o sucesos que evidentemente o muy probablemente ocurrirn. Peter is going to come to Chile next month. /p:ter iz gui tu km tu tchle nkst man/ Peter va a venir a Chile el prximo mes. 3. SUBJECT + AM / IS / ARE +ING (Present Continuous) para referirse a actividades agendadas, acordadas o previstas con antelacin. Peter is coming to Chile next month. /p:ter iz kmi tu tchle nekst mn/ Peter viene (tiene previsto venir) a Chile el prximo mes EL FUTURO SIMPLE CON WILL Esta construccin generalmente se usa para expresar el Futuro Simple, y sugiere la idea de decisin, promesa o determinacin. En la conversacin diaria WILL forma la contraccin LL. Lea, escuche y aprenda: They will visit us next week-end. /i wil vzit as nkst w:knd/ Ellos nos visitarn el proximo n de semana Maryll come to work tomorrow. /mril km tu w:rk tumrou/ Mary vendr a trabajar maana Ill be at home all day next Sunday. /il b: at hun :l dei nekst sndi/ Estar en casa todo el da el prx. Dgo. En la forma negativa se usa la palabra NOT entre el verbo modal WILL y el Innitivo. En la conversacin diaria se preere usar la contraccin WONT / wunt / Lea, escuche y aprenda: They will not visit us next weekend. They wont visit us next weekend. /ei wunt vzit as nkst w:knd/ Mary will not come to work tomorrow. Mary wont come to work tomorrow. /mri wunt km. Tu w:rk tumrou/ I will not be at home all day next Sunday. I wont be at home... /ai wunt b: at hum :l dei nkst sndi/. En la interrogacin, se debe anteponer el verbo modal WILL (o la contraccin WONT) al sujeto. Si se desea formular una pregunta introducida por What, When, Where, etc., se debe mantener el mismo orden de palabras usado en las preguntas simples: Lea, escuche y aprenda: Will they visit us next week-end? /wil ei vzit.../ Wont they visit us next week-end? /wunt ei vzit.../ Will Mary come to work tomorrow? /wil mri km.../ Wont Mary come to work? /wunt mri km.../ Will you be at home all day next Sunday? /wil iu: b: at hum o:l di nekst sndi/ When will they visit us? /wn wil ei vzit s/ Why wont Mary come to work tomorrow? /wi wunt mri km tu w:rk tumrou/
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La pregunta habitual con esta construccin verbal es: What will you do? /wt wil iu: d:/ EXERCISES: Ex. 1. Use the verbs given in parentheses in the future simple tense, using WILL 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. The soldiers I My little brother Mr Jackson The instructor The gardener NASA Professor Lee I We Mr Jackson The Smiths to the top of that hill tomorrow. (march) you a post card from Washington DC. (send) a hard test next Monday. (have) his old car. (sell) the overhead projector. (use) a deep hole in the ground to plant the tree. (dig) a space ship to Mars next week. (launch) a conference in Paris next month. (attend) busy all day tomorrow. (be) a new house soon. (buy) a limousine to take his guests to the airport. (hire) to a new house in the Spring. (move) Qu har ud.?

Ex.2 Change the following sentences into a) negative, and b) interrogative. 1. Mary will go out this evening. 2. You will send them a fax. 3. The train will arrive soon. 4. John will accept the offer. 5. Theyll get married in May 6. Mr Smith will see you tomorrow.

Ex. 3. Ask questions using question words like When, Where, What, How, How long, etc. In each case, the underlined part of the sentence must be the answer for the question asked. 1. Theyll go to the north in the summer. 2. John will give the answer next week. 3. Bob will sell the car because its old. 4. The soldiers will wait there until dawn. 5. Mr Smith will send them another catalog 6. Sue will not buy the dress because its too expensive. 7. Theyll stay in Toronto for three days 8. Well wait for you in the cafeteria 9. Theyll need ve volunteers. 10. Theyll talk about many things tomorrow

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PART II.
A. USE OF SAY AND TELL Los verbos SAY y TELL tienen el mismo signicado (DECIR), pero dieren en cuanto a su uso. El verbo SAY se usa en los siguientes casos: 1. Antes o despus de una cita textual John said (to Helen), I love you, Helen Mary said, I am very tired after the long walk Mr. Jackson said (to his students), Please sit down and look at the map I love you very much, he said. I am very tired after the long walk, said Mary. 2. Antes de la conjuncin that John said that he loved Helen Mary said that she was very tired after the long walk. 3. En posicin nal I didnt understand what she said. Sorry, what did you say? What are you going to say? El verbo TELL se usa cuando se menciona al interlocutor, es decir, la persona a quien se le habl. John told Helen that he loved her. Mary told me that she was very tired after the long walk. Mr. Jackson told his students to sit down and look at the map. (You) Tell Mary that I want to speak with her, please. EXERCISES Ex.1. Fill in the blanks with SAY or TELL 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. John that he is very busy at the moment. Yesterday I my teacher that I liked my lessons. John yesterday, Im going to phone you as soon as I get home Yesterday, Mr Jackson us all about his trip to Nepal. The boy that he likes geography very much. Mary her teacher that her mother was sick. Miss Brown that she loves spring. I will be back at about 10:30, Mr Jones before leaving the house. This book is very interesting , she Bob that he doesnt like hot weather. Can you me where the ofce is, please? Please John that Ill send him the money tomorrow. Yesterday John his friends that he was planning to get married. Did you hear what she ?

Ex. 2 Change SAY to TELL. Then make whatever other changes are necessary. 1. She said (to me) that she was sick. 2. Mr Smith said (to Peter) that he was too busy to go with us. 3. John said (to his friends) that he could not go with them to the park.

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4. Ann said (to the ofcer) that she did not speak French. 5. William said (to the doctor) that he had a terrible headache. 6. Helen said (to the travel agent) that she was travelling alone. 7. The boy said (to us) that he liked to swim in the river. 8. The teacher said (to Pauls parents) that Paul was a good student. 9. The man says (to me) that he wants to see the manager immediately.

Ex. 3. Change TELL to SAY.Then make whatever other changes are necessary. 1. Bob told me that he could speak French well. 2. I told my girlfriend that I wanted to go for a walk in the park. 3. The teacher told John that our compositions were very good. 4. Mr Smith told his friends that he knew how to play tennis. 5. I told Mr Smith that I knew how to play, too. 6. John told the police ofcer that he lived near the church. 7. The boy tells me that he wants to drink some water. 8. He tells me that she doesnt want to participate in the game.

B.

RELATIVE PRONOUNS WHO, WHOM, WHOSE

Habamos visto que la palabra WHO? signica quin? Y que adems es un pronombre relativo y que se debe traducir con la palabra QUE para especicar acerca de quin estamos hablando (Revisar el uso de los pronombres relativos who y which, en BEGS & VOC Unit 5) Who is that man? The man who is in the car is a policeman. The car which is outside is a police car. La palabra WHO se tranforma en WHOM /hu:m/ despus de las preposiciones y cuando acta como complemento directo de un verbo, y por lo tanto va seguido de un pronombre o un nombre. . With whom will you go to the party? (Who will you go to the party with?) I met a man in the street. The man whom I met was Johns father. Jim was talking about a woman. The woman about whom Jim was talking was his wife. La palabra WHOSE /hu:z/ (posesivo de who) se puede traducir como de quin? en interrogaciones, pero tambin es el pronombre relativo cuyo(s)/cuya(s) . a) Whose? = De quin? Whose is this hat? o Whose hat is this? (el sustantivo hat puede ir al nal o junto a whose) Whose are these cigarettes? / Whose cigarettes are these? (el sustantivo hat puede ir al nal o junto a whose) Whose is that yellow sweater? (aqu el sustantivo est modicado por un adjetivo)
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Whose is that book on the desk? (aqu el sustantivo va seguido de una frase adjetiva) b) whose = cuyo(s) / cuya(s) A man wants to see you, Mr Clark. His daughter called you this morning The man whose daughter called you this morning wants to see you, Mr Clark. The man is a doctor. His car is parked outside the building. The man whose car is parked outside the building is a doctor. EXERCISES Ex. 1. Choose the correct form. 1. To (who,whom) did you write a letter last night? 2. With (who, whom) does he want to speak? 3. (Who, whom) is the best student in your class? 4. (Who, whom) did you meet at the party? 5. The man (who, whom) telephoned you is my brother. 6. The woman (who, whom) you saw is my new teacher. 7. About (who, whom ) are they talking? 8. The girl with (who, whom) I danced was very beautiful. 9. From (who, whom) did you get the money? 10. The boy (who, whom) the policemen rescued from the boat was terried.

Ex. 2. Fill in the blank spaces with Who, Which, Whom, Whose 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. jacket do you like best, the blue one or the brown one? pen-knife is this? I think its Peters, but Im not quite sure. With will you go to the theater tomorrow? He is the man daughter will participate in the competition. This isnt the dictionary we generally use in class. The man about they are talking is a well-known football player will you ask for help? are those cigarettes on the small table? Are they yours? The man with John is speaking is an Australian pilot. The woman we met at the party was a friend of Peters. The train leaves at 10:25 is an express train. are they talking about? The man Prof. Clark mentioned in his lecture is a famous American writer. The boy father died in the accident is still in hospital. are those brown shoes are under the chair? are you talking to? The children with my son is playing are not Chilean. They are American. was working in the ofce at 9 oclock this morning? With will you work on the thesis? I dont know watch this is. Is it yours? The children are in Room B are 2nd grade students. Everyone liked the poem Prof. Smith read in class yesterday.. Is that the bus we must take? She is the woman I really love.

Ex. 3. Combine the two sentences to make one single sentence,using WHO, WHOM or WHOSE 1. I met a man yesterday. He wrote detective stories. I met a man
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2. I met a woman yesterday. Her husband died in a car accident. I met a woman 3. Peter came to the party with a young woman. This is the young woman. This is the young 4. The policemen interrogated the old man. His car was parked outside the school. The policemen interrogated 5. Theres a man in the lobby. He wants to speak with you. Theres a man 6. They contacted a man. They found his wallet in the street. They contacted the man 7. You were talking to a man in the lobby. Where is he? Where is the man Exercise 4. Ask questions with whose, as in the example. To whom To whom To whom To whom To whom To whom To whom To whom To whom does this pen belong? (belong = pertenecer) Whose pen is this? / Whose is this pen? does that old blue jacket belong? Whose is that old blue jacket? does this car belong? do these books belong? does this brand new car belong? does that coat belong does this gold ring belong? do the cigarettes on that table belong? does this camera belong?

?.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

? ? ? ? ? ? ?

Ex. 5. Make synonymous sentences using the verb belong instead of the possessives. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. This pen is mine That house is ours. Thats not your leather jacket. Those keys are mine. Is that car yours? That is not Johns bicycle.. These arent Marys shoes. Are these cigarettes yours? Whose is this watch? This pen

To To

10.Whose glasses are these? 11.I think that this wallet is yours. 12.Im sure that that house isnt theirs. 13.This house is ours. It isnt theirs. 14.That car isnt his. Its hers. 15.This sweater isnt my sisters. Its my brothers

? ? ? ? ?

Im sure

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C. SOMEBODY, SOMETHING, SOMEWHERE AND DERIVED WORDS Study the following chart
Armative Negative No Interrogative Any Some Not...any Somebody/someone Not... Anybody Not...anyone Nobody No One Anybody / Anyone Something Not...anything Nothing Anything Somewhere Not...anywhere Nowhere Anywhere

En la BEGS & VOC UNIT 2, habamos aprendido que la palabra SOME solamente se usaba en oraciones armativas, y que en las interrogaciones se deba usar ANY. En las oraciones negativas haba dos alternativas: se poda usar NOT... ANY o NO. Esta misma regla se debe seguir al usar las palabras derivadas, es decir con Somebody / Someone (alguien) Something (algo, alguna cosa). Somewhere (algun lugar, alguna parte), etc. Estudie los siguientes ejemplos: 1. I ve got some friends in Atlanta I havent got any friends in Atlanta / Ive got no friends in Atlanta Have you got any friends in Atlanta? 2. I saw somebody in the car I didnt see anybody in the car / I saw nobody in the car Did you see anybody in the car? 3. They need something now. They dont need anything now. / They need nothing now Do they need anything now? 4. They will go somewhere after the lesson They wont go anywhere after the lesson / They will go nowhere after the lesson Will they go anywhere after the lesson? EXERCISES Ex. 1. Change to negative form Use a) NOT... ANY b) NO 1. There is someone in the room 2. I saw somebody in the corridor. 3. Please put it somewhere in this room. 4. There is someone at the door. 5. He lives somewhere in New York. 6. He told somebody about it. 7. He gave the book to somebody. 8. I put the money somewhere in this drawer yesterday. 9. Tell somebody about Peters problems. 10. He said something to her.
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11. He has something to do. 12. Hes going to do something now. 13. They found the money somewhere. 14. They will send the goods to someone.

Ex. 2. Change to question form 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. I saw somebody at the desk. He went somewhere last night. She has something to do. He told somebody about it. She put it somewhere. There is someone in the next room. Somebody wants to speak to him. 1 saw somebody I knew. He brought something with him. He gave it to someone. He took them somewhere on Long Island. I liked something about her. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

Ex. 3. Rewrite the following NO sentences in the more common NOT ... ANY negative form: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. They found nobody at home. There is no more coffee. They want nothing to drink. There is nowhere for him to sit. She spoke to no one about it. 1 want no more, thank you. He can see nothing without his glasses. We saw nobody at all in the park. They gave us nothing to eat. We went nowhere after the dance.

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BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words THE CITY airport /arport/ aeropuerto all-you-can-eat restaurant /:l iu kn :t rstrant/ restaurant tenedor libre art gallery /:rt gleri/ galera de arte bakers /bikerz/ panadera book shop /buk shop/ librera police station /pols stishn/ cuartel de policia building /bldi/ edicio bus /bs/ bus bus stop /bas stop/ paradero de buses bus terminal /bas t:rminl/ terminal de buses butchers /btcherz/ carnicera cab /kb/ taxi (USA) caf /kfei/ caf cafetera /katria/ fuente de soda,casino car /ka:r/ automvil casino /kaznou/ casino de juegos chemists /kmists/ farmacia church /tchrtch/ iglesia cinema /snema/ sala de cine coach /kutch/ bus interurbano coffee shop /kshop/ cafetera college /klidll/ escuela (univ.) corner /k:rner/ esquina crossroads /krsroudz/ cruce department store /dip:rment star/ tienda de depart. disco /dskou/ discoteca dry-cleaners /dri kl:nerz/ lavaseco, tintorera estate car /estit k:r/ ranchera (BR) re brigade /fiar brigid/ cuartel de bomberos ower shop /uer shop/ orera greengrocers /gri:ngruserz/ verdulera grocers /gruserz/ almacn (BR) grocery store /gruseri star/ almacn (USA) hardware store /hrdwear star/ ferretera hospital /hspitl/ hospital hostel /hstel/ hostal hotel /houtl/ hotel jewellers /dllelerz/ joyera level crossing /lvel krsi/ cruce FFCC (BR) lorry /lorri/ camin (BR) museum /miuzam/ museo news-stand /niuz stnd/ puesto de diarios night-club /nit klab/ boite park /pa:rk/ parque pavement /pivment/ vereda (BR) pedestrian /pedstrian/ peatn pick up /pik p/ camioneta (USA) planetarium /planetrium/ planetario bridge /bridll/ puente post ofce /pust s/ ocina de correos public library /pblik libreari/ biblioteca pblica railway station /rilwei stishn/ estacin de trenes restaurant /rstorant/ restaurant road /rud/ camino, calzada roundabout /rundabut/ rotonda school /sk:l/ colegio, escuela shoe shop /shu: shop/ zapatera shop /shop/ tienda (BR) sidewalk /sidwo:k/ vereda (USA) snack bar /snk b:r/ fuente de soda station wagon /stishn wgon/ ranchera (USA) stationers /stishonerz/ librera (art.escrit.) store /star/ tienda (USA) street /stri:t/ calle street-car /str:t k:r/ tranva subway /sbwei/ paso bajo nivel (BR) subway /sbwei/ tren subterrneo (USA) supermarket /superm:rkit/ supermercado tailors /tilorz/ sastrera take-away restaurant /tikawei rstrant/ restaurante de plat os preparados para llevar taxi /tksi/ taxi tea shop /ti:shop/ saln de t theatre /ater/ teatro town hall /tun h:l/ municipalidad trafc lights /trk laits/ semforo trafc sign /trk sin/ sealizacin train /trin/ tren travel agents /trvel idllents/ agencia de viajes truck /trak/ camim (USA) tunnel /tnel/ tunnel underground /andergrund/ tren subterrneo (BR) university /iunivrsiti/ universidad van /vn/ camioneta (BR) zebra crossing /zibra krsi/ cruce de zebra zoo /zu:/ zoolgico

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UNIT 8
Key to answers PART I
A. Ex. 1. 1. will march 2. will send 3. will have 4. will sell 5. will use 6. will dig 7. will launch 8 will attend 9. will be 10. will buy 11. will hire 12. will move Ex. 2. 1. Mary will not go out... / Will Mary go out...? 2. You won`t send... / Will you send...? 3. The train wont arrive... / Will the train arrive...? 4. John will not accept... / Will John accept...? 5. They won`t get married... / Will they get married? 6. Mr Smith won`t see... / Will Mr Smith see...? Ex. 3. 1. Where will they go in the summer? 2. When will John give the answer? 3. Why will Bob sell the car? 4. How long will the soldiers wait there? 5. What will Mr Smith send them? 6. Why won`t Sue buy the dress? 7. How long will they stay in Toronto? 8. Where will you wait for me / us? 9. How many volunteers will they need? 10. What will they talk about tomorrow?

PART II.
A. Ex. 1. 1. says 2. told 3. said 4. told 5. says 6. told 7. says 8. said 9. said 10. says 11. tell 12. tell 13. told 14. said Ex. 2. 1. She told me that... 2. Mr Smith told Peter that... 3. John told his friends that... 4. Ann told the ofce that... 5. William told the doctor that... 6. Helen told the travel agent that... 7. the boy told us that... 8. The teacher told Paul`s parents that... 9. The man tells me that... Ex. 3. 1. Bob said that he... 2. I said that... 3. The teacher said that... 4. Mr Smith said that...5. I said that... 6. John said that... 7. The boy says that... 8. He says that she... B. Ex. 1. 1. whom 2. whom 3. Who 4. Whom 5. who 6. whom 7. whom 8. whom 9.whom 10. whom Ex. 2. 1. Which 2. Whose 3. whom 4. whose 5. which 6. whom 7. Who(m) 8. Whose 9. whom 10. whom 11. which 12. Who 13. whom 14. whose 15. Whose - which 16. Who 17. whom 18. Who 19. whom 20. whose 21. who 22. which 23. which 24. whom Ex. 3. 1....who wrote detective stories. 2....whose husband died in a car accident 3....woman with whom Peter came to the party. 4...the old man whose car was parked outside the school. 5...who wants to speak with you. 6. whose wallet they found in the street. 7....to whom you were talking in the lobby? Ex. 4. 1. Whose car is this? Whose is this car? 2. Whose books are these? Whose are these books? 3. Whose is this brand new car? 4. Whose coat is that? Whose is that coat? 5. Whose is this gold ring? 6. Whose are the cigarettes on that table? 7. Whose camera is this? Whose is this camera Ex. 5. 1. belongs to me 2. That house belongs to us 3. That leather jacket doesn`t belong to you? 4. Those keys belong to me 5. Does that car belong to you? 6. That bicycle doesn`t belong to John. 7. Those shoes dont belong to Mary 8. Do these cigarettes belong to you? 9....whom does this watch belong? / Who does this watch belong to? 10....whom do these glasses belong? / Who do these glasses belong to? 11. I think (that) this wallet belongs to you. 12. Im sure (that) that house doesnt belong to them . 13. This house belongs to us. It doesn`t belong to them. 14. That car doesnt belong to him. It belongs to her. 15. This sweater doesnt belong to my sister. It belongs to my brother.

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C. Ex. 1. 1. There isn`t anyone in... / Theres no one in... 2. I didnt see anybody in... / I saw nobody in...3. Please, dont put it anywhere in... / Please, put it nowhere in... 4. There isn`t anyone at... / There`s no one at... 5. He doesnt live anywhere in... / He lives nowhere in... 6. He didnt tell anybody... / He told nobody... 7. He didn`t give the book to anybody / He gave the book to nobody 8. I didn`t put the money anywhere... / I put the money nowhere... 9. Don`t tell anybody about... / Tell nobody about... 10. He didnt say anything... / He said nothing... 11. He doesn`t have anything to do / He has nothing to do 12. He isnt going to do anything now / He`s going to do nothing now 13. They didnt nd the money anywhere / They found the money nowhere 14. They wont send the goods to anyone / Theyll send the goods to no one. Ex. 2. 1. Did I see anybody at the desk.? 2. Did he go anywhere last night? 3. Does she have anything to do? 4. Did he tell anybody about it? 5. Did she put it anywhere? 6. Is there anyone in the next room? 7. Does anybody want to speak to him? 8. Did I see anybody I knew? 9. Did he bring anything with him? 10. Did he give it to anyone? 11. Did he take them anywhere on Long Island? 14. Did I like anything about her? Ex. 3. 1. They didnt nd anybody at home 2. There isnt any more coffee. 3. They dont want anything to drink 4. There isnt anywhere for him to sit 5. She didn`t speak to anyone about it 6. I dont want any more, thank you. 7. He cant see anything without his glasses. 8. We didnt see anybody at all in the park 9. They didnt give us anything to eat . 10. We didnt go anywhere after the dance

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UNIT 9
PART 1. EL FUTURO SIMPLE II (THE SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE II)
EL FUTURO SIMPLE CON AM/IS/ARE + GOING TO Esta construccin gramatical se usa para expresar intenciones o planes que probablemente se llevaran a cabo en el futuro cercano. Equivale a la expresin Yo voy a ..., T vas a ..., l va a ..., etc. Lea, escuche y aprenda: They are going to visit us next week-end. /i a:r gui tu vzit as nkst w:knd/ Ellos van a visitarnos el prximo n de semana. Mary is going to come to work tomorrow /mriz gui tu km tu w:rk tumrou/. Mary va a venir a trabajar maana En la negacin y en la interrogacin se aplican las mismas reglas dadas en el Presente Continuo. Lea, escuche y aprenda: They arent going to visit us next week-end. /i :rent gui tu vzit as nkst w:knd/ Mary isnt going to come to work tomorrow. /mri znt gui tu km tu w:rk tumrou/. Are they going to visit us next week-end? /:r i gui tu vzit as nkst w:knd/ Is Mary going to come to work tomorrow? /iz mri gui tu km tu w:rk tumrou/. When are they going to visit us? /wn a:r i gui tu vzit as/. Why isnt Mary going to come to work tomorrow? /wi iznt mri gui tu km tu w:rk tumrou/. La pregunta habitual en este tiempo verbal es: What are you going to do? /wt a:r i gui tu d:/ Qu va ha hacer ud.? EXERCISES Ex. 1. Change the following sentences using AM / IS / ARE + GOING TO instead of WILL: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Tom will come to Chile next year. Theyll travel to Mexico in March. Mr. Jackson will play tennis tomorrow Jane will buy a bilingual dictionary. The instructor will use a video. Paul will go to Germany and France. The Johnsons will spend their vacation in Acapulco. I will send Mary a post-card from L.A.

Ex. 2. Change the sentences you wrote in the previous exercise into a) negative and b) interrogative 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Tom isnt going to come to Chile next year. Is Tom going to come to Chile next year? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

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Ex. 3. Ask questions using question words like When, Where, How long, etc. In each case the underlined part of the sentence will be the answer to the question asked. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Bill is going to travel by plane. Bob and Jim are going to swim. Were going to buy fruit and drinks. Im going to get back from work at 6:30. Theyre going to x the engine. Shes not going to go because shes tired. Bill is going to answer the question. ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

Ex. 4. Translate the following sentnces into English 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Ellos no van a venir a la esta esta noche. Ella va a comprar otro par de zapatos. Qu vas ha hacer maana en la maana? Van a estar uds. en casa esta tarde? Yo voy a visitar a Mary este n de semana. Cundo vas a vender tu auto?

PART II.
A. LA EXPRESION IDIOMATICA IT TAKES... /IT TOOK.../ IT WILL TAKE... Esta expresin idiomtica se usa para expresar la idea de demorar, tomar tiempo Study the following chart:
Whom? PRESENT It takes Mr Clark the students us How long? about 20 minutes about 15 minutes about one hour about 2 hours about 1 hour six months more than a year a long time at least an hour two years about 10 hours To do what? to to to to to to to to drive to his ofce run to the stadium walk that distance drive to Via del Mar answer the questions build the bridge. learn English build the pyramids

PAST It took

the students the men me

FUTURE It will take

you the men

to type the report to build the new highway. to y from London to Chicago

Escuche, lea y aprenda: It takes Mr Clark about twenty minutes to drive to his ofce /it tiks mster kl:rk abut twnti mnits tu driv tu hiz s/ El Sr. Clark demora cerca de 20 minutos en conducir a su ocina. It took the students about an hour to answer the questions. /it tuk e sti:dents abut an uar tu :nser e kwstchonz/ Los alumnos demoraron ms o menos una hora en contestar las preguntas. It will take you at least an hour to type the report. /it wil tik i: at l:st an uar tu tip e rip:rt/ Ud. demorar por lo menos una hora en tipear el informe La forma negativa se expresa mediante el uso de It doesnt take..., It didnt take..., o It wont take.... La forma interrogativa se expresa con Does it take...?, Did it take...?, o Will it take...?
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Escuche, lea y aprenda: It doesnt take Mr Clark more than twenty minutes to drive to his ofce. Does it take Mr Clark more than twenty minutes to drive to his ofce? It didnt take the students much time to answer the questions. Did it take the students much time to answer the questions? It wont take you more than an hour to type the report. Will it take you more than an hour to type the report? . La pregunta habitual con esta expresin idiomtica es : How long does it take you to...? How long did it take you to...? How long will it take you to...? Escuche, lea y aprenda: How long does it take Mr Clark to drive to his ofce every morning? How long did it take the students to answer the questions? How long will it take you to type this report? EXERCISES Ex. 1. Change the following to introduce IT TAKES..., IT TOOK... or IT WIL TAKE...: 1. I come to work on the bus in ten minutes. (It takes me ten minutes to come to work on the bus.) 2. I did my exercise in one hour. 3. I walked to the station in fteen minutes. 4. We drove to Philadelphia in one hour. 5. I found my mistake in a few minutes. 6. I do my homework every night in a short time. 7. They will build the bridge in two years. 8. She learned to speak English in only one year. 9. I nished the work in an hour. 10. I wrote the letter in a few minutes. 11. They will complete the work in six years. 12. He does his homework every day in one hour. Cunto tiempo se demora Ud. en...? Cunto tiempo se demor Ud. en...? Cunto tiempo se demorar Ud. en...?

Ex. 2. Change to negative and to interrogative form. Then ask a Wh-question with HOW LONG? 1. It took Herbert a long time to walk there. It didnt take Herbert a long time to walk there. Did it take Herbert a long time to walk there? How long did it take Herbert to walk there?

2. It takes me seven minutes to walk there.

3. It took them many years to build the road.

4. It takes me ten minutes to get there by subway. 5. It took him several hours to nish it.

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6. It took a month to complete the work.

7. It will take a long time to get there.

8. It will take you a week to read this book. 9. It took them two days to nd him.

10. It takes an hour to do this exercise.

11. It takes much time to learn English.

12. It took an hour to discover the mistake.

Ex. 3. Translate the following sentences into English 1. Yo generalmente demoro diez minutos en caminar a casa desde la ocina. 2. Los alumnos demoraron ms de dos horas en contestar todas las preguntas. 3. Uds. demorarn por lo menos tres meses en preparar el informe. 4. Cunto tiempo demor Ud. en aprender a conducir un auto? 5. Cunto tiempo demoraremos nosotros en aprender a hablar ingls bien? 6. Cunto tiempo demora Ud. usualmente en ducharse todas las maanas? 7. Ella no demor mucho tiempo en aprender a usar el computador. 8. Uno no demora ms de dos horas en viajar de Santiago aPuerto Montt en avin. 9. Ud. no demorar mucho tiempo en leer ese artculo

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B. GRADOS DE COMPARACION DE LOS ADJETIVOS Cuando usamos un adjetivo calicativo como beautiful, old, big, intelligent estamos haciendo comparaciones. Cuando decimos que Mary is a beautiful girl estamos comparndola con otras nias que hemos visto anteriormente. Los adjetivos tienen cuatro grados de comparacin: Grado Positivo, Grado Comparativo, Grado Superlativo y Grado de Igualdad. 1. EL GRADO POSITIVO es aquel que usamos cuando no especicamos con qu persona o cosa estamos comparando. Mary is a beautiful girl. (Mary es una nia hermosa) Bob is an intelligent person. (Bob es una persona inteligente) Our house is very big. (Nuestra casa es muy grande) This car is very old. (Este auto es muy viejo) 2. Nosotros usamos el GRADO COMPARATIVO cuando especicamos con qu persona o cosa estamos comparando: Mary is more beautiful than her sister Alice. (Mary es ms hermosa que su hermana Alaice) Bob is more intelligent than George. (Bob es ms inteligente que George) Our house is bigger than your house. (Nuestra casa es ms grande que vuestra casa) This car is older than that one. (Este auto es ms viejo que ese) 3. Cuando usamos el GRADO SUPERLATIVO estamos comparando una persona o cosa con todas las dems de su especie. Mary is the most beautiful girl in the group. (Mary es la nia ms hermosa en el grupo) Bob is the most intelligent person I know. (Bob es la persona ms inteligente que conozco) Our house is the biggest house in the neighborhood. (Nuestra casa es la casa ms grande en el barrio) This is the oldest car in this town (Este es el auto ms viejo en este pueblo) 4. Cuando usamos el GRADO DE IGUALDAD estamos diciendo que dos personas o cosas tienen la misma caracterstica, es decir son iguales. Mary is as beautiful as her sister Alice. (Mary es tan hermosa como su hermana Alice) Bob is as intelligent as George. (Bob es tan inteligente como George) Our house is as big as your house. (Nuestra casa es tan grande como vuestra casa) This car is as old as that one. (Este auto es tan viejo como ese). GRADO COMPARATIVO Al usar el Grado Comparativo debemos observar las siguientes reglas: a. A los adjetivos de una slaba debemos agregar el sujo -er: small - smaller; tall - taller; short - shorter

b. Si el adjetivo est formado por cons.+vocal+cons o cons+cons+vocal+cons debemos duplicar la ltima consonante: big - bigger; hot - hotter; thin - thinner

c. Si el adjetivo tiene tres o ms slabas se debe anteponer la palabra more: intelligent - more intelligent important - more important
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d. A los adjetivos de dos slabas de origen sajn (que no se parecen al espaol) se le agrega el sujo -er ; si es de origen latino o griego se le antepone la palabra more. pretty common prettier more common clever modern cleverer more modern

e. Existen algunos adjetiivos que tienen una forma excepcional en el grado comparativo: good bad far better worse farther little many much less more more

GRADO SUPERLATIVO Al usar el Grado Superlativo debemos observar las siguientes reglas: a. A los adjetivos de una slaba debemos agregar el sujo -est: small - smallest tall - tallest; short - shortest

b. Si el adjetivo est formado por cons.+vocal+cons o cons+cons+vo cal+cons debemos duplicar la ltima consonante big - biggest; hot - hottest; thin - thinnest

c. Si el adjetivo tiene tres o ms slabas se debe anteponer la palabra most: intelligent - most intelligent important - most important

d. A los adjetivos de dos slabas de origen sajn (que no se parecen al espaol) se le agrega el sujo -est; si es de origen latino o griego se le antepone la palabra most. pretty - prettiest common - most common clever - cleverest modern - most modern

e. Existen algunos adjetivos que tienen una forma excepcional en el grado comparativo: good - best bad - worst far - farthest little - least many - most much - most

GRADO DE IGUALDAD Estas oraciones se expresan usando as + adj. + as. En las oraciones negativas el grado de igualdad puede ser expresado con not as...as o not so...as, dependiendo del grado de diferencia existente He is as tall as his brother. He is not as tall as his brother. (El no es tan alto como su hermano) (su hermano es ligeramente ms alto) He is not so tall as his brother. (El no es TAN alto como su hermano) (su hermano es mucho ms alto) EXERCISES Ex. 1. Supply the comparative form of the adjectives in parentheses 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
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Philadelphia is...(larger than)...Washington (large) John is William (short) Henry is I (tall) This book is that book . (old) The weather today is yesterday (bad) This summer is last summer (hot) This article is that one. (interesting)
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8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Is this exercise These apples are Some people are This room is Is this exercise

the last one? (difcult) those. (good) others. (healthy) that one. (light) the last one? (important)

Ex. 2. Complete these sentences by using the adjective which is the opposite of the one in italics: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Henry is not taller than I. Henry is New York is not smaller than Chicago. New York is Helen is not younger than her sister. Helen is This street is not wider than that street. This street is This exercise is not more difcult than the last one. This exercise is This book is not thicker than my French book. This book is This book was not more expensive than my French book. This book was The weather today is not better than it was yesterday. The weather today is The weather today is not colder than it was yesterday,.The weather today is

Ex. 3. In the following, introduce the superlative form or the adjective in parentheses: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. John is Today is New York is New York is also This is This is John is He is also Henry is Which is This is Which student in your class knows Which man in the group has That city has John has boy in the class (tall). day of the year.(hot) city in the United States. (interesting) city in the United States. (large) apple of all. (sweet) park in the city. (beautiful) boy in the class. (intelligent) student in the class. (good) dancer in the school. (bad) city in this country? (large) room in the whole building. (light) English words? (many) money? (much) parks in the region. (few) experience in computers in the group. (little)

Ex. 4. State the adjectives in parentheses, rst in comparative form, and second in superlative form. Use words of your choosing to complete each sentence: 1. Henry is.........(tall) 2. Grace is.........(pretty) 3. Bill is.........(intelligent) 4. This book is.........(interesting) 5. Frank is......... (young) 6. The Empire State Bldg. is.........(tall) 7. The Mississippi River is.........(long) 8. This street is.........(wide) 9. John is a......... (good) student

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10. This exercise is......... (easy) Ex. 5. Rewrite each sentence to show equality of comparison. State each sentence rst in positive form and then in negative form: 1. John is taller than his brother. 2. This street is wider than that one. 3. This exercise is longer than the last. 4. Helen is more beautiful than Mary. 5. New York is more important than Washington D.C. 6. Our apartment is larger than yours. 7. This corridor is larger than the room. 8. The sky is darker than it was yesterday. 9. This book is better than the other. 10.The weather today is worse than it was yesterday. 11.John makes more mistakes than Henry. 12.There are more people today than yesterday 13. Peter has more money than Henry John is as tall as his brother. John isnt as / so tall as his brother.)

14. John has less experience in computers than I.

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BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words FOOD /fu:d/ Los alimentos 1. Provisions /provllnz/ Abarrotes bread /bred/ biscuit /biskit/ butter /bter/ cake /keik/ candies /kndiz/ coffee /k/ cookie /kki/ cracker /krker/ cream /kri:m/ cheese /tchi:z/ chips /tchips/ egg /eg/ french fries /frnch friz / jam /dllm/ lard /la:rd / margarine /m:rdllari:n/ marmalade /m:rmelid / 2. Meals /mi:lz/ Las comidas breakfast /brkfast/ brunch /brantch/ lunch /lantch/ supper /sper/ dinner /dner/ appetizer /apetizer/ 3. Meats /mi:ts/ Carnes beef /bi:f/ breast /brest/ chicken /tchikin/ chop /tchop/ duck /dak/ llet /lt/ lamb /lm/ leg /leg/ mutton /mtn/ vacuno pechuga pollo chuleta pato lete cordero lechn pata, pi cordero pheasant /fznt/ pork /po:rk/ rib /rib/ sirloin /se:rloin/ T-bone /t: bun/ turkey /t:rki/ veal /vi:l/ venison /vnison/ wing /wi/ faisn cerdo costilla lomo entrecot pavo ternera ciervo ala desayuno desayuno-almuerzo almuerzo cena (informal) cena (formal) aperitivo hors-deuvres /o:dvre/ starter /st:rter/ rst course /f:rst k:rz/ main course /min k:rz/ dessert /diz:rt/ entremeses entrada primer plato plato de fondo postre pan galleta (Br) mantequilla torta calugas caf galleta (USA) galleta de agua crema queso papas fritas (Br) huevo papas fritas (USA) mermelada, dulce manteca margarina mermelada ctrica mashed potatoes /msht potitouz/ pur de papas deos noodles /n:dlz/ oil /oil/ aceite pimienta pepper /pper/ arroz rice /ris/ alio para ensaladas salad dressing /slad drsi/ salt /slt/ sal sauce /so:s/ salsa soup /su:p/ sopa Spaghetti /spagti/ tallarines sugar /shgar/ azcar sweets /suits/ dulces, pastillas tea /ti:/ t toast /tust/ tostada(s) vinegar /vnegar/ vinagre

4. Sea Food /s: fu:d/ Pescados y mariscos abalone /abalouni/ clam /klm/ cockle /kkl/ cod /kod/ conger eel /knger i:l/ crab /krb/ eel /:l/ sh /sh/ haddock /hdok/ hake /heik/ herring /hrri/ loco almeja caracol, berberecho bacalao congrio jaiva anguila pescado abadejo,merlango merluza arenque mackerel /mkerel/ mussel /mzl/ oyster /ister/ prawns /pro:nz/ salmon /s:mon/ scallop /sklop/ shellsh /shelsh/ shrimps /shrimps/ sole /soul /, plaice /plis/ squid /skuid/ swordsh /srdsh/ caballa cholga, mejilln ostra gamba,camarones salmn ostin mariscos langostinos lenguado calamar albacora /pez espada
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king crab /ki krb/ lobster /lbster/

centolla langosta

trout /traut/ tuna sh /tuna sh/ urchin /:rchin/

trucha atn erizo

5. Fruits /fru:ts/ Frutas apple /pl/ apricot /iprikot/ banana /banana/ blackberry /blkberi/ blueberry
/bl:beri/

cherry/cherries /tchrriz/ coconut /kkounat/ cranberry /krnberi/ dates /dits/ gooseberry /g:zberi/ grapefruit /grifru:t/ grapes /greips/ hazel nuts /hizl nats/

manzana damasco pltano mora arndano cerezas coco arndano agrio dtiles grosella pomelo uvas nueces

melon /mlon/ orange /rindll/ peach /pi:tch/ peanut /p:nats/ pineapple /pinpl/ plum /plam/ prunes /pr:nz/ quince /kuins/ raisins /rizinz/ raspberry /rzberi/ strawberry /str:beri/ watermelon /wotermlon/

meln naranja durazno man pia ciruela ciruelas secas membrillo pasas frambuesa frutilla sanda

6. Vegetables /vdlletablz/ Verduras celery /sleri/ artichoke /:rtitchouk/ asparragus /aspragaz/ bean(s) /bi:n(z) beetroot /b:trut/ broad bean /broud b:n/ cabbage /kbidll/ carrot /krot/ chicory /tchkori/ corn /k:rn/ cucumber /kiukmber/ apio alcachofa esprrago poroto(s) betarraga haba repollo zanahoria chicoria maz,choclo pepino garlic /g:rlik/ lemon /lmon/ lettuce /ltis/ onion /nion/ pea(s) /pi:(z)/ potato(es) /potitou(z)/ pumkin /pmkin/ raddish /rdish/ red /green pepper /pper/ spinach /spnidll/ tomato(es) /tomitou(z)/ ajo limn lechuga cebolla arveja(s) papa(s) zapallo rbano pimentn /morrn espinaca tomate(s)

7. Beverages /bvridlliz/ Bebestibles beer /bar/ coffee /k:/ drink /drik/ herbal tea /hrbal t:/ juice /dllu:s/ lemonade /lmoneid/ milk /milk/ cerveza caf trago aguita de hierbas jugo limonada leche red wine /rd win/ soda water /suda w:ter/ soft drink /sft drik/ tea /ti:/ water /w:ter/ white wine /wit win/ wine /win/ vino tinto agua de soda refresco t agua vino blanco vino

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UNIT 9
Key to answers PART I
Ex. 1. 1. Tom is going to come to... 2. They are going to travel to... 3. Mr Jacksons going to play... 4. Janes going to buy... 5. The instructors going to use... 6. Paul`s going to go to... 7. The Johnsons are going to spend... 8. Im going to send Mary... Ex. 2. 1. Tom isnt going to come to... / Is Tom going to come to...? 2. They arent going to travel to... / Are they going to travel to...? 3. Mr Jackson isnt going to play... / Is Mr Jackson going to play...? 4. Jane isnt going to buy... / Is Jane going to buy...? 5. The instructor isnt going to use... / Is the instructor going to use...? 6. Paul isnt going to go to... / Is Paul going to go to...? 7. The Johnsons arent going to spend... / Are the Johnsons going to spend...? 8. Im not going to send Mary... / Am I going to send Mary...? Ex. 3. 1 How is Bill going to travel? 2. What are Bob and Jim going to do? 3. What are you / we going to buy? 4. What time / When are you going to get back from work? 5. What are they going to do? 6. Why isnt she going to go? 7. Who is going to answer the question? Ex. 4. 1.They arent going to come to the party tonight. 2. Shes going to buy another pair of shoes. 3. What are you going to do tomorrow morning? 4. Are you going to be at home this evening? 5. Im going to visit Mary this weekend? 6. When are you going to sell your car?

PART II
A. Ex. 1. 2.. It took me an hour to do my exercise 3. It took me fteen minutes to walk to the station . 4. It took us one hour to drive to Philadelphia. 5. It took me a few minutes to nd my mistake. 6. It takes me a short time to do my homework every night 7. It will take them two years to build the bridge. 8. It took her only one year to learn to speak English. 9. It took me an hour to nish the work 10. It took me a few minutes to write the letter. 11. It will take them six years to complete the work. 12. It takes him one hour to do his homework every day. Ex. 2. 2. It doesnt take me seven minutes to... / Does it take me seven minutes to...? / How long does it take me to...? 3. It didnt take them many years to build... / Did it take them many years to build...? / How long did it take them to build...? 4. It doesnt take me ten minutes to get... / Does it take me ten minutes to get...? / How long does it take me to get...? 5. It didnt take him several hours to... / Did it take him several hours to... / How long did it take him to...? 6. It didnt take a month to... / Did it take a month to...? / How long did it take to...? 7. It wont take a long time to... / Will it take a long time to...? / How long will it take to...? 8. It wont take you a week to... / Will it take you a week to...? / How long will it take you to...? 9. It didnt take them two days to... / Did it take them two days to...? / How long did it take them to...? 10. It doesnt take an hour to... / Does it take an hour to...? / How long does it take to...? 11. It doesn`t take much time to... / Does it take much time to...? / How long does it take to...? 12. It didnt take an hour to... / Did it take an hour to...? / How long did it take to...? Ex.3. 1. It generally takes me ten minutes to walk home from the ofce. 2. It took the students more than two hours to answer all the questions. 3. It will take you at least three months to prepare the report. 4. How long did it take you to learn to drive a car? 5. How long will it take us to learn to speak English well? 6. How long does it usually take you to take a shower every morning? 7. It didnt take her very long / much time to learn how to use the computer. 8. It doesnt take more than two hours to travel from Santiago to Puerto Montt by plane. 9. It wont take you very long to read that article. B. Ex. 1. 2. shorter than 3. taller than 4. older than 5. worse than 6. hotter than 7. more interesting than 8. more difcult than 9. better than 10. healthier than 11. lighter than 12. more important than

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Ex. 2. 1. shorter than I 2. bigger than Chicago 3. older than her sister. 4. narrower than 5. easier than 6. thinner than my French book 7. cheaper than my French book 8. worse than it was yesterday. 9. warmer / hotter than it was yesterday. Ex. 3. 1. the tallest 2. the hottest 3. the most interesting 4. the largest 5. the sweetest 6. the most beautiful 7. the most intelligent 8. the best 9. the worst 10. the largest 11. the lightest 12. the most 13. the most 14. the fewest 15. the least Ex. 4. (Open answers) 1. Henry is taller than Bill / Henry is the tallest person in the group. 2. Grace is prettier than her sister. / Grace is the prettiest girl (whom) I know. 3. Bill is more intelligent than James. / Bill is the most intelligent person in my class. 4. This book is more interesting than that one. / This is the most interesting book (that) I have ever read 5. Frank is younger than his sister / Frank is the youngest person in the family 6. The Empire State Building is taller than the RCA Building. / The Empire State (Building) is the tallest building in New York. 7. The Mississippi River is longer than the Colorado River / The Mississippi River is the longest river in the USA 8. This street is wider than my street. / This is the widest street in this town. 9. John is a better student than Peter / John is the best student in my class. 10. This exercise is easier than the previous one. / This is the easiest exercise in this unit. Ex. 5. 2. This street is as wide as that one. This street isnt as / so wide as that one. 3. This exercise is as long as the last. This exercise isnt as / so long as the last. 4. Helen is as beautiful as Mary. Helen isnt as / so beautiful as Mary.5.New York is as important as Washington. / New York isnt as / so important as Washington. 6. Our apartment is as large as yours. Our apartment isnt as / so large as yours. 7.This corridor is as large as the room. This corridor isnt as / so large as the room. 8. The sky is as dark as it was yesterday. The sky isnt as / so dark as it was yesterday. 9. This book is as good as the other. This book isnt as / so good as the other. 10. The weather today is as bad as it was yesterday. The weather today isnt as / so bad as it was yesterday. 11. John makes as many mistakes as Henry. John doesnt make as / so many mistakes as Henry. 12. There are as many people today as yesterday. There arent as / so many people today as yesterday. 13. Peter has as much money as Henry. Peter doesnt have as / so much money as Henry. 14. John has as little experience in computers as I. John doesnt have as / so little experience in computers as I..

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UNIT 10
PART 1. EL FUTURO SIMPLE III (THE SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE III)
EL FUTURO SIMPLE CON AM/IS/ARE + GERUNDIO Como probablemente ud. ha advertido, en esta variante se usa la misma estructura del Presente Contnuo (S+AM/IS/ ARE+ING/. Esta construccin gramatical se usa para referirse a actividades que han sido acordadas, agendadas, previstas o jadas con anticipacin para una fecha prxima. Lea, escuche y aprenda: They are visiting us next week-end. /i a:r vziti as nkst w:knd/ (They accepted our invitation) Marys coming to work tomorrow. /mriz kmi tu w:rk tumrou/ (She conrmed this morning) Los verbos ms comnmente usados en esta variante son aquellos que indican movimiento o desplazamiento de uno a otro lugar, por ejemplo: to go, to come, to visit, to travel, to y, to drive, to attend, to have lunch/dinner, to leave, to arrive, to come back, to stay, etc. Las forma negativa e interrogativa se expresa en la misma forma que se hizo con el Presente Contnuo Lea, escuche y aprenda: They arent visiting us next week-end. /i :rent vziti as nkst w:knd/ Mary isnt coming to work tomorrow. /mri znt kmi tu w:rk tumrou/ Are they visiting us next week-end? /:r i vziti as nkst w:knd/ Is Mary coming to work tomorrow? /iz mri kmi tu w:rk tumrou/ When are they visiting us? /wn a:r i vziti s/ Why isnt Mary coming to work tomorrow? /wi znt mri kmi tu w:rk tumrou/ La pregunta ms frecuente en este tiempo es: What are you doing tomorrow morning/on Sunday/ etc? /wt :r iu d:i tumrou m:rni/on sndi/ etc. (Qu tienes previsto / planicado hacer maana en la maana / el domingo / etc.) EXERCISES Ex. 1 Practice these questions and answers with a friend: What are you doing on Friday night? What are you doing next week-end? Whats the boss doing this afternoon? What are you and your wife doing next summer? How are you getting there? When are you leaving? How long are you staying there this time? Im going to a disco with some friends. Im visiting my sister in New Jersey. Hes attending a meeting. Were Were Were Were going to Cancun again. ying / Were going by plane. leaving on January 21st. staying there for 10 days.

Ex. 2. Make sentences using the Present Continuous to refer to future activities, like in the example: The Johnsons invited me for dinner next Friday evening. I accepted their invitation. (have dinner) Im having dinner with the Johnsons next Friday evening. 1. Mr Mitchell wants to visit Sydney next week. He went to his travel agent this morning and bought an air ticket (y). Mr Mitchell 2. John wrote in his diary: Monday 10:30 Conference at YMCA Auditorium (attend) John
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3. I want to play tennis tomorrow. I asked Bob if he wanted to play with me and he said, Yes, of course! (play) I 4. Jim: Why dont we go to a disco tonight, Mar y?. Mary: Yes, lets go! (go) Jim and Mary 5. We just got a telegram from our daughter. It says, Arriving on 8:15 train Saturday morning (arrive) Our daughter 6. Mr. Brown said to us, Im afraid, I cant come to your wedding party on Friday. Ill be away on a business trip. (not attend) Mr Brown 7. Its 8:15 now. The departure of our train is at 8:25. We must hurry up. (leave) Our train in ten minutes. Lets hurry up. Ex. 3. Dr. Novoa is going to the USA next week. First he is visiting Washington DC and then he is attending a Conference in Houston, Texas. Write sentences indicating Dr. Novoas activities in Washington and in Houston. Use the information given below:
Dr. Novoas Schedule Mon. 10:30 19:30 Tues. 09:30 11:30 20:00 Wed. 10:00 19:45 Meeting at the US Medical Assn. Reception at the White House Play tennis with Dr. Brown Ceremony at Lincoln Memorial Dinner party at US. Surgeons Club Visit Bethesda Medical Center Concert, at Kennedy Center Thurs. Fri. 07:40 14:00 08:00 12:45 16:00 10:15 Fly to Houston,Texas Conference at Houston Medical Center Conference, Nasa Space Center Lunch with friends at Waldorf Hotel Fly back to Washington, DC Fly back to Chile. United Airlines Flight 908 from National Airport.

Sat.

Now complete the sentences using the information given in the chart. As you can see, Dr. Novoa will have a very busy week next week. 1. On Monday morning, hes attending a meeting at the US Medical Association. 2. On Monday evening, hes 3. Hes on Tuesday morning. 4. After that, he 5. In the evening, 6. On Wednesday morning, 7. After dinner, 8. At 7:40 AM on Thursday, he 9. On Thursday afternoon, he 10. On Friday morning, he at Nasa Space Center 11. At midday, hes at the Waldorf Hotel. 12. Right after lunch, at 16:00, he 13. He is arriving in Washington DC., late in the evening. 14. At 10:15 on Saturday, Dr. Novoa back to Chile. He is arriving at Arturo Merino Airport at about 21:15. Ex. 4. Answer these questions in English. Make complete sentences: 1. What are you doing this evening? 2. Where are you going on vacation this year? 3. What are you doing next Friday evening? 4. When are your friends from New York coming to visit you? 5. How is Mr Jackson travelling to Japan, by boat or plane? 6. What are you doing on Saturday? 7. What time are you getting home tonight?

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Ex. 5. Translate the following sentences into English 1. Mary vendr a vernos la prxima semana. 2. Ellos van a estar con nosotros varios das. 3. Esta noche tenemos previsto cenar con Mr. Jones 4. Yo no voy a salir de Stgo. este n de semana. 5. Te prometo que no har eso nuevamente. 6. Creo que ella no va a aceptar nuestra invitacin. 7. Qu harn ellos con el dinero que recibieron? 8. Cuando tienen ellos previsto viajar a los EEUU? 9. A que hora vas a llegar del trabajo esta tarde? 10. Segn el itinerario, a que hora vamos a llegar all?

PART II. MODAL VERBS (I)


A. CAN, MUST, MAY, SHOULD/OUGHT TO Estos Verbos Modales (tambin llamados defectivos o especiales) tienen los siguientes signicados:
Spanish CAN 1. PODER = ser capaz de. 2. PODER = ser posible 3. PODER = tener permiso para (Informal) Synonym 1. Be able to 2. Be possible to 3. Be allowed to Example 1. Bob can swim well. = Bob is able to swim well 2. You can see the lake from here. = Its possible (for you) to see the lake from here 3. You can use my computer, Bob = You are allowed to use my computer 1. You must obey orders. = You have to obey orders. 2. He must be over 70 years old. = I think / assume he is over... 1. You may leave now = You are allowed to leave now. 2. It may rain tomorrow. = It is likely to rain tomorrow. Itll probably rain tomorrow. 1. You should study every day. / You ought to study every day = It is convenient for you to study every day. You had better study every day

MUST

1. DEBER = tener que (obligacin/ necesidadad) 2. DEBER = tener que (deduccin/ conclusin) 1. PODER = tener permiso (formal) 2. PODER = ser posible o probable

1. have to 2. I think... / I assume... 1. be allowed to 2. be likely to; probably

MAY

SHOULD OUGHT TO

1. DEBERA = consejo, recomendacin

1. be advisable to / convenient / had better

Estos verbos modales o especiales acompaan a un verbo principal y tienen las siguientes caractersticas: Van seguidos de un innitivo sin TO (excepto, OUGHT TO...) Ej. He can swim well. (No se debe decir, He can to swim) No agregan -s en la tercera persona singular en el tiempo presente. Ej. He can swim well. (No se debe decir, He cans swim well) Niegan agregando la palabra NOT (formando en algunos casos una contraccin) Ej. He cannot / cant swim well (cannot es el nico caso en que el verbo modal y not van unidos) Interrogan mediante simple inversin con el sujeto. Ej. Can he swim well? Rara vez se usa el verbo modal OUGHT TO en oraciones negativas o interrogativas.
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Estos verbos tienen los siguientes signicados y usos :


Can (Poder) 1. Para indicar capacidad, habilidad o destreza. 2. Para indicar que la posibilidad para hacer algo. John can swim very well. (John puede nadar bien) Mary cant play the guitar.(Mary no puede tocar la guitarra) Can you speak English? (Puede Ud. hablar Ingls?) You can see the lake from this window. (Ud. puede ver el lago desde esta ventana) We cant use the elevator now . Its out of order.(No podemos usar el ascensor ahora. Est descompuesto) You can leave now, Peter. (Puedes retirarte ahora, Peter) Can I turn on the TV, dad? (Puedo encender el televisor, pap?) That cant be true! (Eso no puede ser cierto!) I cant believe my eyes! (No puedo creer lo que estoy viendo!) You must obey all trafc regulations. (Ud. debe obedecer las leyes del trnsito) Students mustnt smoke in the laboratory. (Los alumnos no deben fumar en el laboratorio) Hes wearing a green uniform. He must be a policeman. (El est usando un uniforme verde. Debe ser un polica) Ask the secretary. She must know where Mr Jackson is now. (Pregntele a la secretaria. Ella debe saber dnde est el Sr Kackson ahora) You must be joking! (Debes estar bromeando!) It must be a mistake! (Debe ser un error!) You may leave now, if you wish. (Ud. puede retirarse, si lo desea) You may not use this telephone at any time. (Uds. No pueden usar este telfono a ninguna hora) May I smoke here, Sir? (Puedo fumar aqu, Sr.?) Its getting cloudy. It may rain tomorrow. (Se est nublando. Puede que llueva maana) Dont get on that chair, Tommy. You may fall down and break an arm. (No te subas a esa silla, Tommy. Te puedes caer y quebrar un brazo) Cigarette smoking may cause cancer! (Fumar cigarrillos puede producir cancer) Should / Ought To (Debera) 1. Para dar consejos, reprochar o indicar un deber moral You dont look well. I think that you should see a doctor /...you ought to see a doctor / iu: :t tu s: e dktor / (No te ves bien. Creo que deberas ver un mdico) You should not smoke so much, Joe. Its not good for your health. (No debera fumar tanto. No es bueno para tu salud) You should feel proud of being a Chilean. (Deberas sentirte orgulloso de ser chileno)

3. (Informal) Para dar o pedir permiso o autorizacin. 4. (Negative). Para indicar incredulidad o asombro. Must (Deber) 1. Para indicar obligacin.

2. (Positive) Para indicar suposicin o deduccin.

3. Para expresar incredulidad o asombro May (Poder) 1. (formal). Para pedir o dar permiso o autorizacin.

2. Para indicar posibilidad o probabilidad

EXERCISES Ex. 1. Complete the blanks with CAN, MUST, MAY o SHOULD, segn corresponda. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.
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Gentlemen, you ask questions at the end of the presentation, if you like. He is a retired civil servant. He be over 65 years old now. You study harder if you want to get better grades. I just put on my glasses. Now I read better. You have a passport and a visa to enter the United States. You take your umbrella in case it rains this afternoon, John. I use your pen please, Sir? I have another piece of cake, mother? You not do that again. Its dangerous. You easily fall and break your leg.
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10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24.

You be punctual for the meeting. The boss gets very angry when people are late. The man is very strong. He lift that heavy box easily. He nt be an engineer. He is only 18 years old! Miss Clark type fast but she nt use a computer. The little bird nt y yet. Its too young. You come and visit us any day, John. Youll be welcome to our home. Why dont you phone at his home. He be there. He sometimes goes home for lunch. Why dont you give them some more money? You be more generous. Theyre very poor. What I do in order to improve my pronunciation, professor? You pay by credit card or by cheque.We dont accept cash. You are too fat, Billy . I think you go on a diet. Its almost midnight now. They be sleeping at this time. You insert two coins in the slot if you want to use the telephone. I dont know why theyre talking. They be working instead. He nt be driving the car! He doesnt know how to start a car.

Ex. 2 Change the following sentences into a) negative, b) interrogative and c) Wh-question : 1. Bob can speak three languages.

2. They should take a taxi.

3. We must go because its late.

4. They may use Room 203.

Ex. 3. Translate the following sentences into English 1. Uds. pueden fumar aqu. 2. El puede correr muy rpido. 3. Ud. debe venir maana nuevamente. 4. Puede que ellos nos visiten maana. 5. El no puede hablar espaol bin. 6. Qu debera hacer yo ahora? 7. Puedes t ayudarme esta tarde? 8. Puedo sentarme aqu, seor? 9. Eso puede suceder nuevamente. 10. El trabaj muy duro. Debe estar cansado.

B. HAVE TO = TENER QUE El verbo modal MUST (deber) tiene un sinnimo: la expresin idiomtica HAVE TO . A pesar de ser sinnimos, en el uso dario HAVE TO se utiliza frecuentemente para expresar idea de necesidad, mientras que MUST enfatiza ms la idea de obligacin. Lea, escuche y aprenda: I must go to the hospital to see a friend. (Yo debo ir al hospital a ver a un amigo) I have to go to the hospital to see a friend. (Yo tengo que ir al hospital a ver a un amigo) Peter must work until late this evening. (Peter debe trabajar hasta tarde esta noche) Peter has to work until late this evening. (Peter tiene que trabajar hasta tarde esta noche)
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Debido a que el verbo modal MUST no tiene una forma para expresar el pasado, ni tampoco se puede usar en otros tiempos verbales, es necesario recurrir a la forma correspondiente de HAVE TO. Lea, escuche y aprenda: (Present) I must go to the hospital to see a friend (Yo debo ir al hospital a ver a un amigo) (Past) (Future) = I have to go to the hospital to see a friend (Yo tengo que ir al hospital a ver a un amigo) = I had to go to the hospital to see a friend. (Yo tuve que ir al hospital a ver a un amigo) = I will have to go to the hospital to see a friend. (Yo tendr que ir al hospital a ver a un amigo)

(Present) Peter must work until late this evening. = Peter has to work until late every evening. (Peter debe trabajar hasta tarde esta noche) (Peter tiene que trabajar hasta tarde todas las noches) (Past) = Peter had to work until late yesterday evening. (Peter tuvo que trabajar hasta tarde ayer) (Future) = Peter will have to work until late this evening. Peter tendr que trabajar hasta tarde esta noche) En la forma negativa de HAVE TO se deben usar, al igual que con los verbos principales, los verbos modales DO / DOES, DID, WILL + NOT o las contracciones DONT / DOESNT, DIDNT, WONT. Lea, escuche y aprenda: Peter doesnt have to work until late every evening Peter didnt have to work until late yesterday evening Peter wont have to work until late this evening En las interrogaciones debemos anteponer los verbos modales do/does/did/will al sujeto Lea, escuche y aprenda: Does Peter have to work until late every evening? Did Peter have to work until late yesterday evening? Will Peter have to work until late this evening? EXERCISES Ex. 1. Substitute the correct form of HAVE To for MUST in the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. I must work tonight. John must go out of town this afternoon. You must read this article. Mary and John must y to Paris today. They must stay there at least an hour. I must get up early every day. We must write a composition each night. 1 must write many letters. We must prepare our lessons every night. Mary must study French next year. John must also take another language. We must learn many new words every day.

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Ex. 2. Read the following with MUST. Then. change to past and future time: 1. 1 2. He 3. We 4. He 5. We 6. He 7. She 8. I 9. We 10. He must must leave at once. go to the hospital right away. make reservations at once. learn all the new words. hurry in order to get there early. spend more time on his English. attend class every day. answer this letter at once. telephone her right away. stay at home and rest. I had to leave at once. (at once = right away= = immediately) I will have to leave at once.

Ex. 3. Change to past and future time: 1. I have to work today. 2. John has to be here at two oclock. 3. Mary has to come with him. 4. We have to study tonight. 5. They have to write many letters. 6. You have to wait a few minutes. 7. They have to come back later. 8. We all have to write a short story. 9. We have to go to the hospital this afternoon. 10. He has to see a doctor. 11. John has to stop his English lessons. 12. I have to get up early.

Ex. 4. Change to negative form: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. They have to study very hard. He had to be there at two oclock. We have to get up early. We have to write a composition tonight. We had to meet him at noon. Mr. Smith has to go out of town.

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7. They had to leave early. 8. I have to buy a new pen. 9. We have to work on Sunday. 10. John had to go to the hospital. 11. We have to prepare our homework every day. 12. We will have to learn many new words. Ex. 5. Change to interrogative form. Then, ask questions with WHEN, WHERE, WHAT TIME, WHY, etc. 1. He had to leave at noon. 2. We have to get up at 6.00 every morning. 3. They have to study every day. 4. They have to rent an apartment soon. 5. He had to buy several new books. 6. He had to leave a tip for the waiter. 7. He had to return yesterday. 8. He will have to wait a few minutes. 9. They will have to come back later. 10. He has to wear a coat because its cold.. 11. She has to rest a while because shes tired 12. He has to take more exercise.

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BASIC VOCABULARY: PARTS OF THE BODY /p:rts ov e bdi/ Las Partes del Cuerpo 1. The Head /(e hed/ La cabeza beard /bard/ brains /breinz/ cheek /tchi:k/ chin /tchin/ ear /iar/ eye /ai/ eyebrow /aibrau/ eyelash /ilsh/ eyelid /ilid/ face /feis/ forehead /fo:red/ hair /har/ Head /hd/ jaw /dllo:/ 2. The Trunk /(e truk/ El tronco back /bk/ backbone /bkboun/ bladder /blder/ bowels /buelz/ breast /brest/ buttocks /btoks/ chest /tchst/ gall bladder /golblder/ heart /ha:rt/ hip /hip/ espalda espina dorsal vejiga vientre, entraas pecho,mamas nalgas pecho, torax vescula corazn cadera intestines /intstinz/ kidney /kdni/ liver /lver/ lung /la/ navel /nivl/ ribs /ribz/ spleen /spli:n/ stomach /stmak/ waist /weist/ intestinos rin hgado pulmn ombligo costillas bazo estmago cintura barba cerebro mejilla mentn oreja ojo ceja pestaa prpado cara frente cabello cabeza mandbula lip /lip/ moustache /must:sh/ mouth /mau/ neck /nek/ nose /nouz/ nostrils /nstrilz/ pupil /piu:pl/ sideburns /sidbernz/ skull /skal/ temple /tmpl/ throat /rout/ tongue /t/ tooth /teeth /tu:, ti:/ labio bigote boca cuello nariz fosas nasales pupila patillas crneo sien garganta lengua diente(s)

3. The Limbs /(e limz/ Las extremidades ankle /kl/ arm /a:rm/ armpit /:rmpit/ calf /ka:f/ elbow /lbou/ nger /fger/ foot / feet /fu:t, :t/ hand /hnd/ heel /hi:l/ index nger /ndeks ger/ knee /ni:/ kneecap /ni:kap/ knuckle /nkl/ leg /leg/ tobillo brazo axila pantorrilla codo dedo(mano) pie /s mano taln ndice rodilla rtula nudillo pierna limbs /limz/ little nger /ltl ger/ middle nger /mdl ger/ nail /neil/ palm /pa:m/ ring nger /ri ger/ shin /shin/ shoulder /shulder/ sole /soul/ thigh /ai/ thumb /am / toe /tou/ wrist /rist/ extremidades meique cordial ua palma anular canilla hombro planta (del pie) muslo pulgar dedo(del pie) mueca

4. Related Words /rilitid we:rdz/ Palabras relacionadas corn /ko:rn/ callo cough /kof/ tos freckle /frkl/ peca hiccough /hkap/ hipo mole /moul/ lunar Pins and needles /pinz an n:dlz/ calambres sigh /sai/ sneeze /sni:z/ wart /wo:rt/ wrinkle /rnkl/ yawn /io:n/ suspiro estornudo verruga arruga bostezo

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TIME EXPRESSIONS /tim iksprsh nz/ Expresiones de Tiempo now /nu/ at this moment /at e mument/ at present /at przent/ for the time being /for e tim bi:i/ right now /rait nu/ today /tudi/ yesterday /ysterdi/ tomorrow /tumrou/ this morning /is m:rni/ this afternoon /is a:ftern:n/ this evening /is :vni/ tonight /tunit/ tomorrow morning /tumrou m:ni/ yesterday afternoon /ysterdi a:ftern:n/ last night /la:st nit/ last week /la:st w:k/ next Monday /nekst mndi/ last Tuesday morning /la:st tuzdi m:rni/ next Sunday afternoon /nekst sndi a:ftern:n/ the day after tomorrow /e di a:fter tumrou/ the day before yesterday /e di bif:r isterdi/ in the morning /in e m:rni/ in the afternoon /in i a:ftern:n/ in the evening /in i :vni/ at night /at nit/ a week next Monday /e w:k neks mndi/ a week last Sunday /e w:k la:st sndi/ in December last year /in dismber la:st yar/ in the summer of 1976 /in e smer ov nintin sventi sks/ every day /vri di/ every week /vri w:k/ every month /vri mn/ every year /vri yar/ every Monday morning /vri mndi m:ni/ every other day /vri er di/ every other three days /vri er r: diz/ once a day /wans e di/ twice a week /twis e w:k/ several times a month /svral timz e mn/ many times a year /mni timz e yar/ a long time ago /e l tim agu/ many years ago /mni yarz agu/ ten minutes ago /tn mnits agu/ not very long ago /nt vri lo agu/ ages ago /idlliz agu/ a short while ago /e short wil agu/ immediately /immdlliatli/ at once /at wns/ right away /rit ewi/ as soon as possible /as s:n as psibl/ always /:lweiz/ generally /dllnerali/ usually /ishuali/ frequently /frkwentli/ often /:fn/ occasionally /okillonali/
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ahora en este momento en la actualidad transitoriamente, por ahora ahora mismo hoy da ayer maana esta maana esta tarde esta tarde esta noche maana en la maana ayer en la tarde anoche la semana pasada el prximo lunes el martes pasado en la maana el prximo domingo en la tarde pasado maana anteayer en la maana en la tarde en la tarde por /durante la noche el lunes subsiguiente el domingo antepasado en diciembre del ao pasado en el verano de 1976 todos los das todas las semanas todos los meses todos los aos todos los lunes en la maana da por medio cada tres das una vez al da dos veces a la semana varias veces al mes muchas veces al ao hace mucho tiempo /mucho tiempo atrs hace muchos aos hace diez minutos no hace mucho tiempo hace muchsimo tiempo hace un rato, un rato atrs inmediatamente de inmediato al instante, al tiro lo antes posible, lo ms pronto posible siempre generalmente usualmente frecuentemente a menudo ocasionalmente

sometimes /smtaimz/ rarely /rarli/ seldom /sldom/ hardly ever /ha:dli ver/ never /nver/ from time to time /from tim tu tim/ once in a while /wns in e wil/ now and then /nu an n/

a veces raramente rara vez casi nunca nunca de vez en cuando de vez en cuando. de vez en cuando.

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Key to answers

UNIT 10
PART I.
Ex. 2. 1. Mr Mitchell is ying to Sydney next week. 2. John is attending a conference at YMCA at 10:30 on Monday. 3. Im playing tennis with Bob tomorrow. 4. Jim and Mary are going to a disco tonight. 5. Our daughter is arriving on the 8:15 train on Saturday morning. 6. Mr Brown isnt attending our wedding party on Friday. Ex. 3. 2. Attending a reception at the White House 3. Playing tennis with Dr Brown 4. Is attending a ceremony at Lincoln Memorial. 5. Hes attending a dinner party at the US Surgeons Club 6.Hes visiting Bethesda Medical Center. 7. Hes attendding a concert at the Kennedy Center. 8. Hes ying to Texas. 9. Hes attending a conference at houston Medical Center. 10. Hes attending a conference at Nasa Space Center. 11. Hes having lunch with some friends at the Waldorf Hotel. 12. Hes ying back to Washington DC. 14. Hes ying back to Chile from National Airport. Ex. 4. Open answers Ex. 5. 1. Mary will come to see us next week. 2. Theyre going to stay several days with us. 3. Were having dinner with Mr Jones this evening. 4. Im not going out of Santiago this weekend. 5. I promise you I will never do that again. 6. I think / believe shes not going to accept our invitation 7. What will they do with the money they received? 8. When are they traveling to the USA? 9. At what time are you going to arrive / get back from work this evening? 10. According to the schedule, at what time are we getting there?

PART II.
A. Ex. 1. 1. May 2. Must 3. Should / ought to 4. Can 5. Must 6. Should / ought to 7. May 8. Can 9. Must / should - can / may 10. Must 11. Can 12. Cant 13. Can - cant 14. Cant 15. Can / must 16. May 17. Should / ought to 18. Should 19. Must 20. Should / ought to 21. Must 22. Must 23. Should / ought to 24. Cant Ex. 2. 1. Bob cant speak... / Can Bob speak...? / How many languages can Bob speak? 2. They shouldnt take... / Should they take...? / What should they do? 3. We must not go... / Must we go...? / Why must we go? 4. They may not use... / May they use...? / Which room may they use? Ex. 3. 1. You can / may smoke here. 2. He can run very fast. 3.You must come again tomorrow. 4. They may visit us tomorrow 5. He cant speak Spanish well. 6. What should I do now? 7. Can you help me this afternoon? 8. May I sit here, Sir? 9. That may / can happen again. 10. He worked very hard. He must be tired. B. Ex. 1. 1. I have to work.. 2. John has to go out... 3. You have to read... 4. Mary and John have to y...5. They have to stay... 6. I have to get up... 7. We have to write...8. I have to write... 9. We have to prepare...10. Mary has to study... 11. John also has to take...12.We have to learn Ex. 2. 2. He had to go... / Hell have to go... 3. We had to make... / Well have to make... 4. He had to learn... / Hell have to learn... 5. We had to hurry... / Well have to hurry... 6. He had to spend... / Hell have to spend 7. She had to attend... / Shell have to attend... 8. I had to answer... / Ill have to answer... 9. We had to telephone... / Well have to telephone... 10. He had to stay... / Hell have to stay... Ex. 3. 1. I had to work... / Ill have to work... 2. John had to be... / John will have to be... 3. Mary had to come... / Mary will have to come... 4. We had to study... / Well have to study... 5. They had to write... / Theyll have to write... 6. You had to wait... / Youll have to wait... 7. They had to come back... / Theyll have to come back...8. We all had to write... / Well have to write... 9. We had to go... / Well have to go... 10. He had to see... / Hell have to see...11. John had to stop... / Johnll have to stop. 12. -I had to get up... / Ill have to get up... Ex. 4. 1. They dont have to study... 2. He didnt have to be... 3. We dont have to get up... 4. We dont have to write... 5. We didnt have to meet... 6. Mr Smith doesnt have to go... 7. They didnt have to leave... 8. I dont have to buy... 9. We dont have to work... 10. John didnt have to go...11. We dont have to prepare... 12. We wont have to learn...
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Ex. 5. 1. When / What time did he have to leave? 2. What time do we / you have to get up every morning? 3. What do they have to do every day? 4. When do they have to rent an apartment? 5. What did he have to buy? 6. What did he have to leave for the waiter? 7. When did he have to return? 8. How long will he have to wait? 9. When will they have to come back? 10. Why does he have to wear a coat? 11. Why does she have to rest a while? 12. What does she have to do?

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UNIT 11
PART I. EL TIEMPO FUTURO CONTINUO (THE FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE)
Este tiempo verbal se expresa con el futuro del verbo BE (WILL BE) ms el GERUNDIO de un verbo principal y se usa para referirse a acciones que estarn realizndose a una hora o fecha determinada en el futuro, cuando otra accin ocurra. Por lo tanto son frecuentes las expresiones de tiempo compuestas por WHEN + SUBJECT + PRESENT + TOMORROW/ NEXT MONDAY, etc, como when you come home this evening /wen i: kam hum is :vni/ (cuando t vengas a casa esta tarde), o when the program starts tonight /wen e prugram st:rts tunit/ (cuando el programa comience esta noche). Tambin se usan expresiones de tiempo como, at ten oclock tomorrow /at tn oklk tumrou/ (maana a las 10:00), at midday next Saturday /at mddei nkst s terdi/ (al medioda el prximo sbado), at this time tomorrow /at is tim tumrou/ (a esta hora maana). Escuche, lea y aprenda: 1. We will be having lunch at 1 oclock tomorrow. /wi: wil b: hvi /lntch at wn oklk tumrou/ Nosotros estaremos almorzando a la una maana. 2. They will be working in the laboratory at this time next Monday. /i wil b: w:rki in e labratri at is tim nkst mndi / Ellos estarn trabajando en el laboratorio a esta hora el prximo lunes. 3. Lynda will be travelling in Europe at this time next month. /lnda wil b: trveli in irop at is tim nkst mn/ Lynda estar viajando en Europa en esta fecha el prximo mes. 4. The children will be sleeping when the program starts tonight. /e tchldren wil b: sl:pi wen e prugram st:rts tunit/ Los nios estarn durmiendo cuando el programa comience esta noche 5. The President will be ying to Tokyo at this time on Tuesday /e przident wil b: ii tu tkiou at is tim on ti:zdi/ El Presidente estar volando hacia Tokio a esta hora el martes La forma negativa y la forma interrogativa se expresa como en el tiempo futuro simple, es decir, con WILL NOT / WONT en las negaciones e invirtiendo el orden del sujeto con el modal WILL en las interrogaciones: Escuche, lea y aprenda: 1. 2. 3. 4. They wont be working in the laboratory at this time next Monday. /i wunt b: w:rki in e labratri at is tim nkst mndi/ The children will not be sleeping when the program starts tonight. /e tchldren wil nt b: sl:pi wen e prugram st:rts tunit/ Will they be travelling in Europe at this time next month? /wl i b: trveli in i:rop at is tim nkst mn/ What will the President be doing at this time on Tuesday? /wt wil e przident b: d:i at is tim on tu:zdi/

La pregunta habitual en este tiempo es : WHAT WILL YOU BE DOING? /wt wil i: b: d:i/ (Qu estar haciendo ud.?) EXERCISES: Ex. 1. Complete the following sentences using the verbs given in parentheses, in the Future Continuous Tense: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. At 10 oclock tomorrow morning, I here. (work) At this time next month, we in the USA. (travel) I to work at this time tomorrow morning. (drive) The Browns some friends at 9 this evening (entertain) Mr Scott and his friends Toronto next weekend. (visit) Jane the shopping at midday today. (do) We soccer at this time next Saturday. (play) The students in the gym after 7 this evening. (work out) I television when you come home tonight. (watch) What you at this time tomorrow? (do)

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Ex.2. Change the following sentences into a) negative and b) interrogative: 1. Theyll be running up the hill at midday. 2. Hans will be working all morning tomorrow. 3. The students will be taking a test at 10. 4. Mike will be washing his car in the morning.

Ex. 3. Ask questions using question words like What, Where, How long, etc. 1. Theyll be having dinner at 8 this evening. 2. Janet will be travelling in Asia for 2 weeks. 3. Ill be working in the lab tomorrow morning. 4. Jim wont be working tomorrow because its a holiday. 5. Ill be staying at the Carlton Hotel in London. 6. The train will be arriving at 12:30 tomorrow. 7. Mr. Jackson will be attending a meeting at this time on Thursday. 8. My friends will be taking their nal exams by this time next month.

Ex. 4. Use the verbs provided in the Simple Future or the Future Contnuous Tense: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. They They At this time tomorrow, we Mr. Smith not They They Mary Where they What you they dinner at 8:45 this evening. (have) Brazil next month. (visit) , of course. (work) home for dinner tonight. (come) in Boston at this time next year. (live) at a Chinese restaurant tonight. (have dinner) dinner when John gets home tonight. (cook) when they visit Paris in June? (stay) at midday on Sunday? (do) their holidays in Chile again next year? (spend)

Ex. 5. Review Practice. Use the proper verb tense of the verbs provided. Use the Present, the Past or the Future tenses, in their Simple or Contnuous forms: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18.
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Listen! Mary the piano now. (play) We our vacation in Majorca next year. (spend) At 10:30 last night, we television. (watch) John usually here on Tuesday. (come) Mr. Helms a very good movie last night. (see) They not English very often. (practise) What you at this time yesterday? (do) They not the story at the moment. (read) What the Johnsons last Saturday? (do) W Mary at this time tomorrow? (do nt you the newspaper this morning? (buy) Jane nt to see me every day. (come) you always home at midday? (phone) your friends you when you arrived at their home yesterday? (expect) Where they when World War II started? (live) How often your friend to you? (write) What time you this morning? (get up) What time you here tomorrow? (be)
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19. 20. 21. 22. 23.

They nt When the Johnsons How long you Walter never A: Why you B: Because it was too cold. 24. A: Why nt Helen B: Because she hates ying.

out tonight because its too cold. (go) , today or tomorrow? (arrive) at the hotel this time, two or three nights? (stay) in bed, as a rule. (smoke) your sweater yesterday? (put on) abroad on her vacation last summer? (travel)

PART II
A. MAKING REQUESTS - (SOLICITANDO SERVICIOS O FAVORES) Para solicitar que una persona haga algn servicio o favor, generalmente se usan las siguientes frmulas: Can you.+ innitive...please? (Informal) Will you + innitive..., please? (Informal) Imperative, please + will you? (Informal) Could you + innitive..., please? (Formal) Would you + innitive..., please? (Formal) Would you mind +...ing... please? (Muy formal) Can you open the door please? Will you help me please? Listen to me please, will you? Could you speak more slowly, please? Would you sign your name here, please? Would you mind waiting outside, please?

Normalmente estas solicitudes se responden con expresiones como las siguientes: With pleasure /wi plllar/ Con mucho gusto Sure /shar/ seguro Certainly /s:rtenli/ Por cierto Of course /ov k:rz/ Por supuesto

Escuche, lea y aprenda: 1. A: Could you help me, please? B: With pleasure EXERCISES Ex. 1. Ask somebody to do the following things, using Can you..., please?, or Will you...please?, instead of the simple imperative form. (instead of = en vez de) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Speak more slowly. Help me open the suitcase. Open the window. Come back this afternoon.. Pay attention,.. Be quiet.. Sit on this chair. 2. A: Will you lend me your pen, please? B: Sure

Ex. 2. Ask somebody to do the following things, using Could you...please? or Would you... please? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Speak more slowly. Wait for me in the lobby. Repeat your question. Sign your name here. Turn the radio down.
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6. Take off your hat. 7. Use the other elevator. Ex. 3. Repeat the previous exercise using the polite form Would you mind...ing, please? 1 Speak more slowly. 2. Wait for me in the lobby. 3. Repeat your question. 4. Sign your name here. 5. Turn the radio down. 6. Take off your hat. 7. Use the other elevator. Ex. 4. Make requests. Follow the instructions carefully. 1. You want Sr. Perez to help you translate this letter into Spanish. Ask him. You: Peter: With Pleasure 2. You want a friend to give you a hand (= help you). Ask him. You : John : Certainly. 3. You want somebody to spell his/her surname for you. Ask him/her politely. You: He/She: Yes, of course. S-M-I-T-H, Smith

, John?

4. You want Mara to call you up tomorrow morning. Ask her to do that informally. You : Mara, ? Mara: Yes, certainly. At what time do you want me to call you up? 5. You want your brother Tom to turn down the radio. Ask him. You: Tom:: Of course. I didnt know you were studying.

, Tom?

6. You want a stranger to show you the way to the railway station. Ask him. You : , please? Stranger: Sure, Walk along this street as far as the trafc lights and then turn left. B. ASKING FOR PERMISSION (SOLICITANDO PERMISO) Para solicitar permiso para hacer algo debemos usar las siguientes frmulas: Can I + Innitive? (Informal) May I + Innitive? (Formal) Do you mind if I + Innitive? (Formal) Would you allow me to + Innitive? (Formal) Can I open the door? May I ask a question? Do you mind if I smoke? Would you allow me to use the phone?

Normalmente estas solicitudes se responden con expresiones como: Sure, go ahead. Please do. Please dont. Escuche, lea y aprenda: A: Can I use your computer, John? B: Sure, go ahead. A: Do you mind if I open the window? B: Please dont. Its too cold.

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EXERCISES Ex. 1. Ask permission to do things. Follow the instructions carefully. 1. You want to turn on the TV. Ask your mothers permission. You: Your mother: Yes, but keep the volume down, please. Im working. 2. You are a visitor and you want to use the telephone. Ask your hosts permission. You : Host: Sure, go ahead. 3. Youre at a conference. You want to ask a question. Ask the speakers permission. You: Speaker: Certainly. Please use the microphone so everyone can hear your question, please. 4. You want to use your friends lighter. Ask his permission. You : Bob: Sure, here you are. 5. Youre sitting next to an old man on the bus. You want to open the window. Ask his permission. You: Old man: Please dont open it. Ive got a bad cold. 6. You are at a friends house. You want to take a look at his newspaper. Ask his permission. You: Jack. Its all yours. I dont need it now. I read it this morning. 7. Mr Jackson is working in his ofce. You want to go in . Ask his permission. You: Mr. Jackson: Sure, come in please. C. OFFERING TO DO SOMETHING. (OFRECIENDOSE A HACER ALGO) Cuando nos ofrecemos a hacer algo por alguien podemos usar las siguientes estructuras: Shall I + Innitive? Do you want me to + Innitive? Would you like me to + Innitive? Shall I help you? Do you want me to get you a taxi? Would you like me to carry your bags to the room, Sir?

, mum?

, Bob?

,Sir?

, Jack?

, Mr Jackson.

Normalmente estos ofrecimientos se responden con expresiones como: Yes, please No, thank you. I can do it myself / I can manage it myself

EXERCISES Ex. 1. Offer yourself to do these things : 1. to turn the light on. Shall I Yes, please. Its getting dark Do you want me to Yes, please do. My Spanish is not very good Shall I Yes, please. Its too cold outside.
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2. to spell your last name.

3. to shut the window.

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4. to get me some coffee and a sandwich.

Would you like me to Yes, please. Im a little hungry. Do you want me to No, thanks. Its not necessary Would you like me to Yes, please. I dont understand English very well yet. Shall I Please do. Im a bit busy right now. Do you want me to No, thanks. I can manage myself. Shall I Yes, please. I need to tell her something Would you like me to Yes, please. I dont understand French.

5. to repeat your question.

6. to speak more slowly.

7. to call back later today.

8. to help me complete the application form.

9. to tell Mary that I want to see her.

10. to translate this letter into English

D. INVITING OR SUGGESTING TO DO SOMETHING TOGETHER. (INVITANDO O SUGIRIENDO HACER ALGO EN CONJUNTO) Para invitar o sugerir una accin conjunta normalmente se usan expresiones como estas: Shall we + innitive? Do you want to + Innitive Would you like to + innitive? Why dont we + Innitive? How about +...ing? Lets + innitive Shall we go to a disco this evening? Do you want to play cards now? Would you like to have dinner with us tonight? Why dont we sit down and talk for a while? How about going out for a walk? Lets take a walk after dinner.

Las invitaciones o sugerencias de este tipo se responden con expresiones como las siguientes: Good idea! Lets do that. Sure, Why not? Yes, certainly / Yes, of course. Sorry I cant. Im too busy / Its too late / I have to study for a test, etc.

EXERCISES Ex. 1. Invite or suggest your friends to do the following activities together: 1. To go to the movies after dinner tonight. Why Good idea. Lets do that. Lets Yes, thats a good idea. How about I dont think we should. Its getting late. Would you Of course! Wed love to. ? ?

2. To go to the seaside next weekend.

3. To sit on the grass and rest for a while.

4. To spend the summer holidays with us.

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5. To invite the Smiths to dinner one evening.

Why Sure. Why not. Theyre very nice people. Lets Yes, lets do that. Ill be free all morning tomorrow.

6. To play tennis tomorrow morning.

7. To travel by boat instead of by plane think we should travel by plane. Its much cheaper. 8. To stay at home and watch TV .

?I

How about ? Id rather (preferira) go out for a walk. Its a pleasant evening. Would you Yes, Id love to. Its a very interesting exhibition. Why Yes, lets do that, or else well miss our plane ?

9. To go to the arts exhibition.

10. To take a taxi to the airport

PART III.
A. ALSO,TOO, AS WELL AND SO (TAMBIN); NOT... EITHER AND NEITHER / NOR (TAMPOCO); BUT (PERO) Study the following chart
Also Too As well SO+MV+S Not... either NEITHER +MV+S / NOR +MV+S John went to the party. Peter also went to the party. John went to the party. Peter went to the party,too. John went to the party. Peter went to the party as well. John went to the party and so did Peter. John didnt go to the party. Peter didnt go to the party either. John didnt go to the party and neither did Peter Or John didnt go to the party and nor did Peter. John went to the party, but peter didnt go to the party. John didnt like the party, but peter liked the party. John went to the party, but peter didnt. John didnt like the party, but peter did.

But + + BUT +S+ Contr. / BUT +S+ MV

1. Las palabras ALSO, TOO y AS WELL signican TAMBIEN. Also se usa antes de un verbo principal, mientras que las palabras too y as well se usan al nal de las oraciones. Escuche, lea y aprenda. 1) Mary: I really like that dress. Jane: I also like it very much. 3) Mike: John was sleeping at the time. Tom: And his brother was sleeping as well. 2. La palabra SO es un sinnimo de ALSO, TOO y AS WELL y se usa para abreviar y hacer ms uda la conversacin. SO va seguida de un Verbo Modal + Sujeto 1) Mary: I really like that dress. Jane: So do I . 2) John. Mary will come to the party tonight. Peter: And so will Janet!
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2) John: Mary will come to the party tonight. Peter: And Janet will come too!

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3) Mike: John was sleeping at the time. Tom: And so was his brother . 3. Las palabras NOT...EITHER (tampoco) pueden ser reemplazadas por NEITHER (o NOR) para abreviar y hacer ms uida la conversacin. Escuche, lea y aprenda. 1a) Peter: I dont like classical music. Mary: I dont like it either. 1b)Peter: I dont like classical music. Mary: Neither do I. 2a) John: I didnt see you at the meeting yesterday. Ann: I didnt see you either. 2b)John: I didnt see you at the meeting yesterday. Ann: Nor did I!

4. La palabra BUT se usa tanto en la forma completa como en la forma abreviada. Escuche, lea y aprenda. 1a) Ruth didnt see the accident BUT Jane saw it. 2b)Ruth didnt see the accident BUT Jane did. EXERCISES Ex. 1. Use ALSO / TOO / AS WELL, EITHER, or BUT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Peter likes dogs very much and his sister likes them very much Mr Johnson isnt going to attend the meeting, Mr Clark is (going to attend the meeting). The boys didnt go to the lab and the girls didnt go Weve got a big house. Theyve got a big one. Peter doesnt understand Italian. I dont understand it I cant drive a car, my husband can. John is going to travel to Europe and were going to travel there Mary is going to go to Spain, John is not going to go there. Hes going to go to France. Do you speak Spanish, or do you speak another language? So you dont speak Spanish and you dont speak Italian . What language do you speak, then? 2a) John will go to the meeting BUT Mary wont go. 2b)John will go to the meeting BUT Mary wont.

Ex. 2a. First use ALSO / TOO / AS WELL and then use SO, as in the examples: Bob likes coffee. (Jane) Bob likes coffee and Jane also likes coffee. Bob likes coffee and SO does JANE.

1. Mary can speak Italian well. (Carmen) 2. 1 eat lunch in the cafeteria. (the secretary) 3. John walks to school. (I) 4. She comes here every day. (he) 5. John went to the movies with us (Peter) 6. He liked the picture. (We) 7. 1 watch TV after dinner. (my wife) 8. Mary likes pie for dessert. (the children)

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9. 1 ate there yesterday (my friends) 10. We will go by train. (they) 11. My car is very old. (my wifes car) 12. They were very busy. (I) 13. Mary should work harder. (you) 14. They must pay more. (we) Ex. 2b. Now, rst use NOT...EITHER. Then use NEITHER (or NOR), as in the example Bob doesnt like coffee and Jane doesnt like coffee either. Bob doesnt like coffee and NEITHER DOES JANE. 1. Mary cant speak Italian well. (Carmen) 2. I dont eat lunch in the cafeteria. (the secretary) 3. John doesnt go to school . (I) 4. She doesnt come here every day. (he) 5. John didnt go to the movies. (Peter) 6. He didnt like the picture (We) 7. I dont watch TV after dinner (My wife) 8. Mary doesnt like pie for dessert. (The children) 9. I didnt eat there yesterday. (My friends) 10. We wont go by train. (They) 11. My car isnt very old.(My wifes car) 12. They werent very busy. (I) 13. Mary shouldnt work harder. (you) 14. They mustnt pay more. (we)

Ex. 3. Complete these sentences with BUT, as in the examples Bob likes coffee. (Jane) Bob likes coffee, but Jane doesnt. Bob doesnt like coffee, but Jane does.

1. Mary can speak Italian well. (Carmen) 2. 1 eat lunch in the cafeteria. (the secretary) 3. John walks to school. (I)

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4. She comes here every day. (he) 5. John went to the movies with us. (Peter) 6. He liked the picture. (We) 7. 1 watch TV after dinner. (my wife) 8. Mary likes pie for dessert. (the children) 9. 1 ate there yesterday. (my friends) 10. We will go by train. (they) 11. My car is very old. (my wifes car) 12. They were very busy. (I) 13. Mary shouldnt work harder. (you) 14. They must pay more. (we)

B. POSITION OF INDIRECT OBJECT (posicin del complemento indirecto) Son Verbos Transitivos aquellos que van seguidos de un Complemento Directo (Direct Object).Los verbos To send y To buy son verbos transitivos porque van seguidos de un complemento directo. El complemento directo responde a la pregunta What? En la oracin,Peter sent a letter yesterday el complemento directo es la frase a letter porque responde a la pregunta, What did Peter send yesterday. Del mismo modo, en la oracin Mary bought a pair of shoes, la frase a pair of shoes es el complemento directo porque responde a la pregunta, What did Mary buy?. A su vez, el complemento directo puede ir seguido por un Complemento Indirecto (Indirect Object). En la oracin Peter sent a letter to Mr Smith yesterday el complemento indirecto es Mr Smith y en la oracin Mary bought a pair of shoes for her son, el complemento indirecto es her son. Como ud. habr advertido los complementos directos e indirectos van unidos por las preposiciones to o for El complemento indirecto se reconoce porque responde a las preguntas to whom? (a quin?) o for whom? (Para quin?) : To whom did Peter send a letter yesterday? For whom did Mary buy a pair of shoes? El orden de los complementos directo e indirecto puede ser invertido, pero en ese caso se deben omitir las preposiciones to o for. La inversin del orden de los complementos directo e indirecto es muy comn cuando el complemento indirecto es un pronombre complementario (object pronoun) Escuche, lea y aprenda. Peter sent a letter to Mr Smith yesterday Peter sent Mr Smith a letter yesterday= Mary bought a pair of shoes for her son. Mary bought her son a pair of shoes=

Peter sent him a letter yesterday.

Mary bought him a pair of shoes.

Ex. 1. Place the indirect object before the direct object: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.


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He gave the money to me. She brought the book to me. He sent a letter to me. He told the story to us. The teacher gave some dictation to us. He sent some candy to his sister.
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7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

He bought some owers for his wife He gave a ring to (=phoned) his friend. They sent an invitation to us. John lent some money to his friends. Will you lend your pen to me? He gave some excellent advice to all of us.

Ex. 2, Place the indirect object after the direct object: 1. He gave me some books. 2. They gave us some magazines. 3. He sent his mother several letters. 4. They brought us many presents from abroad. 5. 1 gave him the note which you sent. 6. Please give us some dictation today. 7. They sent us an invitation to the party. 8. Henry told us the story of his trip. 9. John gladly lent me the money. 10. Please lend me your pencil for a few minutes. 11. They sent us the material right away. 12. Please hand me that book.

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BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words OUR HEALTH /uar hl(/ La salud arthritis /a:rritis/ blister /blster/ chicken-pox /tchkin poks/ chilblain /tchilblein/ chills /tchilz/ cold /kuld/ colic /klik/ constipation /konstipishn/ diarrhea /daiara/ disease /dis:z/ earache /iar eik/ fever /f:ver/ u /u:/ hay fever /hi f:ver/ headache /hd eik/ health /hl/ heart attack /ha:rt at k/ artritis ampolla alfombrilla saban escalofros resfro clico estitiquez colitis enfermedad dolor de odos ebre gripe ebre del heno dolor de cabeza salud paro cardiaco illness /lnis/ enfermedad insomnia /insmnia/ insomnio mumps /mamps/ parotiditis nervous breakdown /n:rvas brikdaun/ depresin pain /pein/ dolor rheumatism /rmatizm/ reumatismo runny nose /rni nouz/ romadizo sickness /sknis/ mareo smallpox /smol poks/ viruela sore throat /s:r rut/ faringitis stomach-ache /stmak eik/ dolor de estmago stroke /struk/ trombosis tonsiltis /tonsilitis/ amigdalitis toothache /tu eik/ dolor de muelas typhus /tifus/ tifus whooping cough /h:pi kof/ tos convulsiva.

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KEY TO ANSWERS

UNIT 11
PART I
Ex. 1. 1. will be working 2. will be travelling 3. will be driving 4. will be entertaining 5. will be visiting. 6. will be doing 7. will be playing 8. will be working out 9. will be watching 10. will - be doing Ex. 2. 1 They wont be running... / Will they be running...? 2. Hans wont be working... / Will Hans be working...? 3. The students wont be taking... / Will the students be taking...? 4. Mike wont be washing... / Will Mike be washing...? Ex. 3. 1 What will they be doing at 8 this evening? 2. How long will Janet be travelling in Asia? 3. Where will you be working tomorrow morning? 4.Why wont Jim be working tomorrow? 5. Where / In which hotel will you be staying in London? 6. At what time will the train be arriving tomorrow? 7. What will Mr Jackson be doing at this time on Thursday? 8. What will your friends be doing by this time next month? Ex. 4. 1. will be having 2. will visit 3. will be working 4. will - come 5. will be living 6. will have dinner 7. will be cooking 8. will - stay 9. Will - be doing 10. Will - spend . Ex.5. 1. is playing 2. will spend / are going to spend / are spending 3. were watching 4. comes 5. saw 6. do - practice 7. were - doing 8. are - reading 9. did - do 10. will - be doing 11. Did - buy 12. does - come 13. Do - phone 14. Were - expecting 15. were - living 16. does - write 17. did - get up 18. will - be / are - going to be 19. will - go / are - going to go / are - going 20. will - arrive / are - going to arrive / are - arriving 21. will- stay / are - going to stay / are - staying 22. smokes 23. did - put on 24. did - travel

PART II
A. Ex. 1. 1. Can you / Will you speak...please? 2. Can you / Will you help...please? 3 Can you / Will you open ..please? 4. Can you / Will you come...please? 5. Can you / Will you pay... please? 6. Can you / Will you be...please? 7. Can you / Will you sit... please? Ex. 2. 1. Could you / Would you speak..., please? 2 Could you / Would you wait..., please? 3. Could you / Would you repeat..., please? 4. Could you / Would you sign..., please? 5. Could you / Would you turn..., please? 6. Could you / Would you take..., please? 7. Could you / Would you use..., please? Ex. 3. 1.Would you mind speaking..., please? 2. Would you mind waiting..., please? 3. Would you mind repeating..., please? 4. Would you mind signing..., please? 5. Would you mind turning..., please? 6. Would you mind taking..., please? 7. Would you mind using..., please? Ex. 4. 1. Could you / Would you help me..., Mr Perez? Would you mind helping me... Mr Perez? 2. Can you / Will you give me...? 3. Could you / Would you spell... please? / Would you mind spelling..., please? 4. Can you / Will you call me up...? 5. Can you / Will you turn down...? 6. Could you / Would you show me..., please? / Would you mind showing me..., please? B. Ex. 1. 1. Can I turn...? 2. May I / Do you mind if I use...? 3. May I / Do you mind if I ask...? 4. Can I use your...? 5. May I / Do you mind if I open...? 6. Can I take...? 7. May I / Do you mind if I go in...? C. Ex. 1. 1. turn... 2. to spell my...3. shut... 4. me to get you... 5. me to repeat my... 6. me to speak... 7. call back... 8. me to help you... 9. tell Mary that you... 10. me to translate... D. Ex. 1. 1. dont we go...? 2. go... 3. sitting... and resting... 4. like to spend... 5. dont we invite... 6. play... 7. dont we travel... 8. staying...and watching... 9. like to go... 10. dont we take...
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PART III
A. Ex. 1. 1. too / as well 2. but 3. either 4. also 5. either 6. but 7. too / as well 8. but 9. also 10. either Ex. 2a. 1. Mary can... and Carmen can..., too / Mary can... and so can Carmen 2. I eat... and the secreatry also eats... / I eat... and so does the secretary. 3. John walks... and I walk... as well / John walks... and so do I 4. She comes... and he comes... too / She comes...and so does he 5. John went... and Peter also went... / John went...and so did Peter. 6. He liked... and we liked... as well / He liked... and so did we 7. I watch... and my wife also watches... / I watch... and so does my wife 8. Mary likes... and the children also like... / Mary likes... and so do the children 9. I ate... and my friends also ate... / I ate... and so did my friends. 10. We will go... and they will also go... / Well go... and so will they. 11. My car is... and my wifes car is..., too. / My cars very old and so is my wifes (car)12. They were... and I was... as well / They were... and so was I 13. Mary should work... and you should work...too / Mary should work... and so should you. 14. They must pay and we must pay... as well. / They must pay... and so must we Ex. 2b. 1. Mary cant... and Carmen cant... either / Mary cant... and neither / nor can Carmen 2. I dont eat... and the secretary doesnt eat... either / I dont eat... and neither / nor does the secretary. 3. John doesnt walk... and I dont walk... either / John doesnt walk... and neither / nor do I 4. She doesnt come... and he doesnt come...either / She doesnt come...and neither / nor does he 5. John didnt go... and Peter didint go... / John didnt go...and neither / nor did Peter. 6. He didnt like... and we didnt like... either / He didnt like... and neither / nor did we 7. I dont watch... and my wife doesnt watch...either. / I dont watch... and neither / nor does my wife 8. Mary doesnt like... and the children dont like...either / Mary doesnt like... and neither / nor do the children 9. I diidnt eat... and my friends didnt eat...either / I didnt eat... and neither / nor did my friends. 10. We wont go... and they wont go...either / We wont go... and neither / nor will they. 11. My car isnt... and my wifes car isnt...either / My car isnt very old and neither / nor is my wifes (car) 12. They werent... and I wasnt... either / They werent... and neither / nor was I. 13. Mary shouldnt work... and you shouldnt work...either / Mary should work... and neither / nor should you. 14. They mustnt pay... and we mustnt pay... either / They must pay... and neither / nor must we

Ex. 3. 1. Mary can speak... but Carmen cant / Mary cant speak... but Carmen can 2. I eat...but the secretary doesnt / I dont eat... but the secretary does 3. John walks... but I dont. / John doesnt walk... but I do. 4. She comes... but he doesnt / She doesnt come... but he does. 5. John went... but Peter didnt / John didnt go... but Peter did. 6. He liked... but we didnt / He didnt like... but we did. 7. I watch... but my wife doesnt. / I dont watch... but my wife does. 8. Mary likes... but the children dont. / Mary doesnt like... but the children do. 9. I ate... but my friends didnt / I didnt eat... but my friends did. 10. Well go... but they wont. / We wont go... but they will. 11. My wifes car is... but my wifes car isnt / My car isnt... but my wifes car is. 12. They were... but I wasnt. / They werent... but I was. 13. Mary should work... but you shouldnt / Mary shouldnt work... but you should . 14. They must pay... but we mustnt / They mustnt pay... but we must B. Ex. 1. 1. He gave me the money 2. She brought me the book. 3 He sent me a letter 4. He told us the story 5. The teacher gave us some dictation 6. He sent his sister some candy. 7. He bought his wife some owers. 8. He gave his friend a ring. 9. They sent us an invitation. 10. John lent his friends some money 11. Will you lend me your pen? 12. He gave all of us some excellent advice Ex. 2. 1. He gave some books to me. 2. They gave some magazines to us. 3. He sent several letters to his mother. 4.They brought many presents to us from abroad.5. 1 gave the note which you sent to him. 6. Please give some dictation to us today.7. They sent an invitation to the party to us.8. Henry told the story of his trip to us.9. John gladly lent the money to me. 10. Please lend your pencil to me for a few minutes.11. They sent the material to us right away.12. Please hand that book to

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BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR STRUCTURES AND VOCABULARY

PART TWO

INTERMEDIATE LEVEL
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UNIT 12
PART I EL TIEMPO PRESENTE PERFECTO (THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE) INTRODUCCIN
Son TIEMPOS PERFECTOS todos los tiempos verbales compuestos por una forma del verbo modal o auxiliar HAVE (haber) ms un PARTICIPIO PASADO (3ra. forma) de un verbo principal. Como Ud. puede ver, ahora deber aprender la 3ra. forma o Participio Pasado de los verbos regulares e irregulares de uso ms frecuente. Recuerde que son VERBOS REGULARES todos aquellos verbos que forman el Pasado y el Pasado Participio agregando el sujo -d o -ed al innitivo del verbo. Ej. To work - worked - worked; To decide - decided - decided; To study - studied - studied. Son VERBOS IRREGULARES todos aquellos verbos que forman el Pasado y el Pasado Participio en forma diferente, y por lo tanto Ud. debe aprenderlos y memorizarlos. Curiosamente, la mayora de nuestras acciones o actividades cotidianas se expresan con verbos irregulares. Tambin es importante recordar aqu que el verbo HAVE en ingls y HABER en espaol tienen las siguientes formas en los tiempos presente, pasado y futuro:

Presente Ingls I have You have He has She has It has We have You have They have Espaol Yo he T has El ha Ella ha El / Ella ha Nos. hemos Uds. han Ellos han Ingls I had You had He had She had It had We had You had They had

Pasado Espaol Yo haba T habas El haba Ella haba El / Ella haba Nos. Habamos Uds. haban Ellos haban Ingls I will have You will have He will have She will have It will have We will have You will have They will have

Futuro Espaol Yo habr T habrs El habr Ella habr El / Ella habr Nos. habremos Uds. habrn Ellos habrn

Ejemplos:

I have seen = Yo he visto I had seen = Yo haba visto I will have seen = Yo habr visto

Mary has been = Mary ha estado Mary had been = Mary haba estado Mary will have been = Mary habr estado

They have worked = Ellos han trabajado They had worked = Ellos haban trabajado They will have worked = Ellos habrn trabajado

EL TIEMPO PRESENTE PERFECTO (THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE) El Presente Perfecto se forma con el presente del verbo modal HAVE (have /hv/ o HAS /h_ z/ ) ms el PASADO PARTICIPIO de un verbo principal. Recuerde que se pueden formar contracciones, como por ejemplo: Ive... /aiv/, Youve... /iu:v/, Hes... /h:z/, Shes /sh:z, etc. Escuche, lea y aprenda: I have seen that movie twice. /i hav s:n t mvi twis/ I ve been there before. /iv b:n ar bif:r/ Mary has written another novel. /mri haz rten aner nvel/ Peter s bought a new car. /p:tez b:t a ni: k:r/ We have nished our job. /w: hav fnisht uar dllb/ Theyve answered the letter. /iv :nserd e lter/ Yo he visto esa pelcula dos veces Yo he estado all antes. Mara ha escrito otra novela Peter ha comprado un auto nuevo Nosotros hemos terminado nuestro trabajo. Ellos han contestado la carta.
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El Presente Perfecto se usa en los siguientes casos: Para describir una accin que acaba de suceder. Es frecuente aqu el uso de la palabra JUST /dllst/ antes del pasado participio. Lea, escuche y aprenda: The train has just arrived. /e trin haz dllst arrivd/ El tren acaba de llegar Theyve just left. /iv dllst lft/ Ellos acaban de retirarse/irse Para referirse a una accin que ha ocurrido antes (BEFORE /bif:r/) o ltimamente (LATELY /litli/), sin especicar cundo exactamente ella ocurri. Lea, escuche y aprenda: I am sure that Ive seen that lm before. /im sh:r at iv s:n t flm bif:r/ Estoy seguro de que he visto esa pelcula antes She s been here lately. /shiz b:n har litli/ Ella ha estado aqu ltimamente Para indicar que la accin expresada por el verbo ha sido realizada varias veces a la fecha de hoy. Las expresiones de tiempo ms usadas en este caso son: once /wns/, twice /twis/, several times /svral tmiz/, many times /mni tmiz/, three or four times /r: or f:r tmiz/, etc. Lea, escuche y aprenda: Ive seen that documentary twice. /iv s:n at dokiumntri twis/ Yo he visto ese documental dos veces Weve been in New York several times. /w:v b:n in ni: i:rk svral tamiz/ Nosotros hemos estado en Nueva York varias veces Para referirse a una accin que comenz en el pasado y ha continuado hasta el da de hoy, hasta este momento. Las expresiones de tiempo ms usadas en este caso son SINCE /sns/ (desde) y FOR /for/ (por, durante). Mientras since va seguido de una fecha u hora, la palabra for va seguida de un perodo: since last Monday /sins l: st mndi/; since 1978 /ins nintin sventi it/, since 10:30 /sins tn :rti/; for 2 weeks /for t: w:ks/; for ten years /for tn yarz/. Lea, escuche y aprenda: Tom has worked here since 1992. /tm haz w:rkt har sins nintin ninti t:/ Tom ha trabajado aqu desde 1992 We have lived here for several years. /w: hav lvd har for svral yarz/ Hemos vivido aqui por varios aos Son frecuentes, tambien, las preguntas que comienzan con HAVE YOU EVER...? /hav i ver.../ Ha Ud... alguna vez...? Lea, escuche y aprenda: A: Have you ever drunk tequila? /hav i: ver drk tekla/ Has tomado tequila alguna vez? B: No, never /nu/nver/ No, nunca A: Have they ever visited you in the winter? /hv i ver vzitid i: in e wnter/ Te han visitado ellos alguna vez en el invierno? B. Yes, once. They visited me in the winter of 1995. /ys wns i vzitid mi in e wnter v nintin niti fiv/ S, una vez. Ellos me visitaron en el invierno de 1995 Tambin se debe usar el Presente Perfecto con las expresiones ALREADY / olrdi / (ya) y YET / yt / (an). Already siempre se usa en oraciones armativas; en las negaciones de debe usar yet. En las interrogaciones se puede usar indistintamente already o yet.

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Lea, escuche y aprenda: Ive already seen that movie. /iv olrdi s:n t m:vi/ Yo ya he visto esa pelcula. We havent had breakfast yet. /w: hvent hd brkfast yet/ No hemos tomado desayuno an. Has the train arrived already/yet? /haz e trin arrivd olrdi/ yet/Ha llegado ya el tren? En la forma negativa se usa la palabra NOT entre HAVE/HAS y el pasado participio del verbo principal. Generalmente se preere usar las contracciones HAVENT /hvnt/ HASNT /hznt/). En las interrogaciones se debe invertir el orden de have/has con el sujeto: Lea, escuche y aprenda: They have seen that documentary. /i hav s:n t dokiumntri/ Ellos han visto ese documental They havent seen that documentary. /i hvent s:n t dokiumntri/ Have they seen that documentary? /hav i s:n t dokiumntri/ How many times have they seen that documentary? /hu mni timz hav i s:n t dokiumntri/ Mary has sold her car. /mri haz suld he:r k:r/ Mary ha vendido su auto. Mary hasnt sold her car. /mri hznt suld he:r k:r/ Has Mary sold her car? /haz mri suld he:r k:r/ Why has Mary sold her car? /wi haz mri suld he:r k:r/ La pregunta habitual en este tiempo verbal es: What have you done? /wt hav i: dn/ Qu ha hecho Ud.? EXERCISES Ex. 1. Estudie el Pasado Participio de los siguientes verbos irregulares: Innitive To begin /bign/ To bring /bri/ To build /bild/ To buy /bi/ To come /kam/ To cut /kat/ To do /du:/ To drink /drik/ To drive /driv/ To eat /i:t/ To fall /fo:l/ To feel /:l/ To nd /find/ To forget /forgt/ To get /get/ To give /giv/ To go /gu/ To have /hv/ To hear /har/ To keep /ki:p/ To know /nu/ To learn /le:rn/ To leave /li:v/ To lend /lend/ To lose /l:z/ Past Tense began /bign/ brought /bro:t/ built /bilt/ bought /bo:t/ came /kim/ cut /kat/ did /did/ drank /drk/ drove /druv/ ate /eit/ fell /fel/ felt /felt/ found /fund/ forgot /forgt/ got /got/ gave /giv/ went /went/ Past Participle Spanish empezar, comenzar traer construir comprar venir cortar hacer beber manejar, conducir comer caer sentir(se) hallar, encontrar olvidar conseguir, obtener dar ir ir (y volver) tener, servirse, haber oir guardar, mantener saber, conocer aprender, enterarse partir, salir, dejar prestar perder, extraviar

begun /bign/ brought /bro:t/ built /bilt/ bought /bo:t/ come /kam/ cut /kat/ done /dan/ drunk /drak/ driven /drvn/ eaten /:tn/ fallen /f:len/ felt /felt/ found /fund/ forgotten /forgtn/ got/gotten /got /gtn/ given /gvn/ gone /gon/ been to /bi:n tu/ had /hd/ had /hd/ heard /h:rd/ heard /h:rd/ kept /kept/ kept /kept/ knew /ni:/ known /nun/ learnt /le:rnt/, learned /l:rnd/ learnt /le:rnt/ learned /l:rnd/ left /lft/ left /left/ lent /lent/ lent /lent/ lost /lost/ lost /lost/

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To make /meik/ To meet /mi:t/ To pay /pi/ To put /put/ To read /ri:d/ To run /ran/ To say /si/ To see /si:/ To sell /sel/ To send /send/ To shut /shat/ To sing /si/ To sit /sit/ To sleep /sli:p/ To speak /spi:k/ To spend /spnd/ To stand up /st nd ap/ To swim /swim/ To take /tik/ To teach /ti:tch/ To tell /tel/ To think /ik/ To understand /anderst nd/ To wear /war/ To write /rit/

made /mid/ met /met/ paid /pid/ put /put/ read /red/ ran /rn/ said /sed/ saw /so:/ sold /suld/ sent /snt/ shut /shat/ sang /s/ sat /st/ slept /slept/ spoke /spuk/ spent /spnt/ stood up /stu:d ap/ swam /swm/ took /tuk/ taught /to:t/ told /tuld/ thought /o:t/ understood /anderst:d/ wore /wo:r/ wrote /rout/

made /mid/ met /met/ paid /pid/ put /put/ read /red/ run /ran/ said /sed/ seen /si:n/ sold /suld/ sent /snt/ shut /shat/ sung /sa/ sat /st/ slept /slept/ spoken /spukn/ spent /spnt/ stood up /stu:d ap/ swum /swam/ taken /tikn/ taught /to:t/ told /tuld/ thought /o:t/ understood /anderst:d/ worn /wo:rn/ written /rtn/

hacer, fabricar, confeccionar reunirse,conocer pagar poner, colocar leer correr, administrar decir ver vender enviar cerrar cantar sentarse dormir hablar gastar, pasar tiempo pararse nadar tomar, llevar ensear decir pensar, creer entender, comprender usar (ropa), vestir escribir

Ex. 2. Complete las siguientes oraciones usando el verbo dado en el tiempo Presente Perfecto: 1. The tennis game just . Hurry up! (start) 2. Bill in Tokyo several times. He knows it well. (be) 3. Your train already , Sir. Youll have to take the 8:15 train which leaves from Victoria Station. (leave) 4. Im quite sure that I that woman before. (see) 5. My friends in this house for over 10 years. (live) 6. Peter just a letter. Hes reading it now. (receive) 7. He isnt in Chile. He to America. (go) 8. John for that company since 1987. (work) 9. Bob to San Francisco several times. He can tell you where to go and what to do there. (go) 10. The students already that book (read) 11. Mary to him about it twice already. (speak) 12. I that man before. I dont remember when, but Im sure I know him. (meet) Ex. 3. Cambie las siguientes oraciones a) al negativo y b) al interrogativo. 1. The soccer game has already nished. 2. Peter has had dinner already. 3. They have studied the report. 4. The plane has already left. 5. John has sent them a fax. 6. Theyve given her Toms new address.

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Ex. 4. Formule preguntas usando palabras interrogativas como What, Where, When, How, How long, etc. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Toms seen that same movie three times. Theyve bought a new house. Hes gone to bed because hes ill. Toms lived in Pakistan for over a year. Theyve sold ten books today. Pauls worked for our company since 1989. Ive eaten a ham sandwich. John has been in Chicago and Boston. Ann hasnt answered the letters because shes been too busy. The boys have done nothing today. Weve waited for them for more than two hours. The students have done the same exercise three times.

Ex. 5. Conteste las siguientes preguntas usando las expresiones dadas despus de cada pregunta: 1. Have you ever been to Japan? (never). 2. Has Maria ever visited the USA? (twice) 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Have they ever seen a UFO? (Never) Have you ever driven a Mercedes? (Once or twice) Has your father ever lived abroad? (several times) Have you seen the President in person? (never) Has Susan ever come to Chile? (a couple of times)

Yes, She In 1991 and in 1997 Yes, Yes, No,

Ex. 6. Traduzca las siguientes oraciones al ingls. 1. Yo no he ledo ese libro todava. 2. El General ya se ha ido a la reunin. 3. Ellos han estado aqu varias veces antes. 4. Has mirado televisin esta tarde, John? 5. Mi suegro ha vivido en esta ciudad toda su vida. 6. Qu te ha contado Mary acerca de ello? 7. Ellos han estudiado Ingls por ms de dos aos. 8. Por qu no han visitado California Uds. todava? 9. Cunto tiempo ha trabajado Ud. en el Ejrcito? 10. Dnde han estado ellos desde las ocho de esta maana?

PART II
A. PLURALIZATION OF NOUNS (LA PLURALIZACIN DE LOS SUSTANTIVOS) 1. En Ingls los sustantivos normalmente se pluralizan agregando una -s al singular. Este sujo se pronuncia /s/ cuando se agrega a los sustantivos singulares que terminan en una consonante sorda, es decir sin vibracin de las cuerdas vocales, como /k/, /p/, /t/, etc.; pero se debe pronunciar /z/ cuando se agrega a los sustantivos singulares que terminan en una consonante sonora, es decir con vibracin de las cuerdas vocales, como /m/, /b/, /d/, /g/, /l/, etc. Esta regla tambin se aplica a los sustantivos terminados en -e muda Ejemplos: one book /buk/ one hat /ht/ one dam /dm/ one pad /pd/ two books /buks/ six hats /hts/ two dams /dmz/ ten pads /pdz/ one top /top/ three tops /tops/

one bag /bg/ one club /klab/

three bags /bgz/ two clubs /klabz/


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one gate /git/ one note /nut/ one name /nim/ one tone /tun/

two gates /geits/ ten notes /nuts/ two names /nimz/ two tones /tunz/

one lake /lik/

several lakes /liks/

one cave /kiv/

two caves /kivz/

2. Los sustantivos que terminan en -s, -sh, -ch, -x, o -z forman el plural agregando -es /iz/ ; tambin se incluyen aqu los sustantivos terminados en -se, -ce, -ge, los que solamente agregan -s pero en este caso la pronunciacin tambien es /iz/ Ejemplos: One One One One bus /bs/ watch /wtch/ case /keis/ page /pidll/ two buses /bsiz/ three watches /wtchiz/ two cases /kisiz/ ten pages /pidlliz/ one brush /brash/ one box /boks/ one face /fis/ four brushes /brshiz/ ten boxes /bksiz/ three faces /fisiz/

3. Los sustantivos terminados en -y precedida por una vocal agregan -s para formar su plural, pero aquellas que terminan en -y precedida por una consonante cambian la -y por -i y enseguida agregan -es Ejemplos: one day /dei/ one key /ki:/ one boy /boi/ two days /deiz/ ve keys /ki:z/ three boys /boiz/ one lily /lli/ one baby /bibi/ one y /i/ three lilies /lliz/ two babies /bibiz/ several ies /iz/

4. Los sustantivos terminados en -f o -fe, forman su plural cambiando la -f o -fe en -ves. Ejemplos: one leaf /li:f/ one wolf /wulf/ one wife /waif/ two leaves /li:vz/ ve wolves /wulvz/ three wives /wivz/ one loaf /luf/ one knife /naf/ three loaves /luvz/ ten knives /nivz/

Algunos sustantivos terminados en -ief, -ff, -oof, no siguen la regla anterior, sino que simplemente agregan -s para formar el plural. Ejemplos: one handkerchief /hnke:rtchi:f/, two handkerchiefs /hnke:rtchi:fs/ a belief /bil:f/, several beliefs /bil:fs/ one cliff /klif/, some cliffs /klifs/ a roof /ru:f/, two roofs /ru:fs/

5. Los sustantivos terminados en -o precedida por una consonante normalmente agregan -es para formar el plural (excepto las palabras relacionadas con msica (generalmente de origen italiano) como, solo, piano, soprano, banjo , etc). Los sustantivos terminadas en -o precedida por una vocal normalmente agregan una -s Ejemplos: one tomato /tomitou/ one hero /harou/ one radio /ridiou/ one video /vdiou/ one studio /stdiou/ two tomatoes /tomitouz/ two heroes /harouz/ two radios /ridiouz/ three videos /vdiouz/ two studios /stdiouz/ one potato /potitou/ two potatoes /potitouz/

one folio /fuliou/ one zoo /zu:/

two folios /fuliouz/ several zoos /zu:z/

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Excepciones one piano /pianou/ one kilo /klou/ one photo /futou/ two pianos /pianouz/ two kilos /klouz/ several photos /futouz/ one banjo /b ndllou/ one memo /mmou/ two banjos /b ndllouz/ three memos /mmouz/

Los sustantivos mosquito /moskitou/, tornado / to:rnidou /, volcano / volkinou / y zero / zarou / forman el plural agregando indistintamente -s o -es,: mosquitos/mosquitoes /moskitouz/ ; tornados/tornadoes /to:rnidouz/ ; volcanos/volcanoes /volkinouz/ ; zeros/zeroes /zarouz/ 6. Existen algunos plurales irregulares que no siguen ninguna de las reglas anteriores y que debemos memorizar: Ejemplos: one one one one one one one one one man /mn/ woman /wman/ child /tchild/ tooth /tu:/ foot / fu:t / goose /gu:z/ louse /lus/ mouse /mus/ ox /oks/ two men /men/ three women /wmin/ ve several children /tchldren/ two teeth /t:/ two feet /:t/ ten geese /g:z/ several lice /lis/ three mice /mis/ four oxen /ksen/

7. Existen algunos sustantivos que mantienen la misma forma en el plural: Ejemplos: one/several sh /sh/ one/two series /siariz/ one/several aircraft /arkr:ft/ one/ten deer /dar/ one/ten sheep /shi:p/ one/several means /m:nz/ one/two species /spshiz/

8. Existen algunos sustantivos de origen latn o griego que tienen plurales especiales o irregulares: Ejemplos: criterion /kraitrion/ analysis /an lisis/ crisis /krisis/ oasis /ouisis/ thesis /:sis/ curriculum
/karkiulam/

medium /m:diam/ stimulus /stmiulas/ cactus /k ktas/ syllabus /slabas/ formula /f :rmiula/ vertebra /vrtibra/ appendix /apndiks/ index /ndeks/

criteria /kraitaria/ analyses /an lisi:z/ crises /krisi:z/ oases /ouisiz/ theses /:siz/ curricula /karkiula/ media /m:dia/ stimuli /stmiulai/ cacti /k ktai/ syllabi /slabai/ formulae /f :rmiuli:/ vertebrae /vrtibri:/ appendices /apndisi:z/ indices /indisi:z/

phenomenon /fenmenon/ basis /bisis/ hypothesis /haipesis/ parenthesis /parnesis/ bacterium /bkt:ariam/ datum /ditam/ memorandum /memor dam/ cactuses /k ktasi:z/ syllabuses /slabasiz/ formulas /f :rmiulaz/ appendixes /apndiksi:z/ indexes /ndeksiz/

phenomena /fenmena/ bases /bisi:z/ hypotheses /haipesi:z/ parentheses /parnesi:z/ bacteria /bkta:ria/ data /dita/ memoranda /memorda/

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B. USE OF INFINITIVES AND GERUNDS. (Uso de los innitivos y los gerundios) Se denomina Innitivo a la palabra To + la forma simple de un verbo principal: to go, to speak, to write, etc. El gerundio es la forma simple de un verbo principal + el sujo -ING: going, speaking, writing. (ver reglas dadas en la Unit 4) Un gerundio puede actuar como: a) b) c) d) Sujeto de una oracin: Complemento directo de un verbo: Complemento de una preposicin: Adjetivo: Playing tennis is fun. I enjoy playing tennis. After playing tennis, they went to the library. I heard some surprising news.

Adems, como ud. seguramente recordar, el gerundio (en este caso el presente participio) se usa con el verbo TO BE para expresar los tiempos continuos o progresivos: I am playing tennis now, I was playing tennis at this time yesterday, etc. Existen algunos verbos que van seguidos normalmente por un GERUNDIO, como To enjoy (I enjoy reading) y otros verbos que normalmente van seguidos de TO + INFINITIVO, como To want (I want to read the newspaper), o de un BARE INFINITIVE (innitivo sin To), como To make (He made us do the exercise again). Tambin existe un grupo de verbos que pueden ir seguidos indistinatamente de TO + INFINITIVO o de un GERUNDIO (I like to swim / I like swimming). 1. VERB + GERUND Los siguientes verbos van normalmente seguidos de un gerundio:
To To To To To To To To To To admit /admit/ admitir, aceptar como cierto avoid /avid/ evitar consider /konsder/ considerar, pensar en delay /dili/ retrasar deny /dini/ negar, no aceptar como cierto enjoy /endlli/ disfrutar, gustar fancy /f(nsi/ agradar, gustar nish /fnish/ terminar imagine /imdllin/ imaginar(se) involve /invulv/ involucrar, comprender To To To To To To To To To keep /k:p/ mantener(se), continuar, seguir mind /mind/ importar, molestar miss /mis/ echar de menos, recordar con nostalgia postpone /pospun/ postergar appreciate /prishieit/ agradecer risk /risk/ arriesgar, correr el riesgo de quit /kuit/ dejar, salir, abandonar suggest /sadllst/ sugerir practise /prktis/ practicar

Ejemplos: Would you mind closing the door? I enjoy walking in the park in the morning. Ann will soon nish typing the letter. El verbo TO GO va seguido de un gerundio en expresiones que se reeren a actividades deportivas como las siguientes:
To To To To To To To To To To go go go go go go go go go go boating /gu buti/ ir a andar en bote bowling /gu buli/ ir a jugar a los bolos camping /gu kmpi/ ir a acampar dancing /gu dnsi/ ir a bailar shing /gu fshi/ ir a pescar hang gliding /gu hnd glidi/ ir a planear (delta) hiking /gu hiki/ ir a excursionar jogging /gu dllgi/ ir a trotar running /gu rni/ ir a correr sailing /gu sili/ ir a andar en yate To To To To To To To To To go go go go go go go go go shopping /gu shpi/ ir de compras sightseeing /gu sits:i/ ir en un tour skating /gu skiti/ ir a patinar skiing /gu sk:i/ ir a esquiar skydiving /gu skidivi/ ir a hacer salto libre swimming /gu swmi/ ir a nadar trekking /gu trki/ ir de excursin water-skiing /gu w:tersk:i/ ir a esquiar (acuat.) window-shopping /gu wndow shpi/ ir a vitrinear

Ejemplos:

I usually go jogging in the evening. Mrs Brown goes shopping every Saturday morning. They went sightseeing in the morning.

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Todas las preposiciones (excepto la preposicin to) van seguidas de un gerundio. Por lo tanto, las siguientes expresiones van seguidas de un gerundio: Hay algunas expresiones idiomticas que a pesar de contener la preposicin to van seguidas de un gerundio
To To To To To To To To To To To To To To To To To To To To To To To accuse someone of /aki:z smwane v/ apologize for /aplodlliz for/ be accustomed to /b: akstomd tu/ be afraid of /b: afrid v/ be capable of /b: kipabl v/ be fond of /b: fond v/ be tired of /b: tiard v/ be used to /b: iu:st tu/ carry on /k ri on/ dream of/about /dr:m v, abut/ feel like /f:l lik/ forgive somebody for /forgv smbodi for/ get through /get ru:/ get used to /get iu:st tu/ give up /giv p/ go on /gou n/ insist on /insst n/ keep on /k:p n/ look forward to /luk frward tu/ prevent somebody from /privnt smbodi from/ put off /put f/ succeed in /saks:d in/ talk about /to:k abut/ acusar a alguien de disculparse por estar acostumbrado a tener miedo a ser capaz de ser acionado a estar cansado de estar acostumbrado a continuar, seguir, mantenerse soar con, soar que sentir o tener ganas de perdonar a alguien por terminar acostumbrarse a dejar de, rendirse continuar, seguir insistir en continuar, seguir, mantenerse esperar con ansia, desear evitar o impedir que alguien postergar, dejar para ms tarde o despus lograr exitosamente conversar, discutir

Ejemplos: Johns given up smoking at last. They kept on talking for hours. Ann is fond of gardening. I look forward to seeing you soon. Bob will soon get used to living in this country. Las siguientes expresiones idiomticas tambin van seguidas de un gerundio:
Theres no use /eaz nu iu:s/ No vale la pena. Its no use /its nu iu:s/ Theres not much point in /eaz nt match pint in/ No sirve de mucho Is this... worth /iz is...we:r/ Vale la pena...esta/e...? Is it worthwhile /iz it we:rwail/ Vale la pena...?) Theres no use waiting any longer. Es inutil Its no use insisting Theres not much point in doing that. Is this book worth reading? Is it worthwhile going there now?

EXERCISES Ex. 1. Use the correct preposition in the blank space and the gerund of the verbs in parentheses. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. He left the house The girl washed the apple Bob left the restaurant 1 can increase my salary Were thinking He put on his coat good bye. (say) it. (eat) the check. (pay) overtime. (work) a trip to Europe. (take) the house. (leave) to bed, the old woman locked all the doors. (go)

Ex. 2. Supply the gerund form of the verb in parentheses 1. 2. 3. 4. Would you mind Theyve stopped Have you fnished Were considering (wait) a few minutes? (speak) to each other. (read) the book yet? (take) a new course.
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5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

The boys nished 1 dislike They cant risk The driver couldnt avoid 1 dont mind 1 aIways enjoy

(eat) his supper. (ride) on the subway. (be) seen. (hit) the pedestrian. (have) to work till late on Fridays. (visit) new places.

Ex. 3. Complete each sentence with one of these verbs: answer 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. apply be be listen make see try use wash work write

He tried to avoid answering my question. Could you please stop so much noise? I enjoy to music. I considered for the job but in the end I decided against it. Have you nished your hair yet? If you walk nto the road without looking, you risk knocked down by a passing car. Jim is 65 but he isnt going to retire yet. He wants to carry on . I dont mind you the phone as long as you pay for all your calls. Hello! Fancy you here! What a surprise! Ive put off the letter so many times. I really must do it today. What a stupid thing to do! Can you imagine anybody so stupid? Sarah gave up to nd a job in this country and decided to go abroad.

Ex. 4. Complete the sentences for each situation using -ing. 1. Ann: What shall we do? Bob suggested going to the cinema. 2. Ann: Do you want to play tennis Bob didnt fancy 3. Ann: You were driving so fast! Bob admitted. 4. Ann: Why dont we go for a swim? Ann suggested 5. Ann: You broke into the shop. Bob denied 6. Ann: Can you wait a few minutes? Bob didnt mind Bob: We could go the cinema.

Bob: No, not really.

Bob: Yes, its true. Sorry!

Bob: Good idea! Bob: No, 1 didnt!

Bob: Sure, no problem.

Ex. 5. Complete the sentences so that they mean the same as the rst sentence. Use -ING. 1. I can do what I want and you cant stop me. You cant stop me doing what I want. 2. Its not a good. idea to travel during the rush hour. Its better to avoid 3. Shall we go away tomorrow instead of today? Shall we postpone

until.

4. The driver of the car said it was true that he didnt have a licence. The driver of the car admitted

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5. Could you turn the radio down, please? Would you mind 6. Please dont interrupt me all the time. Would you mind Ex. 6. Use your own ideas to complete these sentences. Use gerunds. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Shes a very interesting person. I aIways enjoy talking to her. lm not feeling very well. I dont fancy lm afraid there arent any more chairs. I hope you don`t mind It was a lovely day, so I suggested It was very funny. I couldnt stop My car isnt very reliable. It keeps

Ex. 7. Supply the correct preposition and the gerund form of the verb in parentheses: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Mary is very fond John insisted Henry needs much more practice We look forward The seat belt prevented me There is little chance lts a question We are thinking Bob has very little experience John got tired Bill has no intention Theres no possibility in the river (swim) to the stadium with us. (go) (speak) you soon. (see) my head against the windshield. (hit) her again. (see) it at once. (do) French. (study) trucks. (drive) for us. (wait) part in the game. (take) the work today. (nish)

Ex. 8. Join the following pairs of sentences by using INSTEAD OF /instd ov/ (en vez de) 1. I will play tennis. I wont work in the garden today I will play tennis instead of working in the garden today. 2. She will study music. She wont go to the university.

3. They will stay home this summer. They wont go abroad. 4. Were going to the movie tonight. We will not visit the Smiths. 5. John will study to be an engineer. He will not work in his fathers store.

6. He will live in a dormitory. He will not stay at the home of his cousin.

7. He will marry Helen. He will not remain a bachelor. 8. They will y to Mexico. They will not drive in their new car.

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Ex. 9. Complete the sentences by using GERUNDS. Add a preposition after the gerund, if necessary. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. It was cold and rainy yesterday, so we postponed going to/visiting the botanical gardens. The Porters house is too small. Theyre considering We discussed Colorado for our vacation. When Martha nished the oor, she dusted the furniture. Sometimes students put off. their homework. We had a blizzard, yesterday, but it nally stopped around 10 p.m. I quit comic books when I was twelve years old. Im thinking about a biology course next semester. Beth doesnt like her job. Shes talking about a different job. I enjoy sports. Im considering New York City. A: Are you listening to me? B: Yes. Keep . Im listening to you. A: Do you want to take a break? B: No. Im not tired yet. Lets keep on hour or so. 14. A: Would you mind the window? B: Not at all. Id be glad to.

for another

Ex. 10. Complete the sentences in the dialogues. Use the expressions in the list or your own words. Be sure to use a gerund in each sentence. buy a new car do things go to the zoo on Saturday rain repeat that help him do my homework get a Toyota try read a good book smoke tap your ngernails on the table

1. A: Would you like to go for a walk? B: Has it stopped raining? A: Yes, it has. B: Lets go, then. 2. A: Ive been having a lot of trouble with my old Honda the last couple of months. lts slowly falling apart. Im thinking about B: Do you think youll get another Honda? A: No. Im considering 3. A: What do you usually do in your free time in the evening? B: I enjoy 4. A: Good, news! I feel great. I dont cough any more, and I dont run out of breath when I walk up a hill. B: Oh? A: I quit B: Thats wonderful! 5. A: Ive been working on this math problem for the last half hour, and 1 still dont understand it. B: Well,. dont give up. Keep lf at rst you don`t succeed, try, try again. 6. A: Are you a procrastinator? B: A what? A: A procrastinator. Thats someone who always postpones B: Oh. Well, sometimes I put off 7. A: What are you doing? B: Im helping Teddy with his homework. A: When you nsh B: Sure. 8. A: Could you please stop doing that? B: Doing what? A: Stop
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could you he1p me in the kitchen?

Its driving me crazy.

9. A: Do you have any plans for this weekend? B: Henry and I talked about 10. A: I didnt understand what you said. Would you mind B: Of course not. I said, Three free trees. Ex. 11. Answer the questions. Use the expressions GO +...ING 1. My sister goes to the beach almost every day. She spends hours in the water. What does she like to do? She likes to go swimming 2. Frank and his girlfriend like to spend the whole day on a lake with poles in their hands. What do they like to do? hey like 3. Last summer John went to Paine National Park. He slept in a tent and cooked his food over a re. What did he do last summer? He 4. Mr. Johnson likes to go to the Shopping Mall and buy things. What does he like to do? He likes 5. Mr. Smiths wife takes good care of her health. She runs a couple of miles every day. What does she do every day? She 6. On weekends in the winter, the Smiths sometimes go to a mountain resort. They like to race down the side of a mountain in the snow. What do they like to do? They 7. Jim Clark is a nature lover. He usually takes long walks in the woods. What does Joe like to do? He 8. Barbarta prefers indoor sports. She goes to a place where she rolls a thirteen-pound ball at some wooden pins. What does Sara often do? She 9. George and Jane know all the latest dances. What do they probably do a lot? They 10. The Taylors are going to go to a little lake near their house tomorrow. Its winter now, so the lake is completely frozen. The ice is smooth. What are the Taylors going to do tomorrow? They 11. Jim and his wife live near the sea. When theres a strong wind, they like to spend the day n their yatch. What do they like to do? They 12. Tourists often get on buses that take them to see interesting places in an area. What do they do on buses? They 13. Colette and Ben like to jump out of airplanes. They dont open their parachutes until the last minute. What do they like to do? They . 14. What do you like to do for exercise and fun? I ?

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BASIC VOCABULARY: A. PREPOSITIONS AND PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES English about / but/ above / bv/ across / krs/ after /:fter/ against /eginst/ along / l/ among / m/ around / rund/ at / t/ at the back of / t bk v/ at the bottom of / t btom v/ at the top of / t top v/ before /bif.r/ behind /bihind/ below /bilu/ beneath /bin:/ beside /bisid/ besides /bisidz/ between /bitu:n/ beyond /biynd/ by /bai/ despite /dispit/ down /dun/ during /diri/ far from /f:r from/ for /fo:r/ from /from/ in /in/ in front of /in frnt v/ in the corner of /in krner v/ inside /insid/ into /ntu/ near /niar/ next to /nkst tu/ of / v/ off /of/ on /on/ onto /ntu/ opposite /posit/ out /ut/ out of /ut v/ outside /autsid/ over /uver/ since /sins/ through /ru:/ till /til/ to /tu/ towards /tuw:rdz/ under /nder/ until /antl/ up /ap/ with /wi/ within /wiin/ without /wiut/
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Spanish acerca de ms arriba de a travs de (de un lado al otro) despus de en contra de a lo largo de entre (varios) alrededor de en, a en la parte posterior de en la parte inferior de en la parte superior de antes de detrs de ms abajo de ms abajo de al lado de adems de entre (dos) ms all de por, cerca de a pesar de hacia abajo durante lejos de para desde, de en al frente de en la esquina de dentro de hacia adentro cerca de prximo a de lejos de encima de (sobre) hacia encima de frente a afuera hacia afuera fuera de sobre desde a travs de hasta a, hacia hacia, en direccin a debajo de hasta hacia arriba de con dentro de sin

Example about the history of the USA above the clouds across the street after the lesson against the enemy along the coast among all the girls around the house at home, at 4.15 at the back of the room at the bottom of the map at the top of the shelf before the lesson behind the door below the carpet beneath the ground beside the table besides John Clark between you and me beyond the hill by the river despite the noise down the coast during the day far from London for the students from the USA in the garden in front of the school in the corner of the room inside the classroom into the room near the hospital next to the supermarket of the week off the coast on the desk onto the table opposite the bank out in the street out of the room outside the ofce over the roof since that day through the tunnel till tomorrow to the ofce towards the east under the table until next Sunday up the road with my friends within a week without money

B. Connectors Coordinating conjunctions: and /nd/ or /o:r/ so /sou / for /f:r/ not /not/ y o por lo tanto porque, debido a que no both...and... /bu...and/ either...or /:er...o:r/ neither...nor /n:er...no:r/ not only...but also /nt unli...but lsou/ yet /it/ tanto...como... ya sea... o... ni...ni... no slo...sino que tambin... sin embargo, no obstante

Adverbial connectives: accordingly /ak:rdili/ actually / ktchuali/ although /lou/ anyway /niwei/ besides /bisidz/ consequently /knsekwentli/ despite /dispit/ equally /kwali / nally /finali/ rst /f:rst/ furthermore /frerm:r/ hence /hns/ however /hauver/ indeed /ind:d/ initially /inshiali/ en conformidad last(ly) /l:stli/ en realidad likewise /likwaiz/ an cuando, aunque, a pesar de meanwhile /m:nwail/ de todos modos moreover /m:rouver/ adems nevertheless /nverels/ en consecuencia, next /nkst/ a pesar de, no obstante nonetheless /naneles/ igualmente otherwise /erwaiz/ nalmente, por n similarly /smilarli/ en primer lugar, primeramente so /su/ adems subsequently /sbsikwentli/ de aqu que, por lo tanto then /en/ sin embargo, no obstante therefore /arfo:r/ en efecto, por cierto thus /as/ inicialmente, al comienzo instead /instd/ en ltimo trmino del mismo modo, as mismo mientras tanto adems, por otra parte sin embargo, no obstante despus, enseguida, acto seguido sin embargo, no obstante ello de otro modo, de lo contrario similarmente, del mismo modo por lo tanto, en consecuencia posteriormente, con posterioridad por lo tanto, entonces, pues por lo tanto, por consiguiente as, de este modo en cambio, en lugar de eso

Phrasal adverbial connectives after all /:fter :l/ as a consequence /az knsikwens/ kt/ as a matter of fact /az mter ov f as a result /az rizlt/ even so /:vn su/ rst of all /f:rst v :l/ for example /for igzmpl/ for instance /for nstans/ for one thing /for wan i/ for that reason /for t r:zn/ Examples: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Peter and Tom went to visit Hans in hospital. Both Peter and Tom went to see Hans in hospital. He studied hard as well, but he didnt do well in the test. He didnt study hard enough, so he failed the exam. Alice studied very hard, yet she didnt pass her exam. Hes my best friend; besides, weve known each other all our lives. He gave her a beautiful diamond; moreover, he took her to Europe. The yard is too big; furthermore, we cant afford the house. The student speaks English well; in addition, he seems to know a lot about our customs. Im getting along quite well; however, my roommate is not doing so well. Mary was sick; nevertheless, she came to class. Its cold outside; nonetheless, we have to wash the car. On one hand, the house is not very comfortable; on the other hand, it has an excellent location First, he went to the post ofce; then, he went to the bank. despus de todo como resultado de ello en realidad, como resultado de ello an as en primer trmino por ejemplo por ejemplo en primer lugar por ese motivo in fact /in fkt/ de hecho, en realidad in addition /in adshon/ adems in spite of that /in spit v t/ a pesar de ello in the rst place /in f:rst plis/ en primer lugar in the meantime /in m:ntaim/ mientras tanto in the same way /in seim wi/ del mismo modo on one hand / n wan h nd/ por un lado on the other hand / n i r h nd/ por otro lado to begin with /tu bign wi/ para comenzar to start with /tu st:rt wi/ para comenzar

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Key to answers

UNIT 12
A. Ex. 2. 1. has - started 2. has been 3. has- left 4. have seen 5. have lived 6. has - received 7. has gone 8. has worked 9. has - been 10. have - read 11. has spoken 12. have met Ex. 3. 1. The soccer game hasnt nished yet / Has the soccer game nished already / yet? 2. Peter hasnt had dinner yet / Has Peter had dinner already / yet? 3. They havent studied the report / Have they studied the report? 4. The plane hasnt left yet / Has the plane left already / yet? 5. John hasnt sent them a fax / Has John sent them a fax? 6. They havent given her... / Have they given her...? Ex. 4. 1. How many times has Tom seen that same movie? 2. What have they bought? 3. Why has he gone to bed? 4. How long has Tom lived in Pakistn? 5. How many books have they sold today? 6. How long has Paul worked for our company? 7. What have you eaten? 8. Where has John been? 9. Why hasnt Ann answered the letters? 10. What have the boys done today? 11. How long have we / you waited for them? 12. How many times have the students done the same exercise? Ex. 5. 1. No, Ive never been there 2.Yes, shes been there twice. 3. No, theyve never seen one 4. Yes, Ive driven one once or twice. 5. Yes, hes lived abroad several times 6. No, Ive never seen him in person. 7. Yes, shes come here a couple of times. Ex. 6. 1. I havent read that book yet. 2. The general has already gone to the meeting. 3. Theyve been here several times before. 4. Have you watched TV this afternoon / evening, John? 5. My father-in-law has lived in this city all his life. 6. What has Mary told you about that? 7. Theyve studied English for more than two years. 8. Why havent you visited California yet? 9. How long have you worked in the army? 10. Where have they been since eight oclock this morning? B. Ex.1 1. without / after saying 2. before eating 3. without / after paying 4. by working 5. about taking 6. before leaving 7. before going Ex. 2. 1. waiting 2. speaking 3. reading 4. taking 5. eating 6. riding 7. being 8. hitting 9. having 10. visiting Ex. 3. 2. making 3. listening 4. applying 5. washing 6. being 7. working 8. using 9. seeing 10. answering 11. being 12. trying Ex. 4. 2. playing tennis 3. Driving / having been driving too fast 4. going for a swim 5. Breaking / having broken 6. waiting a few minutes. Ex. 5. travelling during the rush hour 3. going away... tomorrow 4. not having a license 5. turning the radio down, please? 6. not interrupting me all the time? Ex. 6. (Possible answers) 2. going out this evening 3. standing up 4. going out for a walk 5. laughing 6. breaking down Ex. 7. 1. of swimming 2. on going 3. in speaking 4. to seeing 5. from hitting 6. of seeing 7. of doing 8. about studying 9. of driving 10. of waiting 11. of taking 12. of nishing Ex. 8. 2....instead of going to the university 3.... instead of going abroad 4... instead of visiting the Smiths 5....instead of working in his fathers store 6....instead of staying at the home of his cousin 7.... instead of remaining a bachelor 8....instead of driving in their new car Ex. 9. (Possible answers) 2. moving into a larger house 3. going to 4. vacuuming 5. doing 6. snowing 7. buying 8. taking 9. looking for 10. practising 11. visiting 12. speaking 13. working 14. closing
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Ex. 10. 2. buying a new car / getting a Toyota 3. reading a good book 4. smoking 5. trying 6. doing things / doing his homework 7. helping him 8. tapping your ngernails on the table 9. going to the zoo on Saturday 10. repeating that Ex. 11. 2. to go water-skiing 3. went camping 4. to go shopping 5. goes jogging 6. like to go skiing 7. likes trekking 8. goes bowling 9. go dancing 10. are going to go ice-skating 11. like to go sailing 12. go sight-seeing 13. like to go sky-diving 14. like to go (shing / window-shopping / swimming, etc.

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UNIT 13
PART 1. EL TIEMPO PRESENTE PERFECTO CONTINUO (THE PRESENT PERFECCT CONTINUOUS)
Este tiempo verbal est formado por el presente perfecto de To Be (HAVE BEEN /hav b:n/ HAS BEEN /haz b:n/) ms un GERUNDIO de un verbo principal. Este tiempo verbal describe una accin que comenz en el pasado y ha continuado realizndose en forma ininterrumpida hasta este momento, hasta esta fecha. Normalmente este tiempo describe acciones que se empezaron a realizar hace poco tiempo. Lea, escuche y aprenda: Tom has been working there since 8:30 /tm haz b:n w:rki ar sins it :rti/. Tom ha estado trabajando ah desde las 8.30. They have been living in Miami since 1985. /i hav b:n lvi in maimi sins nintin iti fiv/ Ellos han estado viviendo en Miami desde 1985. Weve been studying English for over two months. /w:v b:n stdii iglish for uver t: mns/ Nosotros hemos estado estudiando ingls por ms de dos meses. Its been raining for about an hour. /its b:n rini for abut an uar/. Ha estado lloviendo cerca de una hora Compare: Hes worked there for many years. /hi:z w:rkt ar for mni yarz/ El ha trabajado all por muchos aos Hes been working there for about 2 hours. /hi:z b:n wrki ar for abut t: uarz/. El ha estado trabajando all aprox. 2 horas They ve lived in the South ever since they got married. /iv lvd in e su ver sins i gt mrid/ Ellos han vivido en el sur desde que se casaron Theyve been living in that house for at least two months. /iv bi:n lvi in e su for at l:st t mns/ Ellos han estado viviendo en esa casa por lo menos 2 meses. La forma negativa se expresa usando HAVENT BEEN /hvnt b:n/ HASNT BEEN /hznt b:n/ ms el GERUNDIO y en la forma interrogativa de debe usar HAVE/HAS delante del sujeto de la oracin. Lea, escuche y aprenda: Tom hasnt been working there for more than 2 hours. /tm /hznt b:n w:rki ar for m:ar an t: uarz/ Tom no ha estado trabajando all por ms de dos horas Have they been living there very long? /hav ei b:n lvi ar vri l/ Han estado ellos viviendo all mucho tiempo? How long have you been practising English today? /hu lo hav i: bi:n prktisi glish tudi/ Cunto tiempo has estado practicando ingls hoy da? La pregunta ms habitual en este tiempo es: WHAT HAVE YOU BEEN DOING? /wt av iu: bi:n d:i/ Qu ha estado haciendo Ud.? EXERCISES Ex. 1. Complete the following sentences using the verb provided in the Present Perfect Continuous Tense. 1. 2. 3. 4. Tom They That man The cadets here for several months (live) . in the ofce for several hours. (work) there for about 2 hours. (sit) at attention for about 15 minutes. (stand)
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5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

I Jack and Mary The commander Miss Black The ofcers The generals

for the bus for more than 10 minutes (wait) in the park for nearly an hour. (run) the report all evening. (read) her new novel since April. (write) in the gym for about 45 minutes. (work out) the situation all morning. (discuss)

Ex. 2. Change the following sentences into a) negative, and b) interrogative. 1. Hes been living in Caracas since 1995. 2. Theyve been playing tennis since midday. 3. Janes been feeling well since March. 4. Theyve been discussing the new project too long. 5. Bobs been swimming all morning.

Ex. 3. Ask questions using question words like What, Where, When, How long, etc. 1. Henrys been reading the newspaper all morning. ? 2. Bills been sleeping all morning. ? 3. Theyve been staying at the Rex Hotel. ? 4. Theyve been saving money because theyre planning to buy a house. ? 5. My friends have been living in Madrid since December 2002 ? 6. The boys been listening to the radio since 7 oclock. ? 7. Theyve been waiting for a taxi for about 15 minutes. ?

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PART II. USE OF INFINITIVES AND GERUNDS. (II)


A. VERB + TO-INFINITIVE Ciertos verbos como TO WANT /wont/ querer, TO DECIDE /disid/ decidir, TO WISH /wish/ desear, TO PLAN /pln/ planear, pensar, etc. van seguidos por to+Innitive Los siguientes verbos van seguidos de to+innitive:
To To To To To To To To To To agree /agr:/ afford /af:rd/ aim /im/ arrange /arrindll/ ask /a:sk/ attempt /atmpt/ claim /klim/ decide /disid/ deserve /dis:rv/ fail /fil/ Acordar Disponer (dinero o tiempo) Aspirar Convenir Solicitar Intentar Reclamar, armar autora Decidir Merecer No conseguir, no lograr Olvidar To To To To To To To To To To To hope /houp/ learn /l:rn/ manage /m nidll/ mean /mi:n/ offer /fer/ plan /pln/ pretend /pritnd/ promise /prmis/ refuse /re:z/ threaten /rten/ want /wont/ Esperar (desear) Aprender Conseguir (lograr) Tener intencin de, querer decir Ofrecer(se) Planicar Fingir, simular Prometer Rehusar, negarse a Amenazar. Querer (necesitar)

To forget /forgt/

Ejemplos: Sam was in a difcult situation, so I agreed to lend him some money. I cant afford to buy a Honda car. We aim to increase our exports to Europe. The man attempted to escape from the prison twice. Peter wants to study engeneering. The boy doesnt want to do his homework now. I promise to help you. She promised not to be late. The woman pretends to know everything. Existen algunas variantes de la estructura presentada anteriormente, que son las siguientes: 1. Verb + to be + adjective Esta estructura es muy comn con los siguientes verbos: TO APPEAR /apar/ aparecer, verse, TO PRETEND /pritnd/ ngir, simular, TO SEEM /si:m/ parecer, TO TEND /tend/ tender a They seem to be very annoyed. The students tend to be negligent. 2. Verb + to be +Gerund (Continuous Innitive) Los verbos TO APPEAR /apar/ aparecer, verse, TO PRETEND /pritnd/ ngir, simular, TO SEEM /si:m/ parecer, TO TEND /tend/ tender a, tambien pueden ir seguidos de TO BE + Gerund: Mary appeared to be suffering too much. They seem to be doing well now. He pretended to be reading the paper.

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3. Verb + to have + Past Participle Perfect Innitive) Hay algunos verbos que pueden ir seguidos de TO HAVE + un Pasado Participio: They seem to have been doing well so far. (so far = hasta ahora) Bob seems to have lost weight. The IRA claimed to have planted the bomb in the car. 4. Verb + Wh... + to-Innitive Despus de los verbos TO ASK /a:sk/ solicitar, pedir, TO DECIDE /disid/ decidir, TO KNOW /nu/, saber, TO UNDERSTAND /anderstnd/ entender, se puede usar una palabra interrogativa seguida de to+innitivo We asked how to get to the station Have you decided where to go for your holidays? I dont know whether to apply for the job or not. Do you understand what to do? 5. Verb + Somebody+ wh + to-innitive Los verbos TO SHOW /shu/, mostrar, TO TELL /tel/ decir, TO ASK /a:sk/ pedir, solicitar, TO ADVISE /adviz/ aconsejar y TO TEACH /ti:tch/ ensear, pueden ir seguidos por un complemento indirecto (Peter,Mary, the student, me, him, them, etc) + una palabra interrogativa (what, where, when, etc.) + un to-innitive Can someone show me how to change the lm in this camera? I told them what to do and where to go in London. Bob taught us how to use the computer. 6. Verb + (somebody) + to-innitive Los siguientes verbos pueden ir seguidos por a) un to-Innitive o por b) un Complemento Indirecto + to-Ininitive. A To want /wont/ querer To ask /a:sk/ pedir To expect /ikspkt/ esperar To beg /beg/ rogar To mean /mi:n/ tener la intencin de I would like /wud laik/ me gustara. I would prefer /wud prif :r/ preferira I would love /wud lav/ me encantara I would hate /wud hit/ me desagradara. B. VERB + BARE INFINITIVE Los verbos TO MAKE /meik/ hacer, obligar y TO LET /let/ permitir, dejar van seguidos de un BARE INFINITIVO (Innitive sin TO) en la siguiente estructura: TO MAKE / TO LET + Somebody + bare innitive You make me feel happy. (No se debe decir, You make me TO feel happy) T me haces sentir feliz The customs ofcer made Sally open her suitcase. El ocial de aduana hizo a Alice abrir su maleta. Hot weather makes me feel tired. El tiempo caluroso me hace sentir cansado. Her parents wouldnt let her go out alone. Sus padres no le permitiran a ella salir sola. Let me carry your bag for you, madam. Permtame llevarle su bolso, seora Please let me go out. Por favor, djeme salir I want to go there. He asked to take part. We expect to be there soon. I begged to see the photos. They dont mean to do it now. I would like to go. Id prefer to do it now. Id love to go to the club. Id hate to do that here. B I want you to go there He asked us to take part. We expect you to be there soon. I begged them to see the photos. I dont mean you to do it now. Id like you to go Id prefer them to do it now Id love you to go to the club. Id hate the boys to do it here.

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C. VERBO + GERUND o BARE INFINITIVE Los verbos de percepcin TO SEE /s:/ ver, TO HEAR /har/ oir, TO WATCH /wtch/ observar, van seguidos de un gerund cuando nos referimos a una accin parcial o de un bare innitive cuando nos referimos a la accin completa Ejemplos: I saw her crossing the road. (parte de la accin) I saw her cross the road. (accin completa) La v cruzando la calle La vi cruzar la calle

We heard them singing a song. (parte de la accin) Los o cantando una cancin We heard them sing ten songs. (accin completa) Los o cantar 10 canciones. D. VERB + SOMEBODY + TO-INFINITIVE/BARE INFINITIVE El verbo TO HELP /hlp/ ayudar puede ir seguido indistintamente de un to-Innitive o un bare Innitive Ejemplo: Can you help me to lift / lift this box, please? EXERCISES Ex. 1. Complete the sentences for each situation. 1. Tom: Shall we get married? They decided 2. Jack : Please help me. Mary agreed 3. Bob: Can I carry your bag for you? Bob offered 4. Bob: Lets meet at 8 oclock. They arranged 5. Man: Whats your name? The woman refused Ex. 2. Complete each sentence with a suitable verb. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Dont forget the letter I gave you. There was a lot of trafc but we managed Jill has decided not a car. Weve got a new computer in our ofce. I havent learnt how I wonder where Sue is. She promised not We were all too afraid to speak. Nobody dared Betty: Yes, lets

Mary: OK.

Woman: No, thanks. I can manage. Hans: OK, ne.

Woman: Im not going to tell you.

to the airport in time. it yet. late. anything.

Ex. 3. Put the verb into the correct form to-Innitive or -ing 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. When Im tired, I enjoy It was a nice day, so we decided Its a nice day. Does anyone fancy Im not in a hurry. I dont mind They dont have much money. They cant afford I wish that dog would stop Our neighbour threatened television. Its relaxing. (watch) for a walk. (go) for a walk? (go) (wait) out very often. (go) . Its driving me mad. (bark) the police if we didnt stop the noise. (call)
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8. We were hungry, so I suggested 9. Hurry up! I dont want to risk 10. Im still looking for a job but I hope Ex. 4. Make a new sentence using the verb in brackets. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. He has lost weight.(seem) Tom is worried about something. (appear) You know a lot of people. (seem) My English is getting better. (seem) That car has broken down. (appear) David forgets things.(tend) They have solved the problem. (claim) He You

dinner early. (have) the train. (miss) something soon. (nd)

Ex. 5. Complete each sentence using what/how/whether + one of these verbs: do get go ride say use Do you know to Johns house? Can you show me this washing machine? Would you know if there was a re in the building? Youll never forget a bicycle once you have learned. I was really astonished. I didnt know . Ive been invited to the party but I dont know or not.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Ex. 6. Complete the questions. Use DO YOU WANT ME TO...? or WOULD YOU LIKE ME TO...? with one of these verbs (+ any other necessary words): TO COME, TO LEND, TO REPEAT, TO SHOW, TO SHUT, TO WAIT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Do you want to go alone or do you want me to Have you got enough money or do you want me to Shall I leave the window open or would you like me to Do you know how to use the machine or would Did you hear what I said or do Can 1 go now or do ? ? ? ? ? ?

Ex. 7. CompIete the sentences for each situation. 1. Sue: Lock the door. Sue told Hans to lock the door. 2. Tom & Betty: John: Yes, Id love to Tom and Betty invited John 3. Bob: Can I use your phone? Mary wouldnt let 4. Sylvia: Be careful. Sylvia warned 5. Tom: Can you give me a hand? Tom asked Hans: OK.

Why dont you come and stay with us for a few days?

Mary: No

Hans: Dont worry. I will.

Jane. Yes, of course.

Ex. 8. Complete these sentences so that the meaning is similar to the rst sentence. 1. My father said I could use his car. My father allowed 2. I was surprised that it rained. I didnt expect
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3. Dont stop him doing what he wants. Let 4. He looks older when he wears glasses. Glasses make 5. I think you should know the truth. I want 6. Dont let me forget to phone my sister. Remind 7. At rst I didnt want to apply for the job but Sarah persuaded me. Sarah persuaded 8. My lawyer said 1 shouldnt say anything to the police. My lawyer advised. 9. I was told that 1 shouldnt believe everything he says. I was warned not 10. If youve got a car, you are able to travel round more easily. Having a car enables Ex. 9. Put the verb in the right form : -ing or innitive (with or without to). 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. She doesnt allow us in the house. (smoke) Ive never been to Iceland but Id like there. (go) Im in a difcult position. What do you advise me ?(do) She said the letter was personal and wouldnt let me it. (read) He was kept at the police station for two hours and then he was allowed Where would you recommend me for my holidays? (go) I wouldnt recommend you in that restaurant. The food is awful (eat) The lm was very sad. It made me (cry) Carols parents always encouraged her hard at school. (study)

(go)

E. VERBS +...ING/TO-INFINITIVE Algunos verbos pueden ir seguidos indistintamente de un gerundio o de un to-innitive, sin cambiar de signicado. Los verbos ms comunes de este tipo son: TO PREFER /prif:r/ preferir, TO BEGIN /bign/ empezar, TO START /st:rt/ comenzar, TO CONTINUE /kontniu/ seguir,continuar, TO LIKE /lik/ gustarle a uno, TO LOVE /lav/ encanterle a uno, TO HATE /heit/ desagradar, TO INTEND /intnd/ tener la intencin de, CANT STAND /k:nt stnd/ no soportar. Los verbos TO REMEMBER /rimmber/ recordar, recordarse, TO REGRET /rigrt/ lamentar, arrepentirse, TO STOP /stop/ parar, parar, detenerse, TO GO ON /gou on/ continuar tambin pueden ir seguidos de un gerundio o un to-innitive pero, a diferencia de los anteriores, estos cambian de signicado de la oracin. It started snowing around midnight We continued working until 10:30 I like listening to music while Im studying I love going to baseball games I cant stand waiting in lines too long = = = = = It started to snow around midnight. We continued to work until 10:30. I like to listen to music while Im studying. I love to go to baseball games. I cant stand to wait in lines too long.

I remember doing that. (I did it and now I remember it) Recuerdo haber hecho eso. I remembered to do that. (I remembered I had to do that, so I did that) Me acord de hacer eso. I regret saying what I said. (I said that, and now I am sorry about it) Lamento haber dicho lo que dije. I regret to say that we cant send the price lists yet. (Im sorry that I have to say that) Lamento decir que an no podemos enviarle la lista de precios. They stopped working in the elds when it started to rain / raining. They have been working all morning and feel very tired. They will stop (in order) to rest for a while. The minister went on talking for two hours. (He talked about the same thing) El ministro sigui hablando por dos horas. After discussing the economy, the minister then went on to talk about foreign policy. Despus de hablar acerca de la economa, el ministro pas a hablar acerca de la poltica exterior.
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EXERCISES Ex. 1. Complete the sentences with the TO-INFINITIVE or the GERUND form of the words in parentheses. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. I need to study tonight (study) I enjoy cooking gourmet meals (cook) Helen started talking/to talk about her problem. (talk) Bud and Sally have decided married. (get) We nished around seven. (eat) Are you planning a vacation this year? (take) I like new people. (meet) The Wilsons went in Yellowstone National Park last summer. (camp) My roommate offered me with my English. (help) Ive just begun a movie on TV. (watch) Please stop your knuckles! (crack) Did you remember the cat this morning? (feed) 1 wont be late. 1 promise on time. (be) Im considering to a new apartment. (move) What time do you expect in Denver? (arrive) Some children hate to school. (go) I forgot the door when I left my apartment this morning. (lock) I dont mind with four roommates. (live) Dont put off your composition until the last minute. (write) Ken had to quit because he hurt his knee. (jog) The company will continue new employees as long as new production orders keep in. (hire) (come) 22. Thats not what I meant! 1 meant just the opposite. (say) 23. I want this afternoon. (go) (shop) 24. Alex seems this weekend. (want) (go) (sail) Ex. 2. Use the verb provided in the correct form: TO-INFINITIVE or GERUND. Sometimes either form is possible. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. They denied the money. (steal) I dont enjoy very much. (drive) I dont want out tonight. Im too tired. (go) I cant afford out tonight. 1 havent got enough money. (go) Has it stopped yet? (rain) Can you remind me some coffee when we go out? (buy) Why do you keep me questions? Cant you leave me alone? (ask) Please stop me questions! (ask) I refuse any more questions. (answer) One of the boys admitted the window. (break) The boys father promised for the window to be repaired. (pay) Ann was having dinner when the phone rang. She didnt answer the phone; she just carried on (eat) How did the thief get into the house? I forgot the window. (shut) Ive enjoyed you. (meet) 1 hope you again soon. (see) The baby began in the middle of the night. (cry) Julia has been ill but now shes beginning better. (get).

Ex. 3. Complete these sentences with a suitable verb in the correct form: TO-INFINITIVE or GERUND. 1. Please remember to lock the door when you go out. 2. A: You lent me some money a few months ago. B: Did l? Are you sure? 1 dont remember . 3. A: Did you remember your sister? B: No, I clean (= completely) forgot. Ill phone her tomorrow.
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you any money.

4. When you see Mandy tomorrow, remember her my regards, wont you? 5. Someone must have taken my bag. I clearly remember it by the window and now it has gone. 6. 1 believe that what 1 said was fair. 1 dont regret it. 7. (after a driving test) I regret that you have failed the test. 8. Keith joined the company 15 years ago. He was quickly promoted and became assistant manager after two years. A few years later he went on manager of the company. 9. I cant go on here any more. I want a different job. 10. When 1 came into the room Liz was reading a newspaper. She looked up and said hello to me, and then went on her newspaper. 11. This jacket is dirty. It needs . 12. This is very urgent. I need with the manager immediately. Ex. 4. (Review) Use the verbs given in the correct form, GERUND, TO-INFINITIVE, BARE INFINITIVE. Remember that in some cases you have two alternatives and that sometimes there is a change in the meaning. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. I saw Bob the car yesterday. It took him more than 20 minutes to do it. (wash) I drove past Peters house yesterday. I saw him his car. (wash). Did you remember Mary last night, or did you forget? (phone) I havent phoned her at her home lately. In fact I dont remember her for a long time (phone) I look forward to that wedding party on Friday. (go) We used on holiday every summer when I was a child. (go) It started at about 7:30 this morning. (rain) Bob never got used in that part of the country. (live) I dont mind the washing up. As a matter of fact I do it every day. (do) Could you helpj Jimmy that math exercise,George? (do) Please let me cartoons, mum. Ive already done my homework. (watch) Where did they agree , in La Paz or in Sucre? (meet) The men have been walking up the hill for about an hour, so theyll stop (rest) a while. The children stopped when the teacher entered the room. (talk) I cant afford that house. It is too expensive.(buy) They wanted the soccer game on TV. (watch) I am considering to a smaller apartment soon. (move) I am planning to a smaller apartment soon. (move) He left the house without the front door. (lock) I think Jane is quite used with Dr. Smith. (work)

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PART III
TAG ENDINGS. Los Tag Endings se usan al nal de una aseveracin con el n de buscar una conrmacin o para indicar que lo que se arma est correcto. Equivale a la pregunta Verdad? No es cierto?. Salvo que estemos buscando una conrmacin, normalmente se usa una entonacin descendente. Mary is at home now, isnt she? You know him well, dont you? Bob left on Wednesday, didnt he? The boys can speak French, cant they? Thomas has been here before, hasnt he? Mary isnt at home now, is she? You dont know him well, do you? Bob didnt leave on Wednesday, did he? The boys cant speak French, can they? Thomas hasnt been here before, has he?

Como Ud. ha advertido, los tag endings siempre se expresan de la siguiente manera:
Sujeto + aseveracin armativa Mary is at home now, You know him well, The boy can speak French, Sujeto + aseveracin negativa Mary isnt at home now, You dont know him well, The boy cant speak French, Contraccin+ Pronombre (Nunca un nombre) isnt she? dont you? cant he? Verbo Modal + Pronombre (Nunca un nombre) is she? do you? can he?

EXERCISES

Ex. 1. Add the proper tag ending: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. He comes here every day. She can speak French well, They will be here early, He left at two oclock, He has to work tomorrow, He has many friends here, You live uptown, She studies with you, He will be back later, Henry left at two oclock, Theres some more milk in the fridge, Both men look very much alike, Im your best friend, Mr. Smith has seen that movie, ? (He comes here every day, doesnt he?) ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

Ex. 2. Add the proper tag ending. Note that all these sentences are formed with the verb To BE, used either as the main verb or as the auxiliary verb: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.
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John is a good student. They were both absent from the lesson, The wind is blowing very hard, Helen and her sister are both studying English, You are busy today, Im doing the exercise well, George is a very tall boy, You were absent from class yesterday, It is beginning to rain,
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(John is a good student, isnt he?) ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

10. Mr. Smith is out of town, 11. They are leaving early in the morning, 12. There are many students absent today, Ex. 3. Add the proper tag ending: 1. Mary goes shopping every day. 2. Sue was at home when you called last night, 3. Jos used to work in this ofce, 4. William has been working very hard today, 5. William was born in Cardiff, 6. William will be here soon, 7. The trafc on this street was very heavy that evening, 8. The sun sets at about six oclock, 9. The sun is setting now, 10. Bobs going to buy a new car this year, 11. They went into the church, 12. The shopping district extends for many blocks, Ex. 4. Add the proper tag ending: 1. He doesnt come here every day. 2. She isnt busy now, 3. They didnt come with her, 4. She cant speak French, 5. They dont live uptown, 6. He didnt visit us last night, 7. She wont be at the lesson tomorrow, 8. They dont know each other, 9. We dont have to come to school tomorrow, 10. They didnt have to work yesterday, 11. He hasnt got any money, 12. They didnt arrive on time, Ex. 5. Add the proper tag ending: 1. John often walks to the post ofce. he?) 2. He never goes there in the morning., 3. He rst goes to the window marked Stamps., 4. He doesnt always buy stamps., 5. There are many people ahead of him, 6. There are only a few people ahead of him, 7. He doesnt always have to wait in line, 8. He didnt have to wait in line yesterday, 9. He wont have to wait in line tomorrow, 10. He gave him the stamps, 11. John didnt receive any change, 12. He put a stamp on the envelope, 13. He didnt mail any packages, 14. But he dropped the letter into the box,

? ? ?

? (Mary goes shopping every day, doesnt she?) ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

? (He doesnt come here every day, does he?) ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

? (John often walks to the post ofce, doesnt ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

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Ex. 6. You think, but you are not sure. Ask questions, using tag endings. Read these examples: You think Mary speaks Spanish, but you`re not sure. You say: Mary speaks Spanish, doesn`t she? You think the children can`t swim well. You say: The children can`t swim well, can they? 1. You think John`s been to England twice, but you`re not sure. You say: ? 2. You think my friends come from Wisconsin, but you`re not sure. You say: ? 3. You think Bob didn`t attend the meeting last Monday, but you`re not sure. You say: ? 4. You think there isn`t any more whisky in the bottle, but you`re not sure. You say: ? 5. You think they have to work a little faster, but you`re not sure. You say: ? 6. You think Jane shouldn`t do that again, but you`re not sure. You say: ? 7. You think the boy has had dinner already, but you`re not sure. You say: ? 8. You think there was too much noise in the room, but you`re not sure. You say: ? 9. You think youre a good student, but you`re not sure. You say: ? 10. You think the boys worked harder than the girls, but you`re not sure. You say: ? 11. You think I wouldn`t like to go there again, but you`re not sure. You say: ? 12. You think John put on his new sweater, but you`re not sure. You say: ? 13. You think I was at the meeting too, but you`re not sure. You say: ? 14. You think the train hadn`t left yet when I got to the station, but you`re not sure. You say: ?

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BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words SPORTS AND RECREATION Deportes y Recreacin amusement park /amiuzment p:rk/ parque de diversiones. angling /g pesca de ro li/ athletics /altiks/ atletismo baths /ba:s/ baos, termas beach /bi:tch/ playa bowling /buli/ bocha boxing /bksi/ boxeo car-racing /ka:r risi/ carrera de autos casino /kaz:nou/ casino de juegos cinema /snema/ cine circus /s:rkas/ circo climbing /klimi/ andinismo competition /kompetshn/ competicin court /k:rt/ cancha (tenis) cycling /sikli/ ciclismo championship /tchmpionship/ campeonato disco /dskou/ discoteca diving /divi/ buceo drive /driv/ paseo en auto excursion /ekskrshion/ excursin exhibition /eksibshion/ exposicin expedition /ekspedshion/ expedicin fair /far/ feria fencing /fnsi/ esgrima eld /f:ld/ cancha (ftbol) shing /fshi/ pesca game /gim/ juego, partido gliding /glidi/ planeo green /gr:n/ cancha (golf) horse riding /ho:rs ridi/ equitacin horse-racing /h:rs risi/ carreras hpica hunting /hnti/ caza hurdling /h:rdli/ salto de vallas ice-skating /is skiti/ patinaje en hielo javelin /dll velin/ javalina jogging /dllgi/ trote journey /dll:rni/ Viaje jumping /dllmpi/ Salto lawn /l:n/ csped match /m tch/ partido (ftbol,box) movie theater /mvi ater/ sala de cine museum /miuzam/ museo night club /nit klab/ club nocturno oar /ar/ remo obstacle /bstakl/ hurdle /h:dl/ obstculo,valla paddling /p li/ remo de paleta park /p:rk/ parque pentathlon /pntalon/ pentatln picnic /pknik/ picnic ride /rid/ paseo a caballo, etc rink /rik/ cancha de patines rowing /rui/ remo running /rni/ carrera seaside resort /s:said ris:rt/ balneario sightseeing tour /sitsi:i tar/ paseo turstico skating /skiti/ patinaje skiing /sk:i/ esqu skiing resort /sk:i riz:rt/ centro de esqu sneakers /sn:kerz/ zapatillas surng /s:r/ surng sweat-shirt /sut sh:rt/ polern swimming /sumi/ natacin sword /s:rd/ espada theater /ater/ teatro tour /tar/ viaje, excursin tournament /t:rnament/ torneo track /trk/ pista de carrera trekking /trki/ excursin en montaa trip /trip/ viaje trunks /trks/ pantalones de atlet. T-shirt /ti: sh:rt/ polera voyage /viidll/ viaje walk /w:k/ caminata water-skiing /w:ter ski/ esqu acutico weight-lifting /wit lfti/ pesas

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Key to answers

UNIT 13
PART I.
Ex. 1. 1 has been living 2. have been working 3. has been sitting 4. have been standing 5. have been waiting 6. have been running 7. has been reading 8. has been writing 9. have been working out 10. have been discussing Ex. 2. 1. He hasn`t been living... / Has he been living...? 2. They haven`t been playing... / Have they been playing...? 3. Jane hasn`t been feeling... / Has Jane been feeling...? 4. They haven`t been discussing... / Have they been discussing...? 5. Bob hasn`t been swimming... / Has Bob been swimming...? `t Ex. 3. 1. What has Henry been reading all morning? 2. What has Bill been doing all morning? 3. Where have they been staying? 4. Why have they been saving money? 5. How long have your friends been living in Madrid? 6. What has the boy been doing since 7 o`clock? 7. How long have they been waiting for a taxi?

PART II.
A. Ex. 1. 1. to get married 2. to help Jack 3. to carry the woman`s bag 4. to meet at 8 o`clock 5. to tell the man her name Ex. 2. (Possible answers) 1. to post. 2. to get 3. to buy 4. (how) to use 5. to be 6. to say Ex. 3. 1. watching 2. to go 3. going 4. waiting 5. to go 6. barking 7. to call 8. having 9. missing 10. to nd Ex. 4. 1. He seems to have lost weight 2. Tom appears to be worried about something. 3. You seem to know a lot of people. 4. My English seems to be getting better. 5.That car appears to have broken down 6. David tends to forget things. 7. They claim to have solved the problem. Ex. 5. 1. how to get 2. how to use 3. what to do 4. how to ride 5. what to say 6. whether to go Ex. 6. 1. go with you? 2. lend you some 3. shut it 4. you like to show you how to use it 5. you want me to repeat what I said 6. you want me to wait Ex. 7. 2. to come and stay with them for a few days 3. Bob use her phone 4. Hans to be careful 5. Jane to give him a hand. Ex. 8. 1. me to use his car. 2. it to rain / it would rain. 3. him do what he wants. 4. him look older. 5. you to know the truth. 6. me to phone my sister. 7. me to apply for the job. 8. not to say anything to the police. 9. to believe everything he says. 10. you to travel round more easily. Ex. 9. 1. to smoke 2. to go 3. to do 4. read 5. to go 6. to go 7. to eat 8. cry 9. to study. B. Ex. 1. 4. to get 5. eating 6. to take 7. meeting / to meet 8. camping 9. to help 10. watching / to watch 11. cracking 12. to feed 13. to be 14.. moving 15. to arrive 16. going / to go 17. to lock 18. living 19. writing 20. jogging 21. to hire / hiring - coming 22. .to say 23. to go shopping 24. to want to go sailing Ex. 2. 1. stealing / having stolen 2. driving 3. to go 4. to go 5. raining 6. to buy 7. asking 8. asking 9. to answer 10. breaking / having broken 11. to pay 12. eating 13. to shut 14. meeting...to see 15. to cry / crying 16. to get Ex. 3. 2. lending / having lent you 3. to phone. 4. to give 5. having left / leaving 6. saying / having said 7. to tell 8. to become 9. working 10. reading 11. cleaning 12. to talk / to meet
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Ex. 4. 1. wash 2. washing 3. to phone 4. phoning 5. to going 6.to go 7. to rain / raining 8. to living 9. doing 10. do / to do 11. watch 12. to meet 13. (in order) to rest 14. talking 15. to buy 16. to watch 17. moving 18. to move 19. locking 20. to working C. Ex. 1. 2. She can speak..., can`t she? 3. They`ll be..., won`t they? 4. He left..., didn`t he? 5. He has to work..., doesn`t he? 6. He has many..., doesn`t he? 7. You live..., don`t you? 8. She studies..., doesn`t she? 9. He`ll be back..., won`t he? 10. Henry left..., didn`t he? 11. There`s some..., isnt there? 12. Both men look..., don`t they? 13. I`m your..., aren`t I? 14. Mr Smith``s seen..., hasn`t he? Ex. 2. 2. They were both absent..., weren`t they? 3. The wind`s blowing..., isn`t it? 4. Helen and her sister are both..., aren`t they? 5. You`re busy..., aren`t you? 6. I`m doing..., aren`t I? 7. George`s a very..., isn`t he? 8. You were absent..., weren`t you? 9. It`s beginning..., isn`t it? 10. Mr Smith`s out of..., isn`t he? 11. They`re leaving..., aren`t they? 12. There are many..., aren`t there? Ex. 3. 2. Sue was at home..., wasn`t she? 3. Jos used to work..., didnt he? 4. William`s been working..., hasn`t he? 5. William was born in..., wasn`t he? 6. William will be..., won`t he? 7. The trafc on this street was very..., wasn`t it? 8. The sun sets..., doesn`t it? 9. The sun`s setting..., isn`t it? 10. Bob`s going to buy..., isn`t he? 11. They went..., didn`t they? 12. The shopping district extends..., doesn`t it. Ex. 4. 2. She isn`t busy..., is she? 3. They didn`t come..., did they? 4. She can`t speak..., can she? 5. They don`t live..., do they? 6. He didn`t visit..., did he? 7. She won`t be..., will she? 8. They don`t know..., do they? 9. We don`t have to come..., do we? 10. They didn`t have to work..., did they? 11. He hasn`t got..., has he? 12. They didn`t arrive..., did they? Ex. 5. 2. He never goes..., does he? 3. He rst goes to..., doesn`t he? 4. He doesn`t always buy..., does he? 5. There are many people..., aren`t there? 6. There are only a few..., aren`t there? 7. He doesn`t always have to wait..., does he? 8. He didn`t have to wait..., did he? 9. He won`t have to wait..., will he? 10. He gave..., didn`t he? 11. John didn`t receive..., did he? 12. He put..., didn`t he? 13. He didn`t mail..., did he? 14. But he dropped..., didn`t he? Ex. 6. 1. John`s been to England twice, hasn`t he? 2. Your friends come from Wisconsin, dont they? 3. Bob didnt attend the meeting last Monday, did he? 4. There isn`t any more whisky in the bottle, is there? 5. They have to work a little faster, don`t they? 6. Jane shouldn`t do that again, should she? 7. The boy has had dinner already, hasn`t he? 8. There was too much noise in the room, wasn`t there? 9. Im a good student, arent I? 10. The boys worked harder than the girls, didn`t they? 11. You wouldnt like to go there again, would you? 12. John put on his new sweater, didn`t he? 13. You were at the meeting too, weren`t you? 14. The train hadn`t yet left when you got to the station, had it?

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UNIT 14
PART 1. EL TIEMPO PASADO PERFECTO (THE PAST PERFECT TENSE)
Este tiempo verbal se forma con el pasado del verbo modal Have (HAD /hd/) ms el Participio Pasado (3ra. forma) de un verbo principal y se usa para describir una accin que ocurri antes que otra accin sucediera. Por lo tanto este tiempo no se usa en forma independiente, pues siempre va junto a una oracin expresada en pasado simple. De dos acciones pasadas, la que cronolgicamente ocurri primero debe ir en el Pasado Perfecto. Escuche, lea y aprenda Hans left at 8:15. You phoned at 8:25. Hans had already left when you phoned this morning. /hns had ordi lft wen i: fund is m:rni/ Hans ya haba partido cuando t llamaste por telfono esta maana The show started at 10:30. Paul arrived at the theater at 10:40. The show had already started when Paul arrived at the theater. /e shu had olrdi st:rtid wen p:l arrivd at e ater/ El espectculo ya haba comenzado cuando Paul lleg al teatro. The old man died at 11:25. The ambulance arrived a few minutes later. By the time the ambulance arrived, the old man had already died. /bai e tim e mbiulns arrivd e uld mn had olrdi did/ Cuando la ambulancia lleg, el viejo ya haba fallecido. Al igual que en el Pasado Contnuo, las expresiones de tiempo que acompaan al Pasado Perfecto, son aquellas clusulas compuestas por WHEN + S + PASADO SIMPLE: When you phoned this morning; When Paul arrived at the theatre; By the time the ambulance arrived. Compare: They were having lunch when you called. /i we:r hvi lntch wen i: k.ld/ Ellos estaban almorzando cuando t llamaste. (La accin no haba concluido) They had already had lunch when you called. /i had olrdi hd lntch wen i: k.ld/ Ellos ya haban almorzado cuando t llamaste. (La accin ya haba concluido) En la primera oracin, la accin expresada por el Pasado Contnuo todava se estaba realizando (They were having lunch) cuando la segunda accin ocurri (when you called), mientras que en la segunda oracin la accin expresada por el Pasado Perfecto ya haba concludo (They had already had lunch) cuando la segunda accin ocurri (when you called). La forma negativa se expresa con HAD NOT (o HADNT /hdnt/ ) ms un Participio Pasado y la forma interrogativa se expresa invirtiendo el orden de HAD con el sujeto. (Recuerde que en las oraciones negativas debe usar yet en vez de already). En las preguntas introducidas con una palabra interrogativa como what, where, how, etc., se debe seguir el mismo orden de palabras usado en las preguntas simples. Lea, escuche y aprenda: Hans had not left yet when you phoned this morning. /hns had nt lft yt wen i: fund is m:rni/ The show hadnt started yet when Paul arrived at the theater. /e shu hdnt st:rtid yt wen p:l arrivd at e ater/ The old man hadnt died yet by the time the ambulance arrived. /i uld mn hdnt did yt bai e tim e mbiulns arrivd/ Had Hans left already when you phoned this morning? /had hns lft olrdi wen i: fund is m:rni/ Had the show started yet when Paul arrived at the theatre? /had e shu st:rtid yt wen p:l arrivd at e ater/ Where had they lived before they moved to Santiago? /war had i lvd bif:r i m:vd tu santigou/ La pregunta habitual en este tiempo verbal es: WHAT HAD YOU DONE? /wt had i: dn/ (Qu haba hecho ud.?)

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EXERCISES Ex. 1. Complete the following sentences using the appropriate verbs in the Past Perfect tense. 1. Mary already to the cinema when I arrived. (go) 2. They already the discussion when we entered the room.(start) 3. Bob just typing the report when the general called him to his ofce.(nish) 4. When the police arrived, the thief already . (disappear) 5. She said she there several times before. (be) 6. As soon as he opened the door, he noticed that someone his TV set. (steal) 7. The policeman told us that we the wrong road. (take) 8. They arrived only ten minutes after John . (leave) 9. By the time the remen arrived, the neighbours already the re. (put out 10.Mary already to bed when we arrived home last night. (go) Ex. 2. Complete the following sentences using the verbs provided either in the Simple Past or in the Past Perfect Tenses. 1. Robert (be) a taxi driver before he (become) a businessman. 2. Mr Smith (feel) a little better after he (take) the medicine. 3. The teacher (give, already) the test results when I (get) to class. 4. The detectives (leave) the place after they (collect) enough evidence 5. It was raining hard, but by the time the meeting (be) over, the rain (stop) 6. The show (begin, already) by the time we (get) to the theater, so we quietly (take) a seat in the back. 7. Millions of years ago, dinosaurs (roam) the earth, but they (become,already) extinct by the time man rst (appear) 8. The students (see, never) any of Renoirs paintings before they (visit) the art gallery. 9. Gloria almost missed her plane. All of the other passengers (board, already) by the time she (get) to the boarding gate. 10.Yesterday at a restaurant, I (see) John Palmer, an old friend of mine. I (see, not) him in years. At rst, I (recognize, not) him because he (lose) at least fteen kilos. Ex. 3. Change the following sentences into a) the negative, and b) the interrogative. Remember in the negative you must use YET instead of ALREADY. 1. Tom had already left the ofce. 2. Theyd already spent all the money. 3. Paul had already sent her a fax. 4. Jane had seen that movie twice. 5. The children had already had supper. 6. Mrs Bentley had gone to bed already.

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Ex. 4. Ask questions using question words like What, Where, When, How, How long, etc. 1. John had eaten three sandwiches that evening. 2. Dr. Black had studied at Harvard University. 3. The engineer had graduated from UCLA in 1945. 4. Paul had sold his house the previous year. 5. The plane had taken off from JFK Airport at 23:25 6. Hed worked in the Army for 29 years when he became a general. 7. Theyd spent over US $ 3.000 before they arrived in Tokyo. 8. Bill had made the same mistake three times. 9. John had visited them that evening. 10. The girl had studied French at school.

Ex. 5. Translate the following sentences into English 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Ellos no haban estudiado all por mucho tiempo. Yo no haba visto un partido de crcket antes. Habas comido esto anteriormente? Por qu no habas escrito a nosotros antes? Ella no haba ledo ese libro an. Ellos haban visitado otros pases antes de venir a USA. Dnde haban estado ellos esa maana? Ella haba trabajado duro por mucho tiempo. Ella nunca haba estado en el extranjero antes. El dijo que haba estado muy ocupado ese da.

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PART II.
A. FORMATION OF ADVERBS; COMPARISON OF ADVERBS 1. Formation of adverbs Muchos adverbios en ingls se forman agregando el sujo -ly a los adjetivos correspondientes. This train is very slow. (adjetivo) It moves very slowly (adverbio) John is a careful (adjetivo) driver. He drives carefully (adverbio). slow /slu/ lento quick /kuik/ rpido careful /karful/ cuidadoso happy /h pi/ feliz certain /s :rten/ cierto safe /sif/ seguro slowly /sluli/ lentamente quickly /kukli/ rpidamente carefully /karfuli/ cuidadosamente happily /h pili/ felizmente certainly /s :rtenli/ ciertamente safely /sii/ con seguridad

Existen algunas palabras que pueden actuar indistintamente como adjetivo o adverbio, es decir, no es necesario agregar el sujo -ly al adjetivo para formar el adverbio. Estos son los principales adjetivos / adverbios: fast /f st/ rpido/rpidamente; hard /ha:rd/ duro, difcil, intenso/intensamente, late /leit/ tarde/atrasado; early / :rli / temprano, tempranamente, adelantado Examples: This is a hard (adj.) lesson. I have to study hard (adv.). They took the early (adj.) train. We arrived there early (adv.). Es importante notar que existen las palabras HARDLY y LATELY que tienen un signicado especial Compare: Bob works very hard. (arduamente) They arrived late (tarde, atrasados) 2. Comparison of adverbs Cuando estudiamos la Comparacin de los Adjetivos (Unit 9), vimos que, dependiendo del nmero de slabas del adjetivos, se agregaba el sujo -ER o se antepona el adverbio MORE al adjetivo Normalmente el GRADO COMPARATIVO DE LOS ADVERBIOS se expresa mediante el uso de MORE+ ADVERB + THAN: John drives more carefully than Bob. Mike came more quickly than the other boys. A bus runs more slowly than a train. Con los adverbios SOON, FAST, EARLY, LATE y HARD, el grado de comparacin se expresa mediante el uso del sujo -ER. + THAN: We got there sooner than we expected. A dog runs faster than a horse. Mr Blake will call later tonight. Bob works harder than any of the other students. I got up a little earlier than usual today. Peter hardly works on Saturday. (casi no, apenas) I havent seen John lately .(ltimamente)

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Hay algunos adverbios que usan una forma diferente en el grado comparativo. well (bien) badly (mal) far (lejos) better (mejor) worse (peor) farther (ms lejos)

John works well. John works better than William. Bill behaves badly in class, but Jack behaves worse as a rule. They went very far. We went farther. La comparacin de igualdad se expresa con AS +ADVERB.+ AS Bob speaks English as well as Helen does. He gets up as early as I do. EXERCISES Ex. 1 Supply the adverb form of the adjective in parentheses: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. John left the ofce quickly that afternoon. (quick). She speaks English (beautiful). He always drives (careful). She works very every day. (hard). We arrived home that evening (early). He did the work , as usual. (easy). We walked very (quick). 1 feel very today. (good). He always does his work (good) He speaks very (fast). She prepares her lessons (careless). They acted in that matter. (bad)

Ex. 2. Supply the proper form: adjective or adverb: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. He is a very careful student. He always does his work He learns his lesson This is an 1 can do this exercise Mary is a She also sings and plays the guitar John was very He certainly acted It is always They acted We drove to the hospital very

(careful). (quick). exercise. (easy) (easy). girl. (beautiful) (beautiful). (foolish). (foolish). to prepare for the future. (wise) in doing. that. (wise) (fast)

Ex. 3. Express the words in parentheses in comparative form: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. John works more carefully than I. (careful) He comes here she. (often) I go there he does.(regular) They get up every morning we. (early) He comes here he did before. (frequent) She plays the guitar anyone else. (good) He can run much I. (fast). John works I (hard) He studies Mary. (serious)
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10. I go to bed 11. He will arrive 12. They came to work

you. (late) they. (soon) usual.. (early)

Ex. 4. Express in full form, using equality of comparison: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. He goes to bed He can run John speaks English He gets up She sings He works He came The sun is shining Speak He came here We drove to the hospital You can do it I (late) his brother. (fast) I. (good) his sister. (early) she plays. (beautiful) he can. (hard) he could. (quick) it was yesterday. (bright) possible. (soft) he could. (early) we could. (fast) I . (easy)

5. Express in full form, using equality of comparison: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. He doesnt walk as / so fast as I do. (fast) He cant come She cant play I cant do it He didnt arrive He doesnt work She doesnt speak He doesnt play tennis Helen doesnt attend class Bob doesnt work

we. (early) she can sing. (good) I did it before. (easy) we expected him. (early) she. (careful) her sister. (good) he plays baseball. (bad) Mary. (regular) you do. (hard)

B. REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS Los pronombres reexivos son los siguientes:


Singular myself
/maislf/ /io:rslf/

Plural ourselves yourselves


/auerslvz/ /io:rslvz/

yourself

himself /himslf/ herself /he:rslf/ itself /itslf/

themselves /emslvz/

Los pronombres reexivos tienen tres usos frecuentes: 1. Se usan para expresar acciones reejas. Bob cut himself with the knife. (Bob se cort con el cuchillo) The men killed themselves. (Los hombres se suicidaron) 2. Se usan para expresar nfasis.(en este caso se traducen con las palabras mismo, personalmente The King himself will visit the devastated areas. (El Rey visitar personalmente la zona desvastada) I myself will do it. (Yo mismo lo har)

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3. Se usan (con la preposicin by) para indicar la idea de alone (= solo, sin la ayuda o la compaa de otra persona). The poor man lives by himself in an old house. (El pobre hombre vive solo en una casa vieja) Hans studies in a group but I study by myself. (Hans estudia en un grupo, pero yo estudio solo) The girl solved the problem by herself. (La nia resolvi el problema sola) EXERCISES Ex. 1 Supply the correct reexive pronoun: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. John hurt The baby cannot dress Helen burnt William shaves We enjoyed She looked at Some people like to talk about Do you like to talk about The little girl cut I shave The poor man killed He fell and hurt when he fell. . with the match. every day. at the concert. in the mirror. ? with a pen-knife every morning. . on the ice.

Ex. 2. Supply the correct reexive pronoun (emphatic use): 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. I myself will do it. Helen He said that he They We The President Miss Smith The ambassador John Mary You You

will deliver the speech. could meet us at the airport. will deliver the merchandise. will wait for you. attended to the meeting. will speak to us. will sign the agreement. wrote to me. will attend the meeting. must speak to him, Peter. have to do it, boys.

Ex. 3. For the word ALONE substitute the preposition BY with the correct reexive pronoun: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. John lives alone in an apartment She likes to study alone. I went to the movie alone. Do you like to go to the movie alone? He likes to walk alone in the park. My aunt lives alone in the cottage. He works alone in a small ofce. He prefers to work alone. I do not like to eat alone. I do not think he can do it alone. Both the boys and the girls study alone. He wrote the entire book alone. (John lives by himself in an apartment)

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C. EL PASADO DE GOING TO (subject + was / were going to + innitive) Esta estructura se usa para referirse a acciones que, habiendo sido planeadas o planicadas con anterioridad, no se llevaron a cabo por alguna razn. Compare: We are going to play football at midday today. (Nosotros vamos a jugar ftbol hoy al medioda) We were going to play football at midday yesterday but it rained. (Nosotros bamos a jugar ftbol ayer al medioda pero llovi) EXERCISES Ex. 1. Substitute the past form of GOING To for the italicized, verbs: 1. I intended to call you yesterday but I forgot I was going to call you yesterday but I forgot. 2. I planned to go to the beach but it rained. 3. We planned to telephone you but we couldnt nd your number. 4. We intended to wait but we had to leave. 5. I planned to come back earlier but I had to work until late. 6. I intended to go home early but the manager asked me to help him. 7. We intended to walk in the park but it was too cold. 8. I intended to write you a letter last week but I couldnt nd your address. 9. We planned to eat early but our guests arrived late. 10. We intended to go to a movie rst but we had to wait for our friends to arrive. 11. We planned to study for our examination but some friends called on us (= visited us). 12. They intended to leave New York yesterday but they missed their ight.

Ex. 2. Answer the questions as in the example 1. Ann: Did you telephone Peter last night? You: No, I didnt. I was going to telephone him but I forgot. 2. Ann: Did you buy the car? You: No, I didnt. I 3. Ann: Did you visit your friends last Saturday? You: No, I didnt. 4. Ann: Did you go out after dinner last night? You: No, I didnt .

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BASIC VOCABULARY : Study these words NATURE /nitchar/ La Naturaleza

a) Geography /dlligra/ geografa air /ar/ archipelago /a:rkiplagou/ bay /bi/ beach /b:tch/ canal /kan l/ canyon /k nion/ countryside /kntrisaid/ city /sti/ cliff /klif/ coastline /kuslain/ comet /kmet/ continent /kntinent/ country /kntri/ creek /kr:k/ channel /tch nel/ desert /dzert/ earth /:r/ forest /frest/ galaxy /g laksi/ ground /grund/ harbour /h:rbor/ hill /hil/ island /iland/ ithmus /mas/ jungle /dllngl/ lake /lik/ land /lnd/ landmark /lndma:rk/ aire archipilago baha playa canal (articial) can campia ciudad acantilado costa cometa continente pas riachuelo canal (natural) desierto tierra (planeta) bosque, foresta galaxia suelo, tierra rada, baha cerro, colina isla istmo selva lago tierra hito landscape /l ndskeip/ moon /mu:n/ mountain range /muntin ringll/ ocean /ushn/ peak /pi:k/, summit /smit/ peninsula /pennsiula/ planet /pl net/ pond /pond/ prairy /prari/ rain forest /rin frest/ river /rver/ satellite /s telait/ sea /si:/ shore /shar/ slopes /slups/ solar system /sular sstem/ space /spis/ spring /spri/ star /st:r/ strait(s) /strit(s)/ stream /str:m/ town /tun/ valley /v li/ village /vlidll/ volcano /volkinou/ water /w:ter/ waterfalls /wterfo:lz/ paisaje luna, satlite nat. cordillera ocano cumbre pennsula planeta laguna pradera selva tropical ro satlite mar playa lomas sistema solar espacio vertiente estrella estrecho arroyo pueblo valle pueblito, villa volcn agua cataratas

b) Vegetation /vedlletishn/ vegetaciin branch /br ntch/ bush /bush/ ower /aer/ fruit /fru:t/ grass /gra:s/ leaf /li:f/ leaves /li:vz/ c) Animals / nimalz/ Animales alligator / ligitor/ ant / nt/ bear /bar/ bee /bi:/ bird /b:rd/ bird of prey /b:rd ov pri/ bfalo /bfalou/ bumblebee /bmblb:/ buttery /bterai/ cat /k t/ cock /kok/, cockerel /kkerel/ caimn hormiga oso abeja ave, pjaro ave de rapia bfalo moscardn mariposa gato gallo ea /i:/ y /ai/ goose /gu:z/ geese /gi:z/ hare /har/ hen /hen/ horse /ho:rs/ horsey /ho:rsai/ insect /nsekt/ lion /lion/ louse /lus/ lice /lais/ monkey /mki/ pulga mosca ganso /s liebre gallina caballo tbano insecto len piojo /s mono
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rama arbusto or fruto pasto hoja /s

plant /pla:nt/ roots /ru:ts/ seed /si:d/ shrub /shrab/ tree /tri:/ trunk /trak/

planta races semilla arbusto, mata rbol tronco

A short course in english for adult students

cow /ku/ crocodile /krkoudil/ chicken /tchikin/ deer /d:ar/ dog /dog/ dolphin /dln/ donkey /dki/ dragony /dr gonai/ duck /dak/ eagle /:gl/ elephant /lifant/ sh /sh/ amingo /mgou/

vaca cocodrilo pollo ciervo perro deln burro liblula pato guila elefante pez amenco

mouse /mus/ mice /mais/ ostrich /stritch/ rabbit /r bit/ rat /rt/ rhinoceros /rainoseros/ seagull /s:gal/ seal /si:l/ shellsh /shlsh/ snake /snik/ squirrel /skurel/ tiger /tiger/ turkey /t:rki/ whale /wil/

ratn /es avestruz conejo rata rinoceronte gaviota foca marisco culebra ardilla tigre pavo ballena

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Key to answers

UNIT 14
PART I
Ex. 1. 1. had - gone 2. had - started 3. had - nished 4. had - disappeared 5. had been 6. had stolen 7. had taken 8. had left 9. had - put out 10. had - gone Ex. 2 1. had been - became 2. felt - had taken 3. had already given - got 4. left - had collected 5. was - had stopped 6. had already begun - got - took 7. roamed - had already become - appeared 8. had never seen - visited 9. had already boarded - got 10. saw - had not seen - didn`t recognize - had lost Ex. 3 1. Tom hadn`t left...yet / Had Tom left...yet / already? 2.They hadn`t spent all... yet. / Had they spent all...already / yet? .3. Paul hadn`t sent...yet / Had Paul sent...already / yet? 4. Jane hadn`t seen... / Had Jane seen...? 5. The children hadn`t had...yet. / Had the children had... already / yet? 6. Mrs. Bentley hadnt gone...yet / Had Mrs. Bentley gone... already / yet? Ex. 4 1. How many sandwiches had John eaten that evening? 2. Where had Dr. Black studied? 3. When had the engineer graduated from UCLA? 4. What had Paul done the previous year? 5. At what time / When had the plane taken off from JFK Airport? 6. How long had he worked in the Army when he became a general? 7. How much money had they spent before they arrived in Tokyo? 8. How many times had Bill made the same mistake? 9. Who had visited them that evening? 10. What language had the girl studied at school? Ex. 5 . 1. They had not studied there very long. 2. I hadn`t seen a cricket game before. 3. Had you eaten / had this before? 4. Why hadn`t you written to us before? 5. She hadn`t read that book before. 6 They had visited other countries before they came / before coming to the USA. 7. Where had they been that morning? 8. Shed worked hard very long. 9.She`d never been abroad before. 10. He said (that) he`d been very busy that day.

PART II.
A. Ex. 1 2. beautifully 3. carefully 4. hard 5. early 6. easily 7. quickly 8. well 9. well 10. fast 11. carelessly 12. badly Ex. 2 . 2 carefully 3. quickly 4. easy 5. easily 6.beautiful 7. beautifully 8.foolish 9. foolishly 10. wise 11. wisely 12. fast Ex. 3. 2. more often than 3. more regularly than 4. earlier than 5. more frequently than 6. better than 7. faster than 8. harder than 9. more seriously than 10. later than 11.sooner than 12. earlier than Ex. 4. 1. as late as 2. as fast as 3. as well as 4. as early as 5. as beautifully as 6. as hard as 7. as quickly as 8. as brightly as 9. as softly as 10. as early as 11. as fast as 12. as easily as Ex. 5. 2. as / so early as 3. as / so well as 4. as / so easily as 5. as / so early as 6. as / so carefully as 7. as / so well as 8. as / so badly as 9. as / so regularly as 10. as / so hard as . B. Ex 1 1. himself 2. itself / himself / herself 3. herself 4. himself 5. ourselves 6. herself 7. themselves 8. yourself / yourselves 9. herself 10. myself 11. himself 12. himself Ex. 2 . 2. herself 3. himself 4. themselves 5. ourselves 6. himself 7. herself 8. himself 9. himself 10. herself 11. yourself 12. yourselves

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Ex. 3. 2. She likes to study by herself 3. I went to the movie by myself 4. Do you like to go to the movie by yourself? 5. He likes to walk by himself in the park 6. My aunt lives by herself in the cottage. 7. He works by himself in a small ofce 8. He prefers to work by himself. 9 I do not like to eat by myself 10. I do not think he can do it by himself. 11. Both the boys and the girls study by themselves 12. He wrote the entire book by himself. C. Ex. 1. 2. I was going to go to the beach but...3. We were going to telephone you but... 4. We were going to wait but... 5. I was going to come back earlier but... 6. I was going to go home early, but...7. We were going to walk in the park but... 8. I was going to write you a letter last week but... 9. We were going to eat early but... 10. We were going to go to a movie rst but... 11. We were going to study for our examination but... 12. They were going to leave New York yesterday but... Ex. 2. (Possible answers) 2. I was going to buy it but I decided to save more money to buy a newer model. 3. I was going to visit them but I could not go out of town because of the snow storm. 4. I was going to go out but then decided to stay in and watch the baseball game on TV instead.

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UNIT 15
PART 1. EL TIEMPO PASADO PERFECTO CONTINUO (THE PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE)
Este tiempo se forma usando el Pasado Perfecto del verbo modal BE (HAD BEEN /had bi:n/) ms un GERUNDIO del un verbo principal. Normalmente se usa en vez del Pasado Perfecto con el n de enfatizar la idea de continuidad de la accin. Lea, escuche y aprenda: The man had worked all day / mn had w:rkt o:l di/ El hombre haba trabajado todo el da. The man had been working all day. / mn had bin w:rki o:l di/ El hombre haba estado trabajando todo el da. Theyd played soccer for about two hours. /id plid sker for abut t: uarz/ Ellos haban jugado ftbol cerca de 2 horas. Theyd been playing soccer for about two hours. /id bi:n plii sker for but t: uarz/ Ellos haban estado jugando ftbol cerca de dos horas. Las forma negativa se expresa usando HAD NOT o HADNT /hdnt/. En la forma interrogativa se debe anteponer HAD al sujeto: Lea, escuche y aprenda: They had not been working all day. /i had nt bi:n w:rki o:l di/ Ellos no haban estado trabajando todo el da. Had they been playing soccer all day? /had i bi:n pli sker o:l di/ Haban estado ellos jugando ftbol todo el da? How long had they been playing soccer? /hu l had ei bi:n pli sker/ Cunto tiempo haban estado ellos jugando ftbol? La pregunta ms frecuente en este tiempo verbal es: WHAT HAD YOU BEEN DOING? /wt had i: b:n d:i/ (Qu haba estado haciendo ud.?)

EXERCISES Ex. 1. Complete the following sentences using the appropriate verb in the Past Perfect Continuous tense 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Tom TV since 8:45 that evening. (watch) The men for 6 hours when they got to the village. (walk) Jack German for 2 years before they sent him to Germany. (study) The ground was very wet that morning because it all night. (rain) What they before we arrived? (do) They not too much before the bar closed. (drink) We for over 12 hours when the plane landed in New York.(y)

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Ex. 2. Change the following sentence into a) the negative, and b) the interrogative 1. Shed been reading a magazine. 2. Itd been raining hard that afternoon. 3. Bob had been sleeping since 8.30. 4. Id been working out for 20 minutes. 5. The students had been practising Spanish. 6. The patient had been feeling better.

Ex. 3. Ask questions using question words like What, Where, How long, etc. 1. Theyd been studying the report that evening. 2. The boy had been watching the stars before he went to bed that night. 3. Mr. Smith had been saving money because he was planning to take a trip to Africa. 4. The Johnsons had been living in the same house for about 20 years. 5. He had been teaching Physics for 2 decades in that school before he retired.

Ex. 4. Translate the following sentences into English: 1. Qu haba estado haciendo Ud. esa maana? 2. La Sra. Brown haba estado trabajando arduamente ese da y se senta cansada. 3. Cunto tiempo habas estado viviendo en ese departamento antes de comprar esta casa? 4. Ellos haban estado conversando aproximadamente una hora antes que yo llegara. 5. Haba estado lloviendo toda la maana. El cielo estaba despejado y el sol estaba brillando. 6. Ella haba estado trabajando en ese informe desde la semana anterior. 7. El joven ingeniero haba estado haciendo trabajo de investigacin durante mucho tiempo.

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PART II.
A. PAST TENSE OF SHOULD - OUGHT TO Los verbos modales SHOULD y OUGHT TO (debera o debiera) tienen una forma de expresar el pasado. En este caso estos verbos van seguidos de HAVE + UN PAST PARTICIPLE . Es importante destacar que esta estructura conlleva una idea negativa, expresa un reproche o crtica. Rara vez se usa OUGHT TO en oraciones negativas o interrogativas. Compare: I should start to study French now. (Yo debera comenzar a estudiar Francs ahora) I SHOULD HAVE STARTED to study French a long time ago, but I did not. (Yo debera haber comenzado a estudiar Francs hace mucho tiempo, pero no lo hice) You ought to come earlier. (Deberas venir ms temprano) You OUGHT TO HAVE COME earlier, but you came late, as usual. (Deberas haber llegado ms temprano, pero llegaste atrasado como de costumbre) EXERCISES Ex. 1. Supply the proper past tense form of SHOULD or OUGHT TO (Alternate should and ought to ) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. He should have studied (study) before he took his examinations ( but he didnt.) You ought to have telephoned (telephone) me yesterday (but you didnt) You (go) to the opera with us last night. It was excellent. He (come) at ten oclock last night instead of twelve. You (tell) me that you were not able to come. He started to study English last month. He (start) a long time ago. You (not tell) her anything about the accident. . You (telephone) to the police as soon as you reached home. You (attend) the lecture last night. It was very interesting. You (give) that money to Mr.Smith yesterday You (not give) our address to John. I (not go) to bed so late last night.

Ex. 2. Complete the following in your own words, using constructions with SHOULD HAVE or OUGHT TO HAVE: 1. He waited for me on the corner of 42nd Street, but he should (He waited for me on the corner of 42nd Street, but he should have waited for me on the corner of 57th Street.) 2. He sent the package by regular mail, but he should 3. She gave the money to John, but she should 4. He left the books in Room 10, but he should 5. You telephoned him at his ofce, but you ought 6. We sent her a fax, but we should 7. He invested his money in real estate, but he 8. He studied engineering in college, but he should 9. We went to Mexico on our vacation, but we should 10. They sent us the merchandise by parcel post, but they should B. IDIOMATIC VERB PHRASES: WOULD RATHER AND HAD BETTER Estas frases idiomticas se usan como si fueran verbos modales y van seguidas de un bare innitive (Innitivo sin to). Ambas se reeren a situaciones presentes o futuras. La oracin I WOULD RATHER WATCH TV (Preferira mirar TV) es sinnimo de I prefer to watch TV, mientras que la oracin You HAD BETTER SEE a doctor right away (Sera mejor que vieras un mdico de inmediato) es sinnimo de You should see a doctor right away o It is advisable that you see a doctor right away

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En las conversacin diaria tanto WOULD RATHER como HAD BETTER se usan en contraccin, como los ejemplos siguientes: Id rather see a movie than go to the opera. Hed better see a doctor immediately En la forma negativa se debe usar NOT despus de WOULD RATHER o HAD BETTER. Al formular interrogaciones se debe anteponer WOULD o HAD al sujeto, como en estos ejemplos: Id rather not go at all than go with them. What would you rather drink, tea or coffee? Youd better not mention it to anyone. What had I better do, stay in bed all day or see a doctor?

Adems de WOULD RATHER, podemos indicar o expresar preferencia mediante el uso de PREFER...... TO o LIKE..... BETTER THAN I prefer apples to oranges I prefer watching TV to studying math. Id rather have an apple than an orange. EXERCISES Ex. 1. Change these sentences to introduce WOULD RATHER: 1. I prefer to wait here . 2. She prefers to come back later. 3. I prefer to drink tea with my meals. 4. They prefer not to wait outside. 5. I Prefer to stay at home and watch television. 6. We prefer not to say anything to him about it. 7. I prefer to go to South America on my vacation. 8. John prefers to go to the party with Helen. 9. I prefer not to go to the party alone. 10. They prefer to speak to him at his home. (Id rather wait here.) I like apples better than oranges I like watching TV better than studying math.

Ex. 2. Change these sentences to introduce HAD BETTER 1. It will be better if you come back later. (Youd better come back later.) 2. It will be better if he goes to a doctor at once. 3. It will be better if you rest a while. 4. It will be better if he takes private lessons. 5. It will be better if she spends more time on her homework. 6. It will be better if we send him an e-mail right away. 7. It will be better if we dont mention it to him. 8. It will be better if you dont work so hard after your illness. 9. It will be better if we dont stand so close to the curb. 10. It will be better if Helen begins to spend more time on her English. Ex.3 Complete the sentences with THAN, BETTER THAN or TO. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.
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When Im hot and thirsty, I prefer cold drinks to hot drinks. When Im hot and thirsty, I like cold drinks better than hot drinks. When Im hot and thirsty, Id rather have a cold drink than a hot drink. I prefer chicken beef. I like chicken beef. Id rather eat chicken beef. When I choose a book, I prefer nonction ction. I like rock n roll classical music. Tina would rather lie on the beach go swimming.
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10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18.

Tina likes lying on the beach Tina prefers lying on the beach My parents would rather work Do you like fresh vegetables I would rather take a picture of a wild animal Mr. Kim prefers tea I prefer visiting my friends in the evening My brother would rather read a book in the evening My sister likes her math class

going swimming. going swimming. retire. They enjoy their jobs. frozen or canned vegetables? kill it with a gun. coffee with his evening meal. watching TV by myself. visit with friends. her biology class.

C. MODAL VERBS (II) 1. COULD (DO SOMETHING) AND COULD HAVE (DONE SOMETHING) Como sabemos, COULD es el pasado CAN (poder, ser capaz de) Listen. I can hear something. (Puedo oir algo) (Present). I listened. I could hear something (Poda oir algo) (Past) Pero COULD tambin se puede usar cuando queremos referirnos a acciones posibles de realizar ahora o en el futuro, especialmente cuando deseamos hacer una sugerencia. En este caso COULD signica podra, podras, podramos, etc. John: What shall we do this evening? Mary: We could go (podramos ir) to the cinema. Theres a very good lm on at the Rex. Its a nice day. We could go for a walk (podramos salir a caminar) in the park. When you go to New York next month, you could stay (podras quedarte) with Barbara. Jim: If you need money, why dont you ask Karen? Tom: Yes, I suppose I could do that (podra hacer eso). Tambin COULD se usa para referirse a algo que es posible ahora o en el futuro. En este caso COULD es sinnimo de MIGHT. The phones ringing. It could be Tim. (podra ser Tim) I dont know when theyll be here. They could arrive (podran llegar) at any time. Compare las siguientes oraciones: I am so tired now that I could sleep for a week. (Present) (Estoy tan cansado ahora que podra dormir durante una semana. I was so tired that day that I could have slept for a week.(Estaba tan cansado ese da que podra haber dormido una semana) (Past) COULD HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE se usa para referirse a acciones que pudiendo haberse realizado o sucedido, no se realizaron o no sucedieron. Why did you stay at a hotel when you came to Santiago. You could have stayed with us.(Pudras haberte quedado con nosotros) John fell off a ladder yesterday but hes all right. He could have hurt himself badly. (Podra haberse lastimado seriamente)

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A veces esta estructura puede usarse para expresar la idea de WOULD HAVE BEEN ABLE TO (habra podido) Why didnt Liz apply for the job? She could have got it. (Podra haberlo conseguido) We could have gone away (podramos haber salido) if wed had enough money. The trip was cancelled last week. Paul couldnt have gone (no habra podido salir) anyway because he was ill. EXERCISES Ex. 1. Answer the questions with a suggestion. Use COULD. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Where shall we go for our holidays? (to Scotland). We could go to Scotland. What shall we have for dinner tonight?(sh) We What shall I give Ann for her birthday?(a book) You When shall I phone Angela? (right now) When shall we go and see Tom? (on Friday) Where shall we hang this picture?(in the kitchen)

Ex. 2 Put in CAN or COULD. Sometimes either word is possible. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. A: The phone is ringing. Who do you think it is? B: It be Tim. Im really hungry. I eat a horse! If youre very hungry, we have dinner now. Its so nice here. I stay here all day but unfortunately I have to go. I cant nd my bag. Have you seen it? No, but it be in the car. Peter is a keen musician. He plays the ute and he also play the piano. What shall we do? Theres a lm on television. We watch that. The weather is nice now but it change later.

Ex. 3. Complete the sentences. Use COULD or COULD HAVE + a suitable verb. 1. A: What shall we do this evening? B: I dont mind. We could go to the cinema. 2. A: I had a very boring evening at home yesterday. B: Why did you stay at home? You to the cinema. 3. A: Theres an interesting job advertised in the paper. You B: What sort of job is it? Show me the advertisement. 4. A: Did you go to the concert last night? B: No. We but we decided not to. 5. A: Where shall we meet tomorrow? B: Well, I to your house if you like. Ex. 4. Read this information about Ken: Ken didnt do anything on Saturday evening. Ken doesnt know anything about machines. Ken was free on Monday afternoon. Ken was short of money last week. Kens car was stolen on Monday. Ken had to work on Friday evening.

for it.

Some people wanted Ken to do different things last week but they couldnt contact him. So he didnt do any of these things. You have to say whether he could have done or couldnt have done them. 1. Kens aunt wanted him to drive her to the airport on Tuesday. He couldnt have driven her to the airport (because his car had been stolen) 2. A friend of his wanted him to go out for a meal on Friday evening. Ken 3. Another friend wanted him to play tennis on Monday afternoon. Ken 4. Jack wanted Ken to lend him 50 last week.

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5. Jane wanted Ken to come to her party on Saturday evening. He 6. Kens mother wanted him to repair her washing machine.

2. MUST, CANT, MUST HAVE, AND CANT HAVE Sabemos que uno de los usos de MUST es el de expresar una suposicin, o conclusin; es decir, cuando estamos seguros que algo es as, como en los siguientes ejemplos: You have been working all day. You must be very tired. (Debes estar muy cansado) A: Jim is a hard worker B: Jim? A hard worker? You must be joking (Debes estar bromeando) Hes very lazy Carol must get very bored (debe aburrirse mucho) in her job. She does the same thing every day. Cuando estamos seguros de que algo no es posible, que no puede ser cierto, debemos usar CANT, como en los siguientes ejemplos : Youve just had lunch. You cant be hungry already. (No puedes estar con hambre ya) They havent lived here very long. They cant know many people.(No pueden conocer mucha gente) En situaciones pasadas se debe usar MUST HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE o CANT HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE. Estudie los siguientes ejemplos: George is outside his friends house. Hes rung the doorbell three times but nobody has answered They must have gone out. (Deben haber salido) The phone rang but I didnt hear it. I must have been asleep.(Debo haber estado dormido) Jane walked past me without speaking. She cant have seen me. (No debe haberme visto) It was about 9:15 in the evening. Tom was in his bedroom. He must have been watching the news on TV. He cant have been sleeping (Deber haber estado viendo las noticas en TV. No puede haber estado durmiendo) Note la pronunciacin de las siguientes oraciones: You must be very tired. /i: ms bi: vry tiard/ They must have gone out. /ei mstav gn ut/ She cant have seen me. /sh: k:ntav s:n mi:/ He must have been watching TV.. /hi: mstav bi:n wtchi t: v:/ He cant have been sleeping /hi: k:ntav bi:n sl:pi/ EXERCISES Ex. 1. Put in MUST or CANT. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Youve been travelling all day. You be very tired. That restaurant be very good. Its always full of people. That restaurant be very good. Its always empty. Youre going on holiday next week. You be looking forward to it. It rained every day during their holiday, so they have had a very nice time. Congratulations on passing your exam. You be very pleased. You got here very quickly. You. have walked very fast. Bill and Sue go away on holiday very often, so they be short of money.

Ex. 2 Complete the sentences with a verb in the correct form. 1. 2. 3. 4. Ive lost one of my gloves. I must They havent lived here very long. They cant Ted isnt at work today. He must Ted wasnt at work last week. He must it somewhere. many people. ill. ill.
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(The doorbell rings) I wonder who that is. It cant Mary. Shes still at work at this time. Carol knows a lot about lms, She must to the cinema a lot. Look. Jack is putting on his hat and coat. He must out. I left my bike outside the house last night and this morning it wasnt there any more.Somebody must it. 9. Ann was in a very difcult situation. It cant easy for her. 10. There is a man walking behind us. He has been walking behind us for the last 20 minutes. He must us. 5. 6. 7. 8. Ex. 3. Read the situations and use the words in brackets to write sentences with MUST HAVE and CANT HAVE. 1. The phone rang but I didnt hear it. (I/asleep) 2. Jane walked past me without speaking. (she/see/me) 3. The jacket you bought is very good quality. (it/very expensive) 4. I havent seen the people next door for ages. (they/go away) 5. I cant nd my umbrella. (I/leave it in the restaurant last night) 6. Don passed the exam without studying for it. (the exam/very difcult) 7. She knew everything about our plans. (she/listen/to our conversation) 8. Fiona did the opposite of what I asked her to do. (she/understand/what I said) 9. When I woke up this morning, the light was on. (I/forget/to turn it off) 10. The lights were red but the car didnt stop. (the driver/see/the red light) 11. I was woken up in the middle of the night by the noise next door. (the neighbours/have/a party) 1 must have been asleep.

3. MAY / MIGHT AND MAY HAVE / MIGHT HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE Los verbos modales MAY / MIGHT se usan frecuentemente para indicar una posibilidad: * It may be true (Puede que sea cierto) It might be true (Podra ser cierto). (= perhaps it is true) * She may know what happened (Puede que ella sepa...) She might know (Ella podra tal vez saber...) what happened.. (= perhaps she knows what happened ) La forma negativa se expresa usando MAY NOT o MIGHT NOT * It might not be true. (Podra no ser cierto) (= perhaps it isnt true) * Im not sure whether I can lend you some money. I may not have enough. (Puede que no tenga suciente) (=perhaps I dont have enough) En el pasado podemos usar MAY HAVE + past participle o MIGHT HAVE + past participle. A: I wonder why Kay didnt answer the phone. B: She may have been asleep.(Puede que haya estado durmiendo) (= perhaps she was asleep) A: I cant nd my bag anywhere. B: You might have left it in the shop (Podras haberla dejado...) (= perhaps you left it in the shop) A: I was surprised that Sarah wasnt at the meeting. B: She might not have known about it. (Puede que no haya sabido) (= perhaps she didnt know) A: I wonder why Colin was in such a bad mood yesterday. B: He may not have been feeling well. (Puede que no haya estado sintindose bien) (= perhaps he wasnt feeling well)
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EXERCISES Ex. 1. Write these sentences in a different way using MAY (or MIGHT)), MAY HAVE (or MIGHT HAVE). 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Perhaps Margaret is in her ofce. Perhaps Margaret is busy. Perhaps she is working. Perhaps she wants to be alone. Perhaps she was ill yesterday. Perhaps she went home early. Perhaps she had to go home early. Perhaps she was working yesterday. She might be in her ofce.

In sentences 9-11 use MAY NOT or MIGHT NOT. 9. Perhaps she doesnt want to see me. 10. Perhaps she isnt working today. 11. Perhaps she wasnt feeling well yesterday. Ex. 2 Complete the sentences with a verb in the correct form. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Wheres Bob? Im not sure. He might... be having lunch. Who is that man with Ann? Im not sure. It might Who was the man we saw with Ann yesterday? Im not sure. It might Why are those people waiting in the street? I dont know. They might Shall I buy this book for T im? Youd better not. He might her brother. her brother. for a bus. it already.

Ex. 3 Read the situations and make sentences from the words in brackets. Use MAY or MIGHT. 1. I cant nd George anywhere. I wonder where he is. a (he / go / shopping) He may have gone shopping. b (he / play / tennis) He might be playing tennis 2. Im looking for Helen. Do you know where she is? a (she / watch / TV / in her room) b (she / go / out) 3. I cant nd my umbrella. Have you seen it? a (it / be / in the car) b (you / leave / in the restaurant last night) 4. Why didnt Tom answer the doorbell? Im sure he was in the house at the time. a (he / be / in the bathroom) b (he / not / hear / the bell) Ex. 4. Complete the sentences using MIGHT, MIGHT NOT or COULD, COULDNT. 1. A: Do you think she saw you? B: No, she was too far away. She couldnt have seen me 2. A: I wonder why she didnt say hello. Perhaps she didnt see me. B: Thats possible. She might not have seen you. 3. A: I wonder why Ann didnt come to the party. Perhaps she wasnt invited. B: Yes, its possible. She 4. A: Tom loves parties. Im sure he would have come to the party if hed been invited. B: I agree. He 5. A: I wonder how the re started. Do you think it was an accident? B. The police say it 6. A: How did the re start? I suppose it was an accident. B: Well, the police arent sure. They say it

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VOCABULARY: Study these words THE WEATHER /(e w(er/ El tiempo Atmosfrico blizzard /blzard/ breeze /br:z/ cloud /klud/ cloudy /kludi/ cold wave /kuld wiv/ cyclone /sikloun/ dew /diu:/ downpour /dunpoar/ drizzle /drzl/ drought /drut/ ood /ad/ ashood / shflad/ fog /fog/ foggy /fgi/ frost /frost/ gale /gil/ hail /heil/ heat wave /hi:t wiv/ hurricane /hrikein/ ice /is/ landslide /l ndslaid/ lightning ash /litni sh/ mist /mist/ misty /msti/ ventisca rainfall /rinfo:l/ brisa scattered shower /sk terd shuer/ nube shower /shuer/ nublado sleet /sl:t/ onda de fro snowfall /snufo:l/ cicln snowake /snueik/ roco sunny /sni/ aguacero sunny intervals /sni ntervolz/ llovizna sunny patches /sni p tchiz/ sequa sunny spells /sni spelz/ inundacin thunder /nder/ torrente, aluvin de agua thunderbolt /nderboult/ neblina, bruma thunderstorm /ndersto:rm/ brumoso thundery /nderi/ escarcha tornado /tornidou/ ventarrn twister /tuster/ granizo typhoon /taif:n/ onda de calor whirlwind /w:rlwind/ huracn wind /wind/ hielo windy /wndi/ aluvin de barro relmpago bruma matinal brumoso lluvia cada chubasco ocasional chubasco aguanieve nevazn copo de nieve soleado intervalos de sol claros de sol ratos de sol trueno rayo tormenta elctrica tormentoso (torm. elctica) tornado tromba, remolino tifn remolino viento con viento

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Key to answers

UNIT 15
PART I
Ex. 1. 1. had been watching 2. had been walking 3. had been studying 4. had been raining 5. had - been doing 6. had - been drinking 7. had been ying Ex. 2. 1. She hadn`t been reading... / Had she been reading...? 2. It hadn`t been raing... / Had it been raining...? 3. Bob hadnt been sleeping... / Had Bob been sleeping...? 4. I hadnt been working... / Had I been working...? 5. The students had not been practicing... / Had the students been practicing...? 6.The patient hadnt been feeling... / Had the patient been feeling...? Ex. 3. 1.what had they been doing that evening? 2. What had the boy been watching? 3. Why had Mr. Smith been saving money? 4. How long had the Johnsons been living in the same house? 5. How long had he been teaching Physics in that school when he retired? Ex. 4. 1. What had you been doing that morning? 2. Mrs. Brown had been working hard that day and felt very tired. 3. How long had you been living in that apartment before buying this house? 4. Theyd been talking for about an hour before I arrived.. 5. Itd been raining all morning . The sky was clear and the sun was shining. 6. Shed been working on that report since last week / the previous week. 7. The young engineer had been doing research work for a long time.

PART II
A. Ex. 1. 3. You should have gone... 4. He ought to have come... 5. You should have told... 6. He ought to have started... 7. You should not have told l her... 8. You ought to have telephoned... 9. You should have attended... 10. You ought to have given... . 11. You should not have given... 12. I ought not to have gone... Ex. 2. (Possible answers) 2. have sent it by air mail 3. have given it to Jane 4. have left them in Room 11. 5. to have telephoned him at his home 6. have sent her an e-mail. 7. to have invested it in stocks / shares. 8. have studied medicine. 9. have gone to Tahiti 10. have sent it by UPS / FedEx B. Ex. 1. 2. Shed rather come back later. 3. Id rather drink tea with my meals. 4. Theyd rather not wait outside 5, Id rather stay at home and watch TV. 6. Wed rather not say anything to him about it. 7. Id rather go to South America on my vacation. 8. John would rather go to the party with Helen. 9. Id rather not go to the party alone. 10. Theyd rather speak to him at his home. Ex. 2. 2. Hed better go to a doctor at once. 3. Youd better rest a while 4. Hed better take private lessons. 5. Shed better spend more time on her homework. 6. Wed better send him an e-mail right away. 7. Wed better not mention it to him. 8. Youd better not work so hard after your illness. 9. Wed better not stand so close to the curb. 10. Helen had better begin more time on her English. Ex. 3. 4. to 5. better than 6. than 7. to 8. better than 9. than 10. better than 11. to 12. than 13. better than 14. than 15. to 16. to 17. than 18. better than C.1. Ex. 1. 2. We could have sh 3. You could give her a book. 4. You could phone her now . 5. We could go and see him on Friday. 6. We could hang it in the kitchen. Ex. 2. 1. can / could 2. could 3. can / could 4. could 5. can / could 6. can 7. could 8. could Ex. 3. 2.could have gone 3. could apply 4.could have gone 5. could come
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Ex. 4. 2. Ken couldnt have gone out because he had to work. 3. Ken could have played tennis on Monday evening because he was free. 4. He couldnt have lent him 50 because he was short of money. 5. He couldnt have come to her party because he didnt do anything on Friday evening. 6. He couldnt have repaired it because he doesnt know anything about machines. C.2. Ex. 1. 1. must 2. must 3. cant 4. must 5. cant 6.must 7. must 8. cant Ex. 2. (Possible answers) 1. have left 2. know 3. be 4. have been 5. be 6. go 7. be going 8. have taken / stolen 9. have been 10. be following Ex. 3. 2.She cant have seen me. 3. It must have been very expensive 4.They must have gone away. 5. I must have left it in the restaurant last night. 6. The exam cant have been very difcult 7. She must have listened to our conversation. 8. She cant have understood what I said. 9. I must have forgotten to turn it off. 10. The driver cant have seen the red light. 11.The neighbors must have been having a party . C. 3. Ex. 1. 2. She may / might be busy. 3. She may / might be working 4. She may / might want to be alone 5. She may / might have been ill yesterday . 6. She may / might have gone home early 7. She may / might have had to go home early 8.She may / might have been working yesterday. 9. She may / might not want to see me. 10. She may / might not be working today 11. She may / might not have been feeling well yesterday. Ex. 2. (Possible answers)2. b e 3. have been 4. be waiting 5. have bought Ex. 3. 2a. She may / might be watching TV in her room. 2b. She may / might have gone out 3a. It may / might be in the car. 3b. You may / might have left it in the restaurant 4a. He may / might have been in the bathroom. 4b. He may / might not have heard the bell. Ex. 4. 3. might not have been invited.. 4. might have come if hed been invited. 5. might have been an accident. 6. might have been an accident

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UNIT 16
PART I. EL TIEMPO FUTURO PERFECTO (THE FUTURE PERFECT TENSE)
Este tiempo verbal describe una accin que ser completada antes de una fecha especca dada en el futuro. Este tiempo se expresa usando WILL HAVE ms el PASADO PARTICIPIO de un verbo principal. Las expresiones de tiempo usadas en el Futuro Perfecto son aquellas introducidas con by + una fecha futura como by December 15th, by the end of this month, by this time next week, etc. Tambien son comunes las expresiones que contienen WHEN / IF + S + PRESENTE SIMPLE + UNA FECHA FUTURA, como When Peter gets home tonight (cuando Peter llegue a casa esta noche), When we get to that town tomorrow (cuando lleguemos a esa ciudad maana), if they arrive after 10 tomorrow (si ellos llegan despus de las 10 maana), etc. Escuche, lea y aprenda : By December 15th, we will have lived in this country ve years. /bai dismber e ft:n wi wil hav lvd in is kntri fiv yarz/ Hacia el 15 de diciembre, nosotros habremos vivido cinco aos en este pas By the end of this month the spaceship will have reached Jupiter. /bai i nd ov is mn e spiship wil hav r:tcht dllpiter/ Hacia nes de este mes, la nave espacial habr llegado a Jpiter. When Peter gets home tonight, I will have had dinner already. /wen p :ter gts hum tunit ail hav h d dner alrdi/ Cuando Peter llegue a casa esta noche, yo ya habr cenado When we get to that town tomorrow, well have travelled more than twelve hours. /wen wi gt tu t tun tumrou wil hav tr veld mar an tuelv uerz/ Cuando lleguemos a ese pueblo maana, nosotros habremos viajado ms de doce horas. If our team wins the next game, we will have gotten our third trophy. /if auar t:m winz e nkst gim wi wil hav gten uar erd tr/ Si nuestro equipo gana el prximo partido, nosotros habremos ganado nuestro tercer trofeo. La forma negativa se expresa usando WILL NOT HAVE + past participle y en la interrogacin se antepone el verbo modal WILL al sujeto. Escuche, lea y aprenda : They will have nished the work by 10:30 They will not/wont have nished the work by 10:30. Will they have nished the work by 10:30? What time will they have nished the work? La pregunta habitual en este tiempo es: WHAT WILL YOU HAVE DONE? /wt wil iu: h v dn/ Qu habr hecho Ud.? Note como la palabra WHEN cambia el signicado de las siguientes oraciones: You come here every day T vienes ac todos los das When you come here tomorrow... Cuando t vengas ac maana... I have the information now Yo tengo la informacin ahora When I have the information this afternoon... Cuando yo tenga la informacin esta tarde... She is free now. Ella est libre ahora When she is free next time... Cuando ella est libre la prxima vez...

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EXERCISES Ex. 1 Complete the following sentences using the verbs provided in the Future Perfect Tense. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. When you arrive at midday tomorrow, the Johnsons already. (leave) By the end of March, the weather considerably. (change) If you come at noon tomorrow, we the work. (nish) If he gets here at 6 oclock, they home. (go) If he doesnt hurry, they dinner when he gets there. (have) By December, the students their rst course. (complete) I in this country two years next October. (be) By tomorrow, I all these grammar rules. (forget) When he becomes a man, he many things. (learn) By this time next month, you from your illness. (recover) Before they leave New York next Sunday, they the most important places of interest. (visit) 12. By two oclock, they and . (come - go) Ex. 2. What things will you have done: a) by the end of this month? b) by the end of this year?, and c) when you retire? Write at least three sentences for each question. a) By the end of this month, 1. I will have nished reading this book. 2. 3. 4. 5. b) By the end of this year, 1. I will have completed this course in English. 2. 3. 4. 5. c) By the time I retire, 1. I will have worked as a teacher for thirty-ve years 2. 3. 4. 5. Ex. 3. Translate the following sentences into English: 1. Ellos habrn terminado ese edicio antes del n de ao. 2. El ya habr realizado todos sus planes antes termine el verano. 3. Antes de las seis de la tarde, nosotros ya habremos procesado toda la informacin. 4. Si no tomamos un taxi, el concierto ya habr comenzado cuando lleguemos al teatro.

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5. La mayora de los pjaros habr emigrado al norte antes que llegue el invierno. 6. Hacia nes de este curso, yo ya habr aprendido a conversar en ingls. 7. Si sigue los consejos de su mdico, muy pronto Ud. se habr recuperado de su operacin. 8. Antes de la medianoche, los resultados de eleccin habrn sido enviados a la prensa.

PART II.
A. SEQUENCE OF VERB TENSES (CONCORDANCIA DE TIEMPOS VERBALES) Observe la siguiente tabla:

PRINCIPAL VERB
PRESENT PAST

SUBORDINATE VERB
Present Future Past Conditional

Segn la regla de la concordancia de los tiempos verbales, a) Cuando el verbo principal de una oracin est expresado en el TIEMPO PRESENTE , los dems verbos subordinados deben estar expresados en el TIEMPO PRESENTE o en el TIEMPO FUTURO; b) Cuando el verbo principal est expresado en el TIEMPO PASADO, los dems verbos subordinados deben estar expresados en el TIEMPO PASADO o en el POTENCIAL. De acuerdo con esta regla, los verbos modales am / is / are, do / does, will, have / has, can, must, may deben ser cambiados a las respectivas formas del pasado: was / were, did, would, had, could, had to, might. Escuche, lea y aprenda : Mary says that she knows Bob well. (Mary dice que conoce bien a Bob.) Mary said that she knew Bob well. (Mary dijo que conoca bien a Bob.) He says that his rst name is Robert. (El dice que su nombre de pila es Robert) He said that his rst name was Robert. (El dijo que su nombre de pila era Robert) Tom thinks that he can come to the party tonight. (Tom cree que puede venir a la esta esta noche) Tom thought that he could come to the party tonight. (Tom crea que podra venir a la esta esta noche) The man says that he will come here tomorrow. (El hombre dice que vendr ac maana) The man said that he would come here tomorrow. (El hombre dijo que vendra ac maana) They say they must be at the airport at 8:30. (Ellos dicen que deben estar en el aeropuerto a las 8:30) They said they had to be at the airport at 8:30. (Ellos dijeron que deban en estar en el aeropuerto a las 8:30)

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EXERCISES Ex. 1. Change to past tense, following the rule of sequence of tenses: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. He says he will be here at noon. I think I can meet you. He hopes he can be there early I think it may rain this evening. He wants to know where she is. He says he is very sorry. The young man tells us he is married. I think it will be very hot this afternoon. I think he will be there by ten oclock He believes he can do it. The weather man predicts it will rain. He says he has to work.hard every day I know where she lives. Bob wants to know how many people there are. The boy says he has seen the movie. The girl says she is studying for a test. I think Mr Jones may be in his ofce. I think therell be a lot of work to do. I dont know where Mary is. I dont think Bob will like the new job.

Ex. 2. Choose the correct form: 1. He said he (will, would) be here. 2. He thinks he (can, could) do it easily. 3. He asked me where 1 (live, lived). 4. I didnt know what the word (means, meant). 5. The newspaper says it (will, would) rain. 6. She said she (was going, is going) away. 7. I told him that I (cannot, could not) go. 8. He said he (has been, had been) a soldier. 9. She said she (does not, did not) feel well. 10. I dont know what his name (is, was). 11. I didnt know what he (is, was) trying to do. 12. She said she (may, might) be late.

B. THE PRESENT TENSE AFTER IF (EL TIEMPO PRESENTE DESPUES DE IF ) Se debe usar el TIEMPO PRESENTE (y no el tiempo futuro) despus de la palabra IF, an cuando nos estemos reriendo a situaciones futuras. Escuche, lea y aprenda : If John comes (no, will come ) tomorrow, he will see Mary. If it rains (no, will rain) next Sunday, they will not go to the beach. Del mismo modo, debemos usar el PRESENTE (y no el futuro) despus de las palabras WHEN (cuando), UNTIL (hasta que), AS SOON AS (en cuanto), BEFORE (antes que), AFTER (despus que), UNLESS (a menos que), AS LONG AS (durante todo el tiempo que), u otra palabra similar para introducir una clusula subordinada en el tiempo futuro.

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Escuche, lea y aprenda : When John comes here this evening, he will see Mary. (Cuando John venga ac esta tarde, l vera a Mary) As soon as I see Mr Smith tomorrow, I will give him your message. (En cuanto yo vea a Mr Smith maana le dare su mensaje) Wait here in the lobby until the bus arrives, within ten or fteen minutes. (Espere aqu hasta que el bus llegue, dentro de 10 o 15 minutos) EXERCISES Ex. 1. Supply the correct form of the verb in parentheses: 1. If he (arrive) on time tomorrow morning, he can go with us on the city tour. 2. lf it not (rain) tomorrow, we may go to the beach. 3. lf he (be) late this evening, they will not wait for him. 4. When he (come) this afternoon, please let me know. 5. Call me as soon as he (get) here tomorrow morning. 6. Do not leave before I : (tell) you to go . 7.` If he (like) the job next week, he will keep it. 8. If the weather (be) good tomorrow, we will go to the beach. 9. As soon as he (telephone) today, please give him the message. 10. Do not call me tomorrow morning unless he (come) to the ofce. 11. I will not go to the meeting next Monday unless you (go) too. 12. If he not (come) here soon, we will have to leave without him. Ex. 2. Insert the missing conjunction: UNTIL, WHEN, AS SOON AS, AS LONG AS, WHILE, BEFORE, etc.: 1. 2. 3. 4 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. We will not leave the hotel Ill write to you Dont start moving. You must wait They will stay in the South West We wilI wait here You can stay here You will know him Well come to see you next week Please wait here Ill believe t you are ready to go, too. I get to New York next Friday evening. the light changes to green. the war lasts. you telephone this afternoon. we go to the movie this evening. you see him at the meeting tomorrow. you leave on your vacation. the doctor arrives.(within a few minutes) I see it

PART III. USE OF ELSE Y OR ELSE.


A. ELSE Esta palabra se usa junto a las palabras derivadas de SOME, ANY y NO (somebody / someone, something, somewhere; anybody / anyone, anything, anywhere; nobody / no one, nothing, nowhere) como un sinnimo de some other person, any other person, no other person, some other thing, any other thing, etc. Escuche, lea y aprenda : Somebody else ( = some other person) will take care of you. (Alguien ms se preocupara de ustedes) Is there anything else (= any other thing) that you need? (Hay algo ms que necesite usted?)

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B. OR ELSE Esta frase se usa como un sinnimo de if not (= o si no). Tambin se puede usar en este caso la palabra otherwise (= de lo contrario) Escuche, lea y aprenda : We must hurry or else (if we dont) we will be late for the train. Hed better wait here or else (if he doesnt) he will miss her. Youd better tell him about it or else (if you dont) hell be angry with you. EXERCISES Ex. 1. Substitute the correct expression with ELSE for the words in italics: 1. Did they go any other place? 2. No other person helped him with the work. 3. You must ask some other person about it. 4. Havent I met you some other place? 5. Theyve never sold that product in any other place. 6. Did you see any other thing that you liked? 7. Lets do some other thing tonight. 8. I didnt tell any other person about it. 9. Can I show you any other thing, Mrs. Smith? 10. There was no other person in the room at that time. 11. Do you have any other thing to tell us about him? 12. Will they go any other place after the concert? Ex. 2. Join the following pairs of sentences, substituting OR ELSE for the words in italics: 1. We must hurry. If we dont, well be late. 2. You must do as your mother says. If you dont, shell punish you. 3. We had better hurry. If we dont, well miss the train. 4. Turn off the radio. If you dont, youll wake the baby. 5. Save your money. If you dont, you wont be able to go away on your vacation. 6. You must study hard. If you dont, you wont pass the course. 7. You must practice your English every day. If you dont, you will soon forget it. 8. I must go home right away. If I dont, my mother will be angry with me. 9. Helen must rest more. If she doesnt, she may have a nervous breakdown. 10. Put the dog outside. If you dont he will bark and wake everyone up.

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Ex. 3. Repeat the previous exercise, but this time substitute the word OTHERWISE for the words in italics: 1. We must hurry; otherwise well be late 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

VOCABULARY: Study these words THE WORKSHOP /( w:rkshop/ El Taller axe /ks/ bolt /bult/ bucket /bkit/ drill hacha perno balde /dril/ taladro le /fil/ lima hammer /h mer/ martillo jack /dllk/ gata lathe /lei/ torno lever /l:ver/ palanca measuring tape /mllori tip/ huincha de medir nail /neil/ clavo needle /n:dl/ aguja nut /nat/ tuerca plane /plin/ formn pliers /pliarz/ alicates saw /so:/ scissors /szorz/ screw /skru:/ screwdriver /skru:driver/ soldering-iron /slderi iron/ spade /spid/ spanner /sp ner/ square /skwar/ tongs /tongz/ vise /vis/ washer /wsher/ welding torch /wldi t:rtch/ wire /wiar/ workbench /we:rkbntch/ wrench /rntch/ serrucho tijeras tornillo desatornillador soldadora pala llave de tuercas escuadra tenazas banco de torno golilla soplete para soldar alambre banco de trabajo llave inglesa

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Bl 222

Key to answers

UNIT 16
PART I.
Ex. 1. 1. will have left 2. will have changed 3. will have nished 4. will have gone 5. will have had 6. will have completed 7. will have been 8. will have forgotten 9. will have learnt (or learned) 10. will have recovered 11. will have visited 12. will have come - (will have ) gone Ex. 2. (Open answers) Ex. 3. 1. Theyll have nished that building before the end of this year. 2. Hell have fullled / carried out all his plans before the summer ends / is over. 3. Before 6 this evening, well have processed all the information. 4. If we dont take a taxi / cab, the concert will have already started by the time we get to the theatre. 5. Most birds will have emigrated to the north before winter comes. 6. By / Towards the end of this course Ill have learnt to talk in English. 7. I you follow your doctors advice, very soon youll have recovered completely from your surgery 8. Before midnight, the results of the election will have been sent / released to the press

PART II.
A. Ex. 1. 1. He said he would be here at noon 2. I thought I could meet you. 3. He hoped he could be there. 4. I thought it might rain this evening. 5. He wanted to know where she was. 6. He said he was very sorry. 7. The young man told us he was married. 8. I thought it would be very hot this afternoon.9. I thought he would be there by ten oclock. 10. He believed he could do it. 11. The weather man predicted it would rain. 12. He said he had to work.hard every day. 13. I knew where she lived. 14. Bob wanted to know how many people there were. 15. The boy said he had seen the movie.16. The girl said she was studying for a test. 17. I thought Mr Jones might be in his ofce. 18. I thought there would be a lot of work to do. 19. I didnt know where Mary was. 20. I didnt think Bob would like the new job. Ex. 2. 1. would 2. can 3. lived 4. meant 5. will 6. was going 7. could not 8. had been 9. did not 10. is 11. was 12. might B. Ex. 1 1. arrives 2. does - rain 3. is 4. comes 5. gets 6. tell 7. likes 8. is 9. telephones 10. comes 11. go 12. does - come Ex. 2. 1. unless 2. as soon as 3. until 4. as long as 5. until 6. while 7. when / as soon as 8. before 9. until 10. when / as soon as

PART III.
Ex. 1. 1. Did they go anwhere else? 2. Nobody else helped him with the work. 3. You must ask somebody else about it. 4. Havent I met you somewhere else? 5. Theyve never sold that product anywhere else 6. Did you see anything else that you liked? 7. Lets do something else tonight. 8. 1 didnt tell anybody else about it. 9. Can I show you anything else, Mrs. Smith? 10. There was nobody else in the room at that time. 11. Do you have anything else to tell us about him? 12. Will they go anywhere else after the concert? Ex. 2. 1. We must hurry; or else well be late. 2. You must do as your mother says; or else shell punish you. 3. We had better hurry; or else well miss the train. 4. Turn off the radio; or else youll wake the baby. 5. Save your money; or else you wont be able to go away on your vacation. 6. You must study hard; or else you wont pass the course. 7 You must practice your English every day; or else you will soon forget it. 8. 1 must go home right away; or else my mother will be angry with me. 9. Helen must rest more; or else she may have a nervous breakdown. 10. Put the dog outside; or else he will bark and wake everyone up. Ex. 3. 1. We must hurry; otherwise well be late. 2. You must do as your mother says; otherwise shell punish you. 3. We had better hurry; otherwise well miss the train. 4. Turn off the radio; otherwise youll wake the baby. 5. Save your money; otherwise you wont be able to go away on your vacation. 6. You must study hard; otherwise you wont pass the course. 7 You must practice your English every day; otherwise you will soon forget it. 8. 1 must go home right away; otherwise my mother will be angry with me. 9. Helen must rest more; otherwise she may have a nervous breakdown. 10. Put the dog outside; otherwise he will bark and wake everyone up.
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UNIT 17
PART 1. THE PASSIVE VOICE
Hay oraciones gramaticales expresadas en voz activa y oraciones gramaticales expresadas en voz pasiva. En una oracin en voz activa el verbo principal es un verbo transitivo (transitive verb), es decir, ste va seguido por un complemento directo (direct object). Peter wrote the letter last year.
(S) (Tr.V) (D.O).

Mary prepares the meals in the kitchen


(S) (Tr.V) (D.O).

The workers will build a new bridge over that river.


(S) (Tr.V) (D.O).

En la voz pasiva, el complemento directo de la oracin activa pasa a ser el sujeto pasivo (passive subject) de la oracin. Este sujeto pasivo va seguido de una forma del verbo modal Be ms el participio pasado del verbo principal. Normalmente en una oracin pasiva no se hace mencin del sujeto agente (doer), debido a que ste es desconocido o no es importante. The letter was written (by Peter) last year.
(P.S.) (be + p.p.) (doer) (P.S.)

The meals are prepared (by Mary) in the kitchen.


(be + p.p.) (doer)

A new bridge will be built (by the workers) over that river.
(P.S.) (be + p.p.) (doer)

Para cada oracin en voz activa hay una oracin pasiva correspondiente Active Voice He xes the car. He xed the car. He will x the car. He has xed the car. He had xed the car. He will have xed the car. Passive Voice The car is xed (by him). The car was xed. The car will be xed. The car has been xed. The car had been xed. The car will have been xed.

(Present) (Past) (Future) (Pres. perfect) (Past perfect) (Fut. perfect) EXERCISES

(Present) (Past) (Future) (Pres. perfect) (Past perfect) (Fut. perfect)

Ex. 1. Change to passive voice: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. He took the money last Monday evening. He will deliver the merchandise today. She ate the cake this morning. Mr. Smith wrote the book last summer. She has just taken the newspaper. Mr. Smith teaches that class on Friday. They will leave the tickets for you. Somebody has taken my book. The wind blew the smoke away soon. She broke the plate on purpose. They will bring the boy tomorrow. They had nished the work by noon. Mrs.Jackson saw the accident. They have found the child at last. He will do the work this afternoon. People will forget it in few days. People speak English all over the world. They fought a big battle here many years ago. The money was taken by him last Monday evening

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19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24.

They made this gun by hand. Someone has put all the chairs in the next room. He broke his leg in an accident. They will send the book next week. A car ran over our dog a short while ago. They left the wounded soldiers behind.

Ex. 2. Change to active voice: 1. The book was found by Mary. Mary found the book. 2. The money was stolen by a thief. 3. The merchandise will be delivered tomorrow. They 4. The city has been destroyed (by the enemy). 5. The book will be published next spring. Longmans 6. The lecture was attended by many people. 7. Our exercises are corrected each night by our teacher. 8. He was struck by an automobile. 9. The work had been nished by June. He 10. The town will have been captured by Wednesday. They 11. The house was built in 1910. My grandfather 12. The books will be brought by John. 13. America was discovered in 1492. Columbus 14. Our class is taught by Mr. Smith. 15. This book was written by Mr. Scott. Ex. 3. Change to negative and to question form: 1. The work will be done by Mr. Smith. 2. The book was written by Mr. Thompson. 3. The lesson is taught by Mr. Smith. 4. The book has been returned by John. 5. The dish was broken by the maid. 6. The cries of the child were heard clearly. 7. The money had been stolen by one of the boys. 8. America was discovered in 1492. 9. It was discovered by Christopher Columbus. 10. The house was struck by lightning. 11. The book will be published in June. 12. The money has been found. 13. The city was destroyed by bombs. 14. The work will be completed tomorrow. 15. The e-mail was sent this morning. The work wont be done by Mr. Smith. Will the work be done by Mr. Smith?

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Ex. 4. Change to question form, beginning each question with the question word in parentheses: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. America was discovered in 1492.When was America discovered?) The house was destroyed by re. (How) The work will be completed next month. (When) The child was nally found in the park. (Where) The tree was planted by my father. (Who...by / By whom) The book will be published in June. (When) The mail is delivered at ten oclock every day. (What time) He was injured in an automobile accident. (In what kind of accident) The house was built in 1945. (In what year) The money was stolen by one of the servants. (Who...by / By whom)

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

Ex. 5. Answer these questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. By whom was America discovered? In what year was America discovered? When was this book published? Where was this book published? Who was the money stolen by? Where was the child nally found? Who will the dinner be prepared by? By whom are your exercises corrected? Why was the train delayed? Where was the money hidden? When was the news released? When will the work be completed? Where were they married? In what country was Helen born? By whom was the plate broken? Where was the money put? How long was the man held by the police? by Christopher Columbus. in 1492. in 1999. in Chicago. one of the servants. in the park. by the chef. by our instructor. because of bad weather. in a wooden box. about 10:30. by the end of the month. in Valparaiso. in Scotland. by the maid. in the safe. for about 2 hours.

La voz pasiva en los tiempos continuos. La voz pasiva de los tiempos presente y pasado continuo se construye usando la forma continua del verbo modal Be (am, is, are, was, were + being), ms el pasado participio del verbo principal. (Active) The mechanic is xing the car now (Passive) The car is being xed (by the mechanic) now (Active) The men were building the road when I was there. (Passive) The road was being built (by the men) when I was there La voz pasiva con verbos modales can, must, may, should, have to Al cambiar oraciones activas que contienen un verbo modal como can, must, may, should, have to, etc. a la voz pasiva, se debe usar el verbo modal seguido de Be y del pasado participio del verbo principal. (Active) They must nish this job today. (Passive) This job must be nished (by them) today. (Active) They boy can do this exercise easily. (Passive) This exercise can be done by the boy easily. (Active) They have to send this report today. (Passive) This report has to be sent (by them) today.

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Ex. 6. Change to passive voice : 1. They are sending the material today. 2. They are considering that question now. 3. She is typing that letter now. 4. They were discussing the question when I went in. 5. They are sending troops there today. 6. He is nishing the work now. 7. They were cleaning the ofce this morning. 8. They are examining him now. 9. We are using this room. 10. They are defending the city well. 11. They are holding the meeting today. 12. They are transferring him to another class. Ex. 7. Change to passive voice: 1. We can nish this right away. 2. They may send the fax tomorrow. 3. We must lose no time. 4. You can use this room for the lesson. 5. We have to write these exercises at home. 6. He should send this right away. 7. They cannot put those things here. 8. They may deliver the goods tomorrow. 9. He has to do it immediately. 10. We must help him. 11. He cannot nish this today. 12. The police may hold him for several days. Ex. 8. Change to passive voice: 1. John brings the mail every day. 2. John brought the mail yesterday. 3. John will bring the mail tomorrow. 4. John has brought the mail every day. 5. John is bringing the mail now. 6. John may bring the mail tomorrow. 7. John has to bring the mail every day. 8. They have put the chairs in the room. 9. They are sending the merchandise today. 10. He sent the e-mail last week. 11. They have to deliver the books today. 12. We must nd him immediately. The mail is brought by John every day. This can be nished (by us) right away. The material is being sent (by them) today.

Ex. 9. Change to negative and to question form. State each question twice, once in simple form and once with some question word like Who, Where, By whom, How, etc.: 1. He was killed in an accident. He wasnt killed in an accident. Was he killed in an accident? How was he killed?

2. The story is being published today.

3. This must be checked twice. .

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4. lt can be done three or four times a month.

5. lt has to be sent right away.

6. This room can be used for our meetings.

7. The money has been sent to New York.

8. This book was published in 1945.

9. The material is being prepared by Mr.Reese.

10. It should be sent immediately.

11. It has to be done at once.

12. The class is taught by Mr. Smith.

El signo SE en espaol En espaol, no siempre se expresa la voz pasiva con el verbo SER ms un PARTICIPIO PASADO de un verbo principal, sin embargo es muy frecuente el uso del signo SE en este tipo de oraciones. Compare las siguientes oraciones pasivas: El espaol es hablado en este pas Una gran batalla fue librada en este lugar Un nuevo puente ser construido aqu el prximo ao En este pas se habla espaol En este lugar se libr una gran batalla Aqu se construir un nuevo puente el prximo ao

Estas mismas oraciones se pueden traducir al ingls de la siguiente manera: English is spoken in this country, A big battle was fought here, A new bridge will be built here next year Ex. 10. Translate the following sentences into English: 1. Muchas cartas se envan al extranjero desde esta ocina todos los das. 2. Se han descubierto otros planetas en nuestro sistema solar. 3. Se deben construir nuevos caminos en esta parte del pas. 4. Se estn desarrollando nuevos mtodos para controlar la inacin. 5. Se enviaron todas las invitaciones por correo areo. 6. Este libro se ha traducido a varios idiomas. 7. Esto se puede hacer fcilmente, si se usan las herramientas apropiadas.

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8. Se deberan mejorar los servicios de transporte publico en esta ciudad. 9. Se construirn varios hospitales en el pas durante los prximos 5 aos. 10. Durante ese ao se haban llevado a cabo varios proyectos importantes. Ex. 11. Translate the following sentences into Spanish, using the word SE in each case. 1. A new type of missile has been tested recently. 2. The information is being analyzed thoroughly. 3. All kinds of computers are repaired here. 4. Several different techniques may be applied. 5. It is considered that English has become a universal language. 6. The economic policies have been changed in order to control ination. 7. During this week, the comet will be easily seen near the Southern Cross 8. By the end of the 90s, most goals had been successfully attained. 9. The data was being processed at that moment. 10. Next time, several animals will be sent into space in order to study the effects of weightlessness.

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PART II.
THE IDIOMATIC VERB PHRASE BE SUPPOSED TO Esta expresin se usa para referirse a una obligacin del sujeto de llevar a cabo una promesa o un compromiso. Esta es una oracin pasiva que surge debido a que se supone o se espera que el sujeto realice la accin prometida o el compromiso adquirido.. Esta frase idiomtica se usa solamente en los tiempos presente y pasado. En las ideas futuras se debe usar el verbo BE en presente. The ship was supposed (by the public and by the ofcials) to arrive last night. Se supona que el barco llegara anoche (Past) Bob is supposed (by us) to be here now. Se supone que l est aqu ahora. (Present) Helen is supposed (by us) to arrive tomorrow. Se supone que Helen llegar maana. (Future) This book is supposed to have been published in 1975. Se supone que este libro fue publicado en 1975 Ex. 1. Supply the correct form of SUPPOSED TO: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. They are supposed to leave He They He He The train John He He He He The merchandise This book This fax These chairs (leave) at ten oclock. (They at ten oclock.) (come) tomorrow at ve. (deliver) the merchandise last week. (send) this letter yesterday. (be) here now. (be) faster than the bus. (be) a better student than Henry. (call) me tomorrow. (meet) us in Macys. (be) here yesterday at three oclock. (know) her well. (send) tomorrow. (Passive Voice) (publish) last year. (Passive Voice) (send) yesterday. (Passive Voice) (put) in the next room. (Passive Voice)

Ex. 2. Change to introduce SUPPOSED TO: 1. We expect John to come at six oclock. 2. They expect the train to arrive at four clock. 3. We expect her to bring the book with her. 4. We expected him to arrive last night. 5. They expected the war to be over sooner. 6. We expect our lesson to nish at ten oclock. 7. We expect our lesson to last one hour. 8. We expect the parade to begin soon. 9. We expect the bus to stop here. 10. We expect the weather to be hot tomorrow. 11. We expect him to leave for Europe next week. 12. We expect the bank to open at nine oclock. (John is supposed to come at six oclock.)

Ex. 3. Change to negative and to question form. State each question twice, once in simple form and once with some question word like WHEN, WHERE, WHAT TIME, etc.: 1. He is supposed to leave tomorrow morning. He isnt supposed to leave tomorrow morning. Is he supposed to leave tomorrow morning? When is he supposed to leave?

2. He was supposed to bring the money last night.

3. Theyre supposed to start the work soon.

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4. Theyre suppposed to nish the job tomorrow.

5. The letter was supposed to be sent yesterday.

6. Hes supposed to be living somewhere in L.A..

7. He was supposed to telephone me yesterday.

8. We were supposed to meet them on 42nd Street.

9. The book is supposed to be published in June.

10. The King is supposed to visit the USA in May.

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VOCABULARY: Study these words THE ARMED FORCES /(i :rmd f:rsiz/ Las Fuerzas Armadas (I) Army /a:rmi/ Air Force /ar f:rs/ Ranks /r ks/ Commander /komnder/ Subordinate /sab:dinit/ Ejrcito Fuerza Area las comandante subalterno Navy /nivi/ Rank /r k/ Ofcer /ser/ Superior /suparior/ Marina rango, grado Ocial superior

ARMS /:rmz/armas, BRANCHES /br ntchiz/ramas o servicios Infantry /infantri/ Infantera Artillery /a:rtlori/ Armored Cavalry /:rmord k valri/ Caballera Blindada Signal /sgnal/ Airborne /arb:rn/ aerotransportada Engineers /endllinarz/ Transportation /transportishon/ Transportes Medical /mdikal/ Finance /finans/ Intendencia Mechanized /mkanizd/ Ordnance /:rdnans/ material de guerra

Artillera Telecomunicaciones Ingenieros Sanidad Mecanizado

COMMISSIONED OFFICERS /komshond serz/ Ociales Comisionados Full General /ful dllneral/ General de Ejrcito Lieutenant General /lutnant dllneral/ Teniente General Major General /midllor dllneral/ Mayor General Brigadier General /brigadar dllneral/ Brigadier General Colonel /k:rnel/ Coronel Lieutenant Colonel /lutnant k:rnel/ Teniente Coronel Major /midllor/ Mayor Captain /k ptin/ Capitn First Lieutenant /f :rst lutnant/ Teniente Second Lieutenant /skond lutnant/ Subteniente Ensign /nsin/ Alfrez (en la marina) Cadet /kadt/ Cadete NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICERS /non komshond serz/ Subociales Sergeant Major /s:rdllent midllor/ Sargento Mayor (US) Staff Sergeant /sta:f s:rdllent/ Sergeant First Class /s:rdllent frst kla:s/ Sargento Primero Sergeant /s:rdllent/ Corporal /k:rporal/ Cabo Private First Class /privit frst kla:s/ Lance Corporal /lns k:rpral/ Soldado Primero (Br) Private /privit/ Recruit /rkrut/ Soldado conscripto TACTICAL UNITS /tktikal inits/ Squad /skwod/ Troop /tru:p/ Squadron /skudr n/ Battalion /bat lion/ Brigade /brigid/ Corps /ko:r/ Unidades Tcticas pelotn escuadrn (cab.) grupo (cab.blin.) batalln brigada cuerpo

Sargento Mayor (Br)) Sargento Segundo Soldado Primero (US) Soldado

Platoon /plt:n/ Company /kmpni/ Battery /b teri/ Regiment /rdlliment/ Divisin /dividllon/ Army /a:rmi

pelotn compaa batera (art.) regimiento divisin Ejrcito

ROUND OF AMMUNITION /rund ov amiunshon/ Tiro de municin Bullet /blit/ bala, proyectil Cartridge case /k:rtridll kiz/ Propellant /proplant/ propelente o polvora Primer /primer/ Shrapnel /shr pn l/ metralla o esquirla TACTICAL WEAPONS /tktikal wponz/ Armas Tcticas Pistol /pstol/ pistola Rie /ri/ Gun /gan/ can. pistola Knife /naif/ Sword /s:rd/ espada Dagger /d ger/ Machine gun /mash:n gn/ ametralladora Mortar /m:rtar/ Howitzer /huitser/ obs Hand grenade /hnd granid/ Flame-thrower /im ruer/ lanzallamas Rocket launcher /rkit l:ntcher/ Mine /main/ mina Missile /mzil/ Mass destruction weapon /ms distrkshon wpon/ arma de destruccin masiva Bullet /blit/ bala Shell /shel/ Bomb /bom/ bomba

vainilla estopin

fusil cuchillo daga mortero granada de mano lanzacohetes misil proyectil, bomba

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TACTICAL VEHICLES /t ktikal viklz/ Vehculos Tcticos Tank /tk/ tanque Truck /trak/ camion Fighter plane /fiter plin/ cazabombardero Helicopter /hlicopter/ helicptero Speedboat /spi:d bout/ lancha de desembarco Airplane carrier /arplein k rier/ portaviones Submarine /sbmar:n/ submarino LEADERSHIP /l:dership/ Liderazgo Behavior /bihivior/ conducta Commander /komnder/ comandante Control /kontrul/ control Courage /kridll/ valor, coraje Decisiveness /disisivnis/ decision Determination /diterminishon/ determinacin Echelon of command /shelon v kom nd/ escaln de mando Enthusiasm /enusizn/ entusiasmo Initiative /inshiativ/ iniciativa Justice /dllstis/ justicia Morale /mor:l/ moral Span of control /sp n v kontrul/ mbito de control Tact /t kt/ tacto, criterio Willing obedience /wli ob:diens/ obediencia espontnea PARTS OF A RIFLE /pa:rtse v ri/ Partes del Fusil Aiming mechanism /imi mcanizm/ mecanismo de puntera Bolt /boult/ cerrojo Chamber /tchimber/ recmara Firing pin /fiari pin/ percutor Front sight /frnt sit/ punto de mira Locking lug /lki lag/ asegurador Rear sight /rar sit/ alza Sighting mechanism /siti mekanzm/ mecanismo de visada Stock /stok/ caja Trigger guard /trigger g:rd/ guardamonte THE TANK / tk/ El Tanque Armor /:mor/ Gun /gan/ Gunner /gner/ Tank driver /t k driver/ Turret /trit/

APC /i p: s:/ transporte de personal Airplane /arplein/ avin Bomber /bmer/ cazabombardero Chopper /tchper/ helicptero Warship /w:rship/ buque de guerra Mine sweeper /main su:per/ barreminas Main Battle Tank / mein btl tk/ tanque de combate

Command /kom nd/ Condence /kndens/ Cooperation /kouoperishon/ Chain of command /tchin v kom:nd/ Dependability /dipendabliti/ Dignity /digniti/ Endurance /endiarans/ Esprit de corps /espr: de k:r/ Integrity /intgriti/ Leader /l:der/ Pride /prid/ Subordinate /sab:rdinit/ Trait /trit/

mando conanza cooperacin cadena de mando conabilidad dignidad resistencia espritu de cuerpo integridad lder, comandante orgullo subalterno rasgo, caracterstica

Barrel /b rel/ Butt /bat/ Firing mechanism /fiari mkanzm/ Follower /flouer/ Hammer /h mer/ Muzzle /mz l/ Receiver /ris:ver/ Sling /sli/ Trigger /trigger/

can culata mecanismo de disparo cargador martillo trompetilla caja de mecanismos correa disparador, gatillo

blindaje can artilllero conductor del tanque torreta

Armor plate /:mor plit // Gun tube /gn tiu:b/ Tank commander /t k kom:nder/ Tracks /tr ks/ Wheel /wi:l/

plancha de blindaje tubo del can comandante del tanque orugas rueda

FIRING POSITIONS /fiari posillonz/ Posiciones de Disparo Standing /st ndi/ position posicin de pie Sitting /sti/ position Prone /prun/ position posicin tendida Squat /skuot/ position Kneeling /n:li/ position posicin arrodillada

posicin sentada posicin encuclillas

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Key to answers

UNIT 17
PART I.
Ex. 1. 2. The merchandise will be delivered by him today 3. The cake was eaten by her this morning 4. The book was written by Mr. Smith last summer. The newspaper has just been taken by her 6. That class is taught by Mr. Smith on Friday. 7. The tickets will be left for you by them. 8. My book has been taken by somebody. 9. The smoke was blown away by the wind soon. 10. The plate was broken by her on purpose. 11. The boy will be brought by them tomorrow. 12. The work had been nished by them by noon. 13. The accident was seen by Mrs. Jackson. 14. The child has been found by them at last 15. The work will be done by him this afternoon. 16. It will be forgotten(by people) in a few days. 17. English is spoken (by people) all over the world. 18. A big battle was fought (by them) here many years ago. 19. This gun was made (by them) by hand . 20. All the chairs have been put by someone in the next room. 21. His leg was broken (by him) in an accident. 22. The book will be sent by them next week. 23, Our dog was run over by a car a short while ago. 24. The wounded soldiers were left behind (by them). Ex. 2. 2. A thief stole the money. 3. They will deliver the merchandise tomorrow. 4. The enemy has destroyed the city. 5. Longmans will publish the book next spring. 6 Many people attended the lecture. 7 Our teacher corrects our exercises each night. 8. An automobile struck him 9. He had nished the work by June. 10. They will have captured the town by Wednesday. 11. My grandfather built the house in 1910. 12. John will bring the books. 13. Columbus discovered America in 1492. 14. Mr. Smith teaches our class. 15. Mr.Scott wrote this book. Ex. 3. 2. The book wasnt written by Mr. Thompson. / Was the book written by...? 3.The lesson isnt taught by Mr. Smith./ Is the lesson taught by...? 4.The book hasnt been returned by John. / Has the book been returned by...? 5. The dish wasnt broken by the maid. / Was the dish broken by...? 6.The cries of the child werent heard clearly. / Were the cries of the child heard clearly? 7.The money hadnt been stolen by one of the boys. / Had the money been stolen by...? 8.America wasnt discovered in 1492. / Was America discovered in...? 9. It wasnt discovered by Christopher Columbus. / Was it discovered by...? 10.The house wasnt struck by lightning. / Was the house struck by...? 11.The book wont be published in June. / Will the book be published in...? 12.The money hasnt been found. / Has the money been found? 13. The city wasnt destroyed by bombs. / Was the city destroyed by...? 14. The work wont be completed tomorrow./ Will the work be completed...? 15.The telegram wasnt delivered this morning. / Was the telegram delivered...? Ex. 4. 2. How was the house destroyed? 3. When will the work be completed? 4. Where was the child nally found? 5. Who was the tree planted by? / By whom was the tree planted? 6. When will the book be published? 7.(At) what time is the mail delivered every day? 8. In what kind of accident was he injured? 9.In what year was the house built? 10. Who was the money stolen by? / By whom was the money stolen? Ex. 5. 1. It was discovered by Christopher Columbus. 2. It was discovered in 1492. 3. It was published in 1999. 4. It was published in Chicago. 5. It was stolen by one of the servants. 6. He was nally found in the park. 7. It will be prepared by the chef. 8. Theyre corrected by our instructor. 9. It was delayed because of bad weather conditions. 10. It was hidden in a wooden box. 11. It was released at about 10:30 12. It will be completed by the end of the month. 13. They were married in Valparaiso. 14. She was born in Scotland. 15. It was broken by the maid. 16. It was put in the safe. 17. He was held for about two hours. Ex. 6. 2. That question is being considered by them now. 3. That letter is being typed by her now. 4. The question was being discussed by them when I went in. 5. Troops are being sent (by them) there today. 6. The work is being nished by him now. 7. The ofce was being cleaned by them this morning. 8. Hes being examined by them now. 9. This room is being used by us. 10. The city is being defended by them well 11. The meeting is being held by them today. 12. Hes being transferred by them to another class. Ex. 7. 2. The fax may be sent by them tomorrow. 3. No time must be lost by us. 4. This room can be used by you for the lesson. 5. These exercises have to be written by us at home. 6. This should be sent by him right away. 7. Those things cannot be put by them here. 8. The goods may be delivered by them tomorrow. 9. It has to be done by him immediately. 10. He must be helped by us . 11. This cannot be nished by him today. 12. He may be held by the police for several days. Ex. 8. 2. The mail was brought by John yesterday. 3. The mail will be brought by John tomorrow. 4. The mail has been brought by John every day. 5. The mail is being brought by John now. 6. The mail may be brought by John tomorrow.
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7. The mail has to be brought by John every day. 8. The chairs have to be put by them in the room. 9. The merchandise is being sent by them today.. 10. The e-mail was sent by him last week. 11. The books have to be delivered by them today. 12. He must be found by us immediately. Ex. 9. 2. The story isnt being published today / Is the story being published today? / When is the story being published? 3, This mustnt be checked twice. / Must it be checked twice? / How many times must it be checked? 4. It cant be done three or four times a month. / Can it be done three or four times a month? / How many times a week / How often can it be done? 5. It doesnt have to be sent right away. / Does it have to be sent right away? / When does it have to be sent? 6. This room cant be used for our meetings. / Can this room be used for our meetings? / What can this room be used for? 7. The money hasnt been sent to NY. / Has the money been sent to NY? / Where has the money been sent to? 8. This book wasnt published in 1945. / Was this book published in 1945? / When was this book published? 9. The material isnt being prepared by Mr. Reese. / Is the material being prepared by Mr. Reese? / Who is the material being prepared by? 10. It shouldnt be sent immediately. / Should it be sent immediately? / When should it be sent? 11. It doesnt have to be done at once. / Does it have to be done at once? / When does it have to be done? 12. The class isnt taught by Mr. Smith / Is the class taught by Mr. Smith? / Who is the class taught by? Ex. 10. 1.Many letters are sent abroad from this ofce every day. 2. Other planets have been discovered in our solar system. 3. New roads have to / must be built in this part of the country. 4. New methods are being developed to control ination. 5. All the invitations were sent by air mail. 6. This book has been translated into several languages. 7. This can be done easily if the right / appropriate tools are used. 8. Public transport services should be improved in this city. 9. Several hospitals will be built in the country during the next ve years. 10. During that year, several important projects have been carried out. Ex.11. 1. Se ha probado un nuevo tipo de misl recientemente. 2. Se est analizando minuciosamente la informacin. 3. Aqu se repara todo tipo de computadores. 4. Se pueden aplicar varias tcnicas diferentes. 5. Se considera que el Ingls ha llegado a ser un idioma universal. 6. Se han cambiado las polticas econmicas con el n de controlar la inacin. 7. Durante esta semana se ver el cometa fcilmente cerca de la Cruz del Sur. 8. Hacia nes del la dcada de los 90, se haban logrado satisfactoriamente la mayor parte de las metas. 9. Se estaban procesando los datos en ese momento. 10. La prxima vez, se enviarn varios animales al espacio para estudiar los efectos de la ingravidez / falta de gravedad

PART II.
Ex. 1. 2. is supposed to come 3. were supposed to deliver 4. was supposed to send 5. is supposed to be 6. is supposed to be 7. is supposed to be 8. is supposed to call 9. is supposed to meet 10. was supposed to be 11. is supposed to know 12. is supposed to be sent 13. is supposed to have been sent 14. are supposed to be put Ex. 2. 2. The train is supposed to arrive at... 3. She is supposed to bring the... 4. he was supposed to arrive... 5. The war was supposed to be over... 6. Our lesson is supposed to nish at... 7. Our lesson is supposed to last... 8. The parade is supposed to begin... 9. The bus is supposed to stop... 10. The weather is supposed to be hot... 11. He is supposed to leave for... 12. The bank is supposed to open at... Ex. 3. 2. He wasnt supposed to bring it... / Was he supposed to bring it...? / When was he supposed to bring it? 3. They arent supposed to start soon / Are they supposed to start soon? / When are they supposed to start the work? 4. They arent supposed to nish tomorrow. / Are they supposed to nish tomorrow.? / When are they supposed to nish? 5. The letter wasnt supposed to be sent yesterday / Was the letter supposed to be sent yesterday? / When was the letter supposed to be sent? 6. He isnt supposed to be living... / Is he supposed to be living...? / Where is he supposed to be living? 7. He wasnt supposed to telephone... / Was he supposed to telephone...? / When was he supposed to telephone you? 8. We arent supposed to meet them... / Are we supposed to meet them...? / Where are we supposed to meet them? 9. The book isnt supposed to be published in June / Is the book supposed to be published in June? / When is the book supposed to be published? 10. The King isnt supposed to visit... / Is the King supposed to visit...? / When is the King supposed to visit the USA?

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UNIT 18
PART I. ORACIONES CONDICIONALES
Introduccin 1. Son oraciones condicionales aquellas oraciones que empiezan con la palabra IF... (Si...) . If he comes tomorrow,... (Si l viene maana,...) 2. Las oraciones condicionales son oraciones compuestas, ya que estn formadas por dos clusulas. Una de ellas es la CONDICIN, introducida por la palabra IF; la segunda es la clusula de RESULTADO. If he comes tomorrow, you will see him. (Si l viene maana, lo vers) (Condicin) (Resultado) 3. El orden de las clusulas que componen una oracin condicional puede ser invertido If he comes tomorrow, you will see him. You will see him if he comes tomorrow. 4. Existen tres tipos de oraciones condicionales: a. FUTURO POSIBLE (Future Possible): If he comes tomorrow, you will see him. (Si l viene maana, t lo vers.). b. PRESENTE IRREAL (Present Unreal): If he came here more often, you would see him more often, too. (Si l viniera ac ms seguido, t lo veras ms seguido tambin) c. PASADO IRREAL (Past Unreal): If he had come here yesterday, you would have seen him. (Si l hubiera venido ac ayer, t lo habras visto) I. ORACIONES CONDICIONALES DEL PRIMER TIPO: FUTURO POSIBLE En este tipo de oraciones condicionales, cuando la condicin introducida por IF se materializa, lo ms probable es que se d el resultado previsto en la clusula de Resultado. La estructura de este tipo de oraciones condicionales es la siguiente:
Condicion If + Subject + Present Resultado Subject + will + Innitive

Read, listen and repeat these examples: If the weather is good tomorrow, we will go to the beach (Si el tiempo est bueno maana, iremos a la playa) If I see John at the party, Ill give him your message. (Si veo a Juan en la esta, le dar tu mensaje) If you sit here, you will be able to see everything. (Si te sientas aqu, podrs ver todo) If you dont study hard, you will not get a good mark. (Si no estudias duro, no te sacars una buena nota) If Diana doesnt leave at once, shell miss her train. (Si Diana no sale de inmediato, perder su tren) If you arent careful when youre driving, youll have an accident. (Si no eres cuidadoso cuando ests conduciendo, tendrs un accidente)

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Es importante notar aqu que en la condicin, an cuando nos estamos reriendo a una accin futura, el verbo debe ir en presente simple (y no en futuro). If Mary comes tomorrow (No, If Mary will come), I will give her your message. Del mismo modo, debe usar el tiempo presente (y no el futuro) despus de los conectores WHEN (cuando), UNTIL (hasta que), BEFORE (antes que), AFTER (despus que), AS SOON AS (en cuanto), AS LONG AS (durante todo el tiempo que), WHILE (mientras), UNLESS (a menos que), etc., cuando se est usando una expresin de tiempo futuro, como tomorrow, this evening, next Monday morning, etc. Read, listen and repeat these examples: When Kevin comes this afternoon, he will tell us what happened. (Cuando Kevin venga esta tarde, l nos contar qu pas) As soon as she opens her eyes, she will see the Prince. (En cuanto ella abra los ojos, ver al Prncipe) I will wait here until she telephones. (Esperar aqu hasta que ella llame por telfono)

II. ORACIONES CONDICIONALES DEL SEGUNDO TIPO: PRESENTE IRREAL En este tipo de oraciones condicionales nos planteamos una situacin hipottica (es contraria a la realidad) If John had a car, he would drive to California (Si John tuviera un auto, l viajara en auto a California) (Real situation: He doesnt have a car, so he cant drive to California) If Mary knew how to swim, she would go to the beach more often. Si Mary supiera nadar, ella ira a la playa ms seguido) (Real situation: She doesnt know how to swim, so she doesnt go to the beach very often) La estructura de este tipo de oraciones condicionales es la siguiente:
Condicion If + Subject + Past Resultado Subject + would/could/might + Innitive

Es importante observar que cuando se usa el verbo TO BE en estas oraciones debemos usar el subjuntivo de dicho verbo, es decir todas las personas deben usar la forma WERE. If John were here now he would help us. (Si John estuviera aqu, l nos ayudara) If I were a millionaire I would buy many things. (Si yo fuera millonario, comprara muchas cosas) EXERCISES Ex.1. Supply the proper form of the verb in parentheses in the following PRESENT-UNREAL conditional statements: 1. lf Mary study more.) 2. If I 3. If he 4. lf I 5. lf John 6. lf Helen 7. lf our room 8. If the weather 9. lf he 10. I would go if I 11. John would do it if he 12. We would speak better if we
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(have) more time, she would study more. (lf Mary had more time, she would (be) in your position, I would study French. (know) her better, he could go with her to the party. (have) the money, I would buy that suit. (be) here now, he would help us. (be) a good student, she would speak English better. (be) larger, we could study better. (be) warmer, we would go for a walk. (prepare) his lessons every night, he would be a better student. (have) more time. (be) not so busy. (have) more practice in conversation.

Ex. 2 . Supply the proper form of the verb in parentheses: 1. lf he were here, he (help) us. (If he were here, he would help us.) 2. lf I knew her, I (speak) to her. 3. If he came to class more often, he (learn) more. 4. She (make) more progress if she studied more. 5. She (speak) English better if she had more practice. 6. If he came to class on time, he (be) a better student. 7. If he went to bed earlier, he (feel) better. 8. lf he had more money, he (take) trip to Japan. 9. She (go) with us if she were not so busy. 10, If he were stronger , he (work) harder. 11. If today were a holiday, we (go) to the beach. 12. If I were free tomorrow, I (visit) the museum Ex. 3. Change to Present Unreal Conditions: 1. If he has time, he will go. (If he had time, he would go) 2. If the weather is cold, we will not go. 3. If he is here, he can help us. 4. If he studies hard, he will pass, 5. If I have more time , I will read more books. 6. If we have more practice, we will speak better. 7. If he comes, he will see her. 8. If he goes to the party, he will meet her. 9. If he prepares his lessons, he will make good progress. 10. lf they try hard, they will succeed. 11. lf I am free tomorrow, I will go to the beach. 12. lf I dont have to work, I will go to the movie. Ex. 4. Complete the following by using Present Unreal Conditions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. John does not study hard but if... (John does not study hard, but if he studied hard he would learn more quickly.) Mary does not prepare her lessons, but if... William never comes to class on time, but if... He has very little practice in speaking, but if... I am not in Florida now, but if... Mary isnt here now, but if... I cant speak French, but if... I dont speak English well, but if... He has very little free time, but if... He doesnt like to study English, but if... He has very few friends, but if... She has very little money, but if...

Ex. 5. Complete the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. lf John were here, he... would be very happy. He would speak better if... If he studied more, he... If I could speak French, I... If I were you, I... If l were in Florida now, I... If he had more time, he... If I knew her well, I... lf John prepared his lessons every night, he... If today were a holiday, we... If he came to class regularly, he...
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12. 13. 14. 15.

Mary would go with us if... He would speak better if... We would go for a walk in the park if... If today were Sunday, we...

Ex. 6. Choose the correct form: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. If I (was, were) in your position, I would study French. (lf I were in your position, I would...) If the weather (is, will be) nice tomorrow, we may drive to the country. If I were you, I (will, would) walk to school. John said he (will, would) be here soon. Mary told me that she (can, could) not come. If he (can, could) help us, I am sure he would. If I (know, knew) how to swim, I would go swimming every day. If I (had, have) time tomorrow, I will go to the movie. When John (comes, will come) here tomorrow, Mary will talk with him. He would go to the theater more often if he (have, had) the time. He said he (may, might) be late. If he (knows, knew) my number, he could telephone me.

Ex. 7. Answer these questions: 1. If today were a holiday, where would you go? 2. If you had an automobile, where would you drive this weekend? 3. Would you speak English better if you had more practice in conversation? 4. If you studied harder, would you get better marks in all your subjects? 5. If you could visit any country in the world, what country would you visit rst? 6. If you had much money, how would you spend it? 7. If today were Sunday, where would you go and what would you do? 8. Would John speak English better if he spent more time on his lessons? 9. If you knew English perfectly, what other language would you begin to study?

III. ORACIONES CONDICIONALES DEL TERCER TIPO: PASADO IRREAL En este tipo de oraciones nosotros nos referimos a una situacin hipottica (contraria a la realidad) en el pasado. If John had studied hard, he would have passed his examination. (Si John hubiera estudiado ms, habra aprobado su examen). (Real situation: He didnt pass his examination because he didnt study hard) If they had known your telephone number, they would have called you up. (Si ellos hubieran conocido su nmero telefnico, te habran llamado) (Real situation: They didnt call you up because they didnt have your telephone number) La estructura de este tipo de oraciones condicionales es la siguiente:
Condicion If + Subject + Past perfect Resultado Subject + would have/could have/might have + Past participle

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En situaciones formales o literarias, este tipo de oraciones condicionales se expresan sin IF. En estos casos el verbo modal HAD precede al sujeto. Had he known that you were ill, he would have come to see you . EXERCISES Ex. 1. Supply the correct form of the verb in parentheses: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. He would have come to the party if he had known (know) about it. (He would have come to the party if he about it). If I (have) your address, I would have called on you. If the weather (be) nice yesterday, they would have gone to the park. If you (call) me, I would have been glad to go. If he (wear) his overcoat, he would not have caught cold. I would have visited you if I (know) you were living in New York. If I (be) in your place, I would have told him. He would have gotten sick if he (go) out in the rain. If he (tell) me the truth, I would not have been so angry. If yesterday (be) a holiday, we would have gone to the beach.

Ex. 2. Supply the correct form of the verb in parentheses: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. If he had studied more, he he would have succeeded. (succeed) . If he had not worn his overcoat, he (catch ) cold. I (help) him if he had asked me. He (be) angry if he had learned the truth. We (come) earlier if we had known about it. We (be) glad to meet you if you had invited us. He (write) to you if he had had your address. I (tell) you about it if I had known all the facts. We (go) to the movie last night if we had been free. They (drive) to the country if they had had a car.

Ex. 3. Complete the following sentences by adding a PAST-UNREAL conditional statement: 1. John didnt prepare his lessons, but if he had prepared them he would have learned English better 2. Mary didnt come to school yesterday, but if. 3. I didnt have your telephone number, but if 4. John wasnt at the meeting yesterday, but if 5. I wasnt in Florida last winter, but if 6. I didnt know his name, but if 7. He didnt tell me about it, but if 8. I didnt have a car last winter, but if 9. She didnt wear her raincoat, but if 10. I wasnt in his position, but if 11. She didnt come on time, but if 12. He couldnt speak English at the time, but if .

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Ex. 4. Change to PRESENT-UNREAL and to PAST-UNREAL Conditions: 1. If he comes, she will speak to him. a. If he came, she would speak to him. b. If he had come, she would have spoken to him. 2. If the weather is nice, they will go to the beach a. b. 3. If he has time, he will go with us a. b. 4. If I am free next week, I will call her up a b 5. If I can do it, I will do it gladly a b 6. If he is here, he may help us a b 7. If I see her, I will give her the message a b 8. If he goes there, he will let us know a b 9. If it rains, they will stay at home a b 10. If he works harder, he will be promoted a b 11. If he has the money, he may go with us a b 12. If John is present, the meeting will be good a b Ex. 5. (Open Exercise) Complete the following: 1. If he were here, he would take part in the game 2. If I had known about it, I 3. They would have come if they 4. If I were you, I 5. If you had asked me, I 6. If he had telephoned me, I 7. I would go if I 8. He would have helped us if

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9. If England had been better prepared for war, Germany 10. If I had more time, I 11. He would have succeeded if he 12. If I had been invited, I 13. If the weather were nice, we 14. If the weather had been nice, we 15. They would have joined the class if they 16. I might have caught cold if I

Ex. 6. Choose the correct form: 1. If I (was, were) you, I would certainly do it. (lf I were you, I would certainly do it.) 2. John looks as though he (was, were) sick. 3. He acted as if he (had, had had) a great shock. 4. If I (knew, had known) this yesterday, I would have acted differently. 5. If it (rains, will rain) tomorrow, we may not go away. 6. I (could go, could have gone) if they had asked me. 7. If he (was, had been) here, he would have taken part in the discussion. 8. He acted as if he (was, were) the manager of the place. 9. I (will, would) like to study Spanish if I had the time. 10.If today (was, were) a holiday, we could go to the beach. 11.If yesterday (was, has been, had been) a holiday, we could have gone to the beach. 12.Call me if he (comes, will come) before noon. 13.If I (would be, were) in his position, I would not accept the work. 14.He will not go unless she (goes, will go) too. 15.I feel as if I (ate, had eaten) a large dinner. 16.I think he (would come, would have come) if we had asked him. Ex. 7. Answer these questions: 1. If yesterday had been a holiday, where would you have gone? 2. If you had known it was going to rain, would you have gone on that picnic yesterday? 3. If you had studied harder, would you have gotten a better mark on your examination? 4. If you had had last week off, where would you have gone? 5. If you hadnt had to study last night, would you have gone to the movies with your friend? 6. Would John have gone to the stadium with you if he had not been sick? 7. Would the party have been better if Mary had been present? 8. Would you have helped your friend with his homework if he had asked you?

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PART II.
A. USO DEL SUBJUNTIVO DESPUES DE WISH Debido a que el verbo WISH (desear) sugiere una situacin que es hipottica o contraria a la realidad, este siempre debe ir seguido por el modo subjuntivo; es decir, al igual que en las oraciones condicionales, va seguido de un verbo en PASADO en situaciones presentes y un PASADO PARTICIPIO en situaciones pasadas. En estos casos estas expresiones se usan para expresar un deseo y equivalen a Ojal..., Me gustara..., o Me habra gustado... I dont know how to swim. I wish I knew how to swim. I cant go to the conference because Im very busy. I wish I werent so busy. Mary is not here now. John wishes she were here now. I didnt see Mary at the meeting yesterday. I wish I had seen her. Cuando queremos expresar un deseo relacionado con una situacin futura, debemos usar el verbo modal WOULD. Its been raining hard for about ve hours. I wish it would stop raining soon. I wish he wouldnt do that again Observe la siguiente tabla: Situaciones Presentes: Situaciones Pasadas: Situaciones Futuras: EXERCISES Ex. 1. Supply the correct form of the verb in parentheses: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. I wish John I wish I I wish I John wishes he I wish I I wish it I wish it I wish I I wish today I wish I I wish I I wish I (be) here now. (I wish John were here now.) (can) swim. (study) English when I was a boy. (be) in Florida now. (go) with you to the movie last night. (be) not so cold now. (stop) snowing soon. (know) about this yesterday. (be) a holiday. (have) today off. (have) yesterday off. (know) her better. Id certainly invite her to the party. S + Past

I wish

S + Past Perfect S + Conditional

Ex. 2. Complete the following sentences: 1. I have no car but I wish 2. I cannot swim but I wish 3. I didnt study before my examinations but I wish 4. Today isnt a holiday but I wish 5. Yesterday wasnt a holiday but I wish 6. The weather isnt nice today but I wish 7. I am not a millionaire but I wish 8. John wont do it for us but I wish 9. Mary isnt here but I wish 10.I have to work this afternoon but I wish 11.I cant speak English well but I wish
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( I had one.)

12.Mary isnt going with us but I wish Ex. 3. Change the sentences to introduce I WISH instead of IM SORRY: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Im sorry he does not speak English well. (I wish he spoke English well.) Im sorry he did not go with us last night. Im sorry you could not go to the opera last night. Im sorry John is not here with us. Im sorry it is raining so hard. Im sorry that I dont know her better. Im sorry that Helen cant go with us to the beach. Im sorry that she could not go with us to the beach. Im sorry that today is not a holiday. Im sorry that you cant swim.

B. VERBOS SEGUIDOS DEL PRESENTE DEL SUBJUNTIVO Los verbos TO RECOMMEND, TO SUGGEST, TO DEMAND, TO REQUIRE, TO ASK, TO INSIST y TO PROPOSE, deben ir seguidos de THAT + PRESENTE DE SUBJUNTIVO cuando estamos rerindonos a una situacin propuesta o hipottica. En el Presente del Subjuntivo, todas las personas usan la forma simple del innitivo, por lo tanto no se debe agregar -s o -es en la tercera persona del singular.. He recommended that she wait (sin s) for us outside the theater. (l recomend que ella nos esperara...) I suggested that you see the manager today. (Yo suger que usted viera al gerente hoy da) Cuando se desea usar el verbo TO BE no se debe usar las formas am/is/are, sino que la forma simple BE She asked that we be there before midday. (Ella pidi que nosotros estuviramos alli antes del mediodia) They recommended that I be there a few minutes earlier. (Ellos recomendaron que yo estuviera alli...) En la conversacin diaria coloquial se preere usar el verbo modal should + innitive para expresar estas ideas. He recommended that she should wait for us outside the theater. I suggested that you should see the manager today. She asked that we should be there before midday. They recommended that I should be there a few minutes earlier Tambin se debe usar el presente del subjuntivo despus frases como, It is necessary that..., Its essential hat..., Its imperative that..., Its advisable that..., etc, como los siguientes ejemplos: It is necessary that Mary see the manager today. Its advisable that you be there before midday. EXERCISES Ex. 1. Supply the correct form of the verb in parentheses: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. He recommended that she He suggested that John It is imperative that they He asked that it I recommended that you They insisted that we He proposed that John Is it necessary that this He insisted that she The doctor suggested that Mr. Smith go) with him. (He recommended that she go with him.) (wait) a few minutes. (be) there on time. (be) done right away. (come) back later. (visit) them again. (be) chairman. (be) nished today? (go) on with the work. (take) a long vacation.
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Ex. 2. Change the sentences to introduce SUGGESTED / INSISTED / RECOMMENDED instead of ASKED: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. I asked John to wait for me. I asked her to come back later. John asked me to take a walk with him. He asked me to be there on time. We asked them to go with us in our car. The teacher asked us to visit her in her home. The owner of the store asked me to call back later. The teacher asked Bill to be more careful. We asked her to be at our home at eight oclock. He asked me to lend him the money. I suggested that John wait for me.)

Ex. 3. Supply the correct form in the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. If John were here, it (would be) Had I known your number, I What would you do if you Were I you, I He would have nished sooner if he Had I had more time, I If he had been well, he If he felt better, he If he had felt better, he If today If yesterday He would help us if he (be) much easier for us. (telephone) you. (be) I? (begin) to study Spanish. (hurry). (do) it. (come) to the meeting. (go) to the party. (go) to the party. (be) a holiday, he would spend it at the beach. (be) a holiday, he would have spent it at the beach. (can).

Ex. 4. Choose the correct form: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. I wish I (were, would be) in Florida now. I wish I (went, had gone) with you to the party last night. He recommended that I (am, be) there early. He suggested that John (come, comes) back later. If I (were, would be) in Florida now, I would go swimming. John said he (will, would) be here tomorrow. If he (will come, comes) soon, please let me know. John sat between Mary and (I, me). The merchandise is supposed (to send, to be sent) tomorrow. If you come too early, I (may sleep, may be sleeping). He (is living, has been living) here many years. I (saw, have seen) John yesterday. He said he already (saw, had seen) that movie. John always (sits, is sitting) at this desk.

Ex. 5 Answer these questions: 1. Which would you prefer to be, in good health or in bad health? 2. Which would you prefer, to be rich or poor? 3. Which would you prefer to study in the future, German or Chinese? 4. Which would you prefer, to travel in Europe or in South America? 5. Which would you prefer, to own a house or an apartment?

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6. Would you be pleased or sorry to hear that your friend was sick? 7. Would you be pleased or sorry to hear that you had won a large prize? 8. Would you be pleased or sorry to hear that you had failed your examination? 9. Would you be pleased or sorry to hear that you were not going to graduate? 10. Would I be right or wrong if I said that sh could y? 11. Would I be right or wrong if I said that birds could swim? 12. Would I be right or wrong if I said that you spoke English very well?

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BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words THE ARMED FORCES /i :rmd f:rsiz/ Las Fuerzas Armadas (II) Allied forces /alid f:rsiz/ Armistice /:rmistis/ Assault /as:lt/ Attacking unit /at ki iunit/ Barrack /b rak/ Battle /b tl/ Battleeld /b tlf:ld/ Bombardment /bomb:rdment/ Campaign /kampin/ Carnage /k:rnidll/ Casualty /k llualti/ Ceasere /si:sfiar/ Chaplain /tch plin/ Civilian /sivlian/ Clash /kl sh/ Combatant /kmbatant/ Combat /kmbat/ Commando /kom ndou/ Conict /knikt/ Coup detat /ku:det:/ Siege /s:dll/ Curfew /k:ru/ Defeat /dif:t/ Defensive action /defnsiv ktchn/ Demilitarized zone /dimiltarizd zun/ Deployment /dipliment/ Destruction /distrkshn/ Detachment /dit tchment/ Deterrent /dit:rrent/ Direct re /dairkt fiar/ Disengament /disengidllment/ Diver /diver/ Doctor /dktor/ Drill /dril/ Enemy re /nemi fiar/ Fight /fit/
/ k/ Foe /fou/

Friendly re /frndli fiar/ Front /frant/ Front line /frant lain/ Garrison /g rison/ Guerrilla /gerla/ Headquarters /hedkurterz/ Hostage /hstidll/ Indirect re /indairkt fiar/ Killing /kli/ Logistic support /lodllstik sap:rt/ Losses /lsiz/ Maneuvers /man:verz/

fuerzas aliadas armisticio asalto unidad de ataque barraca, cuadra batalla campo de batalla bombardeo campaa matanza,carnicera baja de guerra cese al fuego capelln civil enfrentamiento combatiente combate comando conicto golpe de estado sitio, asedio toque de queda derrota accin defensiva zona desmilitarizada despliegue destruccin destacamento disuasin fuego directo ruptura del combate buzo doctor ejercicio fuego enemigo lucha, combate anco enemigo fuego amigo frente lnea de frente guarnicin guerrillero cuartel general rehn fuego indirecto matanza apoyo logstico prdidas, bajas maniobras

Mercenary /mersen ri/ Militant /mlitant/ Mountaineer /mauntenar/ Nurse /n:rs/ Offensive action /ofnsiv ktchn/ Orderly /:rderli/ Parade /parid/ Paratrooper /paratr:per/ Peace /p:s/ Peace treaty /p:s tr:ti/ Peacekeeping forces
/pi:sk:pi f:rsiz/

Policeman /polsman/ Preemptive action


/primptiv ktchn/

mercenario militante andinista enfermero accin ofensiva ordenanza parada paracaidista paz tratado de paz fuerzas de mantenimiento de paz polica accin preemptiva accin preventiva prisionero incursin comando retaguardia posicin de retagurdia reconocimiento refuerzo ayuda, auxilio equipo de rescate reservista toque de diana recogida, retreta revista revuelta revuelta saludo tirador escogido escaramuza matanza espa Flank estrategia lucha rendicin vigilancia tctica tregua no tripulado veterano de guerra victoria guerra (evento) guerra (actividad) guerrero repliegue

Preventive action /privntiv ktchn/ Prisoner /przoner/ Raid /reid/ Ranger /rindller/ Rear /rar/ Rear position /rar posshon/ Reconnaissance /riknisans/ Reinforcement /riinf:rsment/ Relief /ril:f/ Rescue team /rskiu ti:m/ Reservist /rse:rvist/ Reveille /rev li //rveli/ Retreat /ritr:t/ Review /rivi:/ Revolt /rivlt/ Riot /riot/ Salute /salit/ Sharp shooter /sharp sh:ter/ Skirmish /sk :rmish/ Slaughter /sl:ter/ Spy /spi/ Strategy /str tedlli/ Struggle /str gl/ Surrender /sarnder/ Surveillance /se:rvilans/ Tactics /t ktiks/ Truce /tru:s/ Unmanned /anm nd/ Veteran /vteran/ Victory /vktri/ War /wo:r/ Warfare /worfar/ Warrior /wrior/ Withdrawal /widral/

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Verbs: To To To To To To To To To To To To To To To To To To To To To To To To To To accomplish /akmplish/ aim /im/ ambush / mbush/ arm /a:rm/ attack /at k/ besiege /bi:s:dll/ blow up /blou p/ bomb /bom/ bombard /bomb:rd/ break out /breik ut/ capture /k ptcher/ carry out /k ri ut/ command /kom nd/ conquer /knker/ defeat /dif:t/ defend /difnd/ deploy /dipli/ destroy /distri/ disarm /dis:rm/ drill /dril/ endure /endi:ar/ engage /engidll/ ght /fait/ re /fiar/ give up /giv p/ invade /invid/ llevar a cabo apuntar emboscar armar atacar sitiar estallar bombardear bombardear comenzar, estallar capturar realizar comandar conquistar derrotar defender desplegar destruir desarmar ejercitar resistir trabar combate luchar, pelear disparar rendirse invadir To To To To To To To To To To To To To To To To To To To To To To To To To kill /kil/ lead /li:d/ lose /lu:z/ mobilize /mbiliz/ occupy /kiupi/ overcome /uverkm/ overrun /uvern/ patrol /patrul/ raid /rid/ recruit /rekr:t/ retreat /ritr:t/ review /rivi:/ salute /sali:t/ seize /s:z/ shell /shel/ sight /sit/ spy /spi/ struggle /strgl/ supply /sapli/ support /sap:rt/ surrender /sarrnder/ wage /widll/ win /win/ withdraw /widr:/ inspect /inspkt/ matar guiar, conducir perder movilizar ocupar vencer invadir patrullar incursionar reclutar retirarse revistar saludar tomar, asir bombardear hacer puntera espiar luchar suministrar apoyar, ayudar rendirse librar una guerra ganar replegarse inspeccionar

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Key to answers

UNIT 18
PART I
B) Ex. 1. 2. were 3, knew 4. had 5. were 6. were 7. were 8. were 9. prepared 10. had 11. were 12. had Ex. 2 . 2, would speak 3. would learn 4. would make 5. would speak 6. would be 7. would feel 8. would take 9. would go 10. would work 11. would go 12. would visit Ex. 3. 2. If the weather were cold, we would not go. 3. If he were here, he could help us. 4. if he studied hard, he would pass 5. If I had more time, Id read more books. 6. If we had much practice, we would speak better. 7. If he came, he would see her. 8. If he went, he would meet her. 9. If he prepared his lessons, hed make good progress. 10. If they tried hard, they would succeed. 11. If I were free tomorrow, Id go to the beach. 12. If I didnt have to work, Id go to the movie. Ex. 4. (Possible answers) 2... she prepared her lessons shed learn more. 3... he came to class on time hed be a better student. 4... he had more practice in speaking he would speak a lot better. 5....I were there now I would visiting Orlando. 6....she were here I would be talking with her now. 7...I could speak it, Id be planning a trip to France. 8....I spoke it well, I would be a CEO (Chief Executive Ofcer). 9...he had more free time, he would play tennis more often. 10....he liked to do it, hed speak it better. 11...he had more friends, hed enjoy living here. 12...she had more money, shed be able to travel abroad more often. Ex. 5. (Possible answers) 2... he studied harder 3... would learn faster 4...would plan a trip to France. 5...would buy a modern car. 6...would visit Epcot Center 7....would do more things every day. 8...would invite her out to dinner. 9...hed be a better student. 10... would go to the beach. 11...hed learn more. 12...she had the day off / free. 13....he had more practice in conversation. 14...it were not so cold. 15...could go on a picnic. Ex. 6. 2. is 3. would 4. would 5. could 6. could 7. knew 8. have 9. comes 10. had 11. might 12. knew Ex. 7. (Suggested answers) 1. Id go to... 2. Id drive to... 3. Yes. Id speak a lot better . 4. Yes, Id getter better marks, of course. 5. Id would visit... rst. 6. Id buy... / Id go to... 7. Id go to... And Id... 8. Oh yes. Hed certainly speak better. 9. Id beging to study... C) Ex. 1. 2. had had 3. had been 4. had called 5. had worn 6. had known 7. had been 8. had gone 9. had told 10. had been Ex. 2. 2. would have caught 3. would have helped 4. would have been 5. would have come 6. would have been 7. would have written 8. would have told 9. would have gone 10. would have driven Ex. 3. (Possible answers). 2... she had come, she would have taken part in the competition. 3...I had had it, Id have called you up. 4...he had been there, you would have seen him. 5....I had been there, Id have gone on a cruise in the Caribbean. 6.... I had known it, I would have included it in the list of guests 7... he had told me, Id have acted differently. 8...I had had one, I would have driven to Denver at Christmastime . 9...she had wore it, she wouldnt have caught cold. 10...I had been in his position, I d have asked for an interview with the boss. 11... she had come on time, she wouldnt have miss the rst act of the opera. 12....he had spoken it, he d have gotten a better job. Ex. 4. 2.If the weather were nice, they would go to the beach. / If the weather had been nice, they would have gone to the beach.. 3. If he had time, he would go with us. / If he had had time, he would have gone with us. 4. If 1 were free now, I would call you up. / If 1 had been free yesterday, I would have called you up. 5. If 1 could do it, 1 would do it gladly. / If Id been able to do it, I d have done it gladly. 6. If he were here, he might he1p us. / If hed been here, he might have helped us. 7. If I saw her, Id give her the message. / If Id seen her, Id have given her the message. 8. If
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he went there, he will let us know. / . If hed gone there, he would have let us know. 9. If it rained, they would stay at home. / . If it had rained, they would have stayed at home. 10. If he worked harder, he would be promoted. / . If hed worked harder, he would have been promoted. 11. If he had the money, he might go with us / If hed had the money, he might have gone with us. 12. If John were present, the meeting would be good. / If John had been present, the meeting would have been good. Ex. 5. 1. (Suggested answers) 2.... would have phoned you 3....had been invited 4... would buy a Japanese car. 5... would have helped you 6... would have Id have told him you were here. 7.... had the day off . 8....we had asked him to help us. 9....wouldnt have attacked the territory by air. 10.... would watch TV every day 11... he had worked harder during the term. 12....would have attended the conference. 13.... would go out for a walk 14... would have gone out for a walk 15... had known it started today. 16....had gone out in the cold yesterday evening. Ex. 6. 2. were 3. had had 4. had known 5. rains 6. could have gone 7. had been 8. were 9. would 10. were 11. had been 12. comes 13. were 14. goes 15. had eaten 16. would have come Ex. 7. (Suggested answers) 1. I would have gone to... 2. No, I woulnt have gone. I hate the rain / Yes, I would have gone all the same. I love the rain. 3. Yes, of course. I would have gotten a better mark. 4. Id have gone to... 5. Yes, I would have gone, of course / No, I wouldnt have gone to the movies. Id have gone to a concert instead. 6. Of course he would have gone. He loves sports / No, he wouldnt have gone. He hates sports. 7. Yes, perhaps it would have been better if she had been present / No, it would have been the same 8. Yes, I would have certainly helped him. / No, I wouldnt have helped him. I was too busy at that moment.

PART II
A) Ex. 1. 2. could 3. had studied 4. were 5. had gone 6. were 7. would 8. had known 9. were 10. had 11. had had 12. knew Ex. 2. 2. I could swim 3. I had studied 4. it were a holiday. 5. it had been a holiday 6. it were nice 7. I were 8. he would do it 9. she were here. 10. I didnt have to work. 11. I could speak it . 12. she were. Ex. 3. 2. I wish he had gone with us last night. 3. I wish you had been able to go to the opera last night. 4. I wish John were here with us. 5. I wish it werent raining so hard. 6. I wish I knew her better 7. I wish Helen could go with us to the beach. 8. I wish she had been able to go with us to the beach. 9. I wish today were a holiday. 10. I wish you could swim / I wish I were able to swim B) Ex. 1. 2. wait 3. be 4. be 5. come 6. visit 7. be 8. be 9. go 10. take Ex. 2 . 2. I insisted that she come / should come back later 3. John recommended that I take / should take a walk with him. 4. He suggested that I be / should be there on time. 5. We insisted that they go / should go with us in our car. 6. The teacher recommended that we visit / should visit her in her home. 7. The owner of the store suggested that I call / should call back later. 8. The teacher insisted that Bill be / should be more careful. 9. We recommended that she be / should be at our home at eight oclock. 10. He suggested that I lend / should lend him the money. Ex. 3. 2. would have telephoned 3.were 4. would begin 5. had hurried 6. would have done 7. would have come 8. would go 9. would have gone 10. were 11. had been 12. could Ex. 4. 1. were 2. had gone 3. be 4. come 5. were 6. would 7. comes 8. me 9. to be sent 10. may be sleeping 11. has been living 12. saw 13. had already seen 14. sits Ex. 5. (Possible answers) 1. Id prefer to be in good health, of course. 2. Id prefer to be rich, of course. 3. Id prefer to speak English perfectly. 4. Id prefer to travel to Europe, I think. 5. Id prefer to own a horse. I like riding horses. 6. Id be sorry to hear that, of course. 7. Id be pleased to hear that, of course. 8. Id be very sorry to hear that, of course. 9. . Id be very sorry to hear that, of course. 10. Youd be very wrong if you said that, of course. 11. Youd be right or wrong. It depends. 12. Youd be wrong if you said that. My English is not very good.
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UNIT 19
THE REPORTED SPEECH (DISCURSO DIRECTO E INDIRECTO)
Cuando deseamos contar a otra persona lo que alguien nos dijo, nos pregunt o nos orden, pidi o advirti hacer, podemos utilizar las palabras textuales usadas por esa persona, lo que en castellano se conoce como Discurso Directo (o Direct Speech en ingls); o podemos realizar algunos cambios verbales, pronominales o adverbiales para respetar la concordacia de los tiempos verbales y la correspondencia de los pronombres y las expresiones de tiempo o lugar, lo que se conoce como Discurso Indirecto en castellano (o Indirect Speech en ingls). Es necesario revisar la regla de la concordancia de los tiempos verbales estudiadas en la Unidad 16. John said, Im very busy. (Direct Speech) John said (to us), I like New York. (Direct Speech) John said that he was very busy. (Indirect Speech) John told us that he liked New York. (Indirect Speech) I. DISCURSO INDIRECTO CON ORACIONES AFIRMATIVAS O NEGATIVAS Existen ciertas reglas que debemos conocer cuando estamos cambiando oraciones, preguntas u rdenes del discurso directo al indirecto. En esos casos debemos hacer algunos cambios que son obligatorios (verbos y pronombres) y otros son optativoss, dependiendo si entre lo que se dijo y lo que estamos contando ha habido cambios de orden cronlogico (tiempo) o geogrco (lugar) Cambios Verbales (obligatorios):
Present cont. Simple present Present perfect Simple past Future Can Must May Have to / Has to Past continuous Simple past Past perfect Past perfect Conditional Could Had to Might Had to He said, Im working very hard. He said that he was working very hard. He said, I always work hard. He said that he always worked hard. He said, I have worked very hard. He said that he had worked very hard. He said, I worked very hard. He said that he had worked very hard. He said, I will work hard all day. He said that he would work hard all day. He said, I can use a computer. He said that he could use a computer. He said, I must do the job well. He said that he had to do the job well. He said, It may rain again. He said that it might rain again. He said, I have to do that again. He said that he had to do that again.

Cambios de orden cronolgico o geogrco (Optativos)


Now Today This These Yesterday Then That day / Yesterday That Those The day before / The previous day He said, Im busy now. He said that he was busy then. He said, Im busy today. He said that he was busy that day / yesterday. He said, Im busy at this moment. He said that he was busy at that moment He said, I like these books He said that liked those books. He said, I was busy yesterday. He said that he had been busy the day before.

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Tomorrow Here Tonight Last night

The following day

There Last night The night before / The previous night

He said, Ill be busy tomorrow. He said that he would be busy the following day. He said, Im very happy here. He said that he was very happy there. He said, Im very busy tonight. He said that she was very busy that night. He said, I was very busy last night He said that hed been very busy the previous night.

Note que cuando se nombran a las dos personas que intervinieron en la conversacin, segn vimos en la Unidad 8, se debe usar TOLD en vez de SAID. Bob said, I like New York. Bob told us that he liked New York. II. DISCURSO INDIRECTO CON PREGUNTAS Cuando se desea expresar un pregunta en el discurso indirecto, no se debe mantener la estructura negativa (VM+S+VP) en la clusula subordinada sino que se debe usar la estructura armativa (S+(VM)+VP John asked me, Where does Mary live? John asked me where Mary lived. The teacher asked the students, Why is Bob absent today? The teacher asked the students why Bob was absent today. Bob asked me, Do you like New York? Bob asked me whether / if I liked New York. Bob asked his friends, Will you come to my party? Bob asked his friends whether / if they would come to his party. III. DISCURSO INDIRECTO CON ORDENES, REQUERIMIENTOS, ADVERTENCIAS, ETC, Cuando se desea expresar una orden, un requerimiento, advertencia, etc, en el discurso indirecto, se debe usar la siguiente estructura:
Subject He Miss White The teacher The instructors They Verb asked told warned requested ordered Object Pro (Noun). me you him / her us them the boy the boys To/not To + Innitive. to sit down to work harder to be more careful not to be late not to talk in class

EXERCISES Ex. 1. Change from direct to indirect form: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.


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John said, I have to work tonight. Mary said to me, I will be back later. Mr. Smith said, We may have an exam. He said, I have no money. The doctor said, John is a very sick man. Mary said to me, I cannot go with you tonight. He said, I hope she comes soon. He said, l have known him a long time. Mr. Smith said, We will nish this tomorrow. He said, I dont know her well.
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(John said that he had to work tonight.)

11. She said, I am going away tomorrow. 12. He said to me, He is supposed to be here now. Ex. 2. Change from direct to indirect form: 1. Mary asked, Where does John live? (Mary asked where John lived.) 2. Helen said to me, How long have you lived here? 3..Mr Smith asked us, Do you understand this exercise? 4. I asked John, What time is it? 5. He asked me, Do you have to work tonight? 6. John said, ls it raining? 7. He said to me, Are you going to the movies with us? 8. The teacher asked, Did you see that documentary? 9. He asked me, When are you leaving for Europe? 10. He asked me, What does the word mean? 11. I asked him, When did you read that book? 12. He said to me, How are you today? 13. I asked her, ls John here? 14. She said to him, Do you like my new hat? 15. I asked her, Where is it? Exercise 3. Change to indirect form: 1. John said to me, Wait ve minutes for me. (John told me to wait ve minutes for him.) 2. The teacher said to us, Dont write in pencil. 3. I asked him, Be more careful. 4. He asked me, Please dont be late. 5. He asked me, Try to come on time. 6. He said to me, Dont make the same mistake again. 7. He warned the child, Dont cross the road. S. He said to me, Dont forget what I told you. 9. He begged me, Please send me the money at once. 10.He asked me, Sit down for a few minutes. Ex. 4. Change the following imperative sentences to indirect form. Begin each one with THE TEACHER TOLD ME: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Sit in the rst row. Wait outside in the hall. Come back later. Do your exercses in ink. Give this message to Mrs. Smith. Dont waste so much time. Dont look at your neighbors paper. Sit up straght. Go to the whiteboard. Take your feet off the desk. Prepare your lessons more carefully. Sit down and read the story. (The teacher told me to sit in the rst row.)

Ex. 5. Answer the following questions in indirect form. Begin each answer with the words given in parentheses after the question: 1. Wheres John? (I dont know... ) 2. Is he in the building? (She wants to know...) 3. Where does she live? (Can you tell me...? 4. Is he a good student? (Im not sure. . -) 5. How much does it cost? (He wants to know . .) 6. Where is she going? (She didnt say... ) (I dont know where John is.)

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7. How is he getting along? (She wants to know . .) 8. How is he getting along? (Mrs. Jones wanted to know,.) 9. Is the elevator out of order? (Can you tell me...) 10. Where is he now? (Can you tell me... ) 11. Is Mr. Smith here? (Id like to know...) 12. When will he get back? (Id like to nd out...) 13. How tall is he? (I dont know... ) 14. Is he very tall? (I really dont know...) 15. Where does he live? (Ask him...) Ex. 6. . Change from indirect to direct form: 1. He said he was busy. 2. He asked me where I lived. 3. He asked her whether she liked New York. 4. She said she was going out of town. 5. She said her last name was Smith. 6. She said her maiden name had been Jones. 7. He told me not to wait for him. 8. He said that he could not meet us. 9. He asked how much it cost. 10. He told her to leave the room. 11. He asked whether I had mailed the letter. 12. He said he would be back soon. Ex. 7. Choose the correct form: 1. He asked me where I (live, lived). 2. I dont know whether (I can, can I) do it. 3. Can you tell me what time (it is, is it)? 4. He said he (will, would) come here soon. 5. He (told me, said to me) that he was busy. 6. He asked me what time it (is, was). 7. I asked him what the word (means, meant). 8. I asked her whether she (is, was) married. 9. Id like to know where (is it, it is). 10. He said he (can, could) meet us easily. 11. Im not sure whether (he is, is he) here now. 12. He didnt say where he (is, was) going. Ex. 8. Answer these questions: 1. Why did John tell you to wait for him after the lesson? 2. What exercise did the teacher tell you to prepare for tomorrows lesson? 3. Why did you ask Mary what time it was? 4. Where did William ask you to meet him tonight? 5. Why did the mother warn the child not to cross the street? 6. Why doesnt Henry know whether or not he can go to the party tonight? 7. Did John say that he had or had not seen that movie? 8. Did Grace tell you whether or not she had enjoyed the party? (He asked me where I lived.) (He said, I am busy.)

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BASIC VOCABULARY Verbos principales: Verbos Regulares e Irregulares Todos los verbos principales tienen cuatro formas: el innitivo, el pasado, el pasado participio, el gerundio. Segn la manera en que forman el pasado y el pasado participio los verbos principales se clasican en dos grupos: Verbos Regulares y Verbos Irregulares. Son verbos regulares aquellos que agregan D / ED para formar el pasado y el pasado participio. Los que no lo hacen as se llaman Verbos Irregulares. Escuche, lea y aprenda: We work hard every day. /w: w:rk h:rd vri dei/ We worked hard yesterday. /w: w:rkt h:rd isterdi/ We have worked hard this year. /w: hav w:rkt h.rd is ar/ We are working hard now. /w:r w:rki ha:rd nu/ They speak Spanish at home /i sp:k spnish at hum/ spoke English in class. /i spuk glish in kl:s/ They have always spoken Spanish. /i hav :lweiz spukn spnish/ They are speaking English now. /ir sp:ki glish nu/ (Nosotros (Nosotros (Nosotros (Nosotros trabajamos duro todos los das) trabajamos arduamente ayer) hemos trabajado duro este ao) estamos trabajando duro ahora)

(Ellos hablan espaol en casa) They (Ellos hablaron ingls en la clase) (Ellos siempre han hablado espaol). (Ellos estn hablando ingls ahora)

A. Verbos regulares de uso frecuente Innitive To watch /wotch/ To work /we:rk/ To love /lav/ To play /plei/ (1) To study /stdi/ (1) To t /t/ (2) To stop /stop/ (2) To guide /gid/ (3) To repeat /rip:t/ (3) Past watched /wotcht worked /we:rkt/ loved /lavd/ played /plid/ studied /stdid/ tted /ftid/ stopped /stopt/ guided /gidid/ repeated /rip:tid/ Past Part. watched /wotcht/ worked /we:rkt/ loved /lavd/ played /plid/ studied /stdid/ tted /ftid/ stopped /stopt/ guided /gidid/ repeated /rip:tid/ Gerund watching /wtchi/ working /w:rki/ loving /lvi/ playing /pli/ studying /stdii/ tting /ti/ stopping /stopi/ guiding /gidi/ repeating /rip:ti/ Spanish observar trabajar amar jugar estudiar calzar detener guiar repetir

NOTAS: 1. Los verbos terminados en -y precedida de una vocal deben agregar -ed; mientras que los que terminan en -y precedida de consonante deben transformar la -y en -ied. 2. La mayora de los verbos que tienen la conbinacin consonante+vocal+consonante, o cons+cons+vocal+cons, deben duplicar la ltima consonante antes de agregar -ed. 3. Aquellos verbos regulares terminados en -t, -te, -d, -de deben agregar -d/ed y ese sujo se pronuncia /id/, y es una slaba ms: t /t/ tted /tid/; decide /disid/ decided /disidid/; request /rikwst/ requested /rikwstid/.

Innitive To answer /:nser/ To arrive /arriv/ To ask /a:sk/ To carry /krri/ To clean /kli:n/ To close /kluz/ To dry /dri/ To enjoy /endlli/ To nish /fnish/ To hate /heit/ To help /hlp/ To hope /hup/ To invite /invit/ To listen /lsn/ To locate /loukit/ To look /luk/

Past Tense /past Participle answered /:nserd/ arrived /arrivd/ asked /a:skt/ carried /krrid/ cleaned /kli:nd/ closed /kluzd/ dried /drid/ enjoyed /endllid/ nished /fnisht/ hated /hitid/ helped /helpt/ hoped /hupt/ invited /invitid/ listened /lsnd/ located /loukitid/ looked /lukt/

Spanish contestar, responder llegar preguntar, pedir transportar, llevar limpiar cerrar secar disfrutar, gustar terminar odiar, no gustar ayudar esperar, desear invitar escuchar ubicar, localizar mirar
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To love /lv/ To need /ni:d/ To offer /fer/ To prefer /prifar/ To rain /rein/ To receive /ris:v/ To remember /rimmber/ To repair /ripar/ To repeat /rip:t/ To request /rikwst/ To smoke /smuk/ To start /sta:rt/ To stay /sti/ To study /stdi/ To suggest /sadllst/ To talk /to:k/ To try /tri/ To use /i:z/ To visit /vzit/ To wait /weit/ To walk /wo:k/ To want /wont/ To wash /wosh/ To watch /wotch/ To wish /wish/ To work /we:rk/

loved /lvd/ needed /n:did/ offered /ferd/ preferred /prifard/ rained /rind/ received /ris:vd/ remembered /rimmberd/ repaired /ripard/ repeated /rip:tid/ requested /rikwstid/ smoked /smukt/ started /st:rtid/ stayed /stid/ studied /stdid/ suggested /sadllstid/ talked /t:kt/ tried /trid/ used /i:zd/ visited /vzitid/ waited /witid/ walked /w:kt/ wanted /wntid/ washed /wsht/ watched /wtcht/ wished /wsht/ worked /w:rkt/

amar, gustar necesitar ofrecer preferir llover recibir recordar reparar, arreglar repetir solicitar, pedir fumar comenzar, partir quedarse, permanecer estudiar sugerir conversar tratar, esforzarse usar, utilizar visitar esperar, atender caminar querer lavar observar, mirar desear trabajar, funcionar

B. Verbos irregulares de uso frecuente Innitive To begin /bign/ To bring /bri/ To build /bild/ To buy /bi/ To come /kam/ To cut /kat/ To do /du:/ To drink /drik/ To drive /driv/ To eat /i:t/ To fall /fo:l/ To feel /:l/ To nd /find/ To forget /forgt/ To get /get/ To give /giv/ To go /gu/ To have /hv/ To hear /har/ To keep /ki:p/ To know /nu/ To learn /le:rn/ To leave /li:v/ To lend /lend/ To lose /l:z/ To make /meik/ To meet /mi:t/
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Past Tense began /bign/ brought /bro:t/ built /bilt/ bought /bo:t/ came /kim/ cut /kat/ did /did/ drank /drk/ drove /druv/ ate /eit/ fell /fel/ felt /felt/ found /fund/ forgot /forgt/ got /got/ gave /giv/ went /went/ had /hd/ heard /h:rd/ kept /kept/ knew /ni:/ learnt * /le:rnt/ left /lft/ lent /lent/ lost /lost/ made /mid/ met /met/

Past Participle begun /bign/ brought /bro:t/ built /bilt/ bought /bo:t/ come /kam/ cut /kat/ done /dan/ drunk /drak/ driven /drvn/ eaten /:tn/ fallen /f:ln/ felt /felt/ found /fund/ forgotten /forgtn/ got/gotten /got/gtn/ given /gvn/ gone /gon/ been to /bi:n tu/ had /hd/ heard /h:rd/ kept /kept/ known /nun/ learnt /le:rnt/ left /left/ lent /lent/ lost /lost/ made /mid/ met /met/

Spanish empezar, comenzar traer construir comprar venir cortar hacer beber manejar, conducir comer caer sentir(se) hallar, encontrar olvidar conseguir, obtener dar ir ir (y volver) tener, servirse, haber oir guardar, mantener saber, conocer aprender,enterarse partir, salir, dejar prestar perder, extraviar hacer, fabricar reunirse,conocer

A short course in english for adult students

To pay /pi/ paid /pid/ To put /put/ put /put/ To read /ri:d/ read /red/ To run /ran/ ran /rn/ To say /si/ said /sed/ To see /si:/ saw /so:/ To sell /sel/ sold /suld/ To send /send/ sent /snt/ To shut /shat/ shut /shat/ To sing /si/ sang /s/ To sit /sit/ sat /st/ To sleep /sli:p/ slept /slept/ To speak /spi:k/ spoke /spuk/ To spend /spnd/ spent /spnt/ To stand up /stnd ap/ stood /stu:d ap/ To swim /swim/ swam /swm/ To take /tik/ took /tuk/ To teach /ti:tch/ taught /to:t/ To tell /tel/ told /tuld/ To think /ik/ thought /o:t/ To understand /anderstnd/ understood /anderst:d/ To wear /war/ wore /wo:r/ To write /rit/ wrote /rout/

paid /pid/ put /put/ read /red/ run /ran/ said /sed/ seen /si:n/ sold /suld/ sent /snt/ shut /shat/ sung /sa/ sat /st/ slept /slept/ spoken /spukn/ spent /spnt/ stood /stu:d ap/ swum /swam/ taken /tikn/ taught /to:t/ told /tuld/ thought /o:t/ understood /anderst:d/ worn /wo:rn/ written /rtn

pagar poner, colocar leer correr, administrar decir ver vender enviar cerrar cantar sentarse dormir hablar gastar,pasar tiempo pararse nadar tomar, llevar ensear decir, narrar pensar, creer entender, comprender vestir, desgastar escribir

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Key to answers

UNIT 19
Ex. 1. 2. Mary told me (that) she would be back later. 3. Mr. Smith said (that) we might have an examination. 4. He said (that) he had no money. 5. The doctor said (that) John was a very sick man. 6. Mary told me (that) she could not go with me tonight. 7. He said (that) he hoped she came soon. 8. He said (that) he had known him a long time. 9. Mr. Smith said (that) we would nish this tomorrow. 10. He said (that) he didnt know her well 11. She said (that) she was going away tomorrow. 12. He told me (that) he was supposed to be here now. Ex. 2. 2. Helen asked me how long I had lived here. 3. Mr. Smith asked us whether / if we understood this exercise. 4. I asked John what time it was. 5. He asked me whether / if I had to work tonight . 6. John asked whether / if it was raining. 7. He asked me whether / if I was going to the movies with them. 8. The teacher asked whether / if I had seen that documentary. 9. He asked me when I was leaving for Europe. 10. He asked me what the word meant. 11. I asked him when he had read that book. 12. He asked me how I was today. 13. I asked her whether / if John was here. 14. She asked him whether / if he liked her new hat. 15. I asked her where it was. Ex. 3. 2. The teacher told me not to write in pencil. 3. I told him to be more careful. 4. He politely asked me not to be late. 5. He asked me to try to come on time. 6. He told me not to make the same mistake again. 7. He warned the child not to cross the road. 8. He told me not to forget what he had told me. 9. He begged me to send him the money at once. 10. He asked me to sit down for a few minutes. Ex. 4. 2. The teacher told me to wait outside in the hall. 3. The teacher told me to come back later. 4. The teacher told me to do my exercises in ink. 5. The teacher told me to give this message to Mrs. Smith. 6. The teacher told me not to waste so much time. 7. The teacher told me not to look at my neighbors paper. 8. The teacher told me to sit up straight. 9. The teacher told me to go to the whiteboard. 10. The teacher told me to take my feet off the desk. 11. The teacher told me to prepare my lessons more carefully. 12. The teacher told me to sit down and read the story. Ex. 5. 2. She wants to know whether / if he is in the building. 3. Can you tell me where she lives? 4. Im not sure whether / if he is a good student. 5. He wants to know how much it costs. 6. She didnt say where she was going . 7. She wants to know how he is getting along. 8. Mrs. Jones wanted to know how he was getting along. 9. Can you tell me whether / if the elevator is out of order? 10. Can you tell me where he is now? 11. Id like to know whether / if Mr. Smith is here. 12. Id like to nd out when hell get back. 13. I dont know how tall he is. 14. I really dont know whether / if hes very tall. 15. Ask him where he lives. Ex. 6. 2. He asked me, Where do you live? 3. He asked her, Do you like New York? 4. .She said, Im going out of town. 5. She said, My last names Smith 6. She said, My maiden name was Jones. 7. He said to me, Dont wait for me. 8. He said, I cant meet you . 9. He asked, How much does it cost? 10. He said to her, Leave the room. 11. He asked me, Did you mail the letter? 12. He said, Ill be back soon. Ex. 7. 2. I can 3. it is 4. would 5. told me 6. was 7. meant 8. was 9. it is 10. could 11. he is 12. was Ex. 8. (Possible Answers) . 1. Because he wanted to tell me about his new plans. 2. He told me to write a short story in English. 3. Because I wanted to know what time it was and I didnt have a watch. 4. He asked me to meet him outside the station. 5. Because there was too much trafc at that time. 6. Because he thinks hell have to work till late tonight. 7. He said hed seen it. 8. She said she hadnt enjoyed it.

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UNIT 20
USEFUL ENGLISH PHRASES AND EXPRESSIONS IN ENGLISH FOR TRAVELLERS
Frases y expresiones tiles en ingls para viajeros A. At a social gathering (en una reunion social)
Hallo!/Hello!/Hi! Good morning Good afternoon Good evening Good bye/Bye bye Good night See you later See you tomorrow See you this evening Thank you/Thank you very much Youre welcome How are you today? Im very well, thank you Im ne, thanks and how are you? Im not very well Im afraid How do you do. My name is.. .. Please let me introduce myself. My name is... Id like you to meet Mr/Mrs/Miss/Captain/Doctor... This is Mr/Mrs/Miss/Captain/Doctor... Pleased to meet you Im glad to meet you Please Im sorry Im sorry Im late Im afraid Im afraid I dont know Im afraid I cant Whats your rst name? Whats your surname/last name? What do you do? Im an army ofcer What is your rank? Do you speak French/German/Italian/ No, I dont. But I speak Spanish and English Im sorry I dont understand French Are you married or single? Have you got a...? Have you got any children? How many children have you got? Where are you from? Im from Chile Where do you come from? I come from Santiago, Chile Do you live here? Which hotel are you staying at? Whats your room number? /halu//hai/ /gud mrni/ /gud aftern:n/ /gud :vni/ /gud bi//bi bi/ /gud nit/ /s: iu: liter/ /s: iu: tumrou/ /s: iu: is i:vni/ /kiu:/ /kiu: vri mtch/ /io:r wlkam/ /hu :r iu tudi/ /aim vri wel kiu/ /aim fin ks and hau a:r i:/ /aim nt veri wl aim afrid/ /hu diu: d: mai nim iz.../ /pl:z lt mi introdiu:z maislf mai nim iz.../ /aid lik iu tu m:t mster/msiz/mis/kptin/dktor.../ /is iz mster/msiz/mis/kptin/dktor.../ /pl:zd tu m:t iu/ /aim gld tu m:t iu/ /pl:z/ /aim sri/ /aim sri aim lit/ /aim afrid/ /aim afrid ai dunt nu/ /aim afrid ai k:nt/ /wts io:r f:rst nim/ /wts io:r s:rneim/l:st nim/ /wt diu d:/ /aim an :rmi ser/ /wts io:r rk /diu sp:k frntch/dllrman/itlian/ /nu ai dunt, bat ai sp:k spnish and glish/ /aim sri ai dunt anderstnd frntch/ /a:r iu m rid o:r sngl/ /hav iu gt a.../ /hav iu gt ni tchldren/ /hu mni tchldren hav iu gt/ /war :r iu from/ /aim from tchile/ /war diu km from/ /ai km from santigou tchile/ /diu liv har/ /witch houtl a:r iu stii t/ /wts io:r r:m nmber/ Hola! Buenos das Buenas tardes Buenas tardes Hasta luego Buenas noches Hasta pronto Hasta maana Hasta la noche Muchas gracias De nada Cmo est UD hoy? Estoy muy bien gracias Estoy bien gracias y cmo est Ud? No estoy muy bien lamentablemente Encantado. mi nombre es... Permtame presentarme. Mi nombre es...... Me gustara presentarle al Sr. Sra/Srta/Cap/Dr... Este es el o la Sr./Sra/Srta/Cap/Dr... Encantado/a de conocerlo/a Me alegra conocerlo/a Por favor Lo siento Lamento haberme atrasado Lamentablemente... Desgraciadamente no s Lamentablemente no puedo Cul es su nombre? Cul es su apellido? Qu hace Ud? Soy un ocial de ejrcito. Cul es su grado? Habla Ud. francs/alemn/italiano? No. Pero hablo espaol e ingls Lo siento. No entiendo francs Es Ud. casado/a o soltero/a? Tiene Ud. un/a...? Tiene Ud. hijos? Cuntos hijos tiene Ud.? De dnde es Ud.? Soy de Chile De dnde viene Ud.? Vengo de Stgo.,Chile Vive ud. aqui? En qu hotel est hospedado/a Ud.? Cul es el nmero de su habitacin?
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Whats your telephone number? Whats your address? Can I help you? Can you help me? Pardon? Could you speak more slowly please? Yes, of course/certainly/sure No, Im afraid not With pleasure Im sorry I must go now Im afraid its late and I have to go now. It was nice meeting you Can/may I come in? Please, come in and sit down Wait a moment, please Can you wait a minute? Can you repeat your question, please? How do you spell your name? Can you spell it please? Sit down, please Dont open the window, please Lets sit here Lets go inside/outside Its cold in here Its too hot here What time is it? Whats the date today? Are you all right? Are you tired? Are you cold? Are you hot? Are you hungry? Are you thirsty? Are you sleepy? Are you happy? Are you sad? Are you worried? Are you sick/ill? Do you mind if I smoke? No, I dont mind. Go ahead Is it all right if I sit here? Yes, please do Youre right Youre wrong I agree with you I dont agree with you I dont think so I hope so Yes, I think so Yes, thats right Thats what I mean What do you mean by that? What does this word mean? Whats the meaning of this word? 264
A short course in english for adult students

/wts io:r tlifoun nmber/ /wts io:r addrs/ /kan ai hlp iu/ /kan iu hlp mi:/ /p:rdon/ /kud iu sp:k m:r sluli pl:z/ /ies ov k:rs/s:rtnli/shuar/ /nu aim afrid nt/ /wi plllar/ /aim sri ai mast gu nu/ /aim afrid its lit and ai hf tu gu nu/ /it woz nis m:ti iu:/ /kan/mei ai km n/ /pl:z km n and st dun/ /wit e mument pl:z/ /kan iu wit e mnit/ /kan iu rip:t io:r kwstchon pl:z/ /hu diu spl io:r nim/ /kan iu spl it pl:z/ /sit dun pl:z/ /dunt upn e wndou pl:z/ /lts sit hiar/ /lts gu insid/autsid/ /its kuld in har/ /its t: hot har/ /wt tim iz it/ /wts e dit tudi/ /a:r iu :l rit/ /a:r iu tiard/ /a:r iu kuld/ /a:r iu hot/ /a:r iu hgri/ /a:r iu :rsti/ /a:r iu sl:pi/ /a:r iu h pi/ /a:r iu sd/ /a:r iu wrid/ /a:r iu sik/l/ /diu mind if ai smouk/ /nou ai dunt mind gu ahd/ /iz it :l rit if ai st har/ /ies pl:z d:/ /io:r rit/ /io:r r/ /ai agr: wi i:/ /ai dunt agr: wi i:/ /ai dunt ik su/ /ai hup su/ /ies ai ik su/ /ies ts rit/ /ts wot ai m:n/ /wt diu: m:n bai t/ /wt daz is w:rd m:n/ /wts e m:ni ov is w:rd

Cul es su nmero telefnico? Cul es su direccin? Puedo ayudarle? Puede ayudarme? Perdn? Podra hablar ms lento por favor? S, por supuesto No, lamentablemente no Con mucho gusto Lo siento debo irme ahora Lamentablemente es tarde y tengo que irme ahora. Fue grato conocerlo a Ud.. Puedo entrar? Por favor, entre y sintese Espere un momento por favor Puede UD esperar un minuto? Puede UD repetir su pregunta? Cmo deletrea Ud. su nombre? Puede deletrearlo por favor? Sintese, por favor No abra la ventana, por favor. Sentmonos aqu Entremos/Salgamos Hace fro aqu adentro Hace demasiado calor aqu. Qu hora es? Qu fecha es hoy? Est bien Ud.? Est cansado/a? Tiene fro? Tiene calor? Tiene hambre? Tiene sed? Tiene sueo? Est Ud. feliz? Est triste Ud.? Est preocupado/a? Est enfermo/a Ud.? Le molesta si fumo? No me molesta. Hgalo Est bien si me siento aqu? Si, por favor hgalo Tiene Ud. razn. Ud. est equivocado.. Concuerdo con Ud. No concuerdo con Ud. No lo creo as. As lo espero. S, creo que s S, correcto Eso es lo que quiero decir Qu quiere decir con eso? Qu signica esta palabra? Cul es el signicado de esta palabra?

Remember: 1. Whats your...(name, address,.etc...)? were you 2. What are you will you be ...(doing, etc ..)?

Recuerde: 1. Cul es su...(nombre direccin, etc...)? estaba 2. Qu est ...( haciendo, etc...)UD? estar (hizo, etc) 3. Qu (hace,etc) (har, etc) UD?

did 3. What do you...(do, etc...)? will 4. Do you mind if I...(smoke,etc...)? Would 5. Could you...(help me, etc...)? Can Will Can 6. May 7. Sit here...(come here...) please. Dont... go there ( speak...), please. 8. Shall I... spell it? (... help you...etc)? I... (sit here, etc...)?

4. Le molesta a UD si yo...(fumo, etc.)? Querra Ud. 5. Podra Ud....(ayudarme,etc.)? Puedes Quieres 6. Puedo yo...(sentarme aqu,etc.)?

7. Sintese aqu (venga, etc..), por favor. No vaya all (hable, etc.), por favor. 8. Le deletreo? ( Le ayudo.., etc)? 9. Sentmosnos aqu (vamos, etc.)

9. Lets sit here. (... go, etc. )

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B. At a hotel (en un hotel)


I want to check in Whats my room number? Could you take this suitcase to my room please? /ai wnt to tchek n/ /wts mai r :m nmber/ /kud iu tik is stkeis tu mai r:m pl :z/
Deseo registrarme Cul es el nmero de mi habitacin? Podra llevar esta maleta a mi habitacin por favor? Hay un TV a color en la habitacin? La calefaccin central/El aire acondicionado no est funcionando bien Mi cama an no ha sido hecha. Necesito otra frazada Podra cambiar las toallas? Podra conseguirme jabn/shamp, por favor. Cul es el voltaje usado aqu? 220 o 110? Podra conseguirme un adaptador para mi afeitadora elctrica? Hay una lavadora operada con monedas? Deseo que me laven y planchen estas ropas, por favor Deseo hacer una llamada interna-cional a Chile El cdigo de mi pas es 56 y el cdigo para Santiago es 2.

Is there a colo(u)r TV in the room? /iz r e klor t: v: in e r:m/ The central heating/air conditioner isnt working well /e sntral h:ti/ar kondshoner znt w: rki wl/ My bed hasnt been made yet /mai bd hznt b:n mid iet/ I need another blanket /ai n:d aner blkit/ Could you change the towels? /kud iu tchindll e tuelz/ Could you get me some soap/shampoo, please? /kud iu gt mi sam sup/shmpu: pl:z/ What is the voltage used here? 220 or 110? /wts e vltidll i:zd har/t: twnty or un hndrid and tn/ Could you get me an adaptor for my electric shaver? /kud iu gt mi an ad ptor for mai elktrik shiver/ Is there a coin operated washing machine? /iz ear a kin operitid wshi mash:n/ I want to have these clothes washed and ironed, /ai wnt tu hv i:z kluz wsht and iond please pl:z/ I need to make an international call to Chile. /ai n:d tu mik an intern shonal k:l tu tchile/ My country code number is 56 and the code number /mai kntri kud nmber is ffty siks and for Santiago is 2 e kud nmber for santigou is t:/ I want to make a collect call, please /ai wnt tu mik it kolkt k:l pl:z/ Can I send a fax/an e-mail from the hotel? At what time do you serve breakfast/lunch/dinner? Can I have breakfast in my room? Could you get me a newspaper in Spanish, please? Is there a swimming pool/casino/gym in the hotel? Can you wake me up at six oclock? Could you get me a taxi please? Is there a money exchange in the hotel? Could you bring a... to my room please? Wheres the restaurant? Upstairs or downstairs? Until what time is the bar open? Have I got any messages? Can I have my room key, please? Room number 206 Is there a telephone in the lobby? Can I have my bill/check, please? Theres an error in my bill/check, I think I didnt have dinner here last night. I didnt have/eat/drink/order this. Is there a barbers shop here. Could you post these letters/postcards for me? Where are the lifts/elevators? Take the lift/elevator to the tenth oor. I want to check out at... oclock I liked/I didnt like the service/the food/the room very much

Quiero hacer una llamada con cobro revertido, por favor. /kan ai snd e fks/an : mil from e houtl/ Puedo enviar un fax/e-mail desde el hotel? A qu hora sirven desayuno/almuerzo/cena? /at wt tim diu s:rv

brkfast/lntch/dner/ /kan ai hv brkfast in mai r:m/ /kud iu gt mi e niuzpiper in spnish pl:z/ /iz er e sumi p:l/kaz:nou/dlli:m in e houtl/ /kan iu wik mi p at siks oklk/ /kud iu gt mi e t ksi pl:z/ /iz er e mni ekstchindll in e houtl/ /kud iu br e...tu mai r:m pl:z/ /warz e rstorant pstarz o:r dunstarz/ /antl wt tim iz e b:r upn/ /hav ai gt ni msidlliz/ /kan ai hv mai r:m k: pl:z r:m nmber t: u sks/ /iz er e tlifoun in e lbi/ /kan ai hv mai bl/tchk pl:z/ /rz an ror in mai bl/tchk ai ik/ /ai ddnt hv dner har la:st nit/ /ai ddnt hv/:t/drik/rder is/ /iz er a b:rberz shop har/ /kud iu pust :z lterz/pusk:rdz for m:/ /war a:r e lfts/elevitorz/ /tik e lft/elevitor tu e tn :r/ /ai wnt tu tchk ut at...oklk/ /ai laikt/ai ddnt lik e s:rvis/e fu:d/e r;m veri mtch/

Me pueden traer desayuno a mi habitacin Podra conseguirme un peridico en espaol, por favor? Hay una piscina/casino/gimnasio en el hotel? Puede despertarme a las seis, por favor? Podra conseguirme un taxi, por favor? Hay una ocina de cambio en el hotel? Podra traerme un... a mi habitacin, por favor? Donde est el restaurant? Arriba o Abajo? Hasta qu hora est abierto el bar? Tengo algn mensaje? Puede darme la llave de mi pieza, por favor. Habitacin 206 Hay un telfono en el hall? Puede darme la cuenta, por favor? Hay un error en mi cuenta, me parece. Yo no cen aqu anoche. Yo no me serv/com/beb/ped sto. Hay una peluquera aqu? Podra Ud. despacharme estas cartas/postales? Dnde estn los ascensores? Tome el ascensor al 10 piso Quiero dejar el hotel/registrar mi salida a las... Me gust mucho/No me gust mucho el servicio/ la comida/la habitacin.

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Remember: 1. I want to...(make a phone call, etc..) I would like to...( have another coffee,etc. ) 2. Where is the...(lift, bar,etc...)? Where are the... (telephones, toilets,etc...? 3. Is there a...(bar,etc....) in the hotel? 4. Could you...(wake me up at 7:30,etc.) please?

Recuerde: 1. Quiero...(hacer una llamada, etc) Deseara...(servirme otro caf,etc.) 2. Dnde est el...(ascensor, bar, etc.)? Dnde estn los ... / telfonos, baos, etc)? 3. Hay un...(bar, etc.) en el hotel? 4. Podra Ud...(despertarme a las 7, etc. ) por favor?

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C. At a restaurant (en un restaurante)


I need a table for three (people) please Is there a table in the non-smoking area, near the window? What time do you start serving lunch/dinner? Can I pay by credit card/by cheque/cash? Can you charge this into my hotel bill? Room 2105 Can I take a look at the menu? Would you like an appetizer? Ill have a glass of white wine and some cheese, salted almonds or peanuts, please What would you like to start with? I think Ill have chicken soup, please What will you have to follow? Ill have rump steak, potato chips and a mixed salad Could you get me another knife? This one is dirty. Could you pass me the salt, please? Id like to have a glass of soda water Would you like something to drink? Wine, beer or a soft drink? Can I havea draught beer please? How do you want your meat? Do you want it rare, medium or well-done? I want it well done please. What will you have for dessert? Id like to order a fruit salad. Could I have some coffee? Would you like some liqueur? Scotch, cherry, amaretto? Could you bring me the bill/check, please? I really enjoyed the meal. It was very good indeed. Thank you very much. You can keep the change. Good bye. /ai n:d e tibl for r: (p:pl) pl:z/ /iz er e tibl in e non smuki aria nar e wndou/ /wt tim diu st:rt s:rvi lntch/dner/ /kan ai pi bai krdit k:rd/bai tchek/k sh/ /kan iu: tchrdll is ntu mai houtl bl/r:m tunti wn u fiv/ /kan ai tik a lk at e mniu:/ /wud iu lik an apetizer/ /ail h v e gl:s of wit win and sam tch:s sltid :lmondz or p:nats pl:z/ /wt wud iu lik tu st:rt wi/ /ai ik ail h v tchkin s:p pl:z/ /wt wil iu h v tu flou/ /ail h v rmp stik/potitou tchips and e mkst slad/ /kud iu get mi aner nif is wan iz d:rti/ /kud iu p.s mi e s:lt pl:z/ /aid lik tu h v e gl:s of souda wter/ /wud iu lik smi tu drk win, bar or e sft drk/ /kan ai h v e dr:ft bar pl:z/ /hu diu wnt io:r m:t/diu wnt it rar, m: dium or wl dn/ /ai wnt it wl dn pl:z/ /wt wil iu h v for dizrt/ /aid lik tu .rder e fr:t s lad /kud ai h v sam k:/ /wud iu lik sam likiuar/sktch/tchri/ amartou/ /kud iu br mi e bl/tchk pl:z/ /ai rali endllid e m:l/it woz vri gud ind:d/ / kiu vri match/iu kan k:p e tchidll/
Necesito una mesa para tres (personas) por favor. Hay una mesa en la zona no fumadores, cerca de la ventana? A qu hora comienzan a servir el almuerzo/la cena? Puedo pagar con tarjeta de crdito/con cheque/ en efectivo? Puede cargarme sto en mi cuenta del hotel? Habitacin 2105 Puedo mirar el men? desea un aperitivo? Me servir una copa de vino blanco y queso, almendras saladas o man, por favor Con qu deseara comenzar? Creo que me servir una sopa de pollo, por favor Qu se servir a continuacin? Me servir un trozo de lomo, papas fritas y una ensalada mixta Me podra traer otro cuchillo? Este est sucio. Podra pasarme la sal, por favor? Deseara servirme un vaso de soda. Deseara algo para beber? Vino, cerveza o una gaseosa? Podra servirme una cerveza de barril, por favor? Cmo quiere la carne. La quiere a punto, regular o bien cocida? La quiero bien cocida, por favor. Qu se servir de postre? Deseara ordenar una ensalada de fruta. Podra servirme un caf? Deseara un bajativo? Whisky, cognac, amareto? Me podra traer la cuenta, por favor? Realmente disfrute la comida. Fue muy buena en verdad. Muchsimas gracias. Puede conservar el vuelto. Hasta luego.

Remember: 1. What do you want to. (eat, etc. .)? What would you like to. (drink, etc...)? 2. How do you want your... (tea,etc.)? How would you like your... (steak, etc)? 3. I want to have... (a beer, a sandwich, etc.) Id like to have... (some more tea, etc). Can I have... (another whisky, etc.).? Could you get me... (the bill, etc.)? Id like to order... (chicken and rice, etc. )

Recuerde: 1. Qu quiere Ud. (comer, etc.)? Qu deseara Ud. (beber,etc)? 2. Cmo quiere Ud su (t, etc.)? Cmo deseara Ud su (bife, etc.)? 3. Quiero servirme... (una cerveza, un sandwich,etc) Deseara servirme... (ms tea, etc) Puedo servirme... (otro whisky, etc.)? Me podra traer... (la cuenta, etc)? Deseara pedir... (pollo con arroz, etc)

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Restaurants: Useful vocabulary (Restaurantes: Vocabulario util)


Waiter /witer/ Menu /mniu/ Breakfast /brkfast/ Lunch /lntch/ Supper /sper/ Dinner /dner/ Snack /snk/ Chef /tchef/ Check, bill /tchek, bil/ Tip /tip/ Change /tcheindll/ BREAKFAST /brkfast/ Bacon and eggs /bikonangz/ Boiled eggs /bild gz/ Bread /brd/ Bread and butter /brdanbter/ Coffee /k/ Cornakes /k:rneiks/ Fried eggs /frid gz/ Ham /hm/ Ham and eggs /hmangz/ Jam /dllm/ Marmalade /mrmelid/ Milk /milk/ Poached eggs /putcht gz/ Scrambled eggs /skrmbld gz/ Tea /t:/ Toast /tust/ Wholemeal bread /hulmi:l brd/ LUNCH /DINNER:/ lntch/dner/ Dessert /dez :rt/ French dressing /frntch drsi/ Fruit /fr:t/ hors doeuvres /o :rd :vre/ main course /min k :rs/ Mayonnaise /mioneiz/ Salad /slad/ Sauce /s :s/ Soup /su :p/ Starter /st:rter/ MEATS: /m:ts/ Beef /b:f/ Chicken /tchiken/ Chops /tchops/ Duck /dk/ Fillet steak /flit stik // Lamb /lm/ Meatballs /m:tbo:lz/ Mutton /mtn/ Garzn Carta, men Desayuno Almuerzo Cena liviana Cena Refrigerio Maestro de cocina Cuenta Propina Vuelto,cambio DESAYUNO Huevos con tocino Huevos duros Pan Pan con mantequilla Caf Cereales Huevos fritos Jamn Jamn con huevos Mermelada (dulce) Mermelada (ctrico) Leche Huevos fritos en agua Huevos revueltos T Tostada Paan integral ALMUERZO /CENA Postre Alio francs Fruta Entremeses Plato de fondo Mayonesa Ensalada Salsa Sopa Entrada CARNES Vacuno Pollo Chuletas Pato Filete Cordero lechn Albndigas Cordero FISH AND SEAFOOD Abalone /abaluni/ Cod /kod/ Cuttlesh /ktlsh/ Herring /hri/ King-crab /ki krb/ Lobster /lbster/ Mussels /mslz/ Octopus /ktopas/ Oysters /isterz/ Prawns /pr:nz/ Salmon /s:mon/ Sardine /sa:rd:n/ Scallops /sklops/ Sea-urchin /s: :rtchin/ Shrimps /shrimps/ sole, plaice /sul, plis/ Squid /skuid/ Trout /trut/ tuna sh /t :na sh/ BEVERAGES, DRINKS: Alcoholic drink /alkohlik drink/ Beer /bar/ Bitter /bter/ Brandy /brndi/ Champagne /shampin/ Fruit juice /fru:t dllu:s/ Herbal tea /h:rbal t:/ Iced tea /ist t:/ Lager /l:ger/ Lemon tea /lmon t:/ Lemonade /lmoneid/ Liqueur /lke:r/ Milk /milk/ Mineral water /mneral wter/ Red wine /rd win/ Ros /rouzi/ Shandy /shndi/ Soft drink /soft drink/ Tea /t:/ Whisky /wiski/ White wine /wit win/ VEGETABLES: /vdlletablz/ Artichoke /:rtitchouk/ Asparragus /asprragas/ Avocado /vok:dou/ Brussels sprouts /brsels spruts/ Cabbage /kbidll/ Carrot /krrot/ Celery /sleri/ PESCADOS Y MARISCOS Loco Bacalao Jibia Arenque Centolla Langosta Cholgas pulpo Ostras Gambas Salmn Sardina Ostiones Erizo Langostinos Lenguado calamar Trucha Atn BEBIDAS, TRAGOS Bebida alcohlica Cerveza Cerveza inglesa (amarga) Coac Champaa Jugo de frutas Agua de hierbas T helado Cerveza rubia (plsener) T con limn Limonada Licor Leche Agua mineral Vino tinto Vino Rosado Cerveza con orange Gaseosa Tea Whisky Vino blanco VERDURAS Alcachofa Esprragos Palta Bruselas Repollo Zanahoria Apio 269

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Pork /p:rk/ Ribs /ribz/ Roast beef /rus b:f/ Rump steak /rmp stik/ Sirloin steak /s:rloin stik/ T-bone /t : bun/ Turkey /t:rki/ Veal /v:l/ HOW MEAT IS COOKED Medium to rare /m:dium tu rar/ Rare /rar/ Well done /wl dn/ HOW FOOD IS PREPARED Baked cake /bikt kik/ Boiled eggs /bild egz/ Broiled chicken /brild tchiken/ Chilled wine /tchld win/ Chopped fruit /tchpt fr:t/ Fried sh /frid sh/ Grated cheese /gritid tch:z/ Grilled steak /grild stik/ Ground coffee /grund k/ Iced tea /ist t:/ Melted sugar /mltid shgar/ Minced meat (mnst m:t/ Mixed salad /mkst slad/ Poached eggs /putcht gz/ Roast beef /rust b:f/ Sliced bread /slist brd/ Smoked salmon /smukt s:mon/ Steamed sh /st:md sh/ Stewed beef /stiu:d b:f/ Stuffed turkey /stft t:rki/ Whipped cream /wipt kr:m/ MISCELLANEOUS Ashtray /shtrei/ Beerglass /bargla:s/ Bottle of wine /btl ov win/ Bottle opener /btl upner/ Bread knife /brdnaif/ Butter dish /bterdish/ Cruet /kru:it/ Cup /kp/ Dessertspoon /dezrtspu:n/ Fork /frk/ Goblet /gblit/ Jug /dllg/ Knife /naif/ Lighter /liter/ Match /mtch/

Cerdo Costillas Rosbif Lomo Lomo vetado Entrecot Pavo Ternera COCCIN DE CARNES Regular, casi a punto A punto Bien cocido COMO ESTA PREPARADA LA COMIDA Queque horneado Huevos cocidos Pollo a lo spiedo Vino helado Fruta picada Pescado frito Queso rallado Bife a la parrilla Caf en grano molido T helado Azucar derretida Carne molida Ensalada mixta Huevos escalfados Vacuno asado Pan rebanado Salmn ahumado Pescado al vapor Bife estofado Pavo relleno Crema batida MISCELANEO Cenicero Vaso para cerveza Botella de vino Abridor de botella Cuchillo para pan Mantequillera Alcuza Taza Cuchara para postre Tenedor Copa Jarro Cuchillo Encendedor Fsforo

Corn /k :rn/ Cucumber /kukumber/ Green beans /gr:n b:nz/ Leek /l:k/ Lettuce /ltis/ Mushrooms /mshrumz/ Peas /p:z/ Potato /potitou/ Red pepper /rd /gr:n pper/ Tomato /tom:tou //tomitou/

Maz Pepino Porotos verdes Puerro Lechuga Championes Arvejas Papa Pimiento rojo Tomate

FRUIT /fr:t/ DESSERTS /diz:rts/ Apple /pl/ Apricot /iprikot //iprikot/ Banana /ban:na/ Blackberry /blberi/ Cake /kik/ Cherry /tchri/ Chocolate mousse /tcklit mu:z/ Grapefruit /gripfrut/ Grapes /grips/ Ice cream /is kr:m/ Melon /mlon/ Mints /mints/ Orange /rindll/ Peach /p:tch/ Pear /par/ Pineapple /pinpl/ Plum /plm/ Raspberry /rzberi/ Redcurrant /redkrant/ Scone /skun/ Strawberry /str:beri/ Sweets /sui:ts/ Watermelon /wtermelon/ Yoghourt /iga:rt/ HOW FOOD TASTES Bitter /bter/ Hot /hot/ Salty /s:lti/ Sour /suer/ Spicy /spisi/ Sweet /sui:t/ SPICES /spisiz/ Bay leaf /bi l:f/ Chilli pepper /tchili pper/ Cinnamon /snamon/ Garlic /g.rlik/

FRUTA POSTRES Manzana Damasco Pltano Mora Torta Guinda Mus de chocolate Pomelo uvas Helado Meln Bombones de menta Naranja Durazno Pera Pia Ciruela Frambuesa Grosella Bollo Frutilla Pastilla Samda Yogurt SABORES Amargo Picante Salado Agrio Condimentado Dulce CONDIMENTOS Laurel Aj Canela Ajo

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Mug /mg/ Napkin /npkin/ Place mat /plismt/ Plate /plit/ Saucer /s:ser/ Soup bowl /s:p bul/ Sugar bowl /shgarbul/ Tablecloth /tiblklo/ Tablespoon /tiblspu:n/ Teaspoon /t:spun/ Tin opener /tin upner/ Tumbler /tmbler/ Wineglass /wingla:s/

Tazn Servilleta Individual Plato Platillo Plato para sopa Azucarero Mantel Cuchara para sopa Cuchara de t Abrelatas Vaso para gaseosas Vaso para el vino

Ginger /dllndller/ Ketchup ktchap/ Mustard /msta:rd/ Parsley /p:rsli/ Pepper /pper/ Salt /s:lt/ Thyme /tim/

Genjibre Ketchup Mostaza Perejil Pimienta Sal Tomillo

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D. How to get to places (como llegar a lugares)


Have you got/Do you have a map of London? /hav iu got/diu hv e mp ov lndon/ I want to go to the cathedral. Could you show me the /ai wnt tu gu tu e kadrl. Kan iu shu mi way please? e wi pli:z/ Excuse me. Wheres the post ofce, please? /ikski:z mi warz e pust s pl:z/ Could you tell me where the bank is, please? Excuse me. Do you know where the station is, please? Excuse me, can you tell me the way to the park, please? Excuse me, how do I get to the museum? Look at the map. We are here, outside the station. Go straight ahead until you come to the bridge. /kud iu tl me war e bk iz pl:z/ /ikskiu:z mi/diu nu war e stishn iz pl:z/ Tiene Ud. un mapa de Londres? Deseo ir a la Catedral. Podra indicarme el camino, por favor? Perdn. Donde est la ocina de correos, por favor? Podra decirme dnde est el banco, por favor? Perdn. Sabe Ud. dnde est la estacin,por favor? Perdn. Podra indicarme el camino al parque, por favor? Perdn. Cmo llego yo al museo? Mire el mapa. Estamos aqu afuera de la estacin. Siga derecho hacia adelante hasta llegar al puente Tiene que tomar el bus 44 aqu y bajarse en la estacin de ferrocarriles. Camine por esta calle, hasta el semforo. Doble a la izquierda en la prxima esquina y baje (por esa calle) dos cuadras Tome la tercera bocacalle a la derecha y enseguida camine unos 40 metros No est muy lejos. Conduzca por este camino hasta llegar a la calle Clark. Enseguida doble a la derecha y ver la torre al nal de la calle Lo siento. No s. Yo tambin soy forastero aqu. Pregntele a un polica Perdn. Qu bus necesito tomar para ir a la National Art Gallery? A qu distancia est el aeropuerto de aqu? Esta a ms o menos 20 kms. Necesita tomar el tren. Perdn. Va este bus al estadio? Por favor, llveme al Hotel Oxford, en la Calle Park Perdn. Dnde est la estacin de metro ms prxima? Puedo irme a pi, o tengo que tomar un bus? Perdn.Hay un restaurante cerca de aqu? S. Hay uno en la calle Bridge, frente al cine. A qu hora abren los bancos? A que hora comienzan a correr los buses? A qu hora cierran las tiendas? Abre el supermercado los domingos?

/ikskiu:z mi/kan iu tl mi e wi tu e p: rk pl:z/ /ikskiu:z mi/hu du ai gt tu e miu:zam/ /luk at e mp/wi a:r har autsid e stishn/ gu strit ahd antil iu km tu e brdll/ You have to take bus 44 here and get off at the /iu hf tu tik bs f:rti far and get f at e Railway Station. rilwei stishn/ Walk along this street as far as the trafc lights. /w:k al is str:t as f:r as e trk lits/ Turn left at the next corner and walk down the street /t:rn lft at e nkst k:rner and w:k dun for two blocks. e str:t for t: blks/ Take the third turning on the right and then walk for /tik e :rd t:rni on e rit and n about 40 meters. w:k for abut f:rti m:terz/ Its not very far. Drive along this road till you come to /its nt veri f:r/driv alo is rud til iu km Clark Avenue. Then turn right and youll see the tower tu kl:rk veniu/en t:rn rit and iul s: e at the end of the road. tuer at i nd ov e rud/ Sorry I dont know. Im a stranger here myself. Ask a policeman. Excuse me which bus do I need to take to go to the National Art Gallery? How far is the airport from here? Its about 20 kilometers. You need to take the train. Excuse me, does this bus go to the stadium? Please, take me to the Oxford Hotel, in Park Street. Excuse me, where is the nearest underground station? Can I walk, or do I have to take a bus? Excuse me, is there a restaurant near here? Yes, theres one in Bridge Street., opposite the cinema. What time do the banks open? What time do buses start running? What time do the shops close? Does the supermarket open on Sunday? /sri ai dunt nu/aim a stridller har maislf/:sk e plsman/ /ikskiu:s mi/witch bs du ai n:d tu tik to gu tu e nshional :rt gleri/ /hau f:r iz i arp:rt from har/ /its abut twnti kiloum:terz/iu n:d tu tik e trin/ /ikski:s mi dz is bs go tu e stidium/ /pl:z tik mi tu i ksford houtl in p:rk str: t/ /ikskiu:s mi warz e narest ndergrund stishn/ /kan ai w:k or du ai n:d tu tik e bs/ /ikski:z mi/iz er e rstorant nar har/ Is/arz wan in bridll str:t, posit e snema/ /wt tim du e bks upen/ /wt tim du bsiz st :rt rni/ /wt taim du e shps kluz/ /dz e superm:rkit upn on sndi/

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Useful vocabulary (vocabulario util)


City, /sti/ ciudad Town /tun/ pueblo Street /str:t/ calle Pavement, /pivment/ vereda(Br) Sidewalk /saidw:k/ vereda(US) Bus stop /bas stp/ parada de buses Underground Station (Br) /ndergrund stishn/ estacin de metro Subway Station (US) /sbwei stishn/ estacin de metro Railway Station /rilwei stishn/ estacin de trenes Airport /arp:rt/ aeropuerto Square /skuar/ plaza Trafc lights /trk lits/ semforo Park /p:rk/ parque Remember: 1. How do I get to... Could you tell me the way to... Could you show the way to...? 2. Do you know where the... is, please? Can you tell me where the...is, please? 3. Where is the... please?. Where is the nearest... please? 4. Which bus do I need to take to go to the...? 5. What time do the...s. open / close? What time does the...open / close? 6. How far is the... from here? 7. I need to buy a / some...? Is there a... near here? Building /bldi/ edicio Hotel /houtl/ hotel Lift /lift/ ascensor (Br) Elevator /elevitor/ ascensor (US) Restaurant /rstorant/ resturant Store/Shop /star/shop/ tienda Shopping centre Centro comercial Shopping mall Centro comercial Library /libreari/ biblioteca Museum /miu:zam/ museo Park /p:rk/ parque Hospital /hspitl/ hospital Supermarket /superm:kit/ supermercado Department store /dip:rment star/ Tienda de departamente Book store /buk st:r/ librera book shop /buk/shop/ librera Post ofce /pust s/ Ocina de Correos Police station /pols stishn/ Cuartel de policia Cinema /snema/ cine Theater /ater/ teatro Night club /nit klab/ club nocturno

Recuerde: 1. Cmo llego a...? Podra indicarme el camino a...? 2. Sabe UD dnde est la...por favor? Puede decirme dnde est la...por favor? 3. Dnde est la...por favor? Dnde esta la...ms cercana, por favor? 4. Cul bus necesito tomar para ir a...? 5. A qu hora abren / cierran las...? A qu hora abre / cierra el / la...? 6. A qu distancia est el / la...de aqu? 7. Necesito comprar un / algunos... Hay un / una...cerca de aqu

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E. At the station / airport (en la estacion / aeropuerto)


Can I have your passport, please? Whats your last name. Can you spell it please? /kan ai hav ior p:spo:rt pl:z/ Puede mostrame su pasaporte por favor? /wts ior lst nim pl:z kan iu spl it Cul es su apellido? Puede deletrearlo por pl:z/ favor? Can I see your ticket? /kan ai s: i:r tkit/ Puedo ver su boleto? I want a ticket to Milan /ai wnt e tket tu miln/ Quiero un ticket a Miln Cunto cuesta un b oleto simple a Npoles? How much is a single ticket to Naples? How much is a /hu mtch iz e sngl tkit tu niplz/ return ticket to Lyon? Cunto cuesta un boleto de ida y vuelta a /hu mtch iz a ritrn tkit tu lin/ Lyon? /hu mtch is e bs tkit tu e z:/ How much is the bus ticket to the zoo? Cunto cuesta el pasaje de bus al zoo? Is it a direct journey /ight? /iz it a dirkt dllrni /it/ Es un viaje /vuelo directo? /hu l daz e dllrni /it tik/ How long does the journey /ight take? Cunto tiempo dura el viaje /vuelo? /wot tim daz e trin /plin l:v/ What time does the train /plane leave? A qu hora sale el tren /avin? /wot tim daz e trin /plin get ar/ What time does the train /plane /get there? A qu hora llega el tren /avin all? Which platform /gate does it leave from? /witch pltform /git daz it l:v from/ Desde cul andn /puerta sale? /hu lo daz it teik to get tu budapst/ Cunto se demora en llegar a Budapest? How long does it take to get to Budapest? What time do we need to check in? /wt tim du wi n:sd tu tchek n/ A qu hora necesitamos presentarnos? /du ei s:rv lntch on b:rd/ Do they serve lunch on board? Sirven almuerzo a bordo? Can I have a seat by the window? /kan ai hv e s:t bai e wndou/ Puede darme un asiento al lado de la ventana? /ai wnt e s:t in e non smuki aria/ Deseo un asiento en la zona de no fumadores I want a seat in the non smoking area /:z a:r mai sutkisiz/ These are my suitcases Estas son mis malaetas /pl:z kri mai sutkisiz wi kar/ Please carry my suitcases with care Por favor transporte mis maletas con cuidado /ai wil kri is hndbg maislf/ I will carry this handbag myself. Yo mismo transportar ese bolso de mano /war iz e lgidll /b gidll klim/ Where is the luggage /baggage claim? Dnde est la entrega de equipaje? /ai hv ni tu diklar/ I have nothing to declare No tengo nada para declarar /hu mni btlz kan ai tik wi m:/ How many bottles can I take with me? Cantas botellas puedo llevar conmigo? Do I have to pay sales tax /customs duties? /du ai hv tu pei seil taks /ditiz/ Debo pagar IVA /derechos aduaneros? /iz er e diu:ti fr: shop har/ Is there a duty-free shop here? Hay una tienda libre de IVA aqu? /warz e b:r /restorant/ Where is the bar? /restaurant? Dnde est el bar /restaurante? /:r wi lndi /arivi s:n/ Are we landing /arriving soon? Estamos aterrizando /llegando pronto? Were landing /arriving in a few minutes. /wi a:r lndi /arivi in e u: minits/ Estamos aterrizando /llegando dentro de unos pocos minutos. Please remain seated until the plane /train has stopped. /pl:z rimin s:tid antil e plin /trin Por favor mantngase sentado hasta que el haz stpt/ avin /tren se haya detenido. Please put your cigarette out now. /pl:z put io:r sigart ut nau/ Por favor apague su cigarrillo ahora. Fasten your seat belt, fold the table and put the back of /f:sn io:r s:t blt /fuld e tibl and put e Ajuste su cinturn, doble la mesita y enderece your seat in the upright position. bk ov io:r s:t in i aprit posshn/ el respaldo de su asiento We hope youve enjoyed your trip /ight /wi hup iuv indllid io:r trip /it/ Esperamos que haya disfrutado su viaje /vuelo

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F. Shopping (de compras)


/ai lik is /t wtch /dllkit/ /kan ai s: it/ /kan ai tri it n/ /hu mtch iz it /hu mtch daz it kst/ /diu hv e lrdller /smler siz/ /ai lik :z /uz gl:siz /sh:z/ /kan ai s: em/ /kan ai tri em n // /hu mtch :r ei /hu mtch du ei kst/ Can I pay by credit card? /kan ai pi bai krdit k:rd/ Can I pay with American money /US dollars /kan ai pi wi amrikan mni /i: s dlarz/ I dont like the colo(u)r. Do you have a different colo(u)r? /ai dunt lik e klor /diu hv e dfrent klor/ What size do you take? /wt siz diu tk/ I want to buy a present for my wife. Can you show me /ai wnt tu bi e prezent for mai wif /kan something? iu shu mi smi/ Is it made of leather /plastic /wool /cotton /gold /silver? /iz it mid of ler /plstik /wu:l /kton /guld /slver Please keep this receipt. Well send the items to the plane. /pl:z k:p is ris:t /w wil snd i itmz tu e plin/ How much is this watch? /hu mtch iz is wotch/ How much are those /hu mtch a:r ouz glvz/ gloves? I like this /that watch /jacket. Can I see it? Can I try it on? How much is it? /How much does it cost? Do you have a larger /smaller size? I like these /those glasses /shoes. Can I see them? Can I try them on? How much are they? /How much do they cost? Me gusta este reloj /esa chaqueta Puedo verlo /a? Puedo probrmelo /a? Cunto vale? Cunto cuesta? Tiene una talla ms grande /ms chica? Me gustans estos lentes /esos zapatos Puedo verlos /verlas? Puedo probrmelos /las? Cunto valen? Cunto cuestan? Puedo pagar con tarjeta de crdito? Puedo pagar con dinero norteamericano /dlares? No me gusta el color. Tiene Ud. un color diferente? Qu talla tiene Ud.? Quiero comprar un regalo para mi esposa. Puede mostrarme algo? Est hecho de cuero /plstico /lana /algodn /oro /plata? Por favor, guarde este recibo. Le enviaremos los artculos al avin Cunto vale este reloj? Cunto valen esos guantes?

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UNIT 21
ASSESSMENT TEST
(Prueba de Evaluacin Final)
INSTRUCCIONES GENERALES 1.- Esta prueba consta de 2 partes: A.- LISTENTING PART (Parte Audio Escrita) B.- READING PART (Parte Escrita) 2.- Usted deber tener su QUESTION BOOKLET (Cuadernillo de Preguntas) y su ANSWER SHEET (Hoja de Respuestas) sobre su escritorio, antes de comenzar la prueba. 3.- Para contestar las preguntas de la LISTENTING PART (Parte Audio Escrita), Preguntas 1 - 50, usted deber solicitar a

otra persona (en lo posible un profesor de ingls o una persona que tenga buen dominio de ese idioma), que le lea las preguntas que aparecen en el EXAMINERS TEXT (Texto del para el Examinador). El examinador deber leer 2 veces cada una de las preguntas. 4.- Para contestar las preguntas 51 a 120 de la READING PART (Parte Escrita) usted cuenta con tiempo maximo de 35 minutos. 5.- Una vez que haya contestado las 120 preguntas, compruebe sus respuestas con la ANSWER KEY (Clave de Respuestas) y cuente el nmero de respuestas correctas obtenidas. Enseguida calcule su puntaje nal segn la pauta dada a continuacin:

Pauta de Evaluacin
Scoring (Puntaje): Listening Part: 50 % Reading Part : 50 % Overall Score: 100 % Your score x 1/0 Your score x 5/7 Your overall score: = = = % % %

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BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR STRUCTURES AND VOCABULARY A SHORT COURSE IN ENGLISH FOR ADULT ASSESSMENT TEST 1 QUESTION BOOKLET (Cuadernillo de Preguntas)
A. LISTENING PART Instrucciones para las preguntas 1 - 15. Ud. oir oraciones incompletas. En cada caso Ud. deber elegir la alternativa A, B, C, o D, que complete en mejor forma la oracin leda por el examinador. Una vez elegida la alternativa correcta, Ud. deber consignarla, marcando una X sobre la letra correspondiente, en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. No escriba en este cuadernillo 1. A. who Peter sent Mary last week. B whom Peter sent Mary last week. C. which Peter sent Mary last week, D. whose Peter sent Mary last week. A. opens the door now. B. is trying to open the door now. C. have just opened the door. D. wants open the door now. A. can be there now. B. were there earlier. C. will be there on time. D. had to be there very quickly. A. know her new address. B. would know her new address. C. knew her new address. D. should know her new address. A. was B. was C. had D. had A. he B. he C. he D. he been stolen. stealing. stolen. been stolen. 9. A. a little bored. B. quite busy at the moment. C. very ill now. D. too late right now. A. too much difcult for him. B. too difcult for him. C. so much difcult for him. D. a few difcult for him. A. can see a doctor today. B. may see a doctor today. C. ought to see a doctor today. D. might see a doctor today. A. anywhere that day. B. everywhere that day. C. nowhere that day. D. somewhere that day. A. are better to go by taxi. B. should to go by taxi. C. would rather go by taxi. D. had better go by taxi. A. wont be allowed to see it well, B. wont be able to see it well. C. wont can see it well. D. wont be possible to see it well A. give him your message. B. will give to him your message C. am going to give him your message D. give your message to him

2.

10.

3.

11.

4.

12.

5.

13.

6.

always works hard. often works hard. seldom works hard. works hard as a rule.

14.

7.

A. had dinner that evening. B. are having dinner that evening. C. have been having dinner that evening. D. were having dinner that evening.

15.

8.

A. How expensive it is! B. What expensive it is! C. How expensive watch is it! D. What expensive watch is it!

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Instrucciones para las preguntas 16 - 30. Ud. oir oraciones completas esta vez. Despus de cada oracin U. oir una pregunta y deber elegir la alternativa A, B, C, 0 D. que la conteste en mejor forma. una vez elegida la alternativa correcta deber consignarla, marcando una X sobre la letra correspondiente, en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS, No escriba en este cuadernillo. 16. A. On his way to the ofce. B. Later in the day. C. Away from the ofce. D. At once. A. He was B. He was C. He was D. He was away almost all day, working at home all day. resting all day. away all day long, 24. A. He remembered he had a friend. B. He visited a friend he had met at the airport. C. He stayed in the garden all morning. D. He drove to the airport to pick up a friend.

17.

25.

A. He has to decide what to do soon. B. He must order someone to do the job. C. He has to work in the evenings too D. He must nish the job sometime. A. They are a little younger. B. They are 10 years altogether. C. They are 12 years old, D. They are a different age. A. They had dinner at the restaurant. B. They went somewhere else together. C. They attended a meeting at the club. D. They decided to go home early. A. There were too many people there. B. The weather was awful. C. It was a very crowded place. D. They met people and went on sightseeing tours. A. He wanted to take a walk. B. The buses were crowded at that time C. He wanted to get home more safely. D. He preferred to go home by taxi. A. They go there from time to time. B. They go there when they have time. C. They go there when they want to have fun. D. They go there only when the weathers ne.

18.

A. Didnt forget. B. Didnt care much. C. Didnt make a decision. D. Didnt remember. A.He had no time to travel. B. He didnt like hotels very much. C. He wanted to save money. D. He would miss his family. A. A polite person. B. A kind person. C. A dull person. D. A sociable person. A. He hasnt studied her well. B. He doesnt see her so often. C. He s only seen her once or twice. D. He hasnt told us much about her. A. Shell call the roll. B. Shell ring them up. C. Shell show them a map. D. Shell go and see them. A. Because they like the rain. B. Because they like shopping. C. Because its a busy little town. D. Because its a quiet and pleasant place.

26.

19.

27.

20.

28.

21.

29.

22.

30.

23.

Instrucciones para las preguntas 31 -40. Ud. oir oraciones completas y, en cada caso, deber elegir la alternativa A, B, C, o D. que ten-ga el signicado ms parecido a la oracin leda por el examinador. Una vez que haya elegido la alternativa correcta deber consignarla en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS, No escriba en este cuadernillo. 31 A. He hates to be at home during the day. B. Hes happy when he can stay at home all day. C. He doesnt feel like going out today. D. Hed better stay at home all day today. A. He came to live in this house very recently. B. He lived in this house until recently. C, He became accustomed to living in this house quickly. D. He used all his money quickly while he was living there.
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33,

A. He could not help at the reception. B. He should have gone to the reception. C. He wasnt allowed to attend the reception. D. He wasnt able to go to the reception. A. Mary touched him as soon as she saw him. B. Mary was very surprised to see him so soon. C. Mary telephoned him after she got there. D. Mary was welcomed by him at the railway station. A. Paul is too young to go abroad alone. B. Paul is too young to have that kind of trouble. C. Paul cant travel because he doesnt have enough time. D, Paul isnt tall enough to drive the car himself. A. They didnt accept Harrys invitation because it was cold. B, They didnt eat everything because the food was cold. C, It wasnt warm enough inside, so they ate quickly and left the place. D. They didnt like the meal Harry served because it was not warm. A. Robert B. Robert C. Robert D. Robert telephoned then to give them the new orders called them up to tell them what had happened. telephoned them in a given order. called to give them a new order.

34.

35.

36.

37.

38.

A. Harry doesnt know that area very well. B. That area never appears on the maps. C. It doesnt snow very often in that part of the country. D. The weather in winter is not very nice in the area. A. They already knew how to repair cars in those days. B. They worked in a garage in those days. C. They used to have two cars in those days. D. They have used that car for a long time. A. She B. She C. She D. She did everything correctly. did everything immediately. did everything as carefully as possible. did everything following the instructions.

39.

40.

Instrucciones para las preguntas 41 -50. El examinador leer una historia. Escuche atentamente. Enseguida oir preguntas relativas al texto ledo. En cada caso, deber elegir la alternativa A, B, C, o D. que responda en mejor forma la pregunta. Una vez que haya elegido la alternativa correcta, deber consignarla en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS, No escriba en este cuadernillo. 41. A. Because theyd been friends for many years. B. She wanted him to advise her where to go on holiday. C. She wanted to buy an air ticket. D. She wanted to travel abroad by boat.. A. Because he was glad to see her again B. Because she told him about her husbands death. C. Because he noticed she was an old lady now. D. Because she wanted to go back Brighton next summer. A. At a hotel which a member of the family had in Brighton. B. At a summer house they had in the south of France. C. At a nice cheap guest house on the coast in Britain.. D. At an expensive hotel near Paris.
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42.

43.

281

44.

A. Because they wanted their children to study a foreign language. B. Because they knew they were going to have good weather there. C. Because the travel agent told them the weather was nicer in those countries. D. Because it was a lot more convenient for them to go there on holiday. A. The Greens went on holiday abroad for the last time. B. Mrs Greens husband passed away. C. They decided not to go on holiday abroad any longer. D. Mrs Green went to her travel agent to inquire about cheap hotels in Portugal. A. To visit some friends in Portugal. B. To go to a cheap hotel in Italy or Spain. C. To spend her summer holidays in Britain. D. To spend her summer holidays abroad, as usual. A. To a hotel a Potuguese friend had in Lisbon. B. To the same family hotel she used stay when she was young. C. To a particular holiday place in India. D. To a nice and pleasant holiday resort in Potugal. A. Because he was not expecting to see Mrs Green that day. B. Because he thought Mrs Green had died a few months ago. C. Because Mrs Green was planning to spend her summer holidays in Asia. D. Because wanted to take a two-week package tour of India. A. Because lots of people were spending their holidays there these days. B. Because everything was included in the fare and she wouldnt have to worry about anything. C. Because that was the only way to visit interesting places in India. D. Because he happened to have a guidebook and some brochures to show her. A. Because she didnt like traveling with other people. B. Because she didnt like package tours very much. C. Because she wanted to arrange her holiday herself and travel cheaply. D. Because India was an amazing country.

45.

46.

47.

48.

49.

50.

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B. READING PART Instrucciones para las preguntas 51 80. En cada una de las oraciones hay uno o dos espacios en blanco, elija la alternativa A, B, C, o D. que llene el o los espacios en blanco en forma correcta y, enseguida, consigne su eleccin en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS, No escriba en este cuadernillo, 51. Bob : Jos: you ever Drambuie, Jos? No, never. But I know its a very strong liquor. C. Will - drink D. Have - drunk during the last three months, so I dont think hell get a good report from

A. Do drank B. Have - been drunk 52. Captain Thomas has not worked his superiors.. A. too good B. too many 53. What is the

C. hard enough D. satisfactory professional experience youve had in your military career?

A. valuable C. hardest B. better D. most good 54. As soon as I opened the door and looked inside, I noticed that there were dirty plates and glasses and empty bottles all over the place. A. there had been B. there were 55. C. they were having D. it was

party the night before because

books youve brought with you, Jack! Do you think youll have time to read them all? A. What a few B How interesting C. What a lot of D. How much this semester. Shell surely

56. Mary seems to be a very responsible person. She has studied very hard get one of marks in the nal examination. A. since - the high B. during - the highest C. for - the most highest D. along - the higher the ofce. John.

57. Remember that you have to turn off all the lights A. before leaving B. in order to leaving C. before youre leaving D. before to leave

58. You are getting too fat, Jim. I think you A. must to B. should to 59. did you use to write to in the Middle East? A. How long - your family B. How many times theirs

eat less and do more physical exercise.

C. would rather D. ought to when you were serving in the United Nations Peacekeeping Forces

C. How often - them D. How much time - your friends

60. Mr Morrison

the children to the park that morning, but he remembered that he

go and see a

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friend who was in hospital. A. had taken must B. was going to take - had to C. had been taking should D. would take - was allowed asleep..

61. Grandmother when I went out to do the shopping about two hours ago and she is Dont you think I should go and see if she is all right? A. slept B. was sleeping also still C. has slept D. had been sleeping already yet

62. The number of accidents caused by careless drivers regulations the Ministry of Transport imposed two years ago A. are decreasing B. are decreased - produce - will produce C. has decreased D. have been decreasing

during the last two years, I m sure the strict the effects everyone expected. - are producing - will be producing considered a full member of

63.An illiterate person is a person our modern society.

cant read or write. Consequently, he

A. whose - mustnt be B. which - doesnt have to be 64. Im going to as soon as I A, give to her the letter - will see her B. give the letter to her - see her

C. whom D. who

- never was able to be - will never be this afternoon. - can see her - am going to see her

C. give the letter her D. give her the letter

65. Mrs Brown takes her children to the dentist once or twice A. in a year B. by the year C. a year D. for the year having lunch attending a meeting at the

66.Mr Smith isnt in the ofce at the moment. He must be Conference Hall. A. as B. either as or C. neither D. both -

nor and

67. I cant move this box by myself because its A. very heavy B. too much heavy 68. John and his friends seldom them. A.are talking B.have talked C. too heavy D. not heavy enough when theyre at work because their boss is always keeping an eye on

C. dont talk D. talk have the work done before midday.

69. The manager told the secretary to use the computer A. for to B. so to C. so that D. in order to

70. If they had taken all the necessary precautions, the accident A. must have prevented B. could have been prevented
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C. could be prevented D. have been prevented

71. Do you know

when the re began, Miss Jones? C. why was sleeping the old man D. what time was it exactly over the Atlantic near the coast of Africa; I think. C. will be ying D. have been ying football almost every afternoon. C. used to play D. went him. He may get angry and reprimand you.

A. where did the people go B. what the young man was doing 72. At this time tomorrow, we A. are going to y B. are ying 73. When I was your age,Tom, I A. was playing B. had played

74. If a superior tells you that you arent doing the job correctly, A. you dont contradict B. dont contradict C. dont you contradict D. do contradict

75. He needed the answer urgently. so I sent him an email A. at all B. at once 76. For the time being, they A. have used B. are using C. all the same D. suddenly the old computer.Their laptop is being checked by a technician at moment. C. were allowed to use D. seldom use

77. I didnt have extra money, so I could go else, except to the places which were listed in the brochure. If I had had some extra money, I would have visited some other places too. A. enough B, too much 78. You everywhere somewhere C. any D. some nowhere anywhere

do it right now, otherwise youll be too busy tomorrow . C. had better D. would rather , Sir. It here in a few minutes C. right now D. already must to be going to be

A. would better B. had to 79. Your taxi hasnt arrived A. still - should be B. yet - will be 80. A: What can B. would you do if you have had

a lot of money? B: Id buy a car, A, C. did D. do would havecan have

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Instrucciones para las preguntas 81 - 95. Cada una de las siguientes oraciones tiene una parte subrayada. Elija la alternativa A, B, C, o D. que exprese lo mismo o casi lo mismo que la parte subrayada. Registre su eleccin en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS, No escriba en este cuadernillo, 81. Mrs Scott quickly got used to living in the Middle East. A. got tired of B. became sick of C. got afraid of D. became accustomed to

82. Mr Smith is quite fond of reading ction novels. A. prefers to read B. hates reading C. doesnt enjoy reading D. dislikes to read

83. I think the children would rather stay at home today. Its too cold, A. have to be B. would like to stay 84. The boy usually gets sick when he drinks milk. A. becomes B. lls C. begins D. obtains C. ought to stay D. need to remain

85. How many times a week do you practise tennis? A. How long B. What time C. How often D. How frequent

86. The girl wasnt old enough to get a driving licence. A. was much too old B. was too young C. wasnt very old D. was too very young

87. The old man wasnt able to get on the bus, so he walked home. A. wasnt allowed to B. didnt want to C. simply couldnt D. refused to

88. John didnt come to class today, and neither did Bill. A. and Bill didnt either. B. but Bill didnt also. C. and Bill didnt, too, D. and so did Bill,

89. The lieutenant reported to the general right away. A. in the right way B, at once C. from a distant place. D. punctually

90. There wasnt anyone else in the house, so the little boy had to spend the day all by himself. A. quietly and secretly. B. somewhere else C, completely alone D. without anything to eat.

91. My grandfather seldom goes out for walks in the evening. A, very often B. hardly ever
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C. almost D. simply

92. They are living in Los Angeles for the time being. A. because its a nice city. B. actually C. because the weathers good there. D. at present.

93. Please cross out my name. I wont be able to attend the reception. A. underline B. consider C. leave out D. report

94. He is too old and is losing his memory. Hes told me the same thing over and over. A. from time to time B. only a few times 95.What time do you think they will get there? A. be in that town B. leave the city C. get a place D. obtain a room C. with some exaggeration D. many times.

Instrucciones para las preguntas 96 105. Lea cuidadosamente el siguiente trozo de lectura. Enseguida deber contestar las preguntas eligiendo la alternativa A, B, C, o D, que estime Ud. es la ms adecuada en cada caso. Registre la alternativa correcta en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. No escriba en este cuadernillo. Before she left, Mrs Soames gave last minute instructions to the baby-sitter, a young girl of seventeen. The girl had never done baby sitting before, and Mrs Soames was a little worried. Make yourself comfortable, Carol, Mrs Soames said. Ive prepared a tray of food for you. Its on the table. You can, of course, listen to the radio or watch television, but dont have it too loud because you might wake our little boy. If the boy wakes up, go to his room and stay there for a few minutes. Hell go back to sleep at once. Anyway, hes four years old, so you should not have any trouble. My husband and I will be back at about eleven oclock. Mr and Mrs Soames returned rather later than they had expected A light was still on in the living-room, and the television could just be heard. Mrs Soames went to the living-room right away and came out again a moment later holding the boy. What was he doing there? Mr Soames exclaimed. Hes wide awake. He was looking at the television, Mrs Soames said. Wheres Carol? Mr Soames asked. Shes still in the living-room. Shes fast asleep! 96. What did the Soames do that evening? A. They saw a program on television. B. They had some trouble with their baby. C. They went to visit some friends. D. They invited a baby-sitter to their house. 97. Why was Mrs Soames so worried? A. Because the boy was not in good health. B. Because the girl had never done that kind of job before. C. Because there wasnt much food for the baby-sitter. D. Because the girl could not hear the television very well. 98. Why was the girl told that she would have no trouble with the boy? A. Because the boy would be sleeping most of the time. B. Because the boy was going with them as well. C. Because the boy was a newly born baby. D. Because she had left a tray of food in case he felt hungry.

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99. Where were Carol and the baby when the Soames returned home? A. Carol was downstairs and the baby was upstairs. B. The boy was in the living-room and Carol was in the bed-room. C. The boy was awake and the girl was asleep. D. They were both in the living-room, of course. 100. What time was it when the Soames arrived? A. It was almost midnight. B. It was just before eleven. C. It wasnt very late. D. It was only a few minutes past eleven. 101. Whats the best synonym for make yourself comfortable (line 3)

A. Get a sofa and watch TV or listen to the radio if you like. B. You can lie down on our bed if you feel tired. C. Be careful with the neighbours. D. Dont worry about anything. 102. What is the meaning of the expression of course (line 4) A. by no means B. perhaps C. obviously D. however

103. What does the expression Hell go back to sleep mean? (line 6) A. He will go to his bedroom again. B. He will fall asleep again. C. He will feel sleepy. D. He will go to his bed. 104. What is the best synonym for expected.? (line 8) A. decided B. planned. 105. What is the meaning of holding A. looking at B. waking up C. promised D. left (line 10) C. looking for D. carrying

Instrucciones para las preguntas 106 -120. En cada una de las series de palabras hay una que no corresponde a ella, (trmino excluido). Ubique en cada serie el trmino excluido y regstrelo en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. En esta seccin hay cinco alternativas A, B, C, D, o E, No escriba en este Cuadernillo 106. 107 108. 109. 110. 111. 112. 113. 114. 115.
288

A. quickly A. shirt A. narrow A. cousin A. worse A. mine A. rice A. could A. behind A. weak

B. slowly B.neck B.deep B.niece B. cheaper B.our B.butter B.would B. among B. month

C. C. C. C. C. C. C. C. C. C.

careful sock age aunt clever his meat sight throw day

D. fast D. tie D. wide D. nephew D. faster D. her D. juice D. ought D. across D. century

E. well E. glove E. high E. sun E, happier E. their E. cotton E. should E. along E. hour

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116. 117. 118. 119. 120.

A. grocer A. seldom A. made A. shoulder A. seen

B.customer B. often B. bought B. nose B. brought

C. C. C. C. C.

tailor real broke elbow forgot

D. barber D. sometimes D. tired D. arm D. shut

E. butcher E. always E. put E. belt E. come

THIS IS THE END OF THE ASSESSMENT TEST 1

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BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR STRUCTURES AND VOCABULARY A SHORT COURSE IN ENGLISH FOR ADULT STUDENTS ASSESSMENT TEST 1 ANSWER SHEET (Hoja de respuestas)
Student_s Name Date: Score: %

A. LISTENING PART 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. B. READING PART 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D

(Time limit : 35 minutes)

A A A A A A A A A A

B B B B B B B B B B

C C C C C C C C C C

D D D D D D D D D D

61. 62. 63 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70.

A A A A A A A A A A

B B B B B B B B B B

C C C C C C C C C C

D D D D D D D D D D

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71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89. 90. 91. 92. 93. 94. 95.

A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A

B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B

C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C

D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D

96. 97. 98. 99. 100. 101. 102. 103. 104. 105. 106. 107. 108. 109. 110. 111. 112. 113. 114. 115. 116. 117. 118. 119. 120.

A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A

B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B

C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C

D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D

E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E

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BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR STRUCTURES AND VOCABULARY A SHORT COURSE IN ENGLISH FOR ADULT STUDENTS ASSESSMENT TEST 1 EXAMINERS TEXT (Texto para el Examinador)
A. LISTENING PART Instrucciones para las preguntas 1 - 15. Ud. oir oraciones incompletas. En cada caso Ud. deber elegir la alternativa A, B, C, o D, que complete en mejor forma la oracin leda por el examinador. Una vez elegida la alternativa correcta, Ud. deber consignarla, marcando una X sobre la letra correspondiente, en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. No escriba en este cuadernillo 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Im absolutely sure that these are the books for children Whats that noise, Mary? I think somebody The trafc is too heavy at this time of day, John. If you take a taxi, you I would certainly send her a post card from Edinburgh if I As soon as I entered the ofce this morning, I noticed that the computer Although the old man knows how to do the job well, Im not happy with him because There was a big noise outside the building and the lights went out while we When the shop assistant told my wife the price of the watch, she exclaimed Robert Smith is planning to go somewhere and do something interesting because he feels The little boy wont be able to answer all the questions correctly because they are Tom, you really dont look well this morning. I think you I had so many things to do at the ofce that I decided to go John, you are going to get there late if you go by bus. I think you If you dont put on your glasses, Jack, you As soon as the manager comes back to the ofce this afternoon, I

Instrucciones para las preguntas 16 - 30. Ud. oir oraciones completas esta vez. Despus de cada oracin Ud. oir una pregunta y deber elegir la alternativa A, B, C, 0 D. que la conteste en mejor forma. una vez elegida la alternativa correcta deber consignarla, marcando una X sobre la letra correspondiente, en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS, No escriba en este cuadernillo. 16.Robert told Jim to come to his ofce right away. Question: When did Robert want to see Jim? 17.Jack didnt go out yesterday because he had to read some reports and write some letters. Question: How did Jack spend the day yesterday? 18.The young captain did not make up his mind quickly. Question: What does the expression didnt make up his mind mean in this sentence? 19.John didnt accept the job offer because he would have to be away from home too often. He thought hed rather be near his wife and children than be travelling all the time. Question: Why did he refuse to accept the job offer? 20.John is fond of visiting people and usually entertains friends at his home. Question: What kind of a person is John? 21.Tom knows Jane better because theyve been friends for years since they were at school together, whereas Robert only met her a couple of days ago. Thats why he cant tell us much about her. Question: Why cant we ask Robert to talk about Janes personality? 22.The secretary could not get in touch with the customers this morning, so she will have to call them again this afternoon. Question: What will the secretary do after lunch today? 23.Its usually cold and it rains quite a lot during the year in that part of the country, but they like living in that small town because all the shops are near, the trafc is never so heavy and there are no factories nearby. Question: Why are they so happy to be living there? 24.John was going to work in the garden that morning, but he remembered he had to go and meet a friend at the airport, so he left the job for the following weekend. Question: What did John do that morning? 25. Bill will have to work overtime if he wants to nish the job before the end of this month. Question: What must he do in order to complete the job in good time? 26.Jack and Tom are the same age, but Bill is two years younger. He is only ten at present. Question: How old are Jack and Tom? 27. Mr Jackson and his friends met outside the restaurant at about 7.45 that evening but they did not go in because it was too early and they did not feel hungry at that moment. They went to the club instead. Question: What did they
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do after all of them had arrived? 28.They had a good time there because, although the weather was not ne, they had the chance of making friends and visiting places. Question: Why did they enjoy their holidays so much? 29.Mr Clark walked home from the ofce that evening because all the buses were full at that time and he didnt have enough money to take a taxi. Question: Why didnt Mr Clark go home by bus? 30.The Browns hardly ever go to their parents farm in the south because it is too far and it takes them more than ten hours to drive there. Question: How often do they go there during the year? Instrucciones para las preguntas 31-40. Ud. oir oraciones completas y, en cada caso, deber elegir la alternativa A, B, C, o D. que ten-ga el signicado ms parecido a la oracin leda por el examinador. Una vez que haya elegido la alternativa correcta deber consignarla en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS, No escriba en este cuadernillo. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. Hed rather stay at home all day today. He got used to living in this house after a few months. He could not attend the reception at the embassy that day because he was too busy. Mary got in touch with him as soon as she got there. Paul isnt old enough to travel abroad by himself. They ate their meal in a hurry because it was too cold inside the restaurant. Robert telephoned them that evening in order to give them the news. It hardly ever snows in that region. They used to repair cars in those days. She did everything right away.

Instrucciones para las preguntas 41 -50. El examinador leer una historia. Escuche atentamente. Enseguida oir preguntas relativas al texto ledo. En cada caso, deber elegir la alternativa A, B, C, o D. que responda en mejor forma la pregunta. Una vez que haya elegido la alternativa correcta, deber consignarla en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS, No escriba en este cuadernillo. A holiday abroad? Yes, of course, Mrs Green. Im sure we can arrange something for you. The travel agent smiled at the old lady across the counter. He knew her well. At one time, years before, she and her husband used to go to Brighton every summer. In those days, he booked a family hotel for them. Then they started to take their holidays in France - and he got them their boat tickets. Later, when their children grew up, they discovered Italy and Spain. He bought their air tickets or found cheap holidays for them. But then, the previous autumn, Mr Green died. Well, no more holidays abroad for Mrs Green, he thought. Shell probably start going to Brighton again! But he was wrong! Here she was, only a few months after her husbands death, back in his ofce asking about holidays abroad. Have you any particular place in mind? he asked. How about Portugal, for instance? A nice, friendly place, with good weather... Mrs Green shook her head. As a matter of fact, she said, I was thinking of India! India! For a moment, the travel agent was surprised, but then he thought: Of course! Lots of people want to go to India these days. Its all these programmes and lms on TV. However, at her age... India he said. Well, yes. Im sure we can x up something for you. He showed Mrs Green a brochure. How about a two-week tour, for example? Complete with air ticket, hotels, meals and guides. Youll see the really important places - and you wont have to think about a thing! Thank you, said Mrs Green. Thats exactly what 1 dont want. The travel agent looked puzzled. Look, Mrs Green went on. Ive got a guidebook of India here. She waved it at him. It says you can go everywhere by bus or train. There are plenty of cheap hotels - and food is cheap too. So all I need is a cheap air ticket! Can you get me one or not? 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. Why did Mrs Green visit the travel agent that morning? Why did the travel agent smile when he saw her in his ofce? Where did the Greens spend their summer holidays when the children were small? Why did they start going to Italy or Spain? What happened a few months ago? What did the travel agent think Mrs Green was planning to do? Where did the travel agent suggest Mrs Green should go on holiday next summer? Why was the travel agent so surprised? Why did the travel agent offer her the two-week package tour of India? Why didnt Mrs. Green want to take the package tour the travel agent recommended her? THIS IS THE END OF THE LISTENING PART OF THE TEST
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BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR STRUCTURES AND VOCABULARY A SHORT COURSE IN ENGLISH FOR ADULT STUDENTS ASSESSMENT TEST 1 KEY TO ANSWERS (Clave de respuestas) A. LISTENING PART 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D

B. READING PART 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60.

(Time limit : 35 minutes)

A A A A A A A A A A

B B B B B B B B B B

C C C C C C C C C C

D D D D D D D D D D

61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70.

A A A A A A A A A A

B B B B B B B B B B

C C C C C C C C C C

D D D D D D D D D D

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71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89. 90. 91. 92. 93. 94. 95.

A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A

B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B

C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C

D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D

96. 97. 98. 99. 100. 101. 102. 103. 104. 105. 106. 107. 108. 109. 110. 111. 112. 113. 114. 115. 116. 117. 118. 119. 120.

A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A

B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B

C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C

D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D

E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E

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APENDICE 1 CHART 1. BASIC VERB TENSES


PRESENT SIMPLE
(S + DO / DOES + INFINITIVE)

I write (= I do write) a letter every day


(Yo escribo una carta todos los das;)

Mary writes (= Mary does write) a letter every day.


(Mary escribe una carta todos los das)

CONTINUOUS
(S + AM / IS / ARE + ING)

I am writing a letter now.


(Yo estoy ecribiendo una carta ahora)

PERFECT
(S + HAVE / HAS + PAST PARTICIPLE)

I have written several letters today.


(Yo he escrito varias cartas hoy)

PERFECT CONTINUOUS
(S + HAVE / HAS BEEN + ING)

I have been writing letters since 8:30 this morning


(Yo he estado escribiendo cartas desde las 8:30 de la maana)

PAST

SIMPLE
(S + DID + INFINITIVE )

I wrote (= I did write) a letter yesterday.


(Yo escrib una carta ayer)

CONTINUOUS
(S + WAS / WERE + ING)

I was writing a letter when John arrived at 8:45 this evening .


(Yo estaba escribiendo una carta cuando John lleg a las 8:45 esta tarde)

PERFECT
(S + HAD + PAST PARTICIPLE)

I had already written three letters when John arrived at 8:45 this evening.
(Yo ya haba escrito tres cartas cuando John lleg al las 8:45 esta tarde)

PERFECT CONTINUOUS
(S + HAD BEEN + ING)

I had been writing letters for about two hours when John arrived at 8:45 this evening
(Yo haba estado escribiendo cartas por cerca de dos horas cuando John lleg a las 8:45 esta tarde)

FUTURE SIMPLE
A) B) (S + WILL + INFINITIVE) (S +AM / IS / ARE + GOING TO + (S + AM / IS / ARE + ING)

a) I will write a letter to John tomorrow


(Yo escribir una carta a Juan maana)

INF) C)

b) I am going to w rite a letter to John tomorrow.


(Yo voy a escribir una carta a John maana )

c) I am writing a letter to John in a few minutes


(Estoy escribiendo una carta a Juan dentro de unos pocos minutos)

CONTINUOUS
(S + WILL BE + ING )

I will be writing letters when you come to see me this evening.


(Yo estar escribiendo cartas cuando t vengas a verme esta tarde)

PERFECT
(S + WILL HAVE + PAST PART)

I will have written several letters when you come to see me this evening.
(Yo habr escrito varias cartas cuando vengas a verme esta tarde)

PERFECT CONTINUOUS
(S + WILL HAVE BEEN + ING )

I will have been writing letters for more than two hours when you come at midday.
(Yo habr estado escribiendo cartas por ms de dos horas cuando vengas al medioda.)

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APENDICE 2 CHART 2. BASIC VERB TENSES: STRUCTURE AND USAGE


A. CONTINUOUS (OR PROGRESSIVE) TENSES
PRESENT USO: PAST USO: FUTURE USO:

Describe una accin que se est realizando Describe una accin que se estaba Describe una accin que se estar realizando o est ocurriendo en este momento y que realizando o estaba ocurriendo en un o estar ocurriendo en un momento an no han concluido. momento determinado en el pasado determinado en el futuro

ESTRUCTURA:
S + AM / IS / ARE+ ING

ESTRUCTURA:
S+WAS / WERE +ING

ESTRUCTURA:
S+WILL BE+ ING S + AM / IS / ARE + GOING TO BE + ING

EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO:
Now, at the moment, at this time, For the time being, at present

EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO:
When + S + Past + yesterday / last Monday,etc .At...oclock yesterday / last Monday, etc,

EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO:
When + S + Present + tomorrow / next week, etc. At..oclock tomorrow / next Monday, etc.

EJEMPLOS:
John is speaking with the manager now John is not / isnt speaking with the manager now Is John speaking with the manager now?

EJEMPLOS:
John was speaking to the manager when I saw him yesterday. John was not / wasnt speaking to the manager when I saw him yesterday Was John speaking to the manager when I saw him yesterday?

EJEMPLOS:
John will be speaking with the manager at this time tomorrow. John will not / wont be speaking with the manager at this time tomorrow. Will John be speaking with the manager at this time tomorrow.

PREGUNTA HABITUAL:
What are you doing (now)? / wt a:r iu: di_ nu / Qu esta haciendo Ud. ahora?

PREGUNTA HABITUAL:
What were you doing (at that time)? / wt wer iu: di_ at t tim / Qu estaba Ud. haciendo a esa hora?

PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What will you be doing (at 8:30 this evening) ? / wt wil iu: b: d:i_ at eit _: rti _is vni_ / Qu estar haciendo Ud. a las 8:30 esta tarde?

SAMPLE DIALOG:
Sam: Hi Bob! What are you doing? Are you watching the news? Bob: No, Im not. Im studying history. I have my term test tomorrow. And what are you doing here? Sam: Im looking for Mary. Is she at home? Bob: Yes, she is. Shes reading the paper in the garden, I think. Sam: Thanks, Bob. Im sorry I interrupted you. Bob: Dont worry,. Its all right Detective:

SAMPLE DIALOG:
Were you at home at the time the men broke into the house, Mr Smith? Yes, Sir. But I was in the garage. I was washing the car. Was your wife with you? No, she wasnt. She was attending a conference at the Arts Museum. Did you hear any noise in the house? Yes, I did. But I thought Billy was watching TV upstairs. Bob: Jack: Bob: Jack:

SAMPLE DIALOG:
What will you be doing at this time next Saturday? Ill be ying to London. What time will you be landing at Heathrow? At about 8:15 in the evening. We wont be arriving at the hotel before 9:30. Will you go on a sightseeing tour on Sunday? Of course not! We will be working all day on Sunday. We must have everything ready for the World Peace Talks which start on Monday.

Peter:

Detective: Peter:

Bob: Jack:

Detective: Peter:

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B. SIMPLE TENSES
PRESENT USO:
Describe una accin que se realiza o sucede en forma habitual, como todos los das, siempre,etc.

PAST USO:
Describe una accin que se realiz o sucedi en una fecha u hora determinada en el pasado, como ayer, el sbado pasado.

FUTURE USO:
Describe una accin que se realizar o suceder en una hora o fecha determinada en el futuro, como maana, el prximo sbado.

ESTRUCTURA: S+DO / DOES+INFINITIVE*


*En la forma armativa se usa solamente S + Innitive. (con He,she it se agrega s / es al innitivo). En las negaciones e interrogaciones se usa do / does + innitive (Ver Ejemplos)

ESTRUCTURA:
S+DID+INFINITIVE* *En la forma armativa se usa S + Past. En las negaciones e interrogaciones se usa did + innitive (Ver Ejemplos)

ESTRUCTURA:
a) S+WILL+INFINITIVE (Decisin) b) S+AM / IS / ARE+GOING TO + INF (Intencin, plan) c) S+AM / IS / ARE+ING (Actividad .prevista o acordada con aticipacin)

EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO:
Every day, every week, every month, etc Always, usually, often, sometimes, seldom, etc. Once a day, twice a week, several times a year,etc.

EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO:
Yesterday, last night, last week, last Sunday, etc. Two days ago, ten months ago, etc. That day; on May 4, 1997; in 1986, etc.

EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO:
Tomorrow, next week, next month, next Sunday, etc.

EJEMPLOS:
I speak (= I do speak) with the manager every day. I do not speak with the manager...... Do I speak with the manager .......? Jane speaks (= Jane does speak) with the manager every day. Jane does not speak with the ...... Does Jane speak with the manager....?

EJEMPLOS:
I spoke (= I did speak) with the manager yesterday. I did not speak with the manager.... Did I speak with the manager....?

EJEMPLOS:
a) I will speak with the manager tomorrow. I will not speak with the manager... Will I speak with the manager....? b) Im going to speak with the manager tomorrow. Im not going to speak with ....... Am I going to speak with.......? c) Im speaking with the manager tomorrow. I m not speaking with ..... Am I speaking with ......?

PREGUNTA HABITUAL:
What do you do (every day) ? / wt diu: d: vri di / (Qu hace Ud. todos los das)

PREGUNTA HABITUAL:
What did you do (yesterday)? / wt did iu: d: isterdei / Que hizo Ud. ayer?

PREGUNTA HABITUAL:
a) What will you do (tomorrow) ? / wot wil i d: tumrou / Qu har Ud. maana?) b) What are you going to do (tomorrow)? / wt a:r iu: gi_ tu d: tomrou / Qu va a hacer ...? c) What are you doing (tomorrow)? / wt a:r iu: di_ tumrou / Que tiene previsto hacer....?

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PRESENT

PAST

FUTURE

SAMPLE DIALOG:
Bob: Where do you live, Nancy? Nancy: I live on Clark Street. Bob: How do you get here every day? Nancy: I generally take the bus. Bob: Does your husband take the bus too? Nancy: No he doesnt . He usually walks. It doesnt take him more than 5 minutes to get to the ofce. Bob: Jack: Bob: Jack:

SAMPLE DIALOG:
What did you do last week-end? I went to the beach. Did you go alone? No, I didnt. I went with some friends. We really had a great time there. Where did you stay? We rented a small house. What did you do on Saturday? In the afternoon we went swimming and in the evening we went to a disco.

SAMPLE DIALOG:
Bob: What will you do in the summer?. Ann: We will go to Cancun again. Bob: When are you going to leave? Ann: Well, were going to make reservations for the last two weeks in July. Bob: Are you just going to visit Cancn? Ann: I dont know yet. My friends and I are meeting this evening to discuss our plans. Bob: That sounds great!

Bob: Jack: Bob: Jack:

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C. PERFECT TENSES
PRESENT PAST FUTURE

USO:

USO:

USO:
Describe una accin que se habr realizado o completado antes que otra ocurra otra accin en el futuro, antes de una fecha futura

Describe a) una accin que comenz a realizarse Describe una accin que se realiz u en una fecha u hora en el pasado y que ha ocurri antes que otra ocurriera. continuado hasta este momento; b) una accin que acaba de ocurrir, c) una accin que se ha realizado varias veces en el pasado.

ESTRUCTURA:
S + HAVE / HAS + PAST PARTICIPLE

ESTRUCTURA:
S + HAD + PAST PARTICIPLE

ESTRUCTURA:
S + WILL HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE

EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO:
For.....; since.......; already ; not...yet; Just; before; lately, never. Once, twice, three times,Several times, many times Ever?

EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO:
When + S + Past By the time + S + Past Several times before; many times before, never.....before

EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO:
When + S+ Present + tomorrow / next Monday,etc By this time tomorrow / next month, etc. By the end of this month / year,etc.

EJEMPLOS:
I have lived in Santiago for ten years I have lived in Santiago since 1992. Your train has just left, Sir Peter has been in Chicago twice. Mrs. Jackson has never travelled abroad. Have you ever drunk tequila?

EJEMPLOS:
The train had already left when we got to the station. We had had dinner by the time they arrived last night. She had never been in Paris before. He had worked in the Army for about 30 years when he retired.

EJEMPLOS:
When Peter gets here today, we will have had lunch already. They will have gone by the time Peter arrives this evening

PREGUNTA HABITUAL:
What have you done (since you arrived this morning)? / wot av iu: dn sins iu: arrivd is m:rni / Que ha hecho Ud. desde que lleg esta maana?

PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What had you done (before Peter arrived yesterday)? / wot had iu: dn bif: r p:ter arrivd isterdei / Que haba hecho ud. antes que Peter llegara ayer?

PREGUNTA HABITUAL:
What will you have done (by the end of this month)? / wot wil iu: hav dn bai i nd ov is mn / Qu habr hecho ud. hacia nes de este mes?

SAMPLE DIALOG:
Ofcer: Is this the rst time you came to the United States? Peter: No, Sir. Ive come here three or four times. Ofcer: Have you ever been to the Grand Canyon? Peter: No, I have never been there. But one of my brothers has visited it several times. He says its spectacular. Ofcer: Im sure you will enjoy the visit Bob:

SAMPLE DIALOG:
Was that your rst visit to New York? Jane: No, it wasnt I had been in New York a couple of times before. But I had never visited it in the spring. I must say Central Park is beautiful at this time of the year. Bob: Why didnt Jack go with you? Jane: He couldnt afford the trip. He had not saved enough money for the tickets.

SAMPLE DIALOG:
John: Have they nished building the bridge yet? Peter: No they havent. I think they will have nished building it before the end of this week. John: How many bridges will they have built by the end of this decade? Peter: I dont know. But they will have built several important roads and our economy will have grown considerably. John: I hope your dreams come true

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D. PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSES


PRESENT PAST FUTURE

USO:

USO:

USO:
Describe una accin que se habr estado realizndose en forma ininterrumpida antes que otra ocurra otra accin en el futuro, antes de una fecha futura.

Al igual que el Presente Perfecto describe Describe una accin que se haba estado una accin que comenz a realizarse en realizando en forma ininterrumpida antes una fecha u hora en el pasado y que ha que otra ocurriera. continuado en forma ininterrumpida hasta este momento.

ESTRUCTURA:
S + HAVE / HAS+BEEN + ING

ESTRUCTURA:
S + HAD + BEEN + ING

ESTRUCTURA:
S+WILL HAVE + BEEN + ING

EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO:
For......; since.......

EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO:
Since..... / for...... when S + Past Since..... / for.... by the time + S + Past

EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO:
For...... by the time + S + Present

EJEMPLOS:
I have been working on this project since March this year They have been waiting for the bus for about twenty minutes so far.

EJEMPLOS:
John had been working in his ofce since 8:30 that morning. It had been raining hard for about two hours that morning.

EJEMPLOS:
Peter will have been living in this country for ve years by the end of this month. I will have been working on this project for more than three months by the time this term ends.

PREGUNTA HABITUAL:
What have you been doing since you arrived here this morning? / wot av iu: b:n d:i sins iu: arrivd har is m:rni / Qu ha estado haciendo Ud. desde que lleg esta maana?

PREGUNTA HABITUAL:
What had you been doing before Peter arrived yesterday? / wot had iu: b:n d:i bif:r p:ter arrivd isterdei / Qu haba estado haciendo Ud. antes que Peter llegara ayer?

PREGUNTA HABITUAL:
What will you have been doing by the end of this month? / wt wil iu: hav b:n d:i bai i nd ov is mn / Qu habr estado haciendo Ud. hacia nes de este mes?

SAMPLE DIALOG:
Peter: What have you been doing since you got up this morning? Mary: Ive been doing lots of things. Ive been working on my thesis, and I have been studying for the nal exams. Peter: You really look tired. Mary: Yes, I havent been sleeping well since this term started in March.. Anyway, It will all be over before the end of this month. Peter: Yes, and youll get your degree at last!!

SAMPLE DIALOG:
John: What had your friends been doing that evening? Jim: Theyd been celebrating Marys birthday. Theyd been dancing and singing. And they had also been sitting and talking by the re. . John: And why were the neighbors so angry? Jim: They had been trying to sleep, but hadnt been able to do so because of the noise!!!

SAMPLE DIALOG:
A. Are they still discussing the project to build the new bridge across the Potomac? B. Yes, They will have been discussing it for fteen months next week and they havent yet decided whether it should or shouldnt be built. A. Its a shame! Well, I hope they take a stand and vote for it. In the meantime, we simply have to be patient and wait. After all we have been using the ferry for years and have become used to it.

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