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"#$%&'(#)%"

+,-# !. /-0('0'.1

Advanced algebra and geometry.

Mathematics of change.

It takes a problem that cant be done with regular

math because things are constantly changing the

changing quantities show up on a graph as curves

it zooms in on the curve till it becomes straight,

and then it finishes off the problem with regular

math.

2,3 4)5 6'". %7 /-0('0'.

1. Differentiation

2. Integration

8)773$3"#)-#)%"

Its the process of finding a derivative of a curve.

A derivative is just the fancy calculus term for a

curves slope or steepness.

Slope is equal to the ratio of the rise to the run.

!"#35$-#)%"

Basically just fancy addition.

Process of cutting up an area into tiny sections,

figuring out their areas, and then adding them up to

get the whole area.

+,9 /-0('0'. +%$:

Curves are straight at the microscopic level.

The earth is round, but to us it looks flat because

were sort of at the microscopic level when

compared to the size of the earth.

Calculus works because when you zoom in and

curves become straight, you can use regular

algebra and geometry with them.

This zooming-in process is achieved through the

mathematics of limits.

Definition Example

Numbers that can expressed

as decimals

;3-0 <'=>3$.

Definition Example

Rational Number: A

number that may be written

as a finite or infinite

repeating decimal, in other

words, a number that can be

written in the form m/n such

that m, n are integers

Irrational Number: A

number that has an infinite

decimal representation

whose digits form no

repeating pattern

;-#)%"-0 ? !$$-#)%"-0 <'=>3$.

73205 . 1 3 =

285714 . 0

7

2

=

The Number Line

A geometric representation of the real numbers is shown below.

2,3 <'=>3$ @)"3

-6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1

2 3 4 5 6

3

7

2

Definition Example

Open Interval: The set

of numbers that lie

between two given

endpoints, not including

the endpoints

themselves

Closed Interval: The set

of numbers that lie

between two given

endpoints, including the

endpoints themselves

[-1, 4]

-6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1

2 3 4 5 6

-6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1

2 3 4 5 6

( ) , 4

4 > x

4 1 s s x

/-0('0'. -"& D'"(#)%".

Calculus is the mathematics of functions, which

are relationships between sets consisting of objects

called elements.

The simplest type of function is a single-variable

function, where the elements of two sets are paired

off according to certain rules.

D'"(#)%".

is used to represent the dependence of one

quantity upon another.

is a rule that takes certain numbers as inputs and

assigns to each a definite output number

A function can be many-to-one, but never one-to-

many. Sometimes, in order to emphasize the fact

that no value of the independent variable maps

into more than one value of the dependent

variable, well talk about this type of relation as a

true function or a legitimate function.

EF-=B03. %7 D'"(#)%".

The outdoor air temperature is a function of the

time of day.

The number of daylight hours on June 21 is a

function of latitude.

The time required for a wet rag to dry is a

function of the air temperature.

D'"(#)%". )" GBB0)(-#)%"

(Response to a Muscle) When a solution of acetylcholine is

introduced into the heart muscle of a frog, it diminishes the force

with which the muscle contracts. The data from experiments of

the biologist A. J. Clark are closely approximated by a function of

the form

( )

x b

x

x R

+

=

100

D'"(#)%". )" GBB0)(-#)%"

where x is the concentration of acetylcholine (in appropriate units),

b is a positive constant that depends on the particular frog, and

R(x) is the response of the muscle to the acetylcholine, expressed

as a percentage of the maximum possible effect of the drug.

(a) Suppose that b = 20. Find the response of the muscle when x =

60.

(b) Determine the value of b if R(50) = 60 that is, if a

concentration of x = 50 units produces a 60% response.

( )

x b

x

x R

+

=

100

D'"(#)%". )" GBB0)(-#)%"

!"#$%&"'

This is the given function.

( )

x b

x

x R

+

=

100

(a)

D'"(#)%". )" GBB0)(-#)%"

Replace b with 20 and x

with 60.

( )

60 20

60 100

60

+

= R

Simplify the

numerator and

denominator.

( )

80

6000

60 = R

Divide.

( ) 75 60 = R

Therefore, when b = 20 and x = 60, R (x) = 75%.

D'"(#)%". )" GBB0)(-#)%"

This is the given function.

( )

x b

x

x R

+

=

100

(b)

Replace x with 50.

( )

50

50 100

50

+

=

b

R

Replace R(50) with 60.

50

50 100

60

+

=

b

D'"(#)%". )" GBB0)(-#)%"

Simplify the numerator.

50

5000

60

+

=

b

Multiply both sides by b +

50 and cancel.

( ) ( ) 50

50

5000

60 50 +

+

= + b

b

b

Distribute on the left

side.

5000 3000 60 = + b

D'"(#)%". )" GBB0)(-#)%"

Therefore, when R (50) = 60, b = 33.3.

Subtract 3000 from both

sides.

2000 60 = b

Divide both sides by 60. 3 . 33 = b

D'"(#)%".

)*+,-#)

If , find f (a - 2).

( ) 3 4

2

+ + = x x x f

!"#$%&"'

This is the given function.

( ) 3 4

2

+ + = x x x f

Replace each occurrence of

x with a 2.

( ) ( ) ( ) 3 2 4 2 2

2

+ + = a a a f

D'"(#)%".

Evaluate (a 2)

2

= a

2

4a + 4.

( ) ( ) ( ) 3 2 4 4 4 2

2

+ + + = a a a a f

Remove parentheses

and distribute.

( ) 3 8 4 4 4 2

2

+ + + = a a a a f

Combine like

terms.

( ) 1 2

2

= a a f

D'"(#)%".

The set of all input numbers is called the

domain of the function

The set of resulting output numbers is called the

range of the function.

The input is called the independent variable

The output is called the dependent variable.

8%=-)"

Definition Example

Domain of a Function:

The set of acceptable

values for the variable x.

The domain of the

function

is

( )

x

x f

=

3

1

0 3 > x

x > 3

/%"(3B# 23.#

As a person hikes down from the top of a mountain,

the variable T represents the time, in minutes, since

the person left the top of the mountain, and the

variable H represents the height, in feet, of the

person above the base of the mountain. Table 1.1

gives values at several different times for these

variables.

Table 1.1

Time T 20 30 40 50 60

Height H

1000 810 730 810 580

Which of the following statements is true?

a) T is a function of H

b) H is a function of T

c) Both statements are true: T is a function of

H and H is a function of T

d) Neither statement is true: T is not a function

of H and H is not a function of T

ANSWER

(b) We see that H is a function of T since for every

value of T, there is a unique value of H. As the

person hikes down the mountain, the height at any

given moment in time is uniquely determined. We

know that T is not a function of H, since we see in

Table 1.1 that, for example, the height H = 810

corresponds to at least two values of T.

As a person hikes down from the top of a mountain,

the variable T represents the time, in minutes, since

the person left the top of the mountain, and the

variable H represents the height, in feet, of the

person above the base of the mountain.

We have H = f(T). The statement f(100) = 300

means:

a) The mountain rises 300 feet above its base, and it

takes 100 minutes to descend from the top of the

mountain.

b) The mountain rises 100 feet from its base and it

takes 300 minutes to descend from the top of the

mountain.

c) At a time of 100 minutes after leaving the top of

the mountain, the person is 300 feet above the

base of the mountain.

d) At a time of 300 minutes after leaving the top of

the mountain, the person is 100 feet above the

base of the mountain.

ANSWER

(c) The statement f(100) = 300 tells us that when T =

100, we have H = 300. Therefore, (c) is the correct

answer.

As a person hikes down from the top of a

mountain, the variable T represents the time, in

minutes, since the person left the top of the

mountain, and the variable H represents the

height, in feet, of the person above the base of

the mountain.

We have H = f(T). The vertical intercept for the

graph of this function represents:

a) The time it takes the person to descend from

the top of the mountain to the base of the

mountain.

b) The height of the person in feet above the

base of the mountain when the person is at the

top of the mountain.

c) The height of the person in feet above the

base of the mountain, as the person hikes

down the mountain.

d) The time when the person begins to descend

down the mountain.

ANSWER

(b) Since H = f(T), the vertical intercept is the

value of H when T = 0. Since T = 0 means the

person is at the top of the mountain, we want the

value of H when the person is at the top of the

mountain, which is answer (b).

As a person hikes down from the top of a mountain,

the variable T represents the time, in minutes, since

the person left the top of the mountain, and the

variable H represents the height, in feet, of the

person above the base of the mountain.

We have H = f(T). The horizontal intercept for the

graph of this function represents:

a) The time it takes the person to descend from

the top of the mountain to the base of the

mountain.

b) The height of the person in feet above the

base of the mountain when the person is at the

top of the mountain.

c) The height of the person in feet above the

base of the mountain, as the person hikes

down the mountain.

d) The time when the person begins to descend

down the mountain.

ANSWER

(a) Since H = f(T), the horizontal intercept is the

value of T when H = 0. Since H = 0 means the

person is at the base of the mountain, we want the

value of T when the person reaches the base of the

mountain, which is answer (a).

A patients heart rate, R, in beats per minute, is a

function of the dose, D of a drug, in mg. We have

R = f(D). The statement f(50) = 70 means:

a) The patients heart rate goes from 70 beats per

minute to 50 beats per minute when a dose is

given.

b) When a dose of 50 mg is given, the patients

heart rate is 70 beats per minute.

c) The dose ranges from 50 mg to 70 mg for this

patient.

d) When a dose of 70 mg is given, the patients

heart rate is 50 beats per minute.

ANSWER

(b) Since R = f(D), the statement f(50) = 70 means

that when D = 50, we have R = 70, so the answer is

(b).

A patients heart rate, R, in beats per minute, is a

function of the dose, D of a drug, in mg. We have R

= f(D).

The vertical intercept for the graph of this function

represents:

a) The maximum dose of the drug.

b) The maximum heart rate.

c) The dose of the drug at which the patients heart

stops beating.

d) The patients heart rate if none of the drug is

administered.

ANSWER

(d) Since R = f(D), the vertical intercept is the value

of R when D = 0. This is the heart rate when the

dose of the drug is 0, so the answer is (d).

Which of the following functions has its domain

identical with its range?

(a) f(x) = x

2

(b)

(c) h(x) = x

3

(d) i(x) = |x|

! " ! " " =

ANSWER

COMMENT:

It is worth considering the domain and range for

all choices.

(b) and (c). For , the domain and range are

all nonnegative numbers, and for h(x) = x

3

, the

domain and range are all real numbers.

! " ! " " =

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