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Laboratory Management

Concept of Management
Chapter I

The art of getting things done through people Process consisting of planning, organizing, actuating and controlling
Effective motivation of men and the efficient utilization of resources for the attainment of a predetermined objective.

Nature of Management
Art it results in the accomplishment of objectives through the use of human effort. It requires skill and careful study in its application Science - it is a systematic body of knowledge. It gathers and analyses facts and formulates general laws or principles from these facts

Functions of Management
1. 2. 3. 4. Planning Organizing Directing Controlling

It is the mental effort by which executives anticipate the possible causes or factors that may affect or change the activities and objectives of a particular organization It controls the nature and direction of change and determines what measures or actions are necessary to accomplish predetermined goals Should include several possible alternative courses of action that may be taken under varying conditions . The best course of action under the circumstances will be considered.

The grouping together of men and establishing relationships among them
Defining the authority and responsibility to the personnel who are to perform the work in order to use maximum advantage the laboratorys material resources in the attainment of a common objectives

Refers to the way of getting all personnel in an organization to accomplish what management desires.

It involves both motivation and communication

Checking the work accomplished against plans or standards The bases for controlling are standard quality, standard quantity, standard cost, and standard time

Three aspects involved in Controlling 1. 2. 3. Planned performance A measure of actual performance Corrective measures

Manager Director Administrator Supervisor

An individual whose job is to guide the organization to attain its objectives He performs the functions of planning, organizing, directing and controlling the work of his subordinates Takes charge of the management or oversees the functioning of an activity to achieve a set of goal or purpose His strength is his ability to use all of his resources to get things done properly

Directs the affairs of an organization by establishing goals and priorities that determine the direction of the organization

Administers or runs an organization within the framework or the various directives and policies given to him

Oversees the activities of others to get them to accomplish specific tasks or to perform efficiently.

Essential characteristics of a Manager

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Motivation Vision Decision-making ability Good health Humility

What makes a good manager: Group by hospital assignment

What makes a good manager

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Appearance Personality act with proper decorum Articulate Energy, driven, ambition Positive attitude displaying a constructive, cheerful outlook in life Thoughtfulness

7. Overall composure 8. Aura of leadership agreeable manner, self confidence 9. bright, informed, a bit of sparkle 10. Breadth of interest learn a little about many fields like

Management Levels
1. First line manager lowest level in an organization responsible for the work of others. They direct operating employees only they do not supervise other managers - often called supervisors


Middle managers refers to more than one level in an organization

- direct the activities of other managers and sometimes also those of operating employees - their principal responsibilities are to direct the activities that implement their organizations policies and to balance the demands of their supervisors with the capacities of their subordinates ex. CMT


Top managers composed of a relatively small group of executives. They are responsible for the overall management of the organization. It establishes operating policies and guides the organizations interactions with its environment.
ex. President of the Hospital

Roles of Managers
1. 2. 3. Interpersonal Informational decisional

Interpersonal Roles
1. Symbol or a figurehead 2. Serves as a leader hires, trains, encourages, fires, remunerates, judges 3. Serves as a liaison between outside contacts- community, suppliers, others and the organization

Informational Role
1. 2.

Monitors gathers informations Disseminators of information flowing from both external and internal sources Spokespersons or representatives of the organization.

Decisional Role
1. 2. 3. 4. As enterpreneurs are initiators, innovators Disturbance handler Resource allocator Negotiators when conflicts arise

Management Skills
1. 2. 3. Technical skill Human skill Conceptual skill

Technical Skill
ability to use equipments, procedures and techniques of a specialized field
The manager needs enough technical skill to accomplish the mechanics of the particular job he is responsible for

Human Skill
Ability to work with, understand, and motivate other people, either as individuals or as groups.
Managers need enough human relation skill to work with other organization members and to lead their own work groups

Conceptual Skill
The mental ability to coordinate and integrate all of the organizations interest and activities
To recognize how the various factors in a given situation are interested, so that the action he takes will be in the best interests of the total organization

Managerial Performance
Efficiency doing things right - the ability to get things done correctly. It is an inputoutput concept - an efficient manager is one who achieves output or results that measure up to the inputs (labor, reagents, supplies, equipment and time) - able to minimize cost of the resources to attain the goals

Effectiveness - the ability to choose appropriate objectives. - an effective manager is one who selects the right things to get done

Indicators of Lack of Management Skills

1. 2. Inability to maintain an adequate staff Recurring or persistent misunderstanding with the hospital administration 3. Frequent or recurrent confusion concerning requisitions or reports of laboratory work 4. Frequent rush orders for supplies 5. Low moral in the laboratory 6. Requests for deserved pay raise by competent workers (when funds are available) 7. Excessive cost of operation 8. Ignorance of the cost of operation 9. Expenditure of much of the managers time in making minor decisions 10. Inability to do one or more tests when a key individual has a day off

Management Planning
Chapter II

Management Planning

Plan Planning

Nature and Importance of Planning

To achieve the objectives of any organizations LRP long-range plans

SRP short-range plans

Values Derived from Planning

1. 2. 3. 4. The achievement of the objective of the organization in the most efficient and economical manner The use of efficient methods and the development of standards necessary for accurate control. Integration of activities of the different units in the organization toward goal-directed actions. The reduction of emergency and unexpected problems

Indicators of Poor Planning

1. 2. 3. 4.
5. 6. 7. 8.

Late submission of results / reports Idle machines Materials wasted Some machines doing jobs that should be done by smaller machines Some laboratory personnel overworked, others are underworked Skilled workers doing unskilled work Laboratory personnel fumbling on jobs for which they have not been trained Quarreling, bickering, and confusion

Benefits of Good Planning

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Jobs turn out on time Good relationship with other departments People using their highest skills Workers know how their jobs fit into the total pattern Machines doing their proper jobs Equipment in good shape Materials available Waste kept to a minimum

Qualities of a Good Planner

1. 2. 3. 4. Good judgment, imagination, foresight and experience Ability to evaluate laboratory opportunities and hazards Proficiency in the determination of objectives Ability to accept changes

Types of Plans ( Hierarchy of Plans )

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Purpose or mission Objectives or goals Strategies Policies Procedures Rules Programs Budget

General Principles in Laboratory Planning

Strategic identification of goals Tactical methods for their accomplishments

Setting Goals and Objectives

The first step in laboratory planning is the establishment of general goals and specific objectives by the laboratory staff Management by Objectives (MBO)

Mission is a final ultimate goal Ex: the mission of every hospital laboratory is the constant provision of timely and accurate test results for the purpose of assisting the physician in the delivery of good patient care

Objectives - Represents the interim goals by which the mission is most logically and effectively pursued. - They should be quantifiable statements which are achievable over a designated period of time - May be immediate (priorities), intermediate or long range. - objectives require revival and updating

Management by Objective (MBO)

- As a tool of management, it encourages discussion, interaction and consensus decision-making among all organizational levels of the laboratory

Planning: Strategic and Tactical

Strategic Planning - Is conceptual and deals with the sweeping of what to do. - It is concerned with the identification of the mission and of those objectives that will permit its most efficient pursuit - It is a function of the upper supervisory personnel with final authority and responsibility vested in the laboratory director

Tactical Planning - Implies action and deals with the method(s) for achieving the goals identified in the strategic planning process. - It often requires an operational or technical skill and is generally a logical responsibility of the supervisory staff.

Planning the Laboratory Design

2. 3.


Laboratory director and the entire laboratory staff- in order to prevent misunderstanding all recommendations and changes must be documented in writing. Consultants or designers of laboratories Architects or architectural firm - they are essential in preparing the various drawing and contractor for construction. Contractor construct facility

Spatial Considerations in Laboratory Design

1. The blood bank and the critical care laboratory procedures should be readily accessible to the emergency room, operating room and ICU. The location of blood bank should allow rapid access of donors and adequate parking donors if the blood bank is responsible for donor procurement, phlebotomy and/or apheresis. A specimen collection should be planned in proximity of the ambulatory care facility and the admitting office. If the laboratory is serving an in-patient population, accessibility to corridors and elevators providing access to the main patient care unit is essential.

2. 3.

4. The specimen receiving, data processing and reporting center serve as the hub of the laboratory. Radiating should be the various laboratories. 5. The critical care laboratories and large volume laboratories (such as hematology and chemistry) might be closely related to the central areas. 6. Those laboratories with greater turn-around-time (TAT) and or less volume, as well as those requiring special safety features ( such as clinical microbiology and radio assay and radio-assay laboratories) might be removed from the central area. 7. The intralaboratory traffic flow must be separated from the outside. Provisions should be made for ambulatory patients and blood bank donors coming into the laboratory.

submit a layout of your respective laboratories Label each sections/directions Write down the names of the members

Organizing and Staffing the Laboratory

Chapter III

Characteristics of Organization: 1. Division of labor, authority and communication responsibilities. 2. The presence of one or more authority centers which control the concerted efforts of the organization and direct them towards its goals. 3. Substitution of personnel

Concept of Organization

Herd Concept
obey now, question later The subordinates follow the leader who yields exclusive power to decide and enforce unquestionable obedience in his subordinates.


Man to man concept - the organization sees the individual working, in terms of direct personal relation with his superior.


The social concept - the superior and subordinates are members of the team. - the relationship is no longer man to man but man to his group

General Principles in Organizing and Staffing the hospital laboratory

Organizing - Denotes an effort to divide total operations into size and type of units by which efficient and effective services are best assured and needs and weakness most easily identified. - It is a major management responsibility for the purpose of securing a united and cohesive performance - Efficient and effective selection, grouping and utilization of personnel constitute a major responsibility

Table of Organization
- Is a diagram (chart) that identifies the major operational units of an organization and their attending job position. - It is the single most concise representation of the organization and provides an important means of managing and monitoring all of its activities. - It also provides the members an understanding of their station and how they relate to one another - one position should have span of control (direct supervision) of 4-12 positions. 12 if functions are similar; 4 if functions are dissimilar

Table of organization
Assignment: submit an org chart per hospital

Job Description
- Are written declarations of a given job positions. - The supplement the table of organization by: 1. providing definition to all position 2. identify operational duties and responsibilities, and 3. salary classification and order to job performance

Job Specification
- Represents the requirements for employment in a given job. - It provides the organization with the personnel requirements considered to match most efficiently with the demands of each job

Work Schedule
- the arbitrary but firmly established practice of eight-hour shifts serve as the usual method of dividing each twenty-four hour period. - because of request patterns, the largest number of personnel are scheduled during the 1st eight period while the second and third shifts are staffed with fewer people - whenever possible, one should strive for two-deepness in every position so that at least two people know every job on every shift

Basic Rules of Scheduling

1. 2. 3. 4.
5. 6. 7.

No more than 5 consecutive working days for each individual Provide two consecutive days off, except in the rare case where the individual prefers split days off Within the possibilities, give the individual shift he wants. Rotate weekend and holidays off with as much fairness as possible Post schedules at least three weeks in advance, even more if possible Stick to the schedule as closely as possible and make changes only when essential and only after discussion with others concerned Provide the opportunity for individual to ask for a specific day off on occasion

- Is the process which an existing organization undergoes that brings about changes in the size and shape of the organization structure - There are two main reasons for reorganization: growth & adaptation

Directing and Supervising the Laboratory

Chapter IV

General Principles in directing and supervising the laboratory

- directions must be written, comprehensive, current, clearly stated and reinforced by discussion and example

Supervision entails responsibility in assuming that policies and procedures are followed

Characteristics of a Leader
1. Liking for people This is the most important characteristic of a manager.
Natural optimism.


3. 4.

Good self-esteem - confidence Ambitious work well

self-discipline - to force himself to do necessary things even when they are unpleasant. - ex. discharge an employee

6. 7.

Good listener Poise - in the face of errors, disasters and accidents

8. 9.

Accessibility Good memory - a good secretary

10. Good sense of values and sound judgment

Leadership Styles
1. Style that evolves from a conviction of the merits of decentralized authority. - delegation of responsibility the weakness of this style: (a) if one part performs poorly, the entire system is jeopardized, (b) there is possibly a sense of isolation by the lower ranks.


Style that is based on the concept of centralized authority. - authority to be concentrated at the very top. Strength: 1. one person authority; actions and decisions are quick 2. avoids lengthy discussions

3. Leadership by absenteeism or inattention. This practice must be condemned.

Leadership Responsibility
1. To formulate and document policies and procedures that are constantly current and relevant in effective pursuit of laboratory goals. To effectively communicate these plans to all personnel. To provide efficient means for assuring compliance with policies and procedures. To encourage free flow and exchange of ideas through all levels of the organization. To assure an awareness by all personnel of current trends and practices in the delivery of hospital laboratory services. To develop and maintain effective relations with the medical staff and hospital administration for assuring an open exchange of the needs and concerns of all parties.

2. 3.

4. 5. 6.

Leadership Methods
1. 2. 3.
4. 5.


To develop and constantly update all laboratory procedures and policies by preparation of appropriate manual. To schedule and conduct periodic meetings with the staff for discussion and review of policies and procedures. To delegate the responsibility for efficiently monitoring compliance with policies and procedures. To conduct periodic meeting with the laboratory staff to encourage innovative thinking and improvement in services. To fully support and generously budget for a meaningful laboratory continuing program. To assure awareness of the laboratory mission by requiring that appropriate personnel attend all hospital and medical staff meetings that call for laboratory representation

Leadership Responsibility
1. To formulate and document policies and procedures that are constantly current and relevant in effective pursuit of laboratory goals. To effectively communicate these plans to all personnel. To provide efficient means for assuring compliance with policies and procedures. To encourage free flow and exchange of ideas through all levels of the organization. To assure an awareness by all personnel of current trends and practices in the delivery of hospital laboratory services. To develop and maintain effective relations with the medical staff and hospital administration for assuring an open exchange of the needs and concerns of all parties. 1. 2. 3. 4.

Leadership Methods
To develop and constantly update all laboratory procedures and policies by preparation of appropriate manual. To schedule and conduct periodic meetings with the staff for discussion and review of policies and procedures. To delegate the responsibility for efficiently monitoring compliance with policies and procedures. To conduct periodic meeting with the laboratory staff to encourage innovative thinking and improvement in services. To fully support and generously budget for a meaningful laboratory continuing program. To assure awareness of the laboratory mission by requiring that appropriate personnel attend all hospital and medical staff meetings that call for laboratory representation

3. 4. 5. 6.


Managerial Grid
1. Concern for Production - it is conceived as the attitudes of a supervisor toward a wide variety of things Concern for People - it includes degree of personal commitment toward goal achievement, maintaining the self-esteem of workers, basing responsibility on trust rather than obedience, maintaining good working conditions and having satisfying interpersonal relations.


4 Extremes of Basic Styles

1. 2.
3. 4.

1.1 style or impoverished management 9.9 style or team management

1.9 style or country-club management 9.1 style or autocratic task management

Chapter V

Controlling - Involves measuring, restraining and correcting performance to accomplish an objective as it was planned. - It involves the measurement of certain elements such as time, quality and quantity and cost against a yardstick of standards or models which have been established and the evaluation of the work or performance of various personnel in the organization. - A good control system encourages each employee to exercise self-control. Self-control would be possible when standards of criteria for performance exists to the point where an employee knows the specific level of performance expected of him.

Types of Formal Control

1. pre-action control - controlling by means of personal supervision and utilizing control checks consisting of procedures for any given task or function.
post-action control - controlling as the task or function is being performed or may have been performed and corrective deviations from standards or plans


Steps in Controlling
1. 2. 3. 4. Determination of the standards or basis of control based on appraisal of past experience. Measurement of performance by observation, reports or statistical data. Comparison of performance with the standards, models or criteria to determine deviations or difference. Enactment of remedial measures or steps to correct deviation or errors.

Determination of Standards
Performance standards must be expressed in quantitative terms whenever possible. It may mean the average unit of output an average employee maybe able to perform per hour, per day or per week. Determination of standards vary from one laboratory to another ranging from those based on past experience etc.

Information Management
Chapter VI

- Is the process in human relations of passing information from one person to another. It is most frequently conducted by written or spoken word but may be conveyed by gesture, lack of gesture, manner of dressing, personal appearance and general behavior - The data generated by the laboratory has been called potential information and is not actual information until it has been utilized in patient care.

Interdepartmental Communication
Interdepartmental communication is the transmission of information between or among departments

Recommendations: 1. Be courteous at all times 2. Speak distinctly and in a pleasant tone of voice. 3. Be certain all questions and answers are clearly understood. 4. Do not answer questions about which there is uncertainty. Consult resources of department (immediate supervisors, manuals, etc) 5. Do not allow delay in answering telephone. 6. Never leave telephone unattended after call is received: if placed on hold, reassure caller at frequent intervals that attempt is being made to complete connection. 7. When receiving calls, initiate conversation with good morning, department of laboratory. 8. When transferring calls, inform person of callers name and department 9. When making calls, prepare remarks with name and department 10. Be certain all written or typed reports are neat, legible and accurate; also that they are dated and initiated or signed.

Intradepartmental Communication
Intradepartmental Communication - Is the transmission of information within the department. Communication is better within the department because of proximity, similar education related duties and common goals among co-workers.

Recommendations: 1. Know the departments table organization and all communication channels so indicated. 2. Be certain of job description and all duties set forth. 3. Confer messages by memo if face-to-face or telephone communication is not possible. 4. Minimize conversations unrelated to job duties. 5. Maintain effective contact with members of all shifts. 6. Be constantly alert to the posting of all schedules and notices.

Public Relations
Ten Commandments of Human Relations (Caltex Phil) 1. Speak to people. There is nothing as nice as a cheerful word of greeting. 2. Smile at people. It takes 65 muscles to frown only 15 to smile. 3. Call people by name. The sweetest music to anyones ears is the sound of his own name. 4. Be friendly and helpful. If you would have friends be friendly. 5. Be cordial. Speak and act as if everything you do were a genuine pleasure. 6. Be genuinely interested in people. You can like everybody if you try. 7. Be generous with praise. Cautious with criticisms. 8. Be considerate with the feelings of others. It will be appreciated. 9. Be thoughtful of the opinion of others. There are three sides to a controversy-yours, the other fellows and the right one. 10. Be alert to give service. What counts most in life is what we do for others.

Ways to Communicate
2. 3.



Informal talks this is he most fundamental form of communication. It is suitable for day-to-day liaison, direction ad exchange of information. It must provide opportunity for a two way exchange. Planned appointments- this is appropriate for regular review or liaison recurring joint work sessions, etc. Telephone calls-this is good for frequent check-up or for empathy or receiving information, instruction, data, etc. Interoffice memos-they are effective for recording informal inquiries or replies. Use of memos should not be overdone, or they will be ignored. Letters-the are useful for official notices, formally recorded statements or lengthy communications even when the addressee is physically available. Reports-they are used to convey information associated with evaluation, analysis, recommendations, etc to supervisors or colleagues and are most effective when based on conferences, visits, inspections, surveys, research study etc.

8. 9.

10. 11. 12. 13.

Informal staff meetings- it provides opportunity for the development of strong group cohesiveness and response. Supervisor should hold staff meetings earl morning, at the end of the day or at lunch. Planned conference- they are relatively formal affair. Participants be given time to prepare needed data, information, reports, recommendations, etc. Mass meeting- they are conducted by management with large number of employees. They are valuable means of celebrating occasions, building morale, introducing new policies, or key personnel, making special announcements. Bulletin boards notices-they are effective for lengthy or formal announcements. Posters Exhibits and display Visual aids (films, filstrips)

Categories of Communication
1. 2. 3. 4. Upward communication when a subordinate communicates directly to his supervisor or superior. Downward communication- when a superior or supervisor communicates directly to his subordinates. On-the-same-level communication- or communication among peers. Diagonal communication-when a supervisor and a subordinate not under him communicate.

Donts of Upward Communication

2. 3.

4. 5.
6. 7. 8.

dont try to shield the boss. The subordinate must not prevent any upsetting news form reaching supervisor. Dont try to over protect yourself. Dont playdown certain facts because we know that their disclosure would make us look bad. Dont think that the need to discuss a problem will just disappear if you dont say anything. Dont be afraid of the result of communications. Dont neglect to communicate because you are not directly responsible. Dont rely on someone else to send the word upward. Dont think you must have a solution before you discuss a problem Dont use upward communication to blow your horn.

What Subordinates want from the Boss

1. 2.
3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Back up the subordinates decision Tell subordinates what he (the boss) expects of them and how they are going. Give recognition for work well done. Be interested in subordinate as people-make them feel they belong. Provide good leadership and be competent for the job. Give constructive criticism. Tell the whys of the job/work Follow the chain of command Pass along information-both up and down the line.

10. Get raises for subordinates and for the workers they recommend. 11. Have confidence in the ability of subordinates. 12. Recognize the difficulties in getting the job done 13. Take the responsibility rather than pass the buck 14. Make good decisions 15. Be loyal to the subordinates and to the lab 16. Welcome ideas and opinions; let subordinates have a voice in decision 17. dont play favorites, be fair 18.Help subordinates in problems beyond their depth

What Supervisors want from fellow Supervisors

1. 2. 3. 4. Exchange of ideas and information Have work completed on time for the next fellow Give and take constructive criticism Keep one another informed about new procedures, policies and rules. 5. Respect one anothers authority 6. Achieve uniformity in the interpretation of policies and enforcement of rules. 7. Try to understand one anothers problems 8. Render necessary assistance to one another 9. Straighten out differences in private and among themselves rather than carry them with the boss 10. Refrain from putting one another on the spot 11. Practice teamwork and refrain from passing the buck 12. Show loyalty to the laboratory and respect for its policies

Proper requisitioning procedures assure adequate identifications of the patient and the specimen, indicate the measurements or examinations desired, and facilitate reporting of the results. An additional important function is the provision of administrative and billing data.

Information contained in a request form

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Laboratory procedure number or other identification Identification of the patient name and hospital number Room number or address of patient Age of the patient Sex of patient Status (stat, pre-op, etc) Name of the practitioner Date and time the specimen was collected Date and time the specimen was received Date, time and by whom the specimen was examined Condition of any unsatisfactory specimen Type of tests or procedure to be performed

1. 2. Compactness Consistency of terminology, format and usage of abbreviations and symbols 3. Clearly understandable 4. Logical and accessible location in medical chart 5. Statement of date and time of collection 6. Good description and source of specimen when pertinent 7. Sharp differentiation of reference or normal and abnormal values 8. Sequential order of multiple results on single specimen 9. Identification of patient, patient location and physician 10. Assurance of accuracy of transcription of request 11. Ease of preparation 12. Administrative and record keeping value

Verbal Reports
Telephone reports - Can be given in order to facilitate medical care, particularly in an emergency situation. On the other hand, this is a major potential source of errors and resulting medical liability. To avoid this, the laboratory should require proper identification of the person receiving the report and of the patient. The person giving the report should report the patients name, identification number and location along with the results in order to further confirm the identification.

Communication Cycle in Processing a Clinical Determination The typical cycle of communications necessary to completely
process a request for laboratory procedure is shown. In a physicians office laboratory, only the patient, the physician, and the laboratory technologist maybe involved in the cycle. In a large medical center, however, more than 3 persons and many more steps maybe involved in completing this cycle. With each additional step or person, an additional potential source of error, confusion or delay is introduced In order to contribute effectively to medical care, those in the modern clinical laboratory must concern themselves with the ramifications of this entire cycle rather than confining their interests only to the generation and dissemination of laboratory result

The first step in the cycle of physician- laboratory interaction is the encounter between the patient and the physician, resulting in a decision for a laboratory test. The physicians decision is translated into a written requisition for laboratory measurements or examinations. The requisition included the requested determinations as well as basic demographic information about the patient. Following collection of the specimen by the physician or laboratory personnel, the requisition and appropriately labeled specimen are sent to the laboratory. The requested measurements and/or examinations are performed, the resulting data are processed and checked for validity, and a report is returned to the physician. Although this simplified cycle highlights the essential information interchange involving a clinical laboratory, many other interactions are necessary, especially in larger laboratories.

Personnel Management
Chapter VII

Personnel Management (Personnel Administration)

Is the phase of management concerned with the engagement and effective utilization of manpower to obtain optimum efficiency of human resources.

Personnel Program
Personnel Program consists of series of activities intended to carry out the personnel policies of the laboratory for the purpose of realizing objectives of the organization 1.
2. 3.

Employment - the recruitment, interviewing, testing, induction, placement, transfer, merit, rating, promotion, training, counseling, and separation of employees. Safety provisions for safety standard, mechanical safeguards, accident investigation, safety rules, and safety records and statistics Employee relations matters related to collective bargaining, wage and salary administration, grievance system, medical and dental services, labor management relations and morale studies



Employee research and standards job analysis, job description, job evaluation, job grading, wage analysis, organizational planning and employee manuals Employee services recreational plans, insurance plans, profit sharing plans and miscellaneous services

Personnel Policy
Personnel Policy is the statement of intention that commits the laboratory manager to a general course of action in order to accomplish a specific purpose. It is necessary in an organization because management can not deal with each employee solely as an individual

10 areas Normally considered in personnel policies: 1. recruitment, selection and planning 2. Employee induction and training 3. Employees rating and promotion 4. Transfer, downgrading and lay-off 5. Disciplining and discharge 6. Salary and wage administration 7. Changes in work assignment and hours 8. Services for employees 9. Employees health and safety 10. Employees participation and work problems

Functions of Personnel Manager

1. 2. 3. 4.

Recruit and interview job applicant Administer employment tests to job applicants Indoctrinate new employees on laboratory history, objectives, policies and rules Introduce the new employees to his supervisor, the officers of the organization, his associates and subordinates Motivate employees to do better

6. 7.

Keep employment records of all employees Assist in transferring, promoting, demoting, discharging or retiring employee. 8. Handle complaint: grievances and disciplinary action cases. 9. Negotiate with the labor unions or union officials 10. Provide personnel services, medical, social and recreational.

Sources of Labor
1. Internal sources refer to the employees actively working in the laboratory.


External sources include persons who apply in person, who answer advertisement and who are recommended by schools.

Process of Personnel Selection

Steps in the Selection Process: 1. Posting or advertising job vacancies 2. Reception of applications / applicants either in person or in writing 3. Preliminary interview - filling up the information sheet or the application blanks or -sending of the information sheets or application blanks by mail and returning the same to the laboratory

4. applicant is interviewed by the personnel manager. It could be used to determine what type of personality, the applicant possesses. The types of interviews used include: - planned and patterned interviews - Non-directive interviews - depth interviews - group interviews


Applicant reports to the personnel manager or his assistant who briefs him on opportunities in the organization. - performance tests - aptitude tests - interest tests - test of emotional reaction / and adjustments - test of attitudes

6. 7.

Investigation of applicants background Introduction of the qualified applicant to his immediate boss 8. Selection from among qualified applicants 9. Medical examination 10. Induction and placement of the new employee * Job applicant who fall short of the required qualifications for the job in question or who may be over qualified maybe rejected

Personnel Interview
Pre-employment interview by the manager is necessary in order to increase the accuracy of prediction on the applicant. The interview questions should be well thought in advance and should be in areas of interest as personal, history, education background, volunteer activities, work experience, aspirations and objectives, self-assessment and strength and weakness.

The interview should not neglect the following basics: 1. Setting the stage in advance so the interview will be in control and not be interrupted by other visitors 2. Asking general questions to set the applicant at ease 3. Respecting the applicants individuality 4. Getting the applicant to talk revealingly.

* there is a final caution do not jump into conclusion. There are three things about impressions. Sometimes close to truth, sometimes dangerous and always based on limited information.

Pointers in Personnel Selection


4. 5. 6.

7. 8. 9.

An applicant who has held 3 to 4 jobs within the past five years is a high risk. Chance are this person is a job hopper. Recent emotional crises in an individual may lead to emotional instability for a period of time. If the writing is sloppy, it may indicate a generally careless attitude. Unanswered items in the application from indicate forgetfulness or evasiveness. Over qualification is about as bad as under qualification. Check if the reference is a close friend or relative of the applicant. If the medical history is lengthy or ambiguous, there is a good chance that the applicant is either in poor health or somewhat neurotic. Hiring relatives or close personal friends must be discouraged. If other things are equal, hire people you instinctively like. Generally, the person who work for financial reasons is likely to be a more stable employee than is the person who is economically independent.

Personnel Orientation
Personnel orientation- is the introduction of the employee to this new environment. The orientation must include the ff: 1. A briefing of the history, objectives, policies, rules and regulations of the laboratory 2. Introduction to his associates and subordinates 3. Description of his duties and responsibilities and the role he plays in the organization 4. Introduction to laboratory facilities and services.

5. Briefing on mechanism of setting problems, complaint or grievance and rules pertaining to discipline or reprimand. 6. Briefing on opportunities for education, training and advancement 7. Briefing on sick-leave policy, overtime-work, time and place for receiving pay. 8. Try-out the employees new job. 9. Another meeting between the new employee and the personnel manager before dismissal from work for the day. * it is a good policy to have a period of probation-usually about 3 months

Personnel Evaluation
Personnel Evaluation consists of periodic written reports on employees performance. It is necessary because: 1. It provides a basis for counseling interview with the employee 2. It provides a resource document for appraisal for promotion, transfer, separation, and references 3. It is a way to summarize day-to-day and week-to-week evaluation.

The most frequently measured attributes are quantity of work (productivity), judgment, knowledge, adaptability, initiative, personal relations (interaction with others), work habits (attendance, compliance with rules and regulations, orderliness), communication (oral or written expression), creativity, quality of work and other factors.
Rating scales from 1 to 5 (outstanding, above average, below average, unsatisfactory respectively) can be used. Each employee must be evaluated at regular interval-twice a year.

* assignment: Give example of evaluation form

is the advancement of an employee to better job in terms of greater responsibility, more prestige, or status, greater skill, and especially increase rate of pay or salary
Qualities considered in Promotion: 1. Honesty 2. Ambition 3. Initiative 4. Determination 5. Enthusiasm 6. Common sense 7. Knowledge 8. Originality 9. Understanding 10. Communicative ability * No employee should even be promoted solely on the basis of seniority. Seniority is factor only when there is more than one candidate of equal capabilities

Discipline and Dismissals (discharging)

Requires documented facts sufficient to support the contemplated action. Documentation should include the ff: 1. Specific instances of poor performances or misconduct 2. Circumstances surrounding performances or misconduct. - dates, times, places and names and titles of persons involved in he situation - whether the employee knew what he was supposed to do; when and how bad he had been told

3. 4. 5.

Prior misconduct, if any Evidence of warning that the misconduct should not be repeated or that the poor performance could not continue Records that definite time limit was set for improvement and followup
dont neglect the employees side of the story. Have all the facts before taking disciplinary action, especially if the action is to be contested by the union, in the courts or before civil rights agencies. when an employee becomes a liability, rather than an asset, he should be dismissed.

Personnel Record
- Provides a ready references to an employee, job description, education, experience, qualifications, length of employment, job references, written reprimands, comments and personal list
- Larger laboratory maintains summary and analysis records. This is to keep the director up to date on vacancies, personnel turnover, retirements, staffing patterns, recruiting services, and other vital data to maintain a good staff. - Records should be centralized with accessibility limits to appropriate supervisor and employee in order to maintain confidentiality of information.

Employees Conflict
Warning signs: 1. Discussions between two people that flare up into arguments. 2. Open backbiting remarks by one about the other. 3. Complaints from one about the other. 4. No direct contact between two people. They take pains to exchange information thru co-workers. They even refuse to eat lunch with the others. 5. A request for transfer. 6. Other employees talking about the feud. 7. Increased absenteeism for no apparent reason.

Conflict Mediation Techniques:

1. Phase 1: clarifying the problem The mediator must therefore guide both parties into perceiving their disagreement as the problem rather than each other.
Phase 2: finding out what each side wants from each other The mediator must ask both parties exactly what they want from one another. By writing down the wants of both sides, the mediator shows that they have been heard. Phase 3: reaching agreement the supervisor asks each party what items on the list of wants they can agree upon.



Pointers in solving conflicts

1. 2. 3. 4.

Do not affix blame on another. Do not threaten to fire anyone. Do not jump in and suggest solutions before youve gathered all the pertinent information. Do not nod in agreement as an employee explain his side of the conflict. Do not rush the process. It may take several meetings to reach an agreement that is satisfactory to both sides.

Habitual Tardiness
This is a chronic disease of unknown etiology. Although cures are rare, some remissions may be attained with the ff therapy: 1. Dock salary for late minutes. It works only on the most miserly or penurious employee. 2. Reschedule for a later starting time, (a half hour to one hour). 3. Reassign to a different department where there is no overlap of personnel. 4. When all fails, mark improvement needed on the employees performance evaluation. 5. If the employee has all other positive features, promote to supervisor. This is considered shock treatment but often effective.

Compensation for work

The laboratory manager should review the salary structure from five basic standpoints: 1. Requirements of laws and regulations such as minimum wages and overtime 2. Correlation between salaries in the lab and those in other competing organization. 3. Relationship among salary levels or ranges of the various types within the organization. 4. General salary distribution- include number of steps from the lowest to increasing salary in each type of position. It also includes timing of payments, incentives for overtime and call back situations, night time or holiday differentials. 5. Financial conditions of the organization
* The non-monetary compensation should be included. Such benefits like retirement plans, insurance, annual and sick leaves and free or discounted services play an important part in the total compensation plan

Motivation of employees
Motivation - is a general term applying to drives, desires, needs and wishes of an individual in order to perform - It involves a chain reaction starting out with felt needs, resulting in wants or goals sought which gives rise to tensions (that is unfulfilled desires), then causing action toward achieving goals and finally satisfying wants.

Herzberg lists extrinsic and intrinsic factors of motivation

Extrinsic Factors or Hygiene Factors 1. Pay or salary increase 2. Technical supervision or having a competent superior 3. Human relations 4. Organization policy and administration 5. Working condition or physical surrounding 6. Job security

Intrinsic factors of motivation factors 7. 8. 9. 10. Achievement (completing an important task successfully) Recognition (being single or out of praise) Responsibility for ones own or others work Advancement (changing status through promotion)

Maslows 5 successive levels of needs

1. 2. Physiological needs - these are hunger for food, sexual gratification, and shelter Safety needs - these are needs for protection against danger and threats. Expressions of safety needs are seen in preferences for job security, insurance, etc.. Love needs - these are needs for love, affection and belongingness Esteem needs - those are needs for self-respect, and for the esteem of others Need for self actualization or self fulfillment

3. 4.


Job enlargement and job enrichment

Job Enlargement - Is the process of increasing job scope. - Or a system of job rotation may be initiated, so that workers move from one job to a completely different one.

Job Enrichment - Is the process of increasing job depth. - Individual employees maybe given responsibility for setting their own work space, for correcting their own errors, and/or for deciding on the best way to perform in a particular task.

Maslows Level of needs

Self actualization needs

Herzberss motivators and hygiene factors

Work itself Achievement Growth Responsibility Advancement recognition Status Interpersonal relation Supervision Company policy and administration Job security Working condition Salaries and wages

Motivation factors

Ego or self esteem needs Social or love needs

Safety or security needs Physiological needs