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TERMINOLOGIES 1. Pulmonary circulation DEFINITION The pumping of blood from the right side of the heart to the lungs to release carbon dioxide and pick up oxygen from the atmosphere. The vessels open into the animal's body cavity. Thus the fluid in the vessels and the interstitial fluid that surrounds the cells mingle in one large, mixed compartment, rather than being located in separate body compartments. Blood and interstitial fluids form one fluid called hemolymph. One or more muscular hearts pump hemolymph through blood vessels where it exits into the animal's body cavity. Nutrients and wastes are exchanged by diffusion between hemolymph and body cells., and the hemolymph is recirculated back to the heart. A body cavity with a single opening to the outside. Food is digested within the cavity and absorbed by body cells, and wastes are excreted into the cavity. Circulatory systems containing blood or hemolymph, blood vessels, and one or more hearts. Blood and interstitial fluid are physically separated by blood vessel walls, and they differ in their components and chemical composition. A single filling chamber to collect blood from tissues. A chamber to pump blood out of the heart. Blood is routed from the heart through different vessels to the respiratory surface (vessels of the skin.) Blood is routed from the heart through different vessels to the body tissues. The top layer when blood separates into layers, with the use of a device called centrifuge, which spins blood samples. It is a yellowish solution of water and solutes. In vertebrates, it usually makes up about 35-60% of the total volume of blood. Is a narrow white layer found beneath the plasma, also known as white blood cells (WBC.) Leukocytes develop from the inner parts (the bone marrow) of certain bones in vertebrates. The bottom visible layer of blood samples. Also called red blood cells (RBC) due to its color. The volume of blood that is composed of RBC, usually between 40 and 65% in vertebrates. Found within the cytosol of the RBC. Each molecule contains four protein subunits, each with an atom of iron at its core that reversibly binds four oxygen molecules. The oxygen molecule attached to the hemoglobin greatly increases the reservoir of oxygen in the blood and enables animals to be active.

2. Open circulation

3. Gastrovascular cavity 4. Cardiovascular System 5. Closed circulatory 6. Atrium 7. Ventricle 8. Pulmocutaneous circulation 9. Systemic circulation

10. Plasma

11. Leukocytes 12. Erythrocytes 13. Hematocrit

14. Hemoglobin

15. Anemia 16. Polycythemia 17. Platelets

18. Thrombocytes

19. Fibrin

20. Hemophilia

21. Atrioventricular valves 22. Semilunar valves 23. Neurogenic heart

24. Myogenic heart

25. Sinoatrial node or pacemaker

26. Atrioventricular node 27. Cardiac style 28. Diastole 29. Systole

30. Electrocardiogram

Lower than normal levels of hemoglobin which reduces the amount of oxygen that can be stored in the blood. Caused by the reduction of hematocrit. A condition of increased hemoblobin due to increased hematocrit. The fourth component, found only in mammals, and are low in number. Formed in the bone marrow and plays a crucial role in the formation of blood clots which limit blood loss after injury. The fourth component, found in some vertebrates, and are low in number. Formed in the bone marrow and plays a crucial role in the formation of blood clots which limit blood loss after injury. Is produced by the other platelet secretions interacting with plasma proteins. Fibrin forms a meshwork of thread-like fibers that wrap around and between platelets and RBC, enlarging, and thickening the clot. An inherited deficiency of a specific clotting factor inhibits the clotting process. The absence of the clotting factor interrupts the process leading to the fibrin formation. Thus, injured blood vessels take longer time to heal and blood loss is excessive. A one-way valve into the ventricles of the vertebrate heart through which blood from the atria moves. A one-way valve into the systemic and pulmonary arteries through which blood is pumped. A heart that will not beat unless it receives regular electrical impulses from the nervous system. A heart in which the signaling mechanism that initiates contraction resides with the cardiac muscle itself. The electrical signals produced by the cells of these hearts initiate the cellular events that trigger muscle contraction. A collection of modified cardiac muscles that spontaneously and rhythmically generate action potentials that spread across the entire atria. Located near the junction of the atria and ventricles, and conducts the electrical events from the atria to the ventricles. the atrioventricular node is electrically excitable, but its cells require longer time to become excited. The events that produce a single heartbeat. The first phase, where in the ventricles fill blood coming from the atria though the open atrioventricular valves. The second phase, where in the bentricles contract and eject blood though the open semilunar valves. Also known as ECG or EKG. It is a record of the electrical impulses generated during cardiac style. The ECG displays both the amplitude of the electrical signal, and the direction that the signal is moving in the chest.

31. Endothelium

32. Arteriole

33. Capillary

34. Lymphatic system

35. Venules 36. Veins 37. Blood pressure 38. Resistance 39. Vasodilation 40. Vasconstriction 41. Cardiac output 42. Stroke volume 43. Total peripheral resistance 44. Epinephrine 45. Norepinephrine 46. Baroreceptors 47. Dehydration 48. Hemorrhage 49. Cardiovascular diseases 50. Systemic hypertension

A single-celled inner layer of a blood vessel, which forms a smooth lining in contact with blood. A single-celled layer of endothelium surrounded by one or two layers of smooth muscle and connective tissue that delivers blood to the capillaries and distributes blood to regions of the body in portion of metabolic demands. A thin-walled vessel that delivers materials in the blood to the other cells of the body, and delivers to the blood waste products and secretions from cells. A system of vessels along with a group of organs and tissues where most WBC reside. The lymphatic vessels collect excess interstitial fluids and return it to the blood. A small, thin-walled extension of the capillary that empties into larger vessels called veins that return blood to the heart for another trip around the circulation. Blood vessels that return blood to the heart. The force exerted by blood on the walls of the blood vessels, and it is responsible for moving blood through the vessels. The tendency of blood vessels to slow down the flow of blood through their lumen, and it is a function of three variables: vessel radius, vessel length, and blood viscosity. An increase in blood vessel radius, vital mechanism for directing blood flow to specific regions of the body. A decrease in blood vessel radius, vital mechanism for directing blood flow away from specific regions of the body. The amount of blood the heart pumps per unit of time, usually expressed in units of L/min. The amount of blood ejected per beat of the heart. The sum of all the resistances in the arteriole. Also known as adrenaline, a hormone secreted by the adrenal glands which receive input from the systemic nervous system during exercise. A neurotransmitter also known as noradrenaline. Pressure-sensitive regions that located within the walls of certain arteries, notable the aorta and carotid artery contain the endings of the nerve cells. These regions are in constant communication with the brain. A reduction in the amount of water in the body. The loss of blood due to ruptured blood vessel. Conditions affecting the heart and the blood vessels. Also called hypertension or high blood pressure, refers to an arterial blood pressure above normal. In humans, the normal range varies from systolic/diastolic pressures of about 90/60 to 120/80 mmHg.

51. Pulmonary hypertension 52. Congestive heart failure 53. Plaques 54. Atherosclerosis 55. Coronary artery 56. Coronary artery disease 57. Angina pectoris

58. Myocardial infarction 59. Balloon angioplasty 60. Coronary artery bypass 61. Stroke

Occurs in the pulmonary side of the circulation. Usually results from a diseased of damaged left ventricle that fails to pump out the usual amount of blood with each beat. Results from the failure of the heart to pump blood normally, usually due to a fluid build-up in the lungs. Deposits of lipids, fibrous tissues, and smooth muscle cells inside the arterial walls. A condition in which large plaques may block the lumen of an artery. An artery that carries oxygen and nutrients to the thick muscle of the heart. Occurs when plaques form in the coronary vessels, and can be lifethreatening. One symptom of coronary artery disease, which is characterized by chest pain during exertion due to the heart being deprived of oxygen. Also known as heart attack. This is the death of cardiac muscle cells, that occur when a region of the heart Is deprived of blood for an extended time. A thin tube with a tiny, inflatable balloon at its tip is threaded through the artery to the diseased area. A small piece of healthy blood vessel is removed from one part of the body, and is surgically grafted on the coronary circulation in such a way that blood bypasses the diseased artery. The condition that occurs when a blood vessel in the brain is ruptured or damaged by atherosclerosis.