8.1 Introduction
Plane stress conditions : buildings, machines, vehicles, and aircraft In this chapter, the structures to be discussed are pressure vessels stress in beams : principle stresses, maximum shear stress structures subjected to combined loadings
8.2 Spherical Pressure Vessels
pressure vessels are classified as shell structures, it is subjected to internal pressure p to determine the stresses in the wall, let us cut
through the sphere on a vertical diametral plane, the resultant pressure force is
P
=
p ( r ^{2} )
where r
is the inner radius of the sphere
the resultant of the tensile stresses
in the wall is
F
=
(2 r _{m} t)
where t is the thickness of the wall and r _{m} is its mean radius
+ t / 2
r _{m} equation of equilibrium in the horizontal direction
=
r
1
F horiz 
= 
(2 r _{m} t) 
0 

 
p ( r ^{2} ) 
=
0
the tensile stresses in the wall is
2 


= 
p r CCC 

2 
r _{m} t 

for 
r 
>> 
t 
(r 
> 
10 t), 
p r 


= 
CC 

2 
t 
r _{m}
j
r
then
when we cut through the center of the sphere in any direction, we can
conclude that the sphere is subjected to uniform tensile stress in all
directions, they are known as membrane stresses
Stresses at the outer surface
_{1}
=
_{2}
=
p r
CC
2 t
then
_{m}_{a}_{x}
=
C
2
=
Stresses at the inner surface
_{1}
=
_{2}
=
p r
CC
2 t
then
_{m}_{a}_{x}
=
+ p CCC
2
=
Limitations of thinshell theory
1.
r
>
10 t
or more
2. internal pressure must exceed external pressure
2
3.
only pressure loading is considered for stress calculation
4. stress concentrations are not considered in the formula derived
Example 
81 

d 
= 
450 mm 
t 
= 
7 mm 

a. 
_{a}_{l}_{l}_{o}_{w} = 115 MPa, 
p 
_{a} 
= 
? 

b. 
_{a}_{l}_{l}_{o}_{w} = 40 MPa 
p 
_{b} 
= 
? 

c. 
_{a}_{l}_{l}_{o}_{w} = 0.0003 
E = 210 GPa 


= 
0.28 
p _{c} 
= 
? 

d. 
T _{f}_{a}_{i}_{l}_{u}_{r}_{e} = 1.5 MN/m 
n = 2.5 
p _{d} 

e. 
p allow 
= 
? 

a. 

= 
pr/2t 

2 t _{a}_{l}_{l}_{o}_{w} 
2 x 7 x 115 

p _{a} 
= 
CCCC 
= 

r 
225 

b. 

= 
pr/4t 

4 t _{a}_{l}_{l}_{o}_{w} 
4 x 7 x 40 

p _{b} 
= 
CCCC 
= 
CCCCC 

r 
225 

c. 
_{x} 
= 
( _{x}  _{y} ) / E 

for _{x} 
= 
_{y} 
= 

= 
pr / 2t 

then 
_{x} 
= 
C (1  ) 
= 

E 
2t E 

2t E _{a}_{l}_{l}_{o}_{w} 

thus 
=
?
7.16 MPa
CCCCCC
=
=
4.98 MPa
p r CC (1  )
2 x 7 x 210 x 10 ^{3} x 0.0003
p _{c} = CCCC = CCCCCCCCCCC =
5.44 MPa
r (1  )
225 (1  0.28)
3
d.
T _{a}_{l}_{l}_{o}_{w}
=
T _{f}_{a}_{i}_{l}_{u}_{r}_{e} / n
=
1.5/2.5
=
0.6 MN/m
=
600 N/m
_{a}_{l}_{l}_{o}_{w}
p
_{d}
=
T _{a}_{l}_{l}_{o}_{w} / t 2 t _{a}_{l}_{l}_{o}_{w}
=
CCCC
r
=
=
600 / 7
=
85.7 MPa
2 x 7 x 85.7
CCCCC
225
=
5.3 MPa
e.
p
_{a}_{l}_{l}_{o}_{w}
=
min[p _{a} ,
p _{b} ,
p _{c}
and
p _{d} ]
=
4.9 MPa
for this
p _{a}_{l}_{l}_{o}_{w} ,
the tensile stresses in the shell are
=
p r
CC
2 t
4.9 x 225
=
CCCC
2 x 7
=
78.8 MPa
8.3 Cylindrical Pressure Vessels
consider a thinwalled circular tank
AB subjected to internal pressure
_{1} : circumferential stress or hoop stress
_{2} : longitudinal stress or axial stress
from the free body mpqn, we have
the equation of equilibrium as
then
_{1} (2 b t)

2 p b r
=
0
_{1}
=
p r
CC
t
and the equation of equilibrium in longitudinal direction
then
_{2} ( 2 r t)

p r ^{2}
=
0
_{2}
=
p r
CC
2 t
now, we have
_{1}
=
2 _{2}
4
Stress at the outer surface
_{1} = pr / t
_{2} = pr / 2t
_{3}
=
(
_{m}_{a}_{x}
)
_{z}
=
_{1}  _{2} CCC
2
=
p r
CC
4 t
(
_{m}_{a}_{x}
)
_{x}
=
_{1}
C
2
=
p r
CC
2 t
0
( _{m}_{a}_{x} ) _{y}
=
C
2
=
CC
4 t
thus
_{m}_{a}_{x}
=
1
C
2
=
p r
CC
2 t
this stress occurs on a plane that has been rotated
451
about the
x
axis
Stress at the inner surface
_{1} = pr / t
_{2} = pr / 2t
_{3} =  p
(
_{m}_{a}_{x}
)
_{x}
=
_{1}  _{3} CCC
2
=
p r
CC
2 t
+
p
C
2
(
_{m}_{a}_{x}
)
_{y}
=
_{2}  _{3} CCC
2
=
p r
CC
4 t
+
p
C
2
(
_{m}_{a}_{x}
)
_{z}
=
_{1}  _{2} CCC
2
=
p r
CC
4 t
Example
82
consider a cylindrical pressure vessel
r
=
1.8 m
t
=
20 mm
weld angle
=
551
5
E
=
200 GPa
determine :
=
0.30
p
=
800 kPa
a.
_{1}
and
_{2}
b.
c.
the maximum inplane and outofplane shear stress
_{1}
and
_{2}
d.
_{w}
and
_{w}
in the welded seam
a.
_{1}
=
p r / t
=
800 x 1800 / 20
=
72 MPa
_{2}
=
p r / 2 t
=
800 x 1800 / 2 x 20
=
36 MPa
b.
(
_{m}_{a}_{x}
)
_{z}
_{1}  _{2}
p r
= CCC = CC
2
4 t
=
18 MPa
(inplane shear)
(
_{m}_{a}_{x}
)
_{x}
=
_{1}
C
2
=
p r
CC
2 t
=
36 MPa
(outofplane shear)
c.
_{1}
=
1
C ( _{1}
E

_{2} )
_{2}
=
1
C ( _{2}
E

_{1} )
_{1}
=
p r / t
_{1}
=
p r / 2 t
then
_{1}
= CC (2
1
2 E

72 (2  0.3) ) = CCCCCC = 2 x 200 x 10 ^{3}
306 x 10 ^{}^{6}
_{2}
=
2
C (1
E

2 )
=
d.
=
90 
=
351
_{x} = _{2}
= pr / 2t = 36 MPa
_{y} = _{1} = pr / t = 72 MPa
xy
=
0
6
_{x}_{1}
=
_{x} + CCC
y
2
+
_{x}  CCC cos 2
y
2
+
_{x}_{y} sin 2
_{x}_{1}_{y}_{1}
=
_{x}   CCC sin 2
y
2
+
_{x}_{y} cos 2
then
p r _{x}_{1} = CC (3  cos 2 ) = 47.8 MPa = _{w}
4 t
p r _{x}_{1}_{y}_{1} = CC sin 2 = 16.9 MPa = _{w}
4 t
_{y}_{1}
=
_{1}
+
_{2}

_{x}_{1}
=
60.2 MPa
Mohr's circle
R
=
72  36
CCCC
2
=
18 MPa
_{1} + _{2} CCC
2
=
=
351
27 + 36
CCCC
2
2
=
=
54 MPa
701
_{x}_{1}
=
54

R cos 701
=
47.8 MPa
_{x}_{1}_{y}_{1}
=
R sin 701
=
16.9 MPa
same results as earlier
Mohr’s Circle :
8.4 Maximum Stresses in Beams
8.5 Combined Loadings
7