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Mathematics of change.
It takes a problem that cant be done with regular
math because things are constantly changing the
changing quantities show up on a graph as curves
it zooms in on the curve till it becomes straight,
and then it finishes off the problem with regular
math.
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1. Differentiation
2. Integration
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Its the process of finding a derivative of a curve.
A derivative is just the fancy calculus term for a
curves slope or steepness.
Slope is equal to the ratio of the rise to the run.
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Process of cutting up an area into tiny sections,
figuring out their areas, and then adding them up to
get the whole area.
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Curves are straight at the microscopic level.
The earth is round, but to us it looks flat because
were sort of at the microscopic level when
compared to the size of the earth.
Calculus works because when you zoom in and
curves become straight, you can use regular
algebra and geometry with them.
This zooming-in process is achieved through the
mathematics of limits.
Definition Example
Numbers that can expressed
as decimals

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Definition Example
Rational Number: A
number that may be written
as a finite or infinite
repeating decimal, in other
words, a number that can be
written in the form m/n such
that m, n are integers

Irrational Number: A
number that has an infinite
decimal representation
whose digits form no
repeating pattern

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73205 . 1 3 =
285714 . 0
7
2
=
The Number Line
A geometric representation of the real numbers is shown below.

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-6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1
2 3 4 5 6
3
7
2

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Definition Example
Open Interval: The set
of numbers that lie
between two given
endpoints, not including
the endpoints
themselves

Closed Interval: The set
of numbers that lie
between two given
endpoints, including the
endpoints themselves

[-1, 4]
-6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1
2 3 4 5 6
-6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1
2 3 4 5 6
( ) , 4
4 > x
4 1 s s x
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Calculus is the mathematics of functions, which
are relationships between sets consisting of objects
called elements.
The simplest type of function is a single-variable
function, where the elements of two sets are paired
off according to certain rules.
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is used to represent the dependence of one
quantity upon another.
is a rule that takes certain numbers as inputs and
assigns to each a definite output number
A function can be many-to-one, but never one-to-
many. Sometimes, in order to emphasize the fact
that no value of the independent variable maps
into more than one value of the dependent
true function or a legitimate function.
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The outdoor air temperature is a function of the
time of day.
The number of daylight hours on June 21 is a
function of latitude.
The time required for a wet rag to dry is a
function of the air temperature.
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(Response to a Muscle) When a solution of acetylcholine is
introduced into the heart muscle of a frog, it diminishes the force
with which the muscle contracts. The data from experiments of
the biologist A. J. Clark are closely approximated by a function of
the form

( )
x b
x
x R
+
=
100
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where x is the concentration of acetylcholine (in appropriate units),
b is a positive constant that depends on the particular frog, and
R(x) is the response of the muscle to the acetylcholine, expressed
as a percentage of the maximum possible effect of the drug.
(a) Suppose that b = 20. Find the response of the muscle when x =
60.
(b) Determine the value of b if R(50) = 60 that is, if a
concentration of x = 50 units produces a 60% response.
( )
x b
x
x R
+
=
100
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This is the given function.
( )
x b
x
x R
+
=
100
(a)
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Replace b with 20 and x
with 60.
( )
60 20
60 100
60
+

= R
Simplify the
numerator and
denominator.
( )
80
6000
60 = R
Divide.
( ) 75 60 = R
Therefore, when b = 20 and x = 60, R (x) = 75%.
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This is the given function.
( )
x b
x
x R
+
=
100
(b)
Replace x with 50.
( )
50
50 100
50
+

=
b
R
Replace R(50) with 60.
50
50 100
60
+

=
b
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Simplify the numerator.
50
5000
60
+
=
b
Multiply both sides by b +
50 and cancel.
( ) ( ) 50
50
5000
60 50 +
+
= + b
b
b
Distribute on the left
side.
5000 3000 60 = + b
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Therefore, when R (50) = 60, b = 33.3.
Subtract 3000 from both
sides.
2000 60 = b
Divide both sides by 60. 3 . 33 = b
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If , find f (a - 2).
( ) 3 4
2
+ + = x x x f
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This is the given function.
( ) 3 4
2
+ + = x x x f
Replace each occurrence of
x with a 2.
( ) ( ) ( ) 3 2 4 2 2
2
+ + = a a a f
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Evaluate (a 2)
2
= a
2

4a + 4.
( ) ( ) ( ) 3 2 4 4 4 2
2
+ + + = a a a a f
Remove parentheses
and distribute.
( ) 3 8 4 4 4 2
2
+ + + = a a a a f
Combine like
terms.
( ) 1 2
2
= a a f
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The set of all input numbers is called the
domain of the function
The set of resulting output numbers is called the
range of the function.
The input is called the independent variable
The output is called the dependent variable.
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Definition Example
Domain of a Function:
The set of acceptable
values for the variable x.
The domain of the
function

is

( )
x
x f

=
3
1
0 3 > x
x > 3
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As a person hikes down from the top of a mountain,
the variable T represents the time, in minutes, since
the person left the top of the mountain, and the
variable H represents the height, in feet, of the
person above the base of the mountain. Table 1.1
gives values at several different times for these
variables.
Table 1.1

Time T 20 30 40 50 60
Height H
1000 810 730 810 580
Which of the following statements is true?
a) T is a function of H
b) H is a function of T
c) Both statements are true: T is a function of
H and H is a function of T
d) Neither statement is true: T is not a function
of H and H is not a function of T
(b) We see that H is a function of T since for every
value of T, there is a unique value of H. As the
person hikes down the mountain, the height at any
given moment in time is uniquely determined. We
know that T is not a function of H, since we see in
Table 1.1 that, for example, the height H = 810
corresponds to at least two values of T.
As a person hikes down from the top of a mountain,
the variable T represents the time, in minutes, since
the person left the top of the mountain, and the
variable H represents the height, in feet, of the
person above the base of the mountain.
We have H = f(T). The statement f(100) = 300
means:
a) The mountain rises 300 feet above its base, and it
takes 100 minutes to descend from the top of the
mountain.
b) The mountain rises 100 feet from its base and it
takes 300 minutes to descend from the top of the
mountain.
c) At a time of 100 minutes after leaving the top of
the mountain, the person is 300 feet above the
base of the mountain.
d) At a time of 300 minutes after leaving the top of
the mountain, the person is 100 feet above the
base of the mountain.
(c) The statement f(100) = 300 tells us that when T =
100, we have H = 300. Therefore, (c) is the correct
As a person hikes down from the top of a
mountain, the variable T represents the time, in
minutes, since the person left the top of the
mountain, and the variable H represents the
height, in feet, of the person above the base of
the mountain.

We have H = f(T). The vertical intercept for the
graph of this function represents:

a) The time it takes the person to descend from
the top of the mountain to the base of the
mountain.
b) The height of the person in feet above the
base of the mountain when the person is at the
top of the mountain.
c) The height of the person in feet above the
base of the mountain, as the person hikes
down the mountain.
d) The time when the person begins to descend
down the mountain.
(b) Since H = f(T), the vertical intercept is the
value of H when T = 0. Since T = 0 means the
person is at the top of the mountain, we want the
value of H when the person is at the top of the
As a person hikes down from the top of a mountain,
the variable T represents the time, in minutes, since
the person left the top of the mountain, and the
variable H represents the height, in feet, of the
person above the base of the mountain.

We have H = f(T). The horizontal intercept for the
graph of this function represents:
a) The time it takes the person to descend from
the top of the mountain to the base of the
mountain.
b) The height of the person in feet above the
base of the mountain when the person is at the
top of the mountain.
c) The height of the person in feet above the
base of the mountain, as the person hikes
down the mountain.
d) The time when the person begins to descend
down the mountain.
(a) Since H = f(T), the horizontal intercept is the
value of T when H = 0. Since H = 0 means the
person is at the base of the mountain, we want the
value of T when the person reaches the base of the
A patients heart rate, R, in beats per minute, is a
function of the dose, D of a drug, in mg. We have
R = f(D). The statement f(50) = 70 means:

a) The patients heart rate goes from 70 beats per
minute to 50 beats per minute when a dose is
given.
b) When a dose of 50 mg is given, the patients
heart rate is 70 beats per minute.
c) The dose ranges from 50 mg to 70 mg for this
patient.
d) When a dose of 70 mg is given, the patients
heart rate is 50 beats per minute.
(b) Since R = f(D), the statement f(50) = 70 means
that when D = 50, we have R = 70, so the answer is
(b).
A patients heart rate, R, in beats per minute, is a
function of the dose, D of a drug, in mg. We have R
= f(D).
The vertical intercept for the graph of this function
represents:
a) The maximum dose of the drug.
b) The maximum heart rate.
c) The dose of the drug at which the patients heart
stops beating.
d) The patients heart rate if none of the drug is
(d) Since R = f(D), the vertical intercept is the value
of R when D = 0. This is the heart rate when the
dose of the drug is 0, so the answer is (d).
Which of the following functions has its domain
identical with its range?

(a) f(x) = x
2
(b)
(c) h(x) = x
3
(d) i(x) = |x|
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