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Central Features of the English Legal System

Legal Content
1.1 1.2


The characteristics of English law Common law and equity 1.2.1 The development of common law 1.2.2 The growth of equity Classifications of law 1.3.1 Criminal and civil law 1.3.2 Substantive and procedural law

Aim To provide an introduction to some of the central features of the English legal system and a bac ground to your study of the sub!ect. Language content Grammar: grammatical terms " noun# verb# ad!ective# adverb$ identifying different grammatical forms of le%ical items in te%ts$ use of prepositions Oral function: as ing for meaning of words Vocabulary: dictionary use " recogni&ing dictionary order of words$ finding appropriate 'legal( meaning of words

1.1 The characteristics of English law

The United Kingdo doe! not h"#e " !ing$e $eg"$ !%!te . The $"& in S'ot$"nd &"! in($)en'ed *% Ro "n $"& "nd i! di((e+ent (+o the $"& o( Eng$"nd, ,"$e! "nd No+the+n I+e$"nd. The Eng$i!h $eg"$ !%!te i! 'ent+"$i!ed th+o)gh " 'o)+t !t+)'t)+e &hi'h i! 'o on to the &ho$e 'o)nt+%. It i! hie+"+'hi'"$, &ith the highe+ 'o)+t! "nd -)dge! h"#ing o+e ")tho+it% th"n the $o&e+ one!. So e i .o+t"nt 'h"+"'te+i!ti'! o( Eng$i!h $"& "+e/ Eng$i!h $"& i! *"!ed on the common law t+"dition. B% thi! &e e"n " !%!te o( 0-)dge "de0 $"& &hi'h h"! 'ontin)o)!$% de#e$o.ed o#e+ the %e"+! th+o)gh the de'i!ion! o( -)dge! in the '"!e! *+o)ght *e(o+e the . The!e -)di'i"$ precedents "+e "n i .o+t"nt !o)+'e o( $"& in the Eng$i!h $eg"$ !%!te . 1o on $"& !%!te ! "+e di((e+ent (+o the 'i#i$ $"& !%!te ! o( ,e!te+n E)+o.e "nd L"tin A e+i'". In the!e 'o)nt+ie! the $"& h"! *een codified o+ !%!te "ti'"$$% 'o$$e'ted to (o+ " 'on!i!tent *od% o( $eg"$ +)$e!. Eng$i!h -)dge! h"#e "n i .o+t"nt +o$e in de#e$ '"!e $"& "nd !t"ting the e"ning o( A't! o( P"+$i" ent. The -)dge! "+e inde.endent o( the go#e+n ent "nd the .eo.$e "..e"+ing *e(o+e the . Thi! "$$o&! the to "2e i ."+ti"$3 de'i!ion!.

1o)+t .+o'ed)+e i! accusatorial. Thi! e"n! th"t -)dge! do not in#e!tig"te the '"!e! *e(o+e the *)t +e"'h " de'i!ion *"!ed on$% on the e#iden'e .+e!ented to the *% the ."+tie! to the di!.)te. Thi! i! '"$$ed the adversarial !%!te o( -)!ti'e. It '"n *e 'o ."+ed to the inquisitorial .+o'ed)+e o( !o e othe+ E)+o.e"n !%!te ! &he+e it i! the ()n'tion o( the -)dge! to in#e!tig"te the '"!e "nd to 'o$$e't e#iden'e.

Legal exercises
1. )oo at the statements below and decide whether they are true 'T( or false '*(.
a The law in Scotland is the same as the law in England#

b English law has evolved1 gradually#

c +ost of English law has been codified#

d The common law was developed by the !udges#

e The !udiciary is not independent of the government#

f The court structure of the English legal system is the same

throughout the country#
g ,ll the courts in the system are of equal authority#

h English !udges collect evidence in the cases before them.

2. The aim of the following questions is to help you to begin to understand the legal implications of the characteristics of English law. Write short answers to each question below and use them as a basis of a discussion. Compare your answers to those given in tas 1. a. -ould a codified system of law ma e the law more 'i) certain# or (ii) fle%ible. b. -hy is it important for !udges to be independent. c. -hat is the disadvantage of an adversarial system of !ustice.

Oral work 3. /ou may not understand all the ey words in these discussion questions. 0ow will you as your teacher for an e%planation. 0ere are some possible ways1 a 2E%cuse me# can3could you tell me what 4codified4 means.2 b 252m afraid 5 don2t now what 4accusatorial4 means.2 c 252m not sure what 4fle%ible4 means. 6oes it mean 4adaptable4.2 5magine that you do not understand the following terms. ,s each other for an e%planation. a evolve d hierarchical b independent e precedent c centralised f impartial 5f you are wor ing on your own you should use your dictionary to loo up any ey words you do not understand.


4. Find out whether the legal system in your country is adversarial or


1.2 Common law and equit

Thi! i! " 'o .$e6 !)*-e't "nd &e &i$$ de"$ &ith it in o)t$ine on$%. O)+ "in .)+.o!e i! to d+"& " di!tin'tion *et&een 'o on $"& "nd e7)it% "nd the &"% the 'o)+t! "..$% the +)$e! o( the!e t&o "+e"! o( $"&. The di((e+en'e! "+i!e (+o thei+ hi!to+i'"$ de#e$o. ent. Fi+!t $et )! 'on!ide+ &h"t &e e"n *% the &o+d! 0'o on $"&0. 8o) !ho)$d *e "&"+e th"t the% &i$$ '"++% " di((e+ent e"ning "''o+ding to thei+ 'onte6t. It i! $"& &hi'h i! common to the &ho$e 'o)nt+% 9 n"tion"$ $"& in 'ont+"!t to $o'"$ $"&. It i! $"& &hi'h i! *"!ed on -)di'i"$ de'i!ion! (case law) in 'ont+"!t to the $"& &hi'h i! "de *% P"+$i" ent (statute law). It di!ting)i!he! the 'o on $"& $eg"$ !%!te ! *"!ed on precedents (+o 'i#i$ $"& -)+i!di'tion! *"!ed on civil codes. It 'o .+i!e! the +)$e! de#e$o.ed *% the common law courts in 'ont+"!t to the +)$e! de#e$o.ed *% the courts of equit .

1.2.1 The development of common law In S"6on ti e! *e(o+e the "++i#"$ o( ,i$$i" the 1on7)e+o+ the+e &e+e 'o)+t! in #"+io)! ."+t! o( the 'o)nt+% "..$%ing $o'"$ ')!to ! "nd !o e &+itten $"&! de#e$o.ed *% S"6on 2ing!. Thi! o.ened " ne& e+". At (i+!t the S"6on King! )!ed the e6i!ting $o'"$ 'o)+t! to he$. the +)$e the 'o)nt+%, *)t !oon the% *eg"n to !end thei+ o&n -)dge! "+o)nd the 'o)nt+% to he"+ '"!e! $o'"$$%. Thi! en"*$ed the to 'ont+o$ the 'o)nt+% *ette+ "nd "$!o "$$o&ed the to 'o .ete &ith the $o'"$ 'o)+t! (o+ the (ee! ."id *% $itig"nt!. The +o%"$ 'o)+t! *eg"n to o((e+ *ette+ ethod! o( t+"i$ &hi'h &e+e !o !)''e!!()$ th"t e#ent)"$$% "$$ $"& 'o)+t! '" e )nde+ +o%"$ 'ont+o$. :en'e "t the !" e ti e the 'o on $"& &"! de#e$ "d the -)dge! &e+e *eginning to t+"#e$ the 'o)nt+%, 'o)+t! o( 'o on $"& '" into e6i!ten'e.

1.2.2 The growth of equit

1on!ide+ the!e 7)e!tion!; a ,h% did the need (o+ e7)it% "+i!e< b =o the +)$e! o( e7)it% +e "in di((e+ent (+o the +)$e! o( 'o on $"&<


E7)it% de#e$o.ed *e'")!e in "n% !it)"tion! the+e &"! no $eg"$ +e ed% "#"i$"*$e "t 'o on $"&. Let )! no& 'on!ide+ the 7)e!tion 9 do the +)$e! o( e7)it% +e "in di((e+ent (+o the +)$e! o( 'o on $"&< To "n!&e+ thi! 7)e!tion &e )!t +e e *e+ the .)+.o!e o( e7)it% &hi'h i! to "'hie#e -)!ti'e "nd ("i+ne!!. To do thi! the 'o)+t! h"#e de#e$o.ed " !et o( +)$e! to go#e+n the "..$i'"tion o( e7)it%. The!e "+e '"$$ed the 0 "6i !0 o( e7)it%. The% "+e di((e+ent (+o the +)$e! &hi'h "..$% in the 'o on $"& "nd the!e "6i ! "+e the +e"!on &h% &e 'ontin)e to di!ting)i!h *et&een 'o on $"& "nd e7)it%. The+e "+e "n% e7)it"*$e "6i ! o( &hi'h the (o$$o&ing "+e -)!t *+ie( e6" .$e!;
a Equit will not suffer a wrong to be without a remed . E7)it% &i$$ on$% inte+#ene &hen the+e i! no "de7)"te 'o on $"& +e ed%, b Equit follows the law. E7)it% +e'ogni!e! $eg"$ +ight! "nd doe! not t"2e the .$"'e o( the 'o on $"&. c !e who comes to equit must come with clean hands. A $itig"nt &ho h"! *eh"#ed )n("i+$% in the di!.)te &i$$ *e denied "n e7)it"*$e +e ed%, d Equitable remedies are discretionar . Litig"nt! do not h"#e " +ight to "n e7)it"*$e +e ed%. The 'o)+t! &i$$ de'ide &hethe+ to g+"nt " +e ed% "(te+ 'on!ide+ing the indi#id)"$ 'i+') !t"n'e! o( e"'h '"!e. The!e e6" .$e! i$$)!t+"te the &ide+ .+in'i.$e! "nd inte+e!t! &hi'h the 'o)+t! &i$$ 'on!ide+ *e(o+e g+"nting "n e7)it"*$e +ight o+ +e ed%. One o( the o!t i .o+t"nt (e"t)+e! o( e7)it% &hi'h di!ting)i!he! it (+o 'o on $"& i! the "6i th"t e7)it"*$e +e edie! "+e di!'+etion"+%.

Language notes: grammatical terms and vocabulary

5. Parts of speech Look at the following grammatical terms and parts of speech. Noun: e.g. law, England Verb: e.g. to! study, to! compare "o you know of any others# $ame them and give e%amples.

6. Word formation. Adjective: e.g. independent# legal Adverb: e.g. independently# legally Pronoun: e.g. it# she Pre o!ition: e.g. on# at /ou will need to now these terms when using a dictionary but notice that abbreviations are used# for e%ample n.# vb.# ad!.# adv.# pron.# prep.

-here necessary# use your dictionary and complete the table below1 Noun a................... history equity % e................... g................... litigant 7ive the opposite of c. Verb to petition % % % f.......... to abolish h#......... Adjective ................... b.................... c.................... d"..................... specific % %


5n legal English you will come across some specialist vocabulary which you may not now. Chec that you understand the following items# either by as ing someone else or by using an English"English dictionary. '891 5t may sometimes be necessary to consult a specialised law dictionary. a litigant b equitable c in!unction 'can you find the meaning in the te%t.( d contempt of court e to prevail f to supersede g to bring an action

5f it too you a long time to find the words in a dictionary you should do the e%ercises which follow.

$ictionar% e&erci!e '. 8umber the following words in the order you would e%pect to find them in a dictionary1 apply# unitary# federation# ascend# united# separate# systems# union# endure# appellor# commission# crime# appellant# committee# application# commit# criminal# ascertain. 5f this e%ercise too you longer then three minutes or you had more than two mista es# you should repeat the e%ercise with the following list of words1 resolution# procedural# discharge# proceeds# libel# liability# licence# appoint# profitable# process# profit# proceed# liable# repeal# procedure# respondent# represent# resolve.

(. )lo*e activit% U!ing the &o+d! in the *o6 complete this brief summary. 7aps may need one or more words.

Common law Court of Chancery conflict redress Supreme court of :udicature prevail +iddle ,ges remedy relief :udicatrure ,ct common law court the laws of equity Equity came into being in the +a)............................because +b).................... was not always able to give +c) all litigants. The Court of Chancery provided equitable +d)............................when it thought that the common law +e)...........................was inequitable. ;ntil 1<=> there were two courts " the +f)............................and the +g)........................The +h) ..................established a single court# the +i)................................-hen the common law and the laws of equity +j).............................. +k).................. should '5(.......................

1#. Case references

A 'o on ethod o( $e"+ning in $"& *% &"% o( " '"!e !t)d%, *)t *e(o+e doing !o $et )! $oo2 "t the &"% '"!e! "+e +e.o+ted. A! -)di'i"$ de'i!ion! (o+ "n i .o+t"nt ."+t o( the $"& it i! ne'e!!"+% th"t the% !ho)$d *e "#"i$"*$e to $"&%e+! "nd the .)*$i'. The -)dg ent! in the highe+ 'o)+t! "+e .)*$i!hed in " !e+ie! o( $"& +e.o+t! the o!t 'o on o( &hi'h "+e; A$$ Eng$"nd L"& Re.o+t! ,ee2$% L"& Re.o+t! A)een0! Ben'h King0! Ben'h A..e"$ 1"!e! 1h"n'e+% 1+i in"$ L"& Re.o+t!

The+e i! " !t"nd"+d (o+ o( +e(e+en'e &hi'h te$$! the +e"de+ &he+e the +e.o+t o( "n indi#id)"$ '"!e "% *e (o)nd. Thi! +e(e+en'e 'ont"in! the %e"+ in &hi'h the '"!e &"! .)*$i!hed, the n" e o( the .)*$i'"tion in "**+e#i"ted (o+ "nd the ."ge n) *e+ "t &hi'h the '"!e '"n *e (o)nd. In "ddition, &hen the '"!e +e.o+t! (o+ " !ing$e %e"+ "+e 'ont"ined in o+e th"n one #o$) e o( " .)*$i'"tion the n) *e+ o( the #o$) e &i$$ "..e"+ *e(o+e the n" e o( the .)*$i'"tion. So, (o+ e6" .$e, " '"!e +e.o+ted "t $1%"%& ' (ll E) '*+ &i$$ *e (o)nd in the thi+d #o$) e o( the A$$ Eng$"nd L"& Re.o+t! (o+ the %e"+ 1B3B "t ."ge 5@?.

8o) &i$$ noti'e the )!e o( !7)"+e *+"'2et!/ thi! !igni(ie! th"t 2no&ing the %e"+ i! e!!enti"$ to (inding the '"!e +e.o+t. I( the '"!e i! 'ited &ith the %e"+ on$% "nd not the +e(e+en'e, +o)nd *+"'2et! "+e )!ed, (o+ e6" .$e Donaghue #. Stevenson C1B54D. A (in"$ .oint %o) !ho)$d +e e *e+ "t thi! !t"ge i! th"t '"!e n" e! "+e "$&"%! high$ighted in !o e &"%. In o!t *oo2! thi! &i$$ *e *% it"$i'! *)t i( %o) "+e &+iting *% h"nd %o) !ho)$d )nde+$ine the '"!e n" e!. It i! i .o+t"nt th"t %o) get into the h"*it o( doing thi! (+o the !t"+t o( %o)+ $eg"$ !t)die!. No& do the (o$$o&ing e6e+'i!e.

Research 11. Where will the following cases be reported?

a B ak e r v. W i l l o u g h b y [19 !" #C $% . b # r & s t r o n g v. ' ac k s o n [191 " ( )B *((.

c Co+ v. d -ay v.

, r e e n [19%%" 1 Ch (1%.

, r a n t [19* " . #ll /R % *0 [19* " 1B 9 (0 [19* " . W2R 3. . 45ote that so&e cases are reported in &ore than one publication.6

e 7 t . v. 8 u d s o n [19*!" Cri& 2R 1! .

1.2.' Case stud , Miller v. Jackson $1%""& -. %** The facts, The .$"inti((! o&ned " ho)!e "d-oining " '+i'2et g+o)nd. 1+i'2et h"d *een .$"%ed on the g+o)nd (o+ " $ong ti e *e(o+e the ho)!e h"d *een *)i$t. The .$"inti((! 'o .$"ined o( d" "ge '")!ed *% '+i'2et *"$$! "nd $o!! o( en-o% ent o( thei+ .+o.e+t%. The% *+o)ght "n "'tion "g"in!t the '+i'2et '$)* (o+ .+i#"te n)i!"n'e !ee2ing d" "ge! Cthe 'o on $"& +e ed%D "nd "n in-)n'tion C"n e7)it"*$e +e ed%D to .+e#ent '+i'2et *eing .$"%ed on the g+o)nd. The '+i'2et '$)* "+g)ed th"t it h"d done e#e+%thing th"t &"! .o!!i*$e to !to. the *"$$! 'o ing into the .$"inti((! g"+den, in'$)ding e+e'ting " (i(teen (oot high (en'e. !eld, The '+i'2et '$)* &"! $i"*$e to the .$"inti((! (o+ .+i#"te n)i!"n'e. An "&"+d o( d" "ge! &"! "de "g"in!t the *)t " "-o+it% o( the 1o)+t o( A..e"$ +e()!ed to g+"nt "n in-)n'tion .+e#enting the .$"%ing o( '+i'2et. /er 0ord 1enning 2), 0The 'o)+t &hen de'iding &hethe+ to e6e+'i!e it! e7)it"*$e -)+i!di'tion "nd g+"nt "n in-)n'tion )!t h"#e in ind th"t it i! )nde+ " d)t% to 'on!ide+ the .)*$i' inte+e!t. ,he+e the e((e't o( g+"nting "n in-)n'tion &o)$d *e to .+e#ent '+i'2et *eing .$"%ed on " g+o)nd &he+e it h"d *een .$"%ed (o+ !e#ent% %e"+! o+ !o, the !.e'i"$ 'i+') !t"n'e! "+e !)'h th"t the .)*$i' inte+e!t )!t .+e#"i$ o#e+ the h"+d!hi. o( the indi#id)"$ ho)!eho$de+! &ho &e+e de.+i#ed o( the "*i$it% to en-o%, in .e"'e "nd 7)iet, thei+ ho)!e "nd g"+den &hi$e '+i'2et &"! *eing .$"%ed.0 1"n %o) !ee the di((e+en'e in the 'o)+t0! "..+o"'h to the 'o on $"& +e ed% "nd the e7)it"*$e +e ed%< In o+de+ to *e "&"+ded d" "ge! the .$"inti((! on$% h"d to .+o#e th"t the de(end"nt! &e+e $i"*$e in n)i!"n'e. :"#ing .+o#ed thi! the 'o)+t h"d no .o&e+ to &ithho$d the 'o on $"& +e ed% C"$tho)gh the -)dge! &i$$ dete+ ine the amount to *e ."id *% the de(end"nt!D. In 'ont+"!t, *e'")!e e7)it"*$e +e edie! "+e di!'+etion"+%, the 'o)+t 'o)$d +e()!e to g+"nt "n in-)n'tion *e'")!e it 'on!ide+ed it &o)$d not *e -)!t "nd ("i+ to do !o. Be(o+e 'on'$)ding thi! int+od)'tion to e7)it% %o) !ho)$d *e "&"+e th"t "$tho)gh it &"! o+igin"$$% " ($e6i*$e *od% o( +)$e!, the '+iti'i! th"t 0-)!ti'e i! "! $ong "! the 1h"n'e$$o+0! (oot04> '"n no

$onge+ *e -)!ti(ied. F)!ti'e i! " !)*-e'ti#e 'on'e.t 9 &h"t "% "..e"+ -)!t to one .e+!on &o)$d not *e to "nothe+. F)di'i"$ de'i!ion!, "nd the+e(o+e the $"&, *"!ed on the indi#id)"$ -)dge0! ide" o( -)!ti'e '+e"te! )n'e+t"int% "nd in it!e$( $e"d! to in-)!ti'e. Si i$"+ '"!e! )!t *e t+e"ted !i i$"+$% i( -)!ti'e i! to *e "'hie#ed. A''o+ding$% e7)it% h"! de#e$o.ed o#e+ the %e"+! into " 'on!i!tent *od% o( +)$e! &hi'h e$i in"te! "! ("+ "! .o!!i*$e " !)*-e'ti#e "nd "+*it+"+% "..$i'"tion o( it! .+in'i.$e!.
,tructure of the te&t
1-. The case study (Millers/ !ac"son# follows several stages which are listed below. Try to identify each stage by giving line numbers1 9ac ground Complaint ,ction 6efence :udgment ?easons line line line line line line

13. Everyday words are often used in legal vocabulary but they convey a very specific meaning which may be different from the meaning you already now. *or e%ample# 2held2 'see Miller v. !ac"son# is used in legal terminology to introduce the !udgment in a case. )oo at the following words from the te%t1

a nuisance b remedy c interest Can you find the legal meanings in your English"English dictionary.

/anguage note: re o!ition! 10. ;sing the right preposition can be a problem. Complete the short case study below by using some of the prepositions which were used in Miller v !ac"son The plaintiffs owned a house ne%t door +a) ...................................... the defendant2s factory. Sometimes blac smo e from the factory chimneys would blow across the plaintiffs2 garden. The plaintiffs sued the owners of the factory complaining +b)........................damage caused +c) ................... plants in their garden +d) .............................the smo e and loss of en!oyment of their property. They sought '@ past tense 2to see 2( damages and an in!unction to prevent the defendants using their premises as a factory. 1eld: That the owners of the factory were liable +e)..........................the

plaintiffs +f)....................the tort of private nuisance. The plaintiffs were awarded damages +g).....................the loss of their plants and granted an in!unction restricting the use of the defendants2 property. 5t was reasonable that the defendants should use their premises as a factory but not +h).........................a way which would cause nuisance +i)!oining property. The in!unction would apply until the defendants were able to control the smo e +j) their chimneys. .ocabular% 12. Complete the passage by choosing the correct words from the list which follows it. 9efore the 8orman Conquest the law in England was +a)...................... *ear of the power of local +b)........................led 0enry 55 to create a +c)..................royal court in )ondon called the +d)............................+e) .................from this court would travel the country hearing +f) .................and +g).....................cases. The central court in )ondon +h)..................the legal issue in a case and this would be applied to the +i) the regional courts. 5n this way a +j)........................ system of law was developed which was +k) most parts of the country. Equity was developed by the Court of '5(......................5t introduced new +m) provide +n) ........................for disappointed litigants. The common law courts were +o)............................from the Court of Chancery until a single court was established by the + ) .................,ct 1<=3. Each branch of the +3)...........................Court of :udicature can administer +r) and +!)........................ 0owever# the difference between the two is still important because of the +t)....................of equity. These illustrate that equity is based on +u)...................and +v).....................

fairness# common# criminal# Supreme# separate# remedies# !udge" made# decentralised# decided# facts# equity# Chancery# barons# redress# civil# permanent# !ustice# Aing2s 9ench# :udicature# common# ma%ims.

/egal anal%!i!
16. ?ead the facts of the following case and prepare a short !udgment based on your nowledge of the ma%ims of equity. /ou should do this by following the procedure outlined in the e%ercise on structure given in question 12. 6iscuss your decision with other members of your group and be prepared to !ustify it by reference to the ma%ims. /ou should then compare your arguments with the decision of the Court of ,ppeal summarised in the ,nswer Section. 5f you are wor ing on your own prepare instead a written !udgment# also by following the e%ercise on structure given in question 12. 6. B C $uilders v. %ees C1DE>F 3 ,ll E? <3= The defendants owed the plaintiffs GH<2 for building wor . The defendants consistently refused to pay the money until# nowing the plaintiffs were in financial difficulty# they offered


to pay G3II to settle the debt. The plaintiffs reluctantly accepted. They then sued for the recovery of the outstanding debt of G1<2. Their action was based on the law of contract which allows a creditor to recover payment of a debt even after accepting part payment in full settlement. The defendants claimed the protection of the equitable doctrine of promissory estoppel which in some circumstances will prevent a person from going bac on a promise " in this case the promise to accept G3II as full payment of the ?ees2s debt.

1.' Classifications of law

The+e "+e "n% &"%! in &hi'h the $"& '"n *e '$"!!i(ied. :e+e &e !h"$$ $i it o)+ di!')!!ion to the di((e+en'e *et&een criminal "nd civil law "nd substantive "nd procedural law. 1.'.1 Criminal and civil law A !i .$e di!tin'tion *et&een the '+i in"$ $"& "nd the 'i#i$ $"& i! th"t the $"tte+ +eg)$"te! the +e$"tion!hi.! *et&een indi#id)"$! o+ *odie! "nd the (o+ e+ +eg)$"te! the $eg"$ +e$"tion!hi.! *et&een the !t"te "nd indi#id)"$ .eo.$e "nd *odie!. The (i+!t .+"'ti'"$ di((e+en'e i! !een in the ."+tie! to the $eg"$ "'tion. A 'i#i$ '"!e &i$$ in#o$#e t&o Co+ o+eD indi#id)"$ .eo.$e o+ *odie! &hi$!t the ."+tie! to " '+i in"$ '"!e &i$$ *e the !t"te "nd "n indi#id)"$ .e+!on o+ *od%. L"te+ %o) &i$$ $e"+n ho& thi! di((e+en'e i! +e($e'ted in the te+ ino$og% "nd .+o'ed)+e o( the $"&, *)t (i+!t $et )! $oo2 "t "n e6" .$e o( *oth '+i in"$ "nd 'i#i$ $"&. Fi+!t, the 'i#i$ $"&. E6" .$e! o( thi! in'$)de the law of contract3 tort C$ite+"$$% e"ning 0&+ong0D "nd propert . 1on!ide+ the (o$$o&ing !it)"tion. 8o) de'ide to *)% " +"dio (+o " $o'"$ !ho.. 8o) ."% the 'o++e't .+i'e "nd t"2e the +"dio "&"%. 8o) h"#e ente+ed into " 'ont+"'t &ith the o&ne+ o( the !ho.. A(te+ t&o d"%! the +"dio ("i$! to &o+2. Thi! i! " 'o on !it)"tion "nd )!)"$$% the !ho.2ee.e+ &i$$ +e.$"'e the +"dio o+ +et)+n %o)+ one%. I( not, %o) "% &i!h to t"2e $eg"$ "'tion to +e'o#e+ %o)+ $o!!. A! the $"& o( 'ont+"'t i! ."+t o( the 'i#i$ $"& the ."+tie! to the "'tion &i$$ *e %o) C"n indi#id)"$D "nd the o&ne+ o( the !ho. C"n indi#id)"$ .e+!on o+ *od%D. No& $et )! $oo2 "t !o e e6" .$e! o( the '+i in"$ $"&. Thi! i! the $"& *% &hi'h the !t"te +eg)$"te! the 'ond)'t o( it! 'itiHen!. 1+i in"$ o((en'e! +"nge (+o the .ett% Ce.g. ."+2ing o((en'e!D to the #e+% !e+io)! Ce.g. )+de+, +".eD. Loo2 "t the (o$$o&ing !it)"tion. 8o) "+e d+i#ing %o)+ '"+ "t 3G ...h. in "n "+e" &hi'h h"! " !.eed $i it o( >G ...h. 8o) "+e !to..ed *% " .o$i'e o((i'e+ "nd !)*!e7)ent$% " '"!e i! *+o)ght "g"in!t %o) (o+ d"nge+o)! d+i#ing.

Thi! i! " criminal offence. The ."+tie! to the "'tion &i$$ the+e(o+e *e the !t"te Cin the (o+ o( the .+o!e')ting ")tho+it%D "nd %o) C"n indi#id)"$D. A ()+the+ .oint to "2e i! th"t "$tho)gh the di#i!ion *et&een 'i#i$ "nd '+i in"$ $"& i! #e+% '$e"+, the+e "+e "n% "'tion! &hi'h &i$$ 'on!tit)te " '+i in"$ o((en'e "nd " 'i#i$ &+ong. Let )! $oo2 "g"in "t the !it)"tion &he+e %o) "+e d+i#ing %o)+ '"+ too ("!t. S)..o!e th"t &hi$e %o) &e+e doing thi! %o) 2no'2ed o#e+ "nd in-)+ed "n e$de+$% $"d%. 8o) &i$$ h"#e 'o itted " criminal offence Cd"nge+o)! d+i#ingD "nd " civil wrong Cneg$igen'eD.


8o) !ho)$d *e "&"+e th"t in the h%.otheti'"$ !it)"tion, &hi$!t the one "'t '"n 'on!tit)te *oth " '+i in"$ o((en'e "nd " 'i#i$ &+ong, the $eg"$ 'on!e7)en'e! )nde+ the '+i in"$ "nd 'i#i$ $"& &i$$ *e di((e+ent. 8o) &o)$d *e .+o!e')ted *% the !t"te in the '+i in"$ 'o)+t! (o+ d"nge+o)! d+i#ing "nd !)ed *% the in-)+ed ."+t% in the 'i#i$ 'o)+t! (o+ neg$igen'e. The t&o "'tion! &i$$ *e tot"$$% !e."+"te.

14. 5n order to chec your understanding of some of the important terms in the passage# on a separate sheet of paper complete the table below by placing the following words and phrases in the correct column1

civil wrong# crime# Crown Court# guilty# plaintiff# life imprisonment# to convict# defendant# to prosecute# conviction# liable# county court# !udgment for the plaintiff# prosecutor# punishment# to punish# offence.


civil wrong crime



1'. ;se the words in the bo% to complete the following sentences. Try to remember the words from the previous e%ercise.


in!unction conviction liable prosecutor defendant legal consequences plaintiff sued defendant a , criminal case is brought by a........................... b The person charged with the criminal offence is the.............................. c The party bringing a civil action is the............................. d , civil action is brought against the.............................. e , court order not to do something is an.............................. f The defendant in a civil case the plaintiff. g , successful criminal prosecution will result in a................................. h 5f the plaintiff is successful the defendant will be found........................... i The distinction between crimes and civil wrongs relates to the of the act.

$ifference! in vocabular% between criminal and civil law

1(. 9elow# in note form# is an outline of criminal and civil proceedings. Some gaps have been left for you to complete. *ill them in. Crim. Proc.: Jrosecutor +a).....................defendant KL 'if def. guilty( conviction KL +b)...................or "M +c)......................or K id)...................... Civ. Proc.:

+e).......................+f) ...........................KL 'if pi. successful( liable KL +g)...................o r K 5 +h).................o r " # +i)......................

A ()+the+ di((e+en'e *et&een 'i#i$ "nd '+i in"$ $"& i! the &"% th"t '"!e! "+e 'ited. The $"ng)"ge (o+ n" ing '"!e! i! #e+% (o+ "$. In 'iting "$$ '"!e! in %o)+ d"i$% !t)die! it i! )!)"$ to .+ono)n'e the 0#.0 in *oth '+i in"$ "nd 'i#i$ '"!e! "! 0"nd0.

Case study (!. What is wrong in the following situation and why? Bob has been charged with &urder and is sued in the county court. 9he plaintiff is successful in the action and Bob is found liable. 8e is punished by being ordered to pay the plaintiff :1!;!!! in da&ages.


(1. #re the following cases civil or cri&inal?

a b c d

, i b s o n v. < a n c h e s t e r C i t y C o u n c i l 0 2 e a f . v. = n t e r n a t i o n a l , a l l e r i e s 0 R . v. B a t e & a n > 2 e a c h v. 7 t .

1.'.2 4ubstantive and procedural law Substantive law $"%! do&n .eo.$e0! +ight!, d)tie!, $i*e+tie! "nd .o&e+!.0 B% thi! i! e"nt the "'t)"$ 'ontent o+ !)*!t"n'e o( the $"&. /rocedural o+ ad5ectival law i! "$!o " !et o( +)$e!. A! %o) +e"d the ne6t ."!!"ge thin2 "*o)t the!e 7)e!tion!.

((. Why was procedure so i&portant in the past? b =s procedure still i&portant today?

-3. ,re the following statements true 'T( or false '*(. a The rules of civil procedure are codified# b 8one of the rules of criminal procedure have been codified# c 5n the past legal rights depended mainly on abstract principles# d Jrocedure 5s not important today. e )ines 12"1> mean1 2nowadays the principles of law should control procedure2.

/egal e&erci!e -0. Consider the following situation.

Thomas has been charged with murder. 0e is pleading 2not guilty2 to the charge. 0is trial is ta ing place at *enbury Crown Court. The leading prosecution witness is JC 9oot. 5n his evidence he states that he saw Thomas running away from the scene of the crime. Thomas has evidence which suggests that JC 9oot was at home at the time that he said he saw Thomas but the !udge refuses to let Thomas2s lawyer question JC *oot about this. -hen Thomas gives his evidence the !udge allows the prosecuting lawyer to question him. 6uring the questioning the prosecuting lawyer tells the court that Thomas has previously been found guilty of a serious criminal offence. 0ow has the procedure of the trial disadvantaged Thomas.


2. The constitution
Legal content 2.1 6efinition and purpose 2.2 Characteristics of the 9ritish constitution 2.2.1The nature of the constitution 2.2.2.The sources of the constitution 2.3.The constitutional role of the !udiciary 2.3.1Jarliamentary sovereignty 2.3.2Separation of powers 2.3.3The rule of law 2.3.H:udicial review Aim To e%amine the constitutional framewor of the English legal system and to provide an introduction to the concepts which form the basis of the system of government in the ;nited Aingdom. Jarticular emphasis will be placed on the constitutional role of the !udiciary and some comparisons made with the role of the !udiciary in other countries. The final section will consider some recent areas of debate arising from the nature of the 9ritish constitution. Language content Grammar: dealing with comple% sentences 'using signpost words($ constructions of the type 2ought not to have ta en Vocabulary: inferencing meaning from conte%t$ forming antonyms 'un"# in"# N1"# im"( Oral function: as ing for repetition &tudy s"ills: notema ing symbols


2.1 1efinition and purpose

( constitution i! " !et o( +)$e! &hi'h de(ine the +e$"tion!hi. *et&een the #"+io)! o+g"n! o( go#e+n ent "nd *et&een the go#e+n ent "nd 'itiHen! o( " 'o)nt+%. It! .)+.o!e i! to !et the ."+" ete+! o( go#e+n ent"$ .o&e+ "nd the +ight! "nd d)tie! o( the 'itiHen!. The+e(o+e, the 'on!tit)tion o( "n% indi#id)"$ 'o)nt+% &i$$ dete+ ine the !%!te o( go#e+n ent in th"t 'o)nt+%. Be(o+e &e go on to e6" ine the n"t)+e o( the B+iti!h 'on!tit)tion it i! i .o+t"nt th"t %o) h"#e " '$e"+ )nde+!t"nding o( &h"t i! e"nt *% the 0o+g"n!0 o+ 0in!tit)tion!0 o( go#e+n ent. In thi! 'onte6t &e e"n the e6ecutive3 the legislature "nd the 5udiciar . In "ddition, in the United Kingdo , the monarch h"! "n i .o+t"nt 'on!tit)tion"$ +o$e "! he"d o( !t"te.
.ocabular% 1. The four 2organs2 of government are1 a the monarch$

b the e%ecutive$
c the legislature$

d the !udiciary.

;se an English"English law dictionary to chec the meaning of these terms. 6e!earch -. The e%ecutive is a broad term which includes the officials of government departments# but in the ;nited Aingdom the collective name for the principal e%ecutive body is 2the Cabinet2 which is made up of ministers of the Crown$ for the legislature it 1 is 2Jarliament2. 5ndividual members of the legislature are called 2+embers of Jarliament2. -hat titles are given to these groups3individuals in the government of your country.

2.2 Characteristics of the .ritish constitution

2.2.1 The nature of the constitution


'. 7ind out answers to the following questions

a. -hen was the ,merican constitution first written.

b. Can it be changed.

c 6oes the ;nited Aingdom have a written constitution as the ;S, does.

d -ho can alter the rules of the 9ritish constitution.


0. 7a!ed on %our an!wer! to the 3ue!tion! in 8a!k 3# are the!e !tatement! true or fal!e9

a #n unwritten constitution can be easily changed; b 9here are no legal re&edies which the British courts can apply to protect the rights of the sub?ects; c @arlia&ent has no power to &ake laws to protect individual rights. d @arlia&ent &ust follow a special procedure to alter any constitutional laws; e 9here are no docu&ents containing constitutional laws in the Anited )ingdo&. f #n unwritten constitution is &ore fle+ibleB than a written constitution.

A n) *e+ o( i!!)e! +e$"te to the e"+$ie+ de(inition o( " 'on!tit)tion 9 the e6tent "nd 'ont+o$ o( go#e+n ent .o&e+ "nd the .+ote'tion o( the +ight! o( the 'itiHen!. Unde+ " &+itten 'on!tit)tion the!e "+e #e+% '$e"+$% !t"ted/ (o+ e6" .$e, the 'on!tit)tion o( the United St"te! gi#e! A e+i'"n 'itiHen! the +ight, inter alia to (+ee !.ee'h, .e"'e()$ "!!e *$% "nd .+i#"'%. An% $"& ."!!ed in 'ont+"#ention o( the!e "nd othe+ 'on!tit)tion"$ +ight! '"n *e !t+)'2 do&n *% the A e+i'"n 'o)+t! "! )n'on!tit)tion"$ "nd the+e(o+e #oid. E7)"$$% the% '"n en(o+'e the .+o#i!ion! o( the 'on!tit)tion. The 'o)+t! in the United Kingdo do not h"#e thi! .o&e+. In the +e "inde+ o( thi! 'h".te+ &e &i$$ e6" ine the +e"!on (o+ thi! "nd the +e$"tion!hi. *et&een the -)di'i"+% "nd the othe+ o+g"n! o( go#e+n ent.

2egal e+ercises


=n countries with a liberal de&ocratic syste& of govern&ent &uch e&phasis is placed on the protection of individual freedo& and rights. Can you think of si+ CrightsC which &ay be considered i&portant in these countries?

%. Write a short essay of 13! words on the nature of the constitution in your own country. =t should state whether the constitution is written or unwritten. =f it is the latter what is the reason for this and how are individual rights protected? =f the for&er; when did it co&e into e+istence and why? What are the provisions relating to the &achinery of govern&ent and the protection of hu&an rights? Dour essay should consist of four paragraphs each beginning as follows> @aragraph 1> C9he constitution in 4country6 is writtenEunwritten . . . 4follow on with historical reasons6.C @aragraph (> C9he &ain features of 4countryCs6 constitution are . . .C @aragraph .> C9he constitution recognises a nu&ber of individual rights which include . . .C @aragraph $> C9he provisions in the constitution for protecting these rights are . . .C

2.2.2 The sources of the constitution :"#ing e!t"*$i!hed th"t the 'on!tit)tion o( the United Kingdo i! not 'ont"ined in "n% one !ing$e do') ent &e no& need to $oo2 "t the !o)+'e! o( the 'on!tit)tion. Othe+ th"n the !t"t)te! entioned in the .+e'eding te6t, the!e '"n *e (o)nd in ')!to , '"!e $"&, *oo2! o( ")tho+it%, E)+o.e"n 1o )nit% $"& C!in'e 1B34D "nd, o!t i .o+t"nt, constitutional conventions. The!e "+e in(o+ "$ o+ 0 o+"$0 +)$e! 9 " 'ode o( .+"'ti'e (o+ go#e+n ent &hi'h h"! e#o$#ed o#e+ the %e"+!. The% "+e .+i "+i$% 'on'e+ned &ith the +e$"tion!hi. *et&een the 1+o&n Co+ on"+'hD "nd the e6e')ti#e, "nd the e6e')ti#e "nd the $egi!$"t)+e. The (o$$o&ing te6t .+o#ide! !o e e6" .$e! o( the!e 'on#ention!.


B% the 'on#ention o( ini!te+i"$ +e!.on!i*i$it% entioned in the e6t+"'t e"'h indi#id)"$ '"*inet ini!te+ i! he$d +e!.on!i*$e (o+ "$$ the "'tion! o( the 'i#i$ !e+#"nt! in hi! o+ he+ ini!t+%/ it +e7)i+e! " ini!te+ to +e!ign i( tho!e 'i#i$ !e+#"nt! "2e "n i .o+t"nt i!t"2e. One o( the o!t !igni(i'"nt e6" .$e! o( thi! 'on#ention in +e'ent %e"+! &"! the +e!ign"tion o( the Iini!te+ (o+ T+"de "nd Ind)!t+% "(te+ one o( the 'i#i$ !e+#"nt! in hi! de."+t ent +e$e"!ed " 'on(identi"$ do') ent in o+de+ to e *"++"!! "nothe+ ini!te+.

4. 5f you do not now these words you could use a dictionary. 0owever# it is always a good idea to consider whether enough information can be e%tracted from the 2un nown2 word to enable you to carry on reading without using the dictionary. -ith each of these words that you do not now# as yourself the following questions1 1. 2. 3. -hat part of speech is it. 6oes it loo 'or sound( li e any other word you now in English or another related language. 5s it ne%t to or near a nown word which can help you to understand.

1. 4. 5. >. ?. @. 3.

tacit e%press adhered enforce e%pedience suffice assent dissolution

Sometimes only question 1 will give you any information and you will want to use a dictionary ' nowing the part of speech will be useful to you here(. This self"questioning process ta es much less time than you might thin and will become quic er with practice. /ou probably already do something li e this in your own language when you meet an unfamiliar word. )et us apply this procedure to some of the words listed: tacit: Ouestion 11 /ou might thin this word is a noun or an ad!ective. Ouestion 21 5f you now )atin or the word 2taciturn2 you will now that the idea of 2not spea ing2 is involved. Ouestion 31 5t appears to be lin ed to 2e%press2# but the meaning you probably now of 2e%press2 as in 2e%press train2 is not helpful. ,t this point you will either have enough information from question 2 or you will go to your dictionary and discover that 2tacit2 means 2understood without being stated2. :e& re!!: Ouestion 11 5t must be an ad!ective because it is lin ed by 2or2 to an ad!ective '2tacit2(.


Ouestion 21 The lin ing word 2or2 could indicate that 2tacit2 and 2e%press2 have either similar or contrasting meanings. /ou will probably conclude that 2e%press2 means the opposite of 2tacit2. Ouestion 31 -e have decided that the usual meaning is not helpful# but you might consider the meaning of the verb 2to e%press2# that is 2to state something2. Sometimes it is not necessary to as all the questions1 :!uffice: Ouestion 11 Since it follows 2must2 it is a verb. Ouestion 21 5t loo s li e 2sufficient2 so it probably means....................................................... Chec that you remember some of the ey words1 a The opposite of 2tacit2 is............................ b , rule which is reached by agreement is called a................................ c The head of state in the ;nited Aingdom is called................................. 'several answers are possible(. d Jarliament consists of the 0ouse of )ords and................................ e The leader of the government is the...............................

/egal e&erci!e!
'. -hich conventions are involved in the following situations. a The government is defeated on a ma!or issue in the 0ouse of Co&&ons. 9he @ri&e <inister advises

the 1ueen to dissolve @arlia&ent and a general election is called. 9he govern&ent wins a large &a?ority in the general election but the 1ueen invites the leader of a &inority party to for& the ne+t govern&ent. b #fter a &a?or defeat in the 8ouse of Co&&ons the @ri&e <inister refuses to resign or ask the 1ueen to dissolve @arlia&ent. # &e&ber of the opposition party applies to the 8igh Court for an order forcing the @ri&e <inister to resign. 9he 8igh Court grants the order; c 9he /nviron&ent @arty wins a general election on its pro&ise to abolish all &otor vehicles. 9he #bolition of <otor Fehicles Bill is subseGuently passed by a large &a?ority in @arlia&ent but the 1ueen refuses to give the Royal #ssent. -iscussion and writing 9. Conventions are not like CrealC laws in that there are no for&al rules for their creation and they are not enforceable by the courts. -iscuss the following Guestions with your group. Dou &ay find the additional reading references helpful in preparing your answers. =f you do not have access to this &aterial you can answer the Guestions by thinking about why infor&al rules of behaviour in general; such as social habits; are obeyed and the conseGuences of a breach1 of these rules a Why are conventions obeyed? b #re all conventions of eGual i&portance? c What do you think would be the conseGuences of a breach of a convention? d What is the &ain advantage of constitutional conventions co&pared to written constitutional rules? =f you are working on your own write an essay of 13! words on these topics. Ase one paragraph to answer each part of the Guestion as in the following essay plan> @aragraph a> CConstitutional conventions are ... 4follow with a definition6. 9hey are obeyed because . . .C @aragraph b> C5ot all conventions are of eGual i&portance . . . 4follow with e+a&ples fro& the te+t6.C


@aragraph c> C9he conseGuences of a breach of a convention will depend upon . . . 4relate your co&&ents to paragraph b6C. @aragraph d> CConstitutional conventions have the advantage of being fle+ible because . . . 4then co&pare to written constitutions6C.

2.' The constitutional role of the 5udiciar

2.'.1 /arliamentar sovereignt The do't+ine o( parliamentar $egi!$"t)+e "nd the -)di'i"+%. sovereignt go#e+n! the +e$"tion!hi. *et&een the

An "ddition"$ (e"t)+e o( the do't+ine o( ."+$i" ent"+% !o#e+eignt% i! th"t e"'h ne& P"+$i" ent i! !).+e e. The t+"dition"$ #ie& i! th"t no P"+$i" ent '"n $i it the "'tion! o( " ()t)+e P"+$i" ent. I)'h o( the de*"te in thi! "+e" 'ent+e! on the i!!)e o( " Bi$$ o( Right!. Unde+ the t+"dition"$ #ie& o( ."+$i" ent"+% !o#e+eignt% " Bi$$ o( Right! en"'ted *% one P"+$i" ent 'o)$d *e +e.e"$ed *% it! !)''e!!o+. ,e &i$$ $oo2 "t thi! !)*-e't in o+e det"i$ in the (in"$ !e'tion o( thi! 'h".te+. Anothe+ +e'ent de*"te i! the i ."'t o( B+it"in0! e *e+!hi. o( the E)+o.e"n 1o )nit% on the !o#e+eignt% o( P"+$i" ent.

/egal e&erci!e!

1;. An!wer the!e 3ue!tion!. a. To which relationship does the doctrine of parliamentary sovereignty apply. b. -hat test do the courts apply to test the validity of legislation in the ;A. c. -hat legal authority is there for the rule that !udges must obey Jarliament. d. -hy was the Supreme Court of the ;nited States able to stri e down the legislation on racial discrimination in $ro'n v. $oard of (ducation) e. 5n 1DD> the 9ritish government presents the *emale Education 9ill to Jarliament. Section 1 of the 9ill states1 28o blue"eyed female child shall receive a full"time education after reaching the age of ten years.2 The legislation is approved by a ma!ority of both 0ouses of Jarliament and receives the ?oyal ,ssent. a -ill the 9ritish courts be obliged to enforce this law. b -ould your answer be different if 9ritain had a written constitution guaranteeing a right to full"time education up to the age of si%teen years.


2.'.2 4eparation of powers Anothe+ (e"t)+e o( the B+iti!h 'on!tit)tion &hi'h i! +e$e#"nt to the 'on!tit)tion"$ +o$e o( the -)di'i"+% i! the theo+% o( the separation of powers. Thi! theo+% &"! ."+ti')$"+$% de#e$o.ed *% the F+en'h .o$iti'"$ !'ienti!t, Ionte!7)ie). The theo+% h"! *een '+iti'i!ed (o+ *eing .)+i!t 9 th"t i!, it i! "n i .+"'ti'"$ ode$ to &hi'h the B+iti!h !%!te o( go#e+n ent doe! not 'on(o+ . Fo+ e6" .$e, e *e+! o( the e6e')ti#e "+e "$!o e *e+! o( the $egi!$"t)+e 9 the he"d o( the -)di'i"+%, the Lo+d 1h"n'e$$o+, i! " e *e+ o( the 1"*inet. E7)"$$%, the 'o)+t! .e+(o+ "n% "d ini!t+"ti#e ()n'tion!. The 'on!tit)tion o( the United St"te! &"! e6.+e!!$% *"!ed on the !e."+"tion o( .o&e+! 9 the e6e')ti#e CP+e!identD, the $egi!$"t)+e CSen"teJ :o)!e o( Re.+e!ent"ti#e!D "nd the -)di'i"+% CS).+e e 1o)+tD "+e di!'+ete *odie!. B)t e#en the United St"te! go#e+n ent doe! not 'on(o+ e6"'t$% to the theo+%. E"'h *od% e6e+'i!e! 'ont+o$ o#e+ the ()n'tion! o( the othe+! th+o)gh " 'o .$e6 !%!te o( 'he'2! "nd *"$"n'e!. Fo+ e6" .$e, the P+e!ident "..oint! the -)dge! to the S).+e e 1o)+t *)t hi! no in"tion! )!t *e "..+o#ed *% the Sen"te, "nd &e h"#e "$+e"d% !een th"t the -)di'i"+% h"! the 'on!tit)tion"$ +ight to !t+i2e do&n $egi!$"tion "! )n'on!tit)tion"$. B% 'ont+"!t, in F+"n'e, the theo+% o( !e."+"tion o( .o&e+! i! the +e"!on &h% the 'o)+t! do not h"#e the -)+i!di'tion to 7)e!tion the $eg"$it% o( the "'t! o( the e6e')ti#e "nd the $egi!$"t)+e. It i! gene+"$$% "''e.ted th"t " .+e'i!e !e."+"tion o( the ()n'tion! o( go#e+n ent i! i .+"'ti'"*$e. Ionte!7)ie)0! theo+% !ho)$d *e !een "! .+e!'+i.ti#e4? +"the+ th"n de!'+i.ti#e, it! e!!en'e *eing th"t no one .e+!on o+ *od% !ho)$d h"#e ()$$ 'ont+o$ o( "$$ th+ee ()n'tion! o( go#e+n ent. In ."+ti')$"+, the 'o)+t! !ho)$d *e inde.endent o( the e6e')ti#e "nd the $egi!$"t)+e !o th"t the -)dge! '"n en!)+e th"t the!e *odie! do not e6e+'i!e thei+ .o&e+! "+*it+"+i$%.

Co&prehension check


7ill in the &issing words fro& the words in the bo+ below. 9here are 4a6...................&ain functions of govern&ent. 9hese are the 4b6.....................the 4c6......................and the 4d6.......................9he theory of separation of powers states that these functions should be carried out by 4e6.......................bodies. 9he British constitution does not 4f6 ...................... to this theory. 9he sa&e people are &e&bers of the 4g6....................and the 4h6....................and there are so&e 4i6...................functions which are carried out by the courts. 9he distinction is clearer in the constitution of the 4?6........................... where the e+ecutive; legislative and ?udicial roles are perfor&ed by 4k6..................bodies. 9he theory is 4=6........................rather than 4&6 .................of the liberal syste& of govern&ent; an essential feature of which is that the 4n6....................should be 4o6....................of the 4p6 .................and the 4G6...................

independent; legislature; Anited Htates; confor&; e+ecutive; ?udicial; three; different; prescriptive; e+ecutive; ?udiciary; ad&inistrative; legislature; descriptive; legislative; different; e+ecutive.




When for&ing and recognising opposites 4antony&s6 there are several prefi+es which can be used; for e+a&ple unI 4as in CunknownC6. 9he following words; which have been used in Chapters 1 or (; can be used with the prefi+es unI; inI; ilI or i&I to for& their opposites. Write the& down using the correct prefi+. a lawful i ?ustice b fa&iliar ? partiality c practical k eGuitable d legal = written e fair & practicable f valid n constitutional g dependence o licitJ h &ake

5B> 9hese prefi+es often indicate an opposite &eaning but the sa&e letters 4e.g. i&I; inI6
also occur in words where this is not the case; for e+a&ple Ci&portantC; CinfluenceC.

1.. 9o what e+tent does the govern&ent of your country confor& to the theory of separation of powers? 9o answer this Guestion you should identify the three organs of govern&ent in your country and find out whether their functions are perfor&ed by different people or bodies.

Legal exercises

14. Write a short essay of &'' words on what you understand by the separation of powers
and the reasons for maintaining it. (ou should include a discussion on whether the theory applies to the )ritish constitution and make comparisons with other countries including your own. (ou may find the following essay plan helpful* "efine the theory, The reasons for the theory. To what e%tent does it apply to the )ritish constitution# +ompare with the constitutions of other countries.

a b c d

2.'.'. The rule of law 8o) !ho)$d *e "&"+e o( the t&o "in 'h"+"'te+i!ti'! o( the B+iti!h 'on!tit)tion. The!e "+e; P"+$i" ent i! the !).+e e o+g"n o( go#e+n ent, "nd )nde+ " !o e&h"t $oo!e "..$i'"tion o( the theo+% o( !e."+"tion o( .o&e+!, the 'o)+t! "+e inde.endent o( P"+$i" ent "nd the e6e')ti#e. ,e !h"$$ no& de#e$o. the 'on!tit)tion"$ i .$i'"tion! o( the!e the e! *% e6" ining the &"%! in &hi'h the 'o)+t! '"n 'ont+o$ the "'tion! o( the e6e')ti#e. In thi! 'onte6t &e "+e t"$2ing "*o)t the e6e')ti#e in it! *+o"d !en!e "! the "d ini!t+"to+! o( the !%!te o( go#e+n ent. It i! i .o+t"nt to )nde+!t"nd '$e"+$% th"t the 'o)+t! h"#e no .o&e+ to +e#ie& the merits o( e6e')ti#e "'tion/ th"t i! the% "+e not 'on'e+ned &ith the 7)e!tion; 0I! thi! "'tion +ight o+ &+ong<0 The 7)e!tion the% '"n "!2 i!; 0I! thi! "'tion $"&()$ o+ )n$"&()$<0 At (i+!t the di!tin'tion "% *e di((i')$t to +e'ogni!e. The "i o( the!e ne6t t&o !e'tion! i! to "2e the di!tin'tion '$e"+ "nd to de on!t+"te ho& it i! +e($e'ted in the &"% the 'o)+t! '"n 'ont+o$ e6e')ti#e "'tion.


The .+in'i.$e o( the +)$e o( $"& e *odie! o+e th"n the +e7)i+e ent th"t go#e+n ent "'t! &ithin it! $eg"$ .o&e+! *)t "$!o th"t it "'t! in "''o+d"n'e &ith the +e'ogni!ed .+in'i.$e! o( liberal democrac . Fi+!t $et )! !e."+"te the t&o "!.e't! o( " ."+ti')$"+ !it)"tion. ". A n) *e+ o( !)!.e'ted .e+!on! h"d *een inte+ned )nde+ the !t"t)to+% .o&e+! o( the 1i#i$ A)tho+itie! CS.e'i"$ Po&e+!D A't CNo+the+n I+e$"ndD 1B44.

*. =)+ing the .e+iod o( inte+n ent (o)+teen inte+nee! h"#e *een !)*-e'ted to i$$9t+e"t ent
d)+ing inte++og"tion. The+e &"! no !t"t)to+% ")tho+it% (o+ the!e inte++og"tion .+o'ed)+e!. No& $et )! "..$% the t&o o+igin"$ 7)e!tion! to the !e."+"te i!!)e!; 1 a 8s the act of internment right or wrong9 Inte+n ent i! " #e+% 'ont+o#e+!i"$4B .+o'ed)+e. It 'o)$d *e "+g)ed th"t to i .+i!on .eo.$e inde(inite$% &itho)t the *eing 'h"+ged &ith "nd (o)nd g)i$t% o( "n% 'ond)'t &hi'h i! i$$eg"$ i! "n "*)!e5G o( h) "n +ight! "nd the+e(o+e &+ong. A$te+n"ti#e$% it '"n *e "+g)ed th"t !)'h "n "'tion *% the St"te i! ne'e!!"+% to !"(eg)"+d the n"tion"$ inte+e!t d)+ing &"+ o+ othe+ ti e! o( '+i!i!. To e6" ine the!e "+g) ent! i! to e6" ine the merits o( the .+o'ed)+e "nd thi! i! not the ()n'tion o( the B+iti!h 'o)+t!. b 8s the act of internment lawful or unlawful9 The+e i! no do)*t th"t it &"! $"&()$ )nde+ the .o&e+! o( "n A't o( P"+$i" ent 9 the 1i#i$ A)tho+itie! CS.e'i"$ Po&e+!D KA't CNo+the+n I+e$"ndD 1B44. I( "n "'tion h"d *een *+o)ght *e(o+e the 'o)+t! to 'h"$$enge the #"$idit% o( inte+n ent it &o)$d h"#e *een dete+ ined on thi! *"!i!. 2 a :ere the interrogation procedures right or wrong9 Ag"in to "n!&e+ thi! 7)e!tion &e &o)$d need to $oo2 "t the e+it! o( the .+o'ed)+e! &hi'h "+e "! 'ont+o#e+!i"$ "! inte+n ent. ,h"t "+g) ent! '"n %o) thin2 o( (o+ "nd "g"in!t !)'h "'tion!< b (re the interrogation procedures lawful or unlawful9 :o& &o)$d the B+iti!h 'o)+t! "..+o"'h thi! 7)e!tion "nd &h"t do %o) thin2 thei+ de'i!ion &o)$d *e<

Oral work 12.a. 5n class or in discussions you will sometimes not hear or understand what somebody says. 0ow will you as them to repeat 5t. 0ere are some possible ways. They are all polite and formal enough to be used with teachers but not too formal to be used with other students. 252m sorry# 5 didn2t quite hear3catch what you said !ust now about Cthe rule of lawF.2 2Could you possibly repeat your answer to Cthe last questionF.2 2E%cuse me# but 5 still don2t really understand what you said about C5nternmentF$ would you mind going over it again.2 b. 5magine that you did not hear or understand the following items. ,s each other for repetition. a e%amining the merits of the procedure$ b question -b< c detainees$ d the separation of powers$ e how the courts can control e%ecutive action$ f the distinction between 2right2 and 2lawful2.


/egal e&erci!e! 16. 0ow does the rule of law relate to the need to 2guarantee the courts their political independence2. 14. 6iscuss the following situation with your group using your nowledge of parliamentary sovereignty and the rule of law. ,pply the same analytical procedure which is used in the discussion on internment above. 5f you are wor ing on your own produce a written analysis in the same form. The Jrohibition of 6ogs ,ct 1DD3 ma es it a criminal offence for an individual to eep a dog as a household pet. -illiam owns a dog contrary to the provisions of the ,ct. 0e is charged with the offence at the local police station and then loc ed 5n a cell for twenty"four hours. The ,ct does not give the police the power to detain people charged under its provisions. ". 5n the recent case of Malonev Metro*olitan +olice Commissioner C1D=DF Ch 3HH# an action was brought applying for a declaration that telephone tapping authorised by the Secretary of State was illegal and unconstitutional. 5n dismissing the application Pice"Chancellor +egarry stated1



There are several words and phrases which mean 2legal2 or 2illegal2# 2allowed2 or 2not allowed2. See how many you can find and list them as follows1 illegal/not allo'ed


1%. Complete the table below# using a dictionary if necessary.






"!!) e










g. de!'+i.tion








'o ."+e




2.'.4 <udicial review

The .+o'e!! o( -)di'i"$ +e#ie& i! " .+"'ti'"$ "..$i'"tion o( the +)$e o( $"&. It (o+ ! the *"!i! o( " g+o&ing *od% o( administrative law &hi'h +eg)$"te! the +e$"tion!hi. *et&een the 'o)+t!, .)*$i' "d ini!t+"ti#e *odie! Cin'$)ding the e6e')ti#eD "nd indi#id)"$ 'itiHen!. Ag"in, %o) !ho)$d '$e"+$%


)nde+!t"nd th"t -)di'i"$ +e#ie& doe! not en"*$e the 'o)+t! to 7)e!tion the "'tion o+ the #"$idit% o( "n A't o( P"+$i" ent.

e+it! o( "d ini!t+"ti#e

So e o( the g+o)nd! (o+ -)di'i"$ +e#ie& "+e i$$eg"$it%, i++"tion"$it% "nd .+o'ed)+"$ i .+o.+iet%. 53 The!e "+e "$$ te!t! *% &hi'h the 'o)+t! h"#e -)dged "d ini!t+"ti#e "'tion! to *e ultra vires Ci.e. in e6'e!! o( .o&e+D. The e((e't i! to +ende+ the "'tion #oid, th"t i! it h"! no $eg"$ e((e't. It i! t+e"ted "! i( it h"d ne#e+ e6i!ted.
2egal e+ercises
(!. of lawC? What is &eant by the state&ent that C?udicial review is a practical application of the rule

21. What do you understand by the ter& ultra vires)

((. =n what way does the process of ?udicial review regulate the relationship between ad&inistrative bodies and the individual citiKen?

To "n!&e+ the (o$$o&ing t&o 7)e!tion! %o) &i$$ (i+!t need to identi(% the .o&e+! &hi'h h"#e *een gi#en to the +e$e#"nt ")tho+itie!. Se'ond$%, $oo2 "t the "'tion! &hi'h h"#e *een t"2en *% the ")tho+itie!, "nd thi+d$% 'o ."+e the!e to thei+ .o&e+!. Loo2 to !ee i( the ")tho+itie! h"#e done !o ething &hi'h the% h"#e no .o&e+ to do o+ i( the% h"#e ("i$ed to do !o ething &hi'h the% "+e +e7)i+ed to do.
(.. Consider the following situation in the light of what you now know about ?udicial review. <arion has a nineIyearIold daughter; #lison; who has grey eyes. #lison attends the local village school. Lne day <arion receives a letter fro& the local education authority advising her that under s.1 of the 7e&ale /ducation #ct 199 #lisonCs right to fullIti&e education will cease on her tenth birthday. #dvise #lison on the validity of this action. ($. 9he 9own Redevelop&ent #ct 199$ gives local authorities the power co&pulsorily to purchase and clear land for Cthe building of new housing estatesC. =t also i&poses a duty to Cconsult those people who will be affected by any such co&pulsory purchaseC. 5ewtown Council vote to co&pulsorily purchase and redevelop a group of houses which includes a house owned by <r Htor&y. 9he council issues orders for the i&&ediate de&olition of the houses and announces its intention to build a new housing estate and council offices on the site. #dvise <r Htor&y of his legal position.

It &"! !t"ted th"t the .)+.o!e o( " 'on!tit)tion &"! to !et the ."+" ete+! o( go#e+n ent"$ .o&e+ "nd the +ight! "nd d)tie! o( the 'itiHen!. In $i*e+"$ de o'+"ti' !o'ietie! g+e"t e .h"!i! i! .$"'ed on "int"ining the 'o++e't *"$"n'e *et&een .)*$i' .o&e+! "nd the +ight! o( the indi#id)"$ 'itiHen!; &hi$e it i! ne'e!!"+% (o+ go#e+n ent! to +eg)$"te the "(("i+! o( !o'iet% thi! )!t not *e "'hie#ed *% +e!t+i'ting the *"!i' +ight! "nd $i*e+tie! o( the indi#id)"$. ,e h"#e !een th"t in "n% 'o)nt+ie! the!e +ight! "+e g)"+"nteed *% " &+itten 'on!tit)tion &hi'h i! en(o+'ed *% the 'o)+t. Be'")!e the+e i! no &+itten 'on!tit)tion in the United Kingdo , the $i it"tion! on go#e+n ent .o&e+ "+e $"+ge$% !e$(9i .o!ed, +e$%ing on )nen(o+'e"*$e 'on#ention! "nd " .o$iti'"$ ')$t)+e *"!ed on the +)$e o( $"&. 1on(iden'e in the!e t+"dition"$ +e!t+"int! h"! +e'ent$% di ini!hed "nd thi! h"! *een +e($e'ted in "n in'+e"!ing de "nd (o+ " o+e (o+ "$ .+ote'tion o( h) "n +ight!. ,e &i$$ then "$!o +e9e6" ine the de*"te !)++o)nding the en"'t ent o( " Bi$$ o( Right!. At thi! !t"ge %o) !ho)$d *e "&"+e o( the 'on!tit)tion"$ i .$i'"tion! o( !)'h "n en"'t ent, ."+ti')$"+$% the i ."'t th"t it &o)$d h"#e on the +o$e o( the -)di'i"+% "nd the !).+e "'% o( P"+$i" ent.


25. Try and find words or phrases with an equivalent meaning to those below. a basic e strengthens b fi%ed f in spite of c most of the time g damage d caused h alone

Notema ing
2!. ,se the outline below to make notes on the e%cerpt from "ugdale above. (ou will need to use abbreviations- many of them will be personal but below are some common abbreviations and symbols which you will find useful. e.g. for e%ample i.e. that is, in other words vs. versus! against cf. compare d!, with . or /! and 0 same as, like *1fc different from, unlike 23 cause, lead to, so caused by therefore because 45 however rise, increase 2% fall, decrease 3 more than 6 less than

/egal e&erci!e! -4. -hat effect would a 9ill of ?ights have on the following constitutional ma%ims1 a parlimentary sovereignty# b !udicial review. -'. ;se the answers to question H2 above as the basis for a debate on the following proposal1 2, 9ill of ?ights would increase the protection of human rights in the ;nited Aingdom.2 -(. Choose two teams of three people to present arguments for and against the proposition. The spea ers should be allowed five minutes each to present their arguments and they should then answer questions from the rest of the group. , vote should then be ta en on which team has presented the most convincing arguments. To prepare for the debate you will need to reread this chapter very carefully# ta ing notes on the arguments which could support either side of the debate. The arguments should then be presented in a structured way with each member of the team addressing a particular issue. These should include1 a ,n e%amination of the features of the 9ritish constitution and how these affect the roles of the legislature# e%ecutive and !udiciary.


b 0ow are human rights protected under the present system. ,re these safeguards adequate. c -hat effect would a 9ill of ?ights have on the roles of the legislature# e%ecutive and !udiciary. -ould this provide greater protection of human rights.

3;. 5f you are wor ing on your own write an essay of >II words analysing the arguments for and against the proposition using the preceding points.

31. Section 1 of the Jrotection of Citi&ens2 ?ights ,ct 1DD> states1 2,ll citi&ens shall have the right to privacy and freedom from unwanted intrusion into their private lives.2

6etective Sergeant Squee&e is a senior police officer in 2 squad. 0is wor brings him into regular contact with a pi businessman# *lash 0arry# and on several occasions 6S has entertained *lash 0arry at his home. , national newspaper ,nvestigator- is publishing a series of articles on business receives information that *lash 0arry is not completely horn business dealings. 6uring the course of investigation information one of its reporters ta es a photograph of 6S 1 and *lash 0arry having dinner together at a )ondon restaurant publishes the photograph under the heading 2Senior Jolice 6ines with Suspected Criminal.2

0ow does this situation reflect fears in the enactment of a 9ill of ?ights in the ;nited Aingdom.


3. Sources of Law
Legal content 3.1. Case law 3.1.1.The hierarchy of the courts 3.1.2. The binding element in precedents 3.2. Statute law 3.1.3. The purpose of statutory interpretation ,ids to interpretation


Aim To provide an introduction to the law"ma ing processes and to e%amine the ways in which the !udges identify the law. The chapter concentrates on the primary sources of law " case law and statutes " through an analysis of !udicial precedent and statutory interpretation. The advantages and disadvantages of these principles will be assessed and some comparisons made with other legal !urisdictions. , practical illustration of the system is provided by case and statute reading e%ercises Language content Grammar: decoding long sentences 'by identifying main clause($ 2so2 as a pro"form$ unreal conditionals Vocabulary: )atin plurals$ ad!ectival suffi%es &tudy s"ills: bibliographical references


'.1 Case law

,e h"#e "$+e"d% $oo2ed "t the di((e+ent e"ning! o( the .h+"!e 0'o on $"&0. 8o) &i$$ +e e *e+ th"t one o( tho!e e"ning! i! the $"& &hi'h i! *"!ed on -)di'i"$ de'i!ion!, othe+&i!e 2no&n "! case law. ,hen &e )!e the &o+d 0'"!e0 in thi! 'onte6t &e e"n the $eg"$ "'tion o+ di!.)te &hi'h h"! *een *+o)ght to the 'o)+t! (o+ +e!o$)tion. The -)dge! de'i!ion i! the $"& 9 hen'e 0'"!e $"&0. :o&e#e+, -)dge! "+e not (+ee to +e"'h "n% de'i!ion the% &i!h to/ the% "+e *o)nd to (o$$o& 'e+t"in +)$e! "nd the!e +)$e! (o+ the !%!te o( 5udicial precedent. ,hen de'iding " '"!e *e(o+e the , -)dge! "+e *o)nd *% the $eg"$ +)$e! in .+e#io)! '"!e!. Thi! i! '"$$ed the .+in'i.$e o( stare decisis &hi'h e"n! 0!t"nd *% &h"t h"! *een de'ided0. It! .)+.o!e i! to "'hie#e 'e+t"int% "nd 'on!i!ten'% in the $"&, *)t it i! "$!o i .o+t"nt th"t the !%!te !ho)$d *e !)((i'ient$% ($e6i*$e to "$$o& the $"& to de#e$o. "nd "d".t to 'h"nging !o'i"$ "nd e'ono i' 'ondition!. L"te+ &e &i$$ e6" ine the "d#"nt"ge! "nd di!"d#"nt"ge! o( -)di'i"$ .+e'edent "nd "!!e!! &hethe+ it en!)+e! the 'o++e't *"$"n'e *et&een 'e+t"int% "nd ($e6i*i$it%. Fi+!t, $et )! e6" ine ho& the !%!te &o+2! in .+"'ti'e.

'.1.1 The hierarch of the courts

In the Eng$i!h $eg"$ !%!te !o e 'o)+t! h"#e o+e ")tho+it% th"n othe+!. F)dge! in the $o&e+ 'o)+t! "+e *o)nd to (o$$o& the de'i!ion! o( -)dge! in the highe+ 'o)+t!. The (o$$o&ing te6t .+o#ide! "n o)t$ine o( the hie+"+'h% o( the 'o)+t! "nd the &"%! in &hi'h -)dge! "+e *o)nd *% the de'i!ion! o( othe+ -)dge!.

Pre=reading e&erci!e
9efore you read the following passage in detail !can the te%t in order to identify the seven courts which are mentioned# and list them separately.

The :o)!e o( Lo+d! i! the highe!t "..e"$ 'o)+t in the Eng$i!h $eg"$ !%!te . It! de'i!ion! "+e *inding on "$$ othe+ 'o)+t!. Unti$ 1B@@ the :o)!e o( Lo+d! &"! "$!o *o)nd *% it! o&n .+e#io)! de'i!ion!. In th"t %e"+ the Lo+d 1h"n'e$$o+, Lo+d G"+dine+, i!!)ed " P+"'ti'e St"te ent &hi'h !t"ted th"t 0&hi$e t+e"ting (o+ e+ de'i!ion! o( thi! :o)!e "! no+ "$$% *inding0 thei+ Lo+d!hi.! @ &o)$d 0de."+t (+o " .+e#io)! de'i!ion &hen it "..e"+! +ight to do !o0. The 1o)+t o( A..e"$ i! *e$o& the :o)!e o( Lo+d! in the hie+"+'h%. It i! *o)nd *% the de'i!ion! o( the :o)!e o( Lo+d! "nd it! de'i!ion! "+e *inding on "$$ $o&e+ 'o)+t!. It i! "$!o *o)nd to (o$$o& it!3 o&n .+e#io)! de'i!ion! e6'e.t &hen a " .+e#io)! de'i!ion o( the 1o)+t o( A..e"$ 'on($i't! &ith " de'i!ion o( the :o)!e o( Lo+d!, b the+e "+e t&o 'on($i'ting 1o)+t o( A..e"$ de'i!ion! &hen it )!t 'hoo!e &hi'h one to (o$$o&, "nd c " .+e#io)! de'i!ion &"! gi#en er incuriam Cth+o)gh $"'2 o( '"+e 9 gene+"$$% &hen !o e +e$e#"nt $"& &"! not t"2en into 'on!ide+"tionD. The!e e6'e.tion! to the +)$e th"t the 1o)+t o( A..e"$ )!t "*ide *% it! o&n .+e#io)! de'i!ion! "+e '"$$ed the +)$e! in !oung v. "ristol #ero lane Com any C1B>>D, the '"!e in &hi'h the +)$e! &e+e $"id do&n. The 'o)+t *e$o& the 1o)+t o( A..e"$ i! the :igh 1o)+t o( F)!ti'e. It i! *o)nd to (o$$o& the de'i!ion! o( the :o)!e o( Lo+d! "nd the 1o)+t o( A..e"$. F)dge! o( the :igh 1o)+t &i$$ no+ "$$% (o$$o& the de'i!ion! o( (e$$o& :igh 1o)+t -)dge! *)t the% "+e not "*!o$)te$% *o)nd to do !o.


The 'o)+t o( (i+!t in!t"n'e (o+ '+i in"$ '"!e!, the 1+o&n 1o)+t, i! *o)nd *% the :o)!e o( Lo+d! "nd the 1o)+t o( A..e"$/ the $o&e!t 'o)+t! in the hie+"+'h%, the 'o)nt% 'o)+t "nd the "gi!t+"te!0 'o)+t! "+e *o)nd *% the :igh 1o)+t, the 1o)+t o( A..e"$ "nd the :o)!e o( Lo+d!. No 'o)+t i! *o)nd *% the de'i!ion! o( the!e $o&e+ 'o)+t!. Sin'e 1B34 &hen B+it"in -oined the E)+o.e"n 1o )nit%, the .o!ition o( the E)+o.e"n 1o)+t o( F)!ti'e )!t "$!o *e 'on!ide+ed. Thi! &i$$ *e e6" ined in det"i$ in 1h".te+ 1G *)t %o) !ho)$d *e "&"+e th"t it i! " 'o)+t o( +e(e++"$ in +e$"tion to E1 $"& "nd not " 'o)+t o( "..e"$, "$tho)gh it! de'i!ion! on the inte+.+et"tion o( E1 $"& "+e *inding on B+iti!h 'o)+t!.

1ere are !ome of the court! in the >ngli!h legal !%!tem

Courts e.ercising criminal jurisdiction Courts e.ercising civil jurisdiction CQ;?T Q* ,JJE,) Civil 6ivision Criminal 6ivision

0570 CQ;?T Q* :;ST5CE Chancery 6ivision *amily 6ivision Oueen2s 9ench 6ivision

CQ;8T/ CQ;?TS +,75ST?,TES2 CQ;?TS

)om rehen!ion check

1. 6ecide whether the following statements are true or false 1 a Qnly the 0igh Court is bound by decisions of the Court of ,ppeal. b The 0ouse of )ords is bound by its own precedents# c The 0igh Court must always follow the precedents set by the 0ouse of )ords. d English courts are not bound by the European Court of :ustice.

/egal e&erci!e!
-. -hat is meant by the doctrine of stare decisis) 3. -hat was the significance of the 1DEE Jractice Statement. 0. -hen may the Court of ,ppeal depart from its own previous decisions. 2. -hat is the position of the European Court of :ustice in the English legal system.

'.1.2 The binding element in precedents In the 'o)+!e o( " -)dg ent " -)dge &i$$ !"% "n% thing!, not "$$ o( &hi'h "+e *inding. Fo+ the .)+.o!e! o( -)di'i"$ .+e'edent " -)dg ent 'o .+i!e! t&o ."+t!; the ratio decidendi "nd o$iter dictum C!ee the e6t+"'t *e$o& (o+ e6.$"n"tion! o( the!e te+ !D. It i! the ratio decidendi &hi'h i!


*inding in $"te+ '"!e!. The o$iter dictum i! e+e$% .e+!)"!i#e, th"t i! it "% he$. ()t)+e -)dge! to +e"'h " de'i!ion *)t the% "+e not *o)nd to (o$$o& it. Be(o+e e6" ining the!e 'on'e.t! in o+e det"i$ it i! i .o+t"nt th"t %o) )nde+!t"nd the e"ning o( th+ee &o+d! &hi'h "+e ."+ti')$"+$% +e$e#"nt to the .+"'ti'e o( -)di'i"$ .+e'edent. The!e "+e; a. )eversing = in most cases the unsuccessful part ma appeal to a higher court. The decision of the lower court is said to be reversed if the higher court reaches a decision in favour of the appellant. b. >verruling = this occurs when a higher court in a later case refuses to endorse the statement of law in an earlier case. c. 1istinguishing = this occurs when the facts of a later case are sufficientl different to 5ustif the court reaching a different decision from an earlier case involving the same legal principle. 8o) !ho)$d *e !)+e th"t %o) )nde+!t"nd the e"ning o( the!e &o+d! *e(o+e 'ontin)ing. 1he'2 the in " $"& di'tion"+% i( %o) h"#e "n% do)*t! "*o)t thei+ e"ning
There are usually two parts to a !udge2s decision. 5t is not always easy to distinguish between ratio and dicta 8owadays it is usually the !udges in subsequent cases who decide which part of the original case was ratio Qnly the ratio decidendi is binding in subsequent cases. 5t used to be thought that the original !udge best decided what was the ratio in his case#

6. The )atin phrases ratio decidendi and obiter dictum are e%plained in the te%t but it is also useful to loo at English words which are based on these )atin words. ratio " rational# based on reason. dictum " to dictate# e.g. to 2spea 2 a letter to a secretary# to 2tell2 someone what to do. 8otice that plurals are formed in )atin in a different way from English# e.g. ratio " 'pi.( rationes dictum " 'pi.( dicta 5f you have not learnt )atin you will need to note the different types of plurals each time you meet a new one.

The (o$$o&ing '"!e !t)d% &i$$ he$. to i$$)!t+"te t&o i .o+t"nt .+in'i.$e! 'ont"ined in the te6t 9 th"t the ratio decidendi o( " '"!e i! dete+ ined *% the 'o)+t! in $"te+ '"!e! "nd th"t " -)dge i! on$% *o)nd &hen the ("'t! o( " $"te+ '"!e "+e !)((i'ient$% !i i$"+/ the% "% +e!t+i't o+ en$"+ge the ratio in di((e+ent ("'t)"$ !it)"tion!.
Donoghue v. Stevenson: a case stud in precedent

Donoghue #. Stevenson L1B54M A1 ?@4 i! the '"!e (+o &hi'h the ode+n $"& o( neg$igen'e de#e$o.ed. The .$"inti((! (+iend *o)ght he+ " *ott$e o( ginge+ *ee+ &hi'h h"d *een "n)("'t)+ed *% the de(end"nt. She *e'" e i$$ "! " +e!)$t o( d+in2ing the ginge+ *ee+ &hi'h 'ont"ined the +e "in! o( " de'o .o!ed !n"i$. She !)ed the "n)("'t)+e+ (o+ 'o .en!"tion (o+ the d" "ge !he h"d !)((e+ed. The '"!e &"! de'ided, on "..e"$, in the :o)!e o( Lo+d!. The $e"ding -)dg ent &"! gi#en *% Lo+d At2in. The+e "+e t&o $eg"$ .+in'i.$e! &hi'h '"n *e d+"&n (+o the -)dg ent. The!e '"n *e (o)nd in the (o$$o&ing e6t+"'t!;
The .+in'i.$e 'ont"ined in e6t+"'t a i .o!e! " $eg"$ d)t% on "n)("'t)+e+! to t"2e +e"!on"*$e '"+e to .+e#ent in-)+% to the $i(e o+ .+o.e+t% o( the 'on!) e+! o( thei+ .+od)'t!. The .+in'i.$e 'ont"ined in b i! )'h &ide+. It h"! *e'o e 2no&n "! the 0neigh*o)+ .+in'i.$e0, '+e"ting " gene+"$ $eg"$ d)t% to "#oid (o+e!ee"*$e h"+ in "$$ "+e"! o( "'ti#it%. The :o)!e o( Lo+d! (o)nd (o+ the .$"inti(( in thi! '"!e. It &"! '$e"+ th"t the '"!e e!t"*$i!hed " .+e'edent (o+ ()t)+e '"!e! in#o$#ing "n)("'t)+ed .+od)'t! &hi'h '")!ed in-)+% to the 'on!) e+0! .e+!on o+ .+o.e+t%. So e &+ite+! "+g)e th"t thi! n"++o& $eg"$ .+in'i.$e &"! the ratio decidendi o( the '"!e "nd th"t the *+o"de+ neigh*o)+ .+in'i.$e &"! o$iter dicta "nd the+e(o+e not *inding *)t e+e$%


.e+!)"!i#e. Thi! i! " de*"t"*$e "!!e+tion N the neigh*o)+ .+in'i.$e h"! *een the *"!i! o( "n% !)''e!!()$ $eg"$ "'tion! in#o$#ing di((e+ent ("'t)"$ !it)"tion!. A di+e't "..$i'"tion o( the .+in'i.$e '"n *e (o)nd in the -)dg ent o( =eni! :en+% A1 in the '"!e o( Tutton % others v. #. D. &alter Ltd. L1BE@M AB @1. The .$"inti((! 2e.t *ee! ne"+ $"nd ("+ ed *% the de(end"nt!. The de(end"nt! !.+"%ed thei+ $"nd "nd '+o. o( oi$ !eed +".e &ith in!e'ti'ide, 2i$$ing the *ee!. The de(end"nt! 2ne& the in!e'ti'ide &"! d"nge+o)! to the *ee! *)t the% ("i$ed to gi#e the .$"inti((! "de7)"te &"+ning o( the !.+"%ing. The .$"inti((! !)ed the de(end"nt!, *"!ing thei+ "'tion on Lo+d At2in0! neigh*o)+ .+in'i.$e in Donoghue #. Stevenson. Note ho& the -)dge "..$ie! the .+in'i.$e to the !.e'i(i' ("'t! o( the '"!e. Per =eni! :en+% A1;
I t)+n then to "..$% Lo+d At2in0! te!t in Donoghue #. Stevenson L1B54M A1 ?@4, ?EG. Fi+!t; &"! !.+"%ing " noti'e"*$% %e$$o& oi$ !eed +".e (ie$d &ith :o!t"thion $i2e$% to in-)+e *ee!< 1$e"+$% the "n!&e+ )!t *e %e!. Se'ond; &"! thi! +e"!on"*$% (o+e!ee"*$e< Ag"in, %e!, the de(end"nt! 2ne& *oth o( the ? d"nge+!, "nd o( the .+e!en'e o( the *ee 2ee.e+! &ithin the "+e" Cthe $"tte+4@ (+o " .+e#io)! !.+"%ing in'ident the %e"+ *e(o+eD. It i! not " '"!e &he+e the de(end"nt! &e+e igno+"nt o( the .+e!en'e o( *ee 2ee.e+!. Thi+d; o)ght then the de(end"nt! to h"#e h"d the *ee 2ee.e+! in thei+ 'onte .$"tion< Ag"in, the "n!&e+ to th"t i! not on$% %e!, the% o)ght to, *)t in the e#ent the% did/ 10 the+e i! the in!t+)'tion the de(end"nt! g"#e to I+. Ioon to &"+n the *ee 2ee.e+!. The+e i! no !)gge!tion th"t the de(end"nt! &e+e igno+"nt o( the e6i!ten'e o( "n% o( the!e .$"inti((!. I the+e(o+e 'on'$)de th"t the .$"inti((! &e+e o&ed " d)t% o( '"+e.

)om rehen!ion check

4. -hat would 2the formerR and Sthe latterR refer to in te%ts .

Thi! '"!e i! " good e6" .$e o( " !i .$e "..$i'"tion o( the neigh*o)+ .+in'i.$e "nd '$e"+$% i$$)!t+"te! the .oint "de in the e6t+"'t on .. >E th"t -)dge! in $"te+ '"!e! "% "..$% " ratio in di((e+ent ("'t)"$ !it)"tion!. O( 'o)+!e, not "$$ '"!e! "+e !o !t+"ight(o+&"+d. The '"!e o( 'edley( "yrne % Co. Ltd #. 'eller % Partners Ltd L1B@>M A1 >@? .+o#ide! " o+e 'o .$e6 e6" .$e. ;. A."+t (+o the *"!i' ("'t! the+e "+e t&o i .o+t"nt &"%! in &hi'h thi! '"!e '"n *e di!ting)i!hed (+o Donoghue #. Stevenson.

Find words in the excerpt which have similar meanings to those listed below: a responsible b careless c clearly stated d wrong reports.

Language and information check

In order to revise some prepositions and review information in th< above excerpt, form six sentences, choosing one item from ead column below:

a b c d e

The bankers in uired !e had dealings They relied "he sued him # newspaper is not financially accountable

with for to on for

his advice. a large company. the loss. its readers. his negligence


f The bank was not responsible


the financial situation.


The distinguishing facts in Hedley Byrne v. Heller were, the case involved negligent words or statements as opposed to negligent actions3 and ii. the plaintiffs had suffered financial loss rather than ph sical in5ur . 8o) &i$$ !ee th"t the!e di!ting)i!hing ("'t! $ed the :o)!e o( Lo+d! to +e!t+i't the neigh*o)+ .+in'i.$e &hi'h i! *"!ed on (o+e!ee " *i$i$ o( h"+ . The% "dded the ()+the+ +e7)i+e ent o( " 0!.e'i"$ +e$"tion!hi.O *et&een the .$"inti((! "nd the de(end"nt!. Thi! h"! *e'o e the ratio

decidendi o( the '"!e. A! &ith the neigh*o)+ .+in'i.$e the n"t)+e o( " 0!.e'i"$ +e$"tion!hi.0 h"! *een dete+ ined *% !)*!e7)ent '"!e! in#o$#ing (in"n'i"$ $o!! !)((e+ed "! " +e!)$t o( neg$igent &o+d! 9 "nd !o the '"!e $"& de#e$o.!.
/egal e&erci!e!


6istinguish between ratio decidendi and obiter dicta -hat is the significance of the

12. -hat is the difference between reversing and overruling. 1'. 14.
-hy do you thin it was necessary for the 0ouse of )ords to distinguish between negligent words and negligent acts in /edley $yrne v. /eller) ,s a lawyer# you are consult by your client# +rs 7amble# over the following problem. Qn which case precedent would you base your advice and why. +rs 7amble had inherited G1I#III when her rich uncle died. She consulted her ban manager# +iss 8ugget# on the best way to invest the money. Qn the basis of her advice +rs 7amble bought G>#III worth of shares in 5ntoil pic. She invested the remaining G>#III in a construction company called Awi build pic after reading an article about the company in a national newspaper. 9oth companies were financially unsound at the times +rs 7amble invested in them and si% months later both 5ntoil pic and Awi build pic have ceased trading and +rs 7amble has lost all her money. This last type of question is very common in legal study$ it is called a 2problem2 question. There is a special technique for answering these questions which is different from the usual essay technique. 5t can be quite simply stated although in practice it is more difficult1 a. 5dentify the area's( of law involved " often there will be more than one. b. State what the law is in the relevant area's( by an analysis of cases. c. ,pply the law to the facts of the problem# particularly analysing any facts which distinguish the problem from the relevant case law. ,lthough you are in a way being as ed to act as a !udge in problem questions it is not important that you reach a decision " often the case law will be uncertain so that it will not be possible to do so. The questions are a test of your ability to recognise the legal issues involved and to analyse the law.


One o( B+it"in0! *e!t 2no&n "nd, indeed, 'ont+o#e+!i"$ -)dge! !t"ted the '"!e (o+ g+e"te+ ($e6i*i$it% in the 'o on $"&. :e "+g)ed th"t the .)+.o!e o( the $"& i! to "'hie#e -)!ti'e "nd th"t "t ti e!, thi! "% +e7)i+e " de."+t)+e (+o the e6i!ting +)$e! o( -)di'i"$ .+e'edent. In ."+ti')$"+ he "d#o'"ted th"t the 1o)+t o( A..e"$ !ho)$d *e (+ee to o#e++)$e it! o&n .+e#io)! de'i!ion! in the !" e &"% "! the :o)!e o( Lo+d! i! "*$e to do.


1iscussion 1+. Thin2 "*o)t the!e 7)e!tion! "! %o) di!')!! the "d#"nt"ge! "nd the di!"d#"nt"ge! o( -)di'i"$ .+e'edent. ". *. '. d. e. :o& doe! 'e+t"int% in the $"& "'hie#e -)!ti'e< ,h% doe! -)!ti'e "$!o de "nd ($e6i*i$it% in the $"&< :o& doe! "dhe+en'e to .+e'edent "!!i!t i ."+ti"$it% in -)di'i"$ de'i!ion9 "2ing< :o& doe! the .+o'e!! o( di!ting)i!hing .+o#ide (o+ ($e6i*i$it% in the $"&< :o& "% P *"d de'i!ion!O *e o#e++)$ed< o+e e"!i$% "'hie#ed i( the 1o)+t o( A..e"$ &"! (+ee to de."+t (+o it! o&n

(. ,o)$d -)!ti'e *e .+e#io)! de'i!ion!<


5dentify the advantages and disadvantages of !udicial precedent and complete the table

#dvantages ". i. ii. 1e+t"int%; "% .+e#ent QQQQQ.. i!t"2e! *% -)dge

Disadvantages "QQQQQ..





Fin"$$%, &e !ho)$d 'on!ide+, in o)t$ine, !o e 'o ."+i!on! &ith othe+ $eg"$ -)+i!di'tion! 9 the USA "nd 1ontinent"$ !%!te ! o( $"&.
Pre=reading check

1". 6ecide if these statements are true 'T( or false '*(.

a The ;S, has a centralised legal system# b The decisions in ;S *ederal and 6istrict courts are binding in later cases. c The legal code is important in Continental legal systems# d Continental systems of law have been greatly influenced by the writing of !urists# e 5n England# te%tboo s have greater authority than !udicial decisions.


-hat is the earlier reason for the relative unimportance of the single decision on the Continent.

7ibliogra hical reference!


9ibliographical references 'or citations( which may need some e%planation1 ,s with cases there is a standard way of referring to articles in legal !ournals. /ou will see that it is very similar to the way that cases are cited. There are a large number of law !ournals with most countries publishing their own. *ull details of these !ournals and their abbreviated references can be found in most good law dictionaries.

Piew the following three e%amples

?iley# (uro*ean La'- 0rd ed1 2345 -** 26723

Author:! !urname. 8itle. ?talic letter! indicate that thi! i! a book not an article. 3rd edition. ?t i! im ortant to find the right edition becau!e new information i! included in later edition! and# of cour!e# age number! ma% change. @ear of ublication. Arom age 14 to age 1(.


Cross# op.cit.# pp. 12"1=.

1 o*ere citato ')atin( means 2in the wor cited2# i.e. the boo by Cross which has already been mentioned.

Goodh"+t, 0P+e'edent in Eng$i!h "nd 1ontinent"$ $"&0, C1B5>D ?G LAR >G.

8itle. Qrdinary print and inverted commas indicate that this is not a boo but a !ournal article. @ear of journal. /aw Buarterl% 6eview. .olume number Page number

'.2 4tatute law

St"t)te $"& i! the $"& en"'ted *% P"+$i" ent. In !e'tion 4.5.1 on ."+$i" ent"+% !o#e+eignt% &e e6" ined the !).+e e $egi!$"ti#e .o&e+! o( P"+$i" ent "nd e .h"!i!ed the 'on!tit)tion"$ ("'t th"t the -)di'i"+% h"#e no ")tho+it% to 7)e!tion the #"$idit% o( "n A't o( P"+$i" ent. Ne#e+the$e!! -)dge! do h"#e "n i .o+t"nt +o$e in +e$"tion to $egi!$"tion; P"+$i" ent ."!!e! the $"&!, "nd the 'o)+t! "..$% the to indi#id)"$ '"!e!. B)t *e(o+e the $"& '"n *e "..$ied the -)dge! )!t de'ide on it! e"ning. Thi! .+o'e!! i! '"$$ed statutor interpretation. Be(o+e e6" ining thi! .+o'e!! in o+e det"i$ %o) !ho)$d !t)d% the no+ "$ .+o'ed)+e o( " Bi$$ th+o)gh P"+$i" ent. An indi#id)"$ .ie'e o( $egi!$"tion i! 2no&n "! " Bi$$ d)+ing it! $egi!$"ti#e .+o'e!! "nd '"$$ed "n A't "(te+ +e'ei#ing the Ro%"$ A!!ent. Un$e!! othe+&i!e !.e'i(ied, "n A't 'o e! into (o+'e on the d"% it +e'ei#e! the Ro%"$ A!!ent.

'.2.1. The purpose of statutor interpretation

,hen inte+.+eting !t"t)te! the 'o)+t! "+e !"id to *e !ee2ing the 0intention o( P"+$i" ent0. Thi! !e"+'h i! "! di((i')$t "! th"t (o+ the ratio decidendi o( " '"!e. P"+$i" ent 'o .+i!e! "n% indi#id)"$ e *e+! o( P"+$i" ent &ho "% h"#e di((e+ent #ie&! on "n% one !)*-e't. See2ing the 'o on intention o( !)'h " di!."+"te g+o). &o)$d *e " !.e')$"ti#e "nd i .o!!i*$e t"!2. In thi! !en!e the 0intention o( P"+$i" ent0 i! " .h+"!e &ith $itt$e e"ning.


". The .)+.o!e o( !t"t)to+% inte+.+et"tion the+e(o+e i! to (ind the e"ning o( the &o+d! )!ed in the !t"t)te. A! .eo.$e !t)d%ing in " (o+eign $"ng)"ge %o) &i$$ *e ."+ti')$"+$% "&"+e th"t &o+d! "+e o(ten 'o .$e6 "nd " *ig)o)! "nd (inding thei+ e"ning i! not "n e"!% t"!2.
/anguage note


2So2 often replaces a word or clause which has already been used in the same or previous sentence. 5t can be used formally in writing or informally in conversation. >&am le: ,1 2:ohn sa' t8e +rime Minister yesterday 9 91 26id he say so.2 'so @ that he saw the J+ yesterday(

>&am le: +any people feel t8at a $ill of %ig8ts 'ould increase t8e *rotection of *ersonal
liberties The )abour party thin s so but the Conservative party does not. 'so @ that a 9ill . . .(

0egal e6ercises
There are four possible interpretations of the following simple sentence. -hat are they. 2:ohn met Jeter and he raised his hat.2

22. -hich of the following would you consider to be a 2vehicle2.

a b c d

a car a pram a bicycle an aeroplane.

-hich of the following would you consider to be a 2building2. a a tent b a house c a garden shed d a caravan.

'.2.2 (ids to interpretation Gi#en th"t &o+d! "+e "n i .e+(e't e"n! o( 'o )ni'"tion " n) *e+ o( "id! h"#e e#o$#ed to "!!i!t -)dge! in the inte+.+et"tion o( !t"t)te!. The ne6t e6t+"'t .+o#ide! "n o)t$ine o( !o e o( the!e "id! *)t *e "&"+e th"t !t"t)to+% inte+.+et"tion i! not " !'ienti(i' .+o'e!! "nd the!e 0+)$e!0 o( inte+.+et"tion "+e gene+"$ .+in'i.$e! +"the+ th"n !t+i't +)$e!.

Let )! no& "dd !o e det"i$! *% e6" ining !o e '"!e! in#o$#ing the '"non! o( 'on!t+)'tion. The 0iteral )ule, London % )orth Eastern *ailway Co. +. "erriman $1%4*& A1 2"; !0 The !t"t)te in thi! '"!e i .o!ed " d)t% on +"i$&"% 'o ."nie! to .+o#ide "n "de7)"te &"+ning !%!te &hene#e+ +"i$&"% &o+2e+! &e+e 0+e."i+ing o+ +e$"%ing0?? the +"i$&"% $ine. The .$"inti((! h)!*"nd &"! 2i$$ed &hi$!t oi$ing "nd '$e"ning the +"i$&"% .oint!. No &"+ning !%!te h"d *een .+o#ided. The :o)!e o( Lo+d!, *% " th+ee to t&o "-o+it%, he$d th"t I+ Be++i "n h"d *een eng"ged in maintaining the +"i$&"% $ine "t the ti e o( hi! de"th "nd thi! &"! not the !" e "! 0+e."i+ing "nd +e$"%ing0 it. It i! inte+e!ting to note in thi! '"!e th"t the L"& Lo+d! in !ee2ing the 0$ite+"$ "nd )!)"$0 e"ning o( the &o+d! 0+e."i+ing "nd +e$"%ing0 +e"'hed di((e+ent 'on'$)!ion!/ th"t i! the ino+it%


'on!ide+ed th"t I+ Be++i "n0! "'tion! did 'o e &ithin the e"ning o( 0+e."i+ing "nd +e$"%ing0. Thi! gi#e! " '$e"+ i$$)!t+"tion o( the di((i')$t% in dete+ ining the e"ning o( &h"t ight "..e"+ to *e #e+% !i .$e &o+d!.

The ?olden )ule, #dler v. ,eorge $1%*4& 2 -. " The de(end"nt &"! 'h"+ged )nde+ !e'tion 5 o( the O((i'i"$ Se'+et! A't 1B4G &hi'h .+o#ide! th"t no .e+!on !h"$$ 0in the #i'init% o( " .+ohi*ited .$"'e0 o*!t+)'t "n% e *e+ o( :e+ I"-e!t%0! (o+'e!. Geo+ge &"! 'h"+ged )nde+ !e'tion 5 "(te+ ente+ing " Iini!t+% o( =e(en'e "i+(ie$d. :e "+g)ed th"t he &"! not in the #i'init% o(, *)t "'t)"$$% in " .+ohi*ited .$"'e "nd h"d the+e(o+e not 'o itted the o((en'e "''o+ding to the &o+d! o( the !t"t)te. :i! "+g) ent &"! +e-e'ted 9 !)'h "n inte+.+et"tion o( the A't &o)$d $e"d to "*!)+dit% "nd n)$$i(% it! .)+.o!e. The 'o)+t inte+.+eted the o((en'e "! 0in or in the #i'init% o(. The 2ischief )ule, Smith v. 'ughes $1%*#& 1 :0) ;'# Se'tion 1C1D o( the St+eet O((en'e! A't 1B?B "de it " '+i in"$ o((en'e 0(o+ " 'o on .+o!tit)te to $oite+ o+ !o$i'it in " !t+eet o+ .)*$i' .$"'e (o+ the .)+.o!e o( .+o!tit)tion0. The de(end"nt &"! 'h"+ged "(te+ !o$i'iting (+o the *"$'on% o( he+ o&n ho e. She "..e"$ed "g"in!t he+ 'on#i'tion )nde+ the A't, '$"i ing th"t !he &"! not !o$i'iting 0in the !t+eet o+ .)*$i' .$"'e0. Lo+d P"+2e+ 1F "..+o"'hed the '"!e *% 0'on!ide+ing the i!'hie( "i ed "t in the A't0. Thi! &"! to 0en"*$e .eo.$e to &"$2 the !t+eet &itho)t *eing o$e!ted o+ !o$i'ited *% 'o on .+o!tit)te!0. It did not "tte+ th"t !he h"d *een !t"nding on the *"$'on% o+ in the !t+eet. :e+ "..e"$ &"! +e-e'ted.

2'. /egal e&erci!e!

a. -hat is the constitutional reason for !udges see ing to find the intention of Jarliament when interpreting statutes. b. -hy does the need for statutory interpretation arise. c. 6istinguish between internal and e%ternal aids. 7ive e%amples of both. -hy do you thin Jarliament enacted the statute which was at issue in the $erriman case. 6o you thin the decision of the ma!ority of the 0ouse of )ords in that case reflected the intention of Jarliament.



There is a particular technique to use in answering questions which require you to apply legislation to a given situation1 i. 6ecide on the words which will require interpretation. ,nalyse the words on the basis of your nowledge of the rules of statutory interpretation. iii. ,pply your analysis to the situation. ,pply this technique to the following question.


Consider the following situations in the light of the relevant statutory provisions1

a Section H of the Qffensive -eapons ,ct 1DDH provides1 2,ny

person found carrying a gun# pistol# nife or any other offensive


weapon shall be guilty of a cri&inal offence.C 'a&es is charged under the #ct after being found carrying a piece of broken glass which he had picked up off the street. b 9he /&ployersC 2iability 4-efective /Guip&ent6 #ct 19%9 section 1416 reads> CWhere; after the co&&ence&ent of this #ct I 4a6 an e&ployee suffers a personal in?ury in the course of his e&ploy&ent in conseGuence of a defect in eGuip&ent provided by his e&ployer for the purpose of his e&ployerCs business0 and 4b6 the defect is attributable39 wholly or partly to the fault of a third person 4whether identified or not6; the in?ury shall be dee&ed to be attributable to negligence on the part of the e&ployer . . .C Hection 14.6 reads> C=n this section I BeGuip&entB includes any plant or &achinery; vehicle; aircraft and clothing . . . Bpersonal in?uryB includes loss of life . . .C Bert is a sailor on board the Morning &tar (a super tanker6. 8e was e&ployed by 9ranspo pic who owned the vessel. 9he ship sinks on its first voyage as a result of a defect in its construction. Bert suffers serious in?uries in the incident. Rose; who is also e&ployed by 9ranspo pic; is on the ship for a free ride as a reward for thirty yearsC service to the co&pany. Rose dies in the accident.

'.2.' )eform
The '"!e o( London % )orth Eastern *ailway Co. #. "erriman i! "n i$$)!t+"tion o( the &"% in &hi'h " !t+i't "dhe+en'e to the $ite+"$ "..+o"'h to !t"t)to+% inte+.+et"tion "% ("i$ to "'hie#e the .)+.o!e o( " !t"t)te 9 o+ the intention o( P"+$i" ent. The "+g) ent in ("#o)+ o( !)'h "n "..+o"'h i! *"!ed on the do't+ine o( ."+$i" ent"+% !o#e+eignt%; the 'o)+t! )!t "''e.t the &o+d! )!ed *% P"+$i" ent "nd not !ee2 to g)e!! it! intention o+ .)+.o!e i( thi! '"nnot *e +e"di$% !)..o+ted *% the &o+d! )!ed. I( thi! $e"d! to in-)!ti'e it i! (o+ P"+$i" ent to 'h"nge the !t"t)te. The o!t #o'"$ '+iti' o( thi! "..+o"'h &"! Lo+d =enning. :e enth)!i"!ti'"$$% "do.ted &h"t h"! *e'o e 2no&n "! the 0.)+.o!i#e "..+o"'h0 to !t"t)to+% inte+.+et"tion. Thi! i! "n e6ten!ion o( the Ii!'hie( R)$e &hi'h $oo2ed *e%ond the &o+d! o( the !t"t)te to it! .)+.o!e. Thi! "..+o"'h +e'ei#ed $itt$e -)di'i"$ !)..o+t. The 'on($i'ting !t"te ent! o( Lo+d =enning "nd Lo+d Si ond! in -agor % St -ellors *ural District Council #. )ew ort Cor oration L1B?1M 4 A$$ ER E5B high$ight the -)di'i"$ 'on($i't.
Crammar 24. ;nreal conditionals 'in the past( are formed as follows1
5f T had T past participle# would3could3might have T past participle. *or e%ample1 25f the legislature had discovered the gap# it would have filled it in.2 These conditionals are called 2unreal2 because in fact both actions did not happen.

A."+t (+o the 'on!tit)tion"$ i .$i'"tion! o( Lo+d =enning0! "..+o"'h it i! "+g)ed th"t "n e6'e!! o( -)di'i"$ '+e"ti#it% &o)$d $e"d to indi#id)"$ -)dge! dete+ ining &h"t i! 0+ight "nd -)!t0. Thi! 'o)$d +e!)$t in "'')!"tion! o( *i"! "nd .+e-)di'e. Ne#e+the$e!! the+e h"! *een " gene+"$ '+iti'i! o( " !t+i't "dhe+en'e to the Lite+"$ R)$e. The L"& 1o i!!ion +e.o+t The Interpretation of Statutes CL"& 1o . No. 41D "..+o#ed the )!e o( the Ii!'hie( R)$e, .+e(e++ing 0" 'on!t+)'tion &hi'h &o)$d .+o ote the gene+"$ $egi!$"ti#e .)+.o!e o#e+ one &hi'h &o)$d not0. Lo+d =enning0! '" ."ign h"! )ndo)*ted$% $ed to " o+e ($e6i*$e -)di'i"$ "..+o"'h to !t"t)to+% inte+.+et"tion.


.ocabular% 2+.
,d!ectives can usually be recognised by their suffi%es 'endings( and this can help your understanding of a te%t. ;sing the nouns and verbs below# choose appropriate suffi%es to form ad!ectives. The following suffi%es will be needed1 "ive# "able# "al# "ory# "ary# "ing# "ent. ',ll the ad!ectives have already been used in the boo .( Noun defect reason law description continent statute convention e%cess equity hierarchy discretion Adjective

Verb elude neglect foresee coerce precede attribute speculate reconcile distinguish


2*. -rite an essay of >II words on the following statement1

,hene#e+ the !t+i't inte+.+et"tion o( " !t"t)te gi#e! +i!e to "n "*!)+d "nd )n-)!t !it)"tion, the -)dge! '"n "nd !ho)$d )!e good !en!e to +e ed% it 9 *% +e"ding &o+d! in, i( ne'e!!"+% 9 !o "! to do &h"t P"+$i" ent &o)$d h"#e done, h"d the% h"d the !it)"tion in ind. Per Lo+d =enning, )ortham #. "arnet Council L1B3EM 1 ,LR 44G

Essay questions in the form of a quotation are very common. 9efore writing your essay thin carefully about the meaning of the quotation and its particular emphasis in relation to the topic. /ou will rarely be as ed to provide only factual information$ you must also be prepared to comment critically on the sub!ect and to analyse the relevant areas of debate or controversy. ?ead the following essay plan to help you structure your essay properly.


2". $i!cu!!ion
a. b. -hat is the aim of the !udges when they are interpreting statutes. -hat is the constitutional reason for this aim. c. -hat difficulties are involved in achieving this aim. d. e. f. g. -hy is statutory interpretation necessary. -hat aids are available to assist !udges in the interpretation of statutes. -hat is strict interpretation and how does it lead to absurd and un!ust situations. -hat approach to interpretation is )ord 6enning advocating. -hy is it controversial.


The courts
Legal content H.1. Classification of the courts H.2. The civil courts H.2.1. Small claims H.2.2. ?eform H.3.The criminal courts H.3.1.The decision to prosecute H.3.2.The classification of offences and the criminal courts H.3.3. ?eview H.H. Tribunals and arbitration Aim To provide a factual account of the structure of the English courts based on the distinction between civil and criminal courts# and courts of first instance and appellate courts. , critical assessment of the functions and purpose of the system will be included together with an analysis of proposals for reform. Language content Grammar: long noun phrases Vocabulary: dictionary use " using guidewords$ verb T noun collocations$ negative affi%es '" less# dis"# mis"(


4.1 Classification of the courts

8o) &i$$ no& *e (" i$i"+ &ith the di!tin'tion *et&een 'i#i$ "nd '+i in"$ $"&/ thi! di!tin'tion i! +e($e'ted to !o e e6tent in the !t+)'t)+e o( the 'o)+t!. Be(o+e %o) +e"d the (o$$o&ing e6t+"'t %o) !ho)$d "$!o *e "&"+e o( the di((e+en'e *et&een 'o)+t! o( (i+!t in!t"n'e "nd "..e$$"te 'o)+t!. The 'o)+t in &hi'h " '"!e i! (i+!t he"+d i! '"$$ed the court of first instance. In "$ o!t "$$ '"!e! it i! .o!!i*$e to "..e"$ to " highe+ 'o)+t (o+ +e'on!ide+"tion o( the de'i!ion o( the o+igin"$ 'o)+t. The!e 'o)+t! "+e '"$$ed appellate courts. A$tho)gh the+e i! no '$e"+ di!tin'tion *et&een the 'i#i$ "nd '+i in"$ 'o)+t! o+ 'o)+t! o( (i+!t in!t"n'e "nd "..e$$"te 'o)+t!, it i! )!)"$ to de"$ &ith the indi#id)"$ 'o)+t! )nde+ tho!e he"ding!.

4.2 The civil courts

Be(o+e e6" ining the!e 'o)+t! in o+e det"i$ $et )! 'on!ide+ thei+ .)+.o!e. 1i#i$ "'tion! t"2e .$"'e *et&een t&o o+ o+e indi#id)"$! in di!.)te. The!e di!.)te! '"n t"2e "n% (o+ !, (o+ e6" .$e *et&een neigh*o)+!, (" i$ie!, 'o ."nie!, 'on!) e+! "nd "n)("'t)+e+!. It i! the ()n'tion o( the 'i#i$ 'o)+t! to "d-)di'"te on the!e di!.)te!. =i((e+ent t%.e! o( di!.)te! &i$$ +e7)i+e di((e+ent (o+ ! o( "d-)di'"tion/ !o e di!.)te! &i$$ *e o+e !e+io)! "nd 'o .$e6 th"n othe+!. The!e di((e+en'e! "+e +e($e'ted in the 'o)+t !%!te / the -)+i!di'tion o( the 'o)+t! i! $i ited *% the t%.e o( '"!e "nd, &ith the $o&e+ 'o)+t!, *% the geog+".h% "nd the " o)nt o( the '$"i . Fo+ e6" .$e, the 'o)nt% 'o)+t! "+e $i ited in to+t "nd 'ont+"'t '"!e! to in'ident! &hi'h o'')++ed &ithin thei+ $o'"$it% "nd to '$"i ! &hi'h do not e6'eed R?,GGG.

Comprehension chec@

1. #nswer these Guestions

a What are the civil courts of first instance? b Who will hear a case in the 8igh Court? c What is the ter& used for the party who appeals to a higher court? d What is the &ost i&portant civil court of first instance? e 7ro& which courts will an appeal lie to the Court of #ppeal? f 9o which court will an appeal lie fro& the &agistratesC court? g What is the highest appellate court? h What appeal procedure was introduced by the #d&inistration of 'ustice #ct 19%9?


-ictionary use


Which page will the word be on? When looking for a word it is useful to look at the top of the page where the first and last entries on that page are printed. 7or e+a&ple; if you are looking for appellate you will find it 'in ;8e Cassell Concise (nglis8 <ictionary# on the page which begins
with a othecium and ends with a etence. '89. Qther dictionaries will have alternative layouts.(

3. +atch the words below with the correct pairs of entries. '891 /ou will not need to use some pairs.( 6o this as quic ly as you can.

a !urisdiction# b original# c dispute# d consumer# e ad!udication# f wrec # g will# h illegitimate# i matrimonial# j stipendiary. A 7 ) $ > A C 1 5 D E / F G O consummate " contend Stilton " stoccade wildebeest " wimple adherence " ad libitum ata%ia " adhere stic le " stilt wic er"wild illegible " imagine dispossess " disseminate organs " ormolu !un et " !ustify ignorantine " illegal materia medica " matting wrap " wring constitution " consummate

4.2.1 4mall claims

,e h"#e "''e.ted th"t '"!e! &i$$ di((e+ in !e+io)!ne!! "nd 'o .$e6it% "nd th"t the 'o)+t !%!te !ho)$d t"2e "''o)nt o( th"t ("'t 9 " !t+"ight(o+&"+d "'tion (o+ the +e'o#e+% o( " R4GG de*t &i$$ +e7)i+e di((e+ent .+"'ti'e "nd .+o'ed)+e (+o " di!.)te o#e+ " 'o e+'i"$ 'ont+"'t in#o$#ing " 'o .$e6 .oint o( $"& "nd " '$"i (o+ R?GG,GGG d" "ge!. Thi! i! not to !"% th"t "$$ '"!e! in#o$#ing ! "$$ !) ! o( one% &i$$ *e !i .$e "! +eg"+d! the $"& "nd the de(inition o( " ! "$$ '$"i *"!ed on (in"n'i"$ $i it! i! ne'e!!"+i$% "+*it+"+%. Ne#e+the$e!!, the "-o+it% o( '"!e! "+e not 'o .$e6 "nd it i! i .o+t"nt th"t the !%!te .+o#ide! "n e((i'ient e"n! o( +e!o$#ing the!e di!.)te!. ,ithin the (o+ "$ 'o)+t !%!te thi! i! done th+o)gh the 'o)nt% 'o)+t "+*it+"tion !e+#i'e. The (o$$o&ing ."+"g+".h! .+o#ide "n o)t$ine o( thi! .+o'ed)+e. The .+e!ent 'o)nt% 'o)+t! &e+e !et ). in 1E>@ to .+o#ide " $o'"$$% *"!ed !e+#i'e &hi'h &"! e"!i$% "''e!!i*$e to o+din"+% .eo.$e. Fig)+e! .+o#ided *% the 1on!) e+ 1o)n'i$ in it! 1B3G +e.o+t, .ustice out of *each( !ho&ed th"t the 'o)nt% 'o)+t! h"d *e'o e .+i "+i$% " de*t9 'o$$e'tion "gen'% in &hi'h the "-o+it% o( "'tion! &e+e t"2en o)t "g"in!t the o+din"+% .e+!on; 0("+ (+o *eing the 'o)+t o( the o+din"+% .e+!on "! .$"inti((, it &"! the 'o)+t in &hi'h the o+din"+% .e+!on &"! !)ed (o+ de*t0. E7)"$$%, 'o)nt% 'o)+t .+o'ed)+e h"d *e'o e too (o+ "$ "nd e6.en!i#e to ()$(i$ it! o+igin"$ .)+.o!e. In +e!.on!e the "+*it+"tion !'he e &"! int+od)'ed in 1B35.


The o+igin"$ -)+i!di'tion o( the "+*it+"tion !'he e &"! to he"+ '$"i ! in#o$#ing $e!! th"n R3?. It i! no& "nd"to+% (o+ "$$ '$"i ! o( $e!! th"n R?GG, "nd "% *e )!ed, i( *oth ."+tie! "g+ee, in di!.)te! in#o$#ing $"+ge+ !) !. CThe+e i! " .+o#i!ion (o+ 'e+t"in '"!e! in#o$#ing 'o .$e6 $eg"$ i!!)e! to *e +e(e++ed to " highe+ 'o)+t.D The '"!e i! he"+d *% the Regi!t+"+ o( the 'o)nt% 'o)+t C"n 0"!!i!t"nt0 -)dge &ho i! e .$o%ed *% the 'o)+t "nd &ho!e +o$e i! "d ini!t+"ti#e "nd -)di'i"$D. The (i+!t !t"ge i! the .+e$i in"+% 'on!ide+"tion/ the Regi!t+"+ &i$$ di!')!! the di!.)te &ith the ."+tie! "nd de'ide ho& the '"!e i! to *e 'ond)'ted. In #e+% !i .$e '"!e! it "% *e .o!!i*$e to +e!o$#e the di!.)te "t thi! !t"ge. I( the '"!e goe! to ()$$ "+*it+"tion the .+o'ed)+e i! $e!! (o+ "$ th"n in the 'o)nt% 'o)+t. It i! i .o+t"nt to +e"$i!e th"t 0"+*it+"tion0 in the $eg"$ !%!te doe! not h"#e the $"% e"ning o( 'on'i$i"tion "nd 'o .+o i!e, "!, (o+ e6" .$e, in "n ind)!t+i"$ di!.)te. The 'o)nt% 'o)+t "+*it+"tion !'he e i! "d#e+!"+i"$ in &hi'h one ."+t% 0&in!0 "nd the othe+ 0$o!e!0. =)+ing the he"+ing the Regi!t+"+ &i$$ he"+ *oth !ide! to the di!.)te "nd "% '"$$ e6.e+t &itne!!e!. Leg"$ +e.+e!ent"tion i! .e+ itted *)t no 'o!t! (o+ thi! "+e "&"+ded. Thi! i! to di!'o)+"ge the )!e o( $"&%e+! &ho h"#e " tenden'% to 'o .$i'"te "nd (o+ "$i!e e#en " !i .$e '"!eS A(te+ 'on!ide+ing the e#iden'e the Regi!t+"+ &i$$ gi#e -)dg ent. The+e i! no +ight o( "..e"$ "g"in!t the de'i!ion o( the Regi!t+"+ "$tho)gh the de'i!ion "% *e 'h"$$enged on #e+% $i ited g+o)nd!, e.g. e#iden'e o( i!'ond)'t *% the Regi!t+"+. The "+*it+"tion !'he e h"! *een +e$"ti#e$% !)''e!!()$ in in'+e"!ing "''e!! to the 'o)+t! (o+ the o+din"+% .eo.$e &ho "2e ). 5E .e+ 'ent o( the .$"inti((!. :o&e#e+, it h"! *een '+iti'i!ed (o+ !ti$$ *eing too 'o .$e6; in ."+ti')$"+ the "d#e+!"+i"$ !t%$e o( en7)i+%, "$tho)gh odi(ied, 'ontin)e! to di!"d#"nt"ge "nd inti id"te "n% o+din"+% .eo.$e. The+e i! gene+"$ "g+ee ent th"t "n in7)i!ito+i"$ (o+ o( he"+ing &o)$d *e o+e "..+o.+i"te in ! "$$ '$"i ! "'tion!, "$$o&ing the Regi!t+"+ to .$"% " o+e "'ti#e +o$e. Re'ent $egi!$"ti#e +e(o+ ! in thi! "+e" &i$$ *e 'on!ide+ed in the ne6t !e'tion.

)om rehen!ion check


Complete the summary below with words from the list which follows$ you may use a word more than once.


in addition# because# e%cess# formal# nevertheless# agree# informal# informality# access# although# more# less# permitted# may# formality# must# discouraged# disagree# should.

The arbitration scheme was set up +a)...............................county courts were no longer fulfilling their purpose of providing +b) ordinary people in a fairly (c) ............................. situation and without e%cessive (d)......................or cost. Small claims of up to G>II (e) heard by the scheme$ larger claims +f).................................. also be heard if both sides (g)........................Jarties (h) represented by lawyers but this is +i)..........................,lthough rules are followed# the atmosphere is (5)........................formal than in the county courts$ (@).....................the procedure is said still to be very comple% and to frighten many people. 6e!earch 2. *ind out the names of the civil courts in your country. Set them out in a diagram# noting which courts are courts of first instance and which are appellate courts. /egal e&erci!e! 6. 7eorge had agreed to sell his car to 8igel for G2II. 7eorge has delivered the car but 8igel refuses to pay the money. 7eorge wishes to ta e legal action to enforce the contract. 0e see s your advice on the following1

a To which courts may he apply to enforce the payment. b 5f he is dissatisfied with the result to which court's( may he appeal. 4. ,ngela is seriously in!ured in a road accident caused by Jercy2s negligence. She estimates her damages to be G>I#III. a 5n which court would the legal action ta e place. b 5f her action is unsuccessful# to which courts may she appeal.

0.-.- 6eform

,hi$!t it i! the function o( the 'i#i$ 'o)+t !%!te to "d-)di'"te on di!.)te!, it! aim !ho)$d *e to do !o e((i'ient$% "nd ("i+$%. The 'o++e't *"$"n'e *et&een the!e t&o +e7)i+e ent! i! not e"!% to "!!e!! o+ "'hie#e. An e((i'ient !%!te &hi'h i! 7)i'2 "nd 'he". "% not .+o#ide "n "de7)"te o..o+t)nit% (o+ the $itig"nt! to .+e."+e "nd .+e!ent thei+ '"!e. E7)"$$%, de$"% "nd e6.en!e '"n $e"d to in-)!ti'e. The+e &"! in'+e"!ing '+iti'i! th+o)gho)t the 1BEG! th"t e6i!ting 'i#i$ .+o'ed)+e &"! neithe+ e((i'ient no+ ("i+. St"ti!ti'! !ee ed to !)..o+t the!e '+iti'i! !. In .e+!on"$ in-)+% '"!e! the "#e+"ge .e+iod o( ti e (+o "''ident to !ett$e ent in the :igh 1o)+t &"! (i#e %e"+!/ in >G .e+ 'ent o( '"!e! the 'o!t! in#o$#ed in *+inging the "'tion &e+e highe+ th"n the " o)nt o( d" "ge! "&"+ded CZ"nde+, Cases and -aterials on the English Legal System( ,eiden(e$d T Ni'ho$!on, 1BEED. 1o!t! "nd de$"%! "+e $e!! in the 'o)nt% 'o)+t! *)t the% $e"#e no +oo (o+ 'o .$"'en'%. The go#e+n ent +e!.onded to the!e '+iti'i! ! *% )nde+t"2ing " "-o+ +e#ie& o( the 'i#i$ -)!ti'e !%!te .


/anguage oint = com ound noun!

'. 5n formal and academic English you often find quite long phras composed of several nouns. a 2a one court entry system2 b 2a new case flow management system2 c 2leave entitlements2 d 2a new in"court arbitration system2 e 2the new small claims arbitration limit2 5f you have any difficulty understanding these phrases# try starting v the article 'a3the( and the first ad!ective 'e.g. 2new2( and then the 5 noun$ after that read the ne%t to last noun and so on. *or e%ample becomes1 2a new system 'of( management 'of the( flow 'of( case's(2 English compound nouns are constructed 2bac wards2 in contras some other languages. 5f you loo at e you will realise that the sec ad!ective belongs to the first noun# thus1 2the new limit 'for the( arbitration 'of( small claims2 (. 8ow try a# c and d.

A! " +e!)$t o( the 'i#i$ -)!ti'e +e#ie& the Lo+d 1h"n'e$$o+, Lo+d I'K"% int+od)'ed +e(o+ ing $egi!$"tion to P"+$i" ent 9 the 1o)+t! "nd Li Se+#i'e! Bi$$. The Bi$$ +e'ei#ed the Ro%"$ A!!ent in $"te 1BBG. Io!t o$ .+o#i!ion! +e$"te to the de+eg)$"+i!"tion o( the $eg"$ .+o(e!!ion/ the!e *e e6" ined in 1h".te+ @. The A't gi#e! the Lo+d 1h"n'e$$o+ the .o&e+ to di!t+i*)te *)!ine!! *et&een the :igh 1o)+t "nd the 'o)nt% 'o)+t! on *"!i! o( the 'o .$e6it% o( indi#id)"$ '"!e!. The (in"n'i"$ $i it o( R?,GGG '"!e! he"+d *% the 'o)nt% 'o)+t! i! the+e(o+e +e o#ed. The .+o.o!"$ h"! *een gene+"$$% &e$'o ed in theo+% *)t (e"+! h"#e * e6.+e!!ed o#e+ ho& the !%!te &i$$ &o+2 in .+"'ti'e. The 'o)nt% 'o)+t! "$+e"d% o#e+*)+dened "nd de$"% i! " g+o&ing .+o*$e . An% in'+e"!e in &o+2$o"d o( the 'o)nt% 'o)+t! &itho)t 'o .en!"ting "d ini!t+"ti#e +e(o+ &i$$ de(e"t the .)+.o!e o( the .+o.o!ed 'h"nge!. The 1o)+t! "nd Leg"$ Se+#i'e! A't "$!o en"'t! the .+o.o!"$ in the -)!ti'e +e#ie& th"t the +o$e o( the Regi!t+"+ in ! "$$ '$"i ! "'tion! !ho)$d o+e in7)i!ito+i"$. It "$!o gi#e! " !t"t)to+% +ight to $itig"nt! to +e.+e!ented *% " $"% .e+!on. Thi! i! ."+t o( the .o$i'% o( the L 1h"n'e$$o+ to *+e"2 the $eg"$ .+o(e!!ion0! ono.o$% on +ight! o( ")dien'e. Thi! i! di!')!!ed o+e ()$$% in 1h".te+ @.

4.' The criminal courts

,hi$!t the .)+.o!e o( the 'i#i$ 'o)+t! i! to "d-)di'"te on di!.)te! *et&een indi#id)"$! "nd to .+o#ide " +e ed% (o+ the &+onged ."+t%, the .)+.o!e o( the '+i in"$ 'o)+t! i! to dete+ ine &hethe+ the "'')!ed .e+!on h"! 'o itted " '+i e "nd to .)ni!h the &+ongdoe+. The *"$"n'e +e7)i+ed i! *et&een the need to .+ote't !o'iet% "nd the need to en!)+e, "! ("+ "! .o!!i*$e, th"t on$% the g)i$t% "+e .)ni!hed. Gi#en the !e+io)! 'on!e7)en'e! &hi'h '"n +e!)$t (+o *eing 'on#i'ted o( " '+i in"$ o((en'e, it i! ne'e!!"+% to .+o#ide !"(eg)"+d! "g"in!t &+ong()$ 'on#i'tion. One &"% i! th"t the *)+den o( .+oo( i! on the .+o!e')tion to .+o#e 0*e%ond +e"!on"*$e do)*t0 th"t the "'')!ed 'o itted the o((en'e 'h"+ged. Thi! '"n *e 'o ."+ed &ith the *)+den o( .+oo( in 'i#i$ "'tion! &he+e it i! (o+ the .$"inti(( to !ho& th"t the de(end"nt i! $i"*$e 0on the *"$"n'e o( .+o*"*i$itie!0, th"t i! the de(end"nt i! o+e $i2e$% to *e $i"*$e th"n not. A$!o '+i in"$ 'o)+t .+o'ed)+e !ee2! to en!)+e " ("i+ he"+ing *% i .o!ing #e+% !t+i't "nd (o+ "$ +)$e! o( e#iden'e C'o ."+e the ($e6i*$e .+o'ed)+e! in the 'o)nt% 'o)+t "+*it+"tion !'he eD. I"n% othe+ !"(eg)"+d! +e$"te to the .o&e+! o( the .o$i'e..


4.'.1. The decision to prosecute 1iscussion

1;. a. ,ho '"n !t"+t '+i in"$ .+o'eeding!<
h. In gene+"$ "n%one "% !t"+t '+i in"$ .+o'eeding!

In the preceding extract there are several verb $ noun groups %e.g. to investigate a case&. These expressions are commonly used in legal texts and it is useful to learn each verb and noun as a pair. To help you to do this, try the following exercise. 'atch the following verbs with appropriate nouns from the list which follows:

a b c d e

to bring..................... to instigate...................... to institute..................... to give..................... to conduct...................... f to prefer .................... g to remedy...................... h to punish..................... i to commit...................... proceedings, the prosecution, a prosecution, a wrong, action, an offence, a criminal, charges, evidence.

Not "$$ '+i in"$ o((en'e! "+e ")to "ti'"$$% (o$$o&ed *% " .+o!e')tion. The 1PS h"! di!'+etion to .+o!e')te/ in !o e '"!e!, (o+ e6" .$e, it "% *e 'on!ide+ed o+e "..+o.+i"te to "d ini!te+ "n in(o+ "$ '")tion to the o((ende+. P+io+ to the '+e"tion o( the 1PS thi! di!'+etion +e!ted &ith the $o'"$ .o$i'e (o+'e. Thi! $ed to " $"'2 o( )ni(o+ it%. ,hethe+ " '+i in"$ o((en'e &"! (o$$o&ed *% " .+o!e')tion 'o)$d de.end on &he+e the o((en'e &"! 'o itted. Thi! &"! " ()+the+ '+iti'i! o( the e6i!ting !%!te . The 1PS &"! e!t"*$i!hed "! " n"tion"$ .+o!e')tion !e+#i'e in "n "tte .t to en!)+e g+e"te+ )ni(o+ it%. The de'i!ion to .+o!e')te !ho)$d no& *e e6e+'i!ed "''o+ding to the 1ode o( P+"'ti'e to 1+o&n P+o!e')to+! i!!)ed *% the =i+e'to+ o( P)*$i' P+o!e')tion!. In de'iding &hethe+ to !t"+t " .+o!e')tion the (o$$o&ing ("'to+! !ho)$d *e 'on!ide+ed; I! the+e " +e"$i!ti' .+o!.e't o( 'on#i'tion< CThi! i! 2no&n "! the ?1 .e+ 'ent +)$e.D ,i$$ the .)*$i' inte+e!t *e !e+#ed *% *+inging " .+o!e')tion< Re$e#"nt 'on!ide+"tion! &o)$d *e the "ge "nd .h%!i'"$ o+ ent"$ 'ondition o( the o((ende+ "nd the 0!t"$ene!!0 o( the o((en'e. c. ,o)$d it *e o+e "..+o.+i"te to i!!)e " (o+ "$ &"+ning<
a. b.

4.'.2 The classification of offences and the criminal courts

A(te+ the de'i!ion to .+o!e')te h"! *een t"2en the '"!e &i$$ e#ent)"$$%>G *e he"+d in 'o)+t. A! &ith 'i#i$ "'tion!, '+i in"$ o((en'e! #"+% in !e+io)!ne!! "nd 'o .$e6it%. The!e di((e+en'e! "+e "g"in +e($e'ted in the '+i in"$ 'o)+t !%!te . The (o$$o&ing te6t o)t$ine! the &"% in &hi'h o((en'e! "+e '$"!!i(ied "nd the 'o)+t! o( (i+!t in!t"n'e "nd "..e"$.


Pre"reading exercise


7nswer briefly the following questions. a What is a summary offence# b 8ive an e%ample, c What is an indictable offence# d 8ive an e%ample. e What are offences triable either way# f 8ive e%amples.

The+e "+e th+ee t%.e! o( '+i in"$ o((en'e; !) "+%, indi't"*$e "nd t+i"*$e eithe+ &"%. The n"t)+e o( the o((en'e &i$$ dete+ ine the ode o( t+i"$. S) "+% o((en'e! "+e the $e!! !e+io)! o((en'e! !)'h "! ino+ oto+ing o((en'e!. The!e o((en'e! "+e t+ied in the "gi!t+"te!0 'o)+t, &itho)t " -)+%, *e(o+e " *en'h o( th+ee $"% "gi!t+"te! o+ one !ti.endi"+% "gi!t+"te. The "gi!t+"te! &i$$ he"+ the e#iden'e "nd +e"'h " #e+di't. I( the #e+di't i! 0not g)i$t%0 the de(end"nt &i$$ *e "'7)itted/ i( 0g)i$t%0 the "gi!t+"te! &i$$ ."!! !enten'e. The !enten'ing -)+i!di'tion o( the "gi!t+"te!0 'o)+t! i! $i ited to i .o!ing " (ine o( ). to R1,GGG o+ " "6i ) .+i!on !enten'e o( !i6 onth!. A '"!e +e7)i+ing " he"#ie+ .)ni!h ent )!t *e +e(e++ed to the 1+o&n 1o)+t (o+ !enten'ing. The de(end"nt "% "..e"$ to the 1+o&n 1o)+t (o+ " +et+i"$ o+ to the =i#i!ion"$ 1o)+t o( the A)een0! Ben'h =i#i!ion o( the :igh 1o)+t 0*% &"% o( '"!e !t"ted0. Thi! i! on the *"!i! th"t the "gi!t+"te! &e+e &+ong in $"& o+ in e6'e!! o( -)+i!di'tion. The "gi!t+"te! "+e +e7)i+ed to 0!t"te the '"!e0 Cgi#e +e"!on!D (o+ thei+ #e+di't. Thi! (o+ o( "..e"$ i!, )n)!)"$$%, "#"i$"*$e to the .+o!e')tion "! &e$$ "! the de(en'e. A ()+the+ "..e"$ to the :o)!e o( Lo+d! i! "#"i$"*$e in '"!e! in#o$#ing i .o+t"nt 7)e!tion! o( $"&. Indi't"*$e o((en'e! "+e the o!t !e+io)! o((en'e!/ e6" .$e! "+e )+de+, "n!$")ghte+, +".e "nd "+!on. The .+o'ed)+e (o+ t+%ing the!e o((en'e! *egin! in the "gi!t+"te!0 'o)+t &ith 0'o itt"$ .+o'eeding!0. :e+e it i! the +o$e o( the "gi!t+"te! to 'ond)'t " .+e$i in"+% en7)i+% into the .+o!e')tion0! e#iden'e "nd to de'ide &hethe+ it (o+ ! " .+i " ("'ie '"!e "g"in!t the "'')!ed. I( not, the '"!e &i$$ *e di!'h"+ged. Thi! i! not the !" e "! "n "'7)itt"$ "! the .+o!e')ting ")tho+itie! '"n *+ing the '"!e *e(o+e the 'o)+t "g"in i( ()+the+ e#iden'e *e'o e! "#"i$"*$e/ " .e+!on &ho h"! *een "'7)itted o( " 'h"+ge '"nnot *e t+ied (o+ the !" e o((en'e "g"in. I( " .+i " ("'ie '"!e i! e!t"*$i!hed, " ()$$ t+i"$ &i$$ t"2e .$"'e in the 1+o&n 1o)+t *e(o+e " -)dge "nd " -)+% o( t&e$#e o+din"+% .eo.$e. It i! the +o$e o( the -)dge in thi! ()$$ t+i"$ to +)$e on .oint! o( $"& "nd, i( the de(end"nt i! (o)nd g)i$t%, to ."!! !enten'e. The -)+% "!!e!!e! the ("'t! "nd +e"'he! " #e+di't. The de(end"nt "% "..e"$ "g"in!t 'on#i'tion o+ !enten'e to the 1+i in"$ =i#i!ion o( the 1o)+t o( A..e"$. Unde+ the 1+i in"$ F)!ti'e A't 1BEE, the .+o!e')tion "% "$!o "..e"$ to the 1o)+t o( A..e"$ (o+ the !enten'e to *e in'+e"!ed. A ()+the+ "..e"$ to the :o)!e o( Lo+d! "% *e "$$o&ed on "n i .o+t"nt .oint o( $"&. O((en'e! t+i"*$e eithe+ &"% "+e o((en'e! &hi'h '"n *e 'o itted in " !e+io)! o+ ino+ &"%. B)+g$"+% "nd the(t "+e e6" .$e! o( the!e o((en'e!. The% "% *e t+ied !) "+i$% in the "gi!t+"te!0 'o)+t o+ on indi't ent in the 1+o&n 1o)+t. The "gi!t+"te! &i$$ dete+ ine the ode o( t+i"$ t"2ing into "''o)nt !)'h ("'to+! "! the !e+io)!ne!! o( the o((en'e "nd the .o!!i*$e "..+o.+i"te !enten'e. The "'')!ed '"n in!i!t on t+i"$ *% -)+% in the 1+o&n 1o)+t *)t not on !) "+% t+i"$, i( the "gi!t+"te! de'ide th"t the '"!e !ho)$d *e t+ied on indi't ent. The t+i"$ .+o'ed)+e &i$$ then (o$$o& the !) "+% o+ indi't"*$e (o+ "! di!')!!ed .+e#io)!$%.


1.. #s in the last vocabulary e+ercise; &atch the following verbs

with the appropriate nouns fro& the list below> a to try .................... b to hear ..................... c to reach..................... d to pass ..................... e to i&pose..................... f to conduct..................... g to assess...................... a verdict; an enGuiry; an offence; the facts; the evidence; a fine; sentence.

1$.7ind out the na&es of the cri&inal courts in your country and &ake a diagra& of the&; noting which courts are courts of first instance and which ones are appellate courts. =s there an independent body like the C@H in your country which is responsible for deciding which cases co&e to trial? =f not; who is responsible for these decisions?

2egal e+ercises
13. -istinguish between the three types of cri&inal offence. 1%. What is the role of the &agistrates in trying each of these offences? 1 . What are the respective roles of the ?udge and the ?ury in trying indictable offences in the Crown Court? 1*. What are the advantages of the Crown @rosecution Hervice? 19. -istinguish between CdischargeC and CacGuittalC. (!. <r H&ith is arrested by the police on the suspicion of &urdering <r 'ones.

a What factors will be taken into account when deciding whether

to prosecute hi&? b What events will follow if the decision is taken to prosecute hi&? c =f he is found guilty; &ay either <r H&ith or the prosecution appeal fro& the verdict? (1. <rs Brown is charged with theft before the &agistratesC court. a Before which courts &ay she be tried?

b =f she is found guilty; to which courts &ay she appeal?

$.... Review In 1B3> the I+i!h Re.)*$i'"n A+ % CIRAD &"ged " *o *ing '" ."ign on the "in$"nd o( B+it"in in &hi'h t&ent%9eight .eo.$e &e+e 2i$$ed. A n) *e+ o( .eo.$e &e+e !)*!e7)ent$% t+ied "nd (o)nd g)i$t% o( the o((en'e!. The!e .eo.$e *e'" e 2no&n "! the 0G)i$d(o+d Fo)+0 "nd 0Bi+ ingh" Si60 C"(te+ the n" e! o( the 'itie! in &hi'h it &"! "$$eged the% h"d .$"nted the *o *!D. In "ddition, the !e#en e *e+! o( " (" i$% n" ed I"g)i+e, the 0I"g)i+e Se#en0, &e+e


g"o$ed (o+ i$$eg"$ .o!!e!!ion o( e6.$o!i#e!. The 0G)i$d(o+d Fo)+0 "nd the 0Bi+ ingh" Si60 '$"i ed th"t the% h"d *een *e"ten &hi$!t in .o$i'e ')!tod% in o+de+ to o*t"in 'on(e!!ion! (+o the . The I"g)i+e (" i$% 7)e!tioned the #"$idit% o( the (o+en!i' e#iden'e on &hi'h thei+ 'on#i'tion &"! *"!ed. A$$ tho!e 'on#i'ted "..e"$ed th+o)gh the (o+ "$ "..e"$ .+o'ed)+e!/ the!e &e+e di! i!!ed. In 1BEB, "! " +e!)$t o( +e'ei#ing (+e!h e#iden'e, the :o e Se'+et"+% +e(e++ed the '"!e o( the 0G)i$d(o+d Fo)+0 *"'2 to the 1o)+t o( A..e"$. The 1o)+t o( A..e"$ (+eed the en "nd the :o e Se'+et"+% !et ). "n en7)i+% into thei+ '"!e "nd th"t o( the I"g)i+e (" i$%, he"ded *% Si+ Fohn I"%. The $"tte+ '"!e h"! *een +e(e++ed to the 1o)+t o( A..e"$ *% the :o e Se'+et"+% &ho h"! !t"ted th"t thei+ 'on#i'tion! "+e )n!"(e "nd '"n no $onge+ !t"nd. The '"!e o( the 0Bi+ ingh" Si60 h"! "$!o *een +e(e++ed *"'2 to the 1o)+t o( A..e"$. The I"% en7)i+% +e#e"$ed !e+io)! &e"2ne!!e! in the !%!te o( '+i in"$ -)!ti'e &hi'h h"! $ed to '"$$! (o+ the e!t"*$i!h ent o( "n inde.endent t+i*)n"$ to .+e."+e e#iden'e "nd to in#e!tig"te "..e"$!. I"n% o( the &e"2ne!!e! high$ighted *% the en7)i+% h"#e to !o e e6tent *een +e o#ed *% 'h"nge! &hi'h h"#e t"2en .$"'e !in'e the ti e o( the o+igin"$ 'on#i'tion!/ the 1PS h"! t"2en o#e+ .+o!e')tion! (+o the .o$i'e "nd the 1+i in"$ E#iden'e A't 1BE> h"! .$"'ed !t+i'te+ 'ont+o$! on detention "nd inte++og"tion .+o'ed)+e!, *)t o!t o( the!e +e(o+ ! "+e not "..$i'"*$e to !)!.e'ted te++o+i!t!. I"n% .eo.$e *e$ie#e th"t the -)dge! "+e too &i$$ing to "''e.t .+o!e')tion e#iden'e "nd the &ho$e "d#e+!"+i"$ !%!te o( -)!ti'e h"! *een 7)e!tioned. A 'h"nge to "n in7)i!ito+i"$ !%!te &o)$d h"#e "n eno+ o)! i ."'t on the &ho$e !%!te o( -)!ti'e/ it i! not !o ething &hi'h '"n *e )nde+t"2en $ight$% o+ !.eedi$% *)t the +e!)$t! o( the I"% en7)i+% indi'"te th"t )'h 'o)$d *e done to i .+o#e the e6i!ting !%!te &itho)t )nde+t"2ing !)'h " +"di'"$ +e(o+ o( t+i"$ .+o'ed)+e.

4.4 Tribunals and arbitration

The (o+ "$ 'o)+t! "+e not the on$% e"n! o( !o$#ing di!.)te!/ "d-)di'"tion in'+e"!ing$% t"2e! .$"'e o)t!ide the 'o)+t !%!te . Thi! i! " ()+the+ +e($e'tion o( the need to !)it the (o+ o( di!.)te +e!o$)tion to the n"t)+e o( the di!.)te in#o$#ed. The t&o "in (o+ ! o( e6t+"?59'o)+t "d-)di'"tion "+e t+i*)n"$! "nd "+*it+"tion. Let )! $oo2 (i+!t "t tribunals.
Pre"reading chec


Think about the following questions*

a What is the purpose of tribunals# b Why has there been a rapid growth in the use of tribunals over recent years# c Why do you think that the writer believes that tribunals are the most important courts in the country for the ordinary citi9en#

8o) &i$$ !ee th"t 0"d ini!t+"ti#e0 t+i*)n"$! "+e '+e"ted *% !t"t)te to +e!o$#e di!.)te! "+i!ing (+o the +e$e#"nt !o'i"$ $egi!$"tion. In 'ont+"!t, arbitration i! " .+i#"te e"n! o( "d-)di'"tion, "++"nged "nd "g+eed *et&een the ."+tie! in#o$#ed. It i! )!ed in "n% di((e+ent !it)"tion! (+o the +e!o$)tion o( 'o .$e6 'o e+'i"$ di!.)te! to tho!e in#o$#ing 'o ."+"ti#e$% ino+ di!"g+ee ent! *et&een the !)..$ie+! o( good! "nd !e+#i'e! "nd the 'on!) e+. The "d#"nt"ge! o( "+*it+"tion "+e !i i$"+ to tho!e o( t+i*)n"$!; !.eed, $o&e+ 'o!t!, ($e6i*i$it%, in(o+ "$it% "nd "d-)di'"tion *% "n e6.e+t. The!e "d#"nt"ge! )!t o( 'o)+!e *e *"$"n'ed "g"in!t the di!"d#"nt"ge!. The+e i! the "+g) ent th"t 'he".e+, 7)i'2e+ "nd $e!! (o+ "$ he"+ing! +e!)$t in " .oo+ 7)"$it% !e+#i'e "nd " t&o9tie+ !%!te o( "d-)di'"tion, "nd th"t the $eg"$ t+"ining o( -)dge! "nd the (o+ "$ +)$e! o( 'o)+t .+o'ed)+e h"#e *een de#e$o.ed to en!)+e " ("i+ t+i"$. Ne#e+the$e!! the in'+e"!ing )!e o( t+i*)n"$! "nd "+*it+"tion !ee ! to indi'"te th"t the% "+e " .o.)$"+ &"% o( +e!o$#ing di!.)te!. On " &ide+ .oint, the% "$!o in'+e"!e thU .oint! o( "''e!! to -)!ti'e (o+ the o+din"+% .e+!on.


.ocabular% review 9elow are three different e%ercises to help you remember some of the vocabulary.

-3. Complete the table below1





claimant dUUUUUUU


fUUUUUUU.. ad!udication


administrator hUUUUUU..




lUUUUUUU. intimidated

-0. 5n Chapter 3 four common 2negative2 prefi%es were practised 'un"# in"# N1"# im"(. Three other negative affi%es are "less# e.g. hopeless# dis"# e.g. dissatisfied# and mis"# e.g. misread '@ read inaccurately(. Try and use the correct affi% to form opposites of the words below. 5n some cases you will have to ma e other changes. a useful d agree b conduct e colourful c encourage f persuade -2. Complete the sentences below using one or two words1 a The claimWWWWWWWWWWWWWG>#III 'i.e. was for more than G>#III(. b , person who appeals is called""""""""""""""""""""""""" c +oney which is owed is called""""""""""""""""""""""""""" d WWWWWWWWW W WWWhas a similar meaning to compulsory. e ,WWWWWWWWWWWWWis a person involved in a civil case. f , WWWWWWWWWWWWWW magistrate is paid# whereas a """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""" magistrate is not. g +inor motoring offences areWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWoffences but murder is WWWWWWWWWWoffence.


6e!earch -6. -hat facilities for the ad!udication of disputes outside the formal court system are available in your country.

/egal e&erci!e! -4. Choose two teams from your group to debate the following proposition1 The civil courts in the English legal system do not provide an adequate means of ad!udication in the ma!ority of disputes.2 *ollow the instructions for the preparation and performance of the debate which are provided at the end of Chapter 2. /ou will need to reread carefully the sections in this chapter on the civil courts# tribunals and arbitration. The relevant issues are1 a The aims of the civil !ustice system# b The e%isting machinery of the system# c 0ow adequate is it for the ma!ority of disputes. d -ill the reforms contained in the Courts and )egal Services ,ct improve the system. 5f you are wor ing on your own# prepare a written argument for each side of the debate ta ing into account the preceding points.



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