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THE IMPACT OF LEARNING STYLE ON THE FRENCH SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION OF ENGLISH SPEAKING LEARNERS EXPOSED TO A FRENCH AND

ENGLISH STANDARD AND REVERSED SUBTITLED FILM

by Piero Bachetti

A Major Paper Submitted to the Faculty of Graduate Studies and Research through the Faculty of Education in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Education at the University of Windsor

Windsor, Ontario, Canada 2003

French Language Acquisition

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© 2003 Piero Bachetti

APPROVED BY:

_____________________________________ Dr. N. Diffey, Advisor

_____________________________________ Dr. L. Morton, Reader

iii ABSTRACT This study, designed to offer a potential addition to classroom second language teaching methodology, examined the impact of three learning styles on the acquisition of French as a Second Language by English speaking learners when exposed to a French and English standard and reversed subtitled film in DVD format. The subjects were Grade 6 students, ages 11-12, who had completed a Personal Learning Style Inventory (PLSI), which classified them as auditory, visual, or auditory-visual learners. The three step process consisted of 1) a multiple-choice pre-test (French questions with English responses), 2) the viewing of a short film clip of Disney’s Beauty and the Beast in the standard and reversed formats, and 3) a multiple-choice post-test (English questions with French responses). The research hypothesized that the auditory-visual learning style group would score higher than the auditory or visual learning style group in the pre-test and in the post-test results as measured by the total means. The quantitative analysis indicated that none of the groups achieved higher scores than their counterparts. Similarly, there were no differences between gender and achievement scores. All groups achieved positive results between the total pre-test and post-test means. This finding may be of interest to second language teachers seeking to present ideas and concepts in an alternative way to meet the needs of a variety of learning styles.

iv DEDICATION I would like to dedicate this work to my supportive family. To my wife Michelina, my children Sophia and Dante, to my brothers Joseph and Ettore, to my parents Giovanni and Serafina, and to my grandparents Giuseppe and Rosa, and Ettore and Antonia.

v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to acknowledge my advisor Dr. Diffey and internal reader Dr. Morton for their time and support devoted to the preparation and editing of this Major Paper. My thanks are also due: to my superintendent Janet Ouellette at the Windsor-Essex Catholic District School Board for allowing me to conduct this study within the elementary school system. To my current principal, Fred Lessard, and previous principals, Lorenzo Ferrato and Raoul Rusich, for their support during my course of study. To my inspiring professors: Dr. Adorni, Dr. Fantazzi, Dr. Temelini, Dr. Crawford, and Dr. McKay. To Michael Tiberia, Mark Ficon and Joe Santoro for assisting with the audio-visual equipment. To my colleagues and friends, in particular Lanfranco DeGasperis, Ron LeFave, Rick Valenciuk, and Greg Cecile, for their support and words of encouragement. To the parents of the elementary children who gave consent for their child to participate in this research study, and finally, a special acknowledgement to my loving wife and family for their endless support.

vi TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT..................................................................................................................................iii DEDICATION...............................................................................................................................iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS..........................................................................................................v CHAPTER I...................................................................................................................................1 INTRODUCTION......................................................................................................................1 A. General Statement of the Question...................................................................................1 B. Review of Literature on Learning Styles.........................................................................5 C. Review of Literature on Second Language Acquisition..................................................9 D. Review of Literature on Subtitled Film as Source of Input.........................................13 E. Definition of Terms...........................................................................................................26 F. Research Question ............................................................................................................28 CHAPTER II................................................................................................................................30 DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY.........................................................................................30 A. Subjects.............................................................................................................................30 B. Instrumentation and Procedures....................................................................................31 C. 36 Subtitled Film Testing In the two-week interval following the Learning Style Preference Inventories, the second half of the research testing was administered. The design of the multiple-choice pre and post-tests used for this study reflected the format used by a research study conducted by Krashen and Dupuy (1993). In this section, the students were given a 20-question pre-test of material that would appear in the subtitled film. These items were comprised of a French language question with answer choices in English, and material was extracted verbatim from the subtitled film. The English answers were in multiple-choice format consisting of four responses. The correct response was the actual word or phrase that appeared in the written subtitle. The other three choices were generated by the researcher ................................................................36 CHAPTER III..............................................................................................................................40 DATA ANALYSIS.....................................................................................................................40 A. Quantitative......................................................................................................................40 B. Gender ..............................................................................................................................43 CHAPTER IV..............................................................................................................................47 SUMMARY...............................................................................................................................47 A. Conclusion ........................................................................................................................47 B. Limitations of the Study...................................................................................................48 C. Perceived Usefulness of the Study..................................................................................52 D. Implications of the Study.................................................................................................55

vii REFERENCES............................................................................................................................58 APPENDIX A...............................................................................................................................66 Letter of Permission to the Ethics Committee.......................................................................66 APPENDIX B...............................................................................................................................68 Letter of Permission to the WECDSB....................................................................................68 APPENDIX C...............................................................................................................................71 Letter of Permission to the Principal......................................................................................71 APPENDIX D...............................................................................................................................74 Student Consent Form.............................................................................................................74 ..............................................................................................................................................75 STUDENT CONSENT FORM...................................................................................................75 APPENDIX E...............................................................................................................................77 Letter of Information; and Parent Consent Form................................................................77 APPENDIX F...............................................................................................................................84 Personal Learning Style Inventory (4 to 1; Y/N)...................................................................84 APPENDIX G...............................................................................................................................95 Personal Learning Style Inventory Scoring Key and Researcher’s Category......................................................................................................95 APPENDIX H...............................................................................................................................98 Pre-Test (Form A).....................................................................................................................98 APPENDIX I..............................................................................................................................103 Post-Test (Form B).................................................................................................................103 APPENDIX J..............................................................................................................................108 Answer Key to the Pre-Test and Post-Test...........................................................................108 APPENDIX K.............................................................................................................................110 Learning Styles Characteristics and Strategies...................................................................110 APPENDIX L.............................................................................................................................122 Critical Thinking DVD and Bloom’s....................................................................................122 VITA AUCTORIS......................................................................................................................129

1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. General Statement of the Question Teachers and researchers acknowledge that most learners appear to have a preferred way of processing information. Thus, Mills (1999, ¶6) argues: “Since we are not basically alike, when we approach a learning task or situation, we do not all benefit from the same approach. Each individual has his or her own unique learning strengths and weaknesses. It is vital for us as teachers to deliberately use a variety of methods to reach the students.” Second-language (L2) classes that emphasize oral communication have been an improvement over traditional (pencil and paper) methods. However, to be fluent in a L2, learners need to receive comprehensible input through frequent exposure to that language (Krashen, 2000), ideally through a “multi-sensory experience” (Koolstra & Beentjes, 1999, p. 53) and “multi-sensory language teaching” (Baltova, 1999, p. 31). However, as a way of providing comprehensible target language input to learners in a classroom, only auditory and visual modes are generally used. As a result, the methodology used by a L2 teacher may influence a learner’s performance both positively and negatively, if neither of these is a strong component of the students’ learning style. As students advance in the elementary grades, the emphasis gradually shifts to mainly auditory approaches. With such emphasis, visually dominant learners may tend to lose interest, and become less motivated. The learners become accustomed to book work, “English” teacher talk, and rote learning, components of approaches, which are easier to

2 teach, have less preparation, low-level noise, and may produce fewer classroom management problems. Second language teacher’s state that the learners who excel in French as a Second Language (FSL) tend to: a) come from a romance language background; b) have had prior experience in a French immersion school; or c) speak French outside of the school setting. Outside of the formal classroom, they should benefit from being exposed to a more comprehensible input of the L2 whether through interactions with family members or peers. Another powerful and motivational source of target language input is television. The use of first language (L1) subtitles is also becoming increasingly widespread. The influence of Cable News Network (CNN) and its subtitled news has become a common way of receiving information from all over the world. A plethora of subtitled movies, sitcoms, soap operas, and newscasts are also increasingly available. Second language television can present naturalistic uses of the L2 through idiomatic expressions and colloquialisms and increase awareness of cultural forms and practices. Subtitling may be particularly effective because the resulting mode of presentation enhances the visual as well as auditory channel, ideally permitting simultaneous processing of the input. One area of enrichment may be vocabulary, leading to an increase of confidence in the L2, awareness of various formulaic language units, and exposure to the idiomatic expressions of the culture and their appropriate use in the language. Adults who have spent an extended period in a new culture, armed only with a formal knowledge of the new language, shared anecdotally the numerous embarrassing moments when they have

3 used expressions with connotations that were inappropriate for the cultural or social setting, based on the literal English translation (Ellis, 1988). Input-based methodologies may offer an improvement on this approach. However, what would be the effect if a learner’s preferred learning style were also considered? In the FSL classroom is there a preferred learning environment or are there preferred learning styles that may have an impact on French language acquisition? This provides a promising area for research. The researcher’s goal in this study is to explore the effect of learning style on the French second language acquisition (SLA) of English speaking learners exposed to a French and English standard and reversed subtitled film. This instructional technique combines auditory and visual presentations in a currently familiar medium. It is a readymade (“tout prêt et prêt à servir”) motivational resource, whose possibilities range from vocabulary to grammar, sentence structure, translations, story webs, script, drama, communicative experiences, discussions, and fluency. The use of this teaching resource in our local educational setting is a novelty. However, subtitled film with a topic relevant to the learners’ interests has the potential to provide motivation to the learner, increase confidence level, and reduce learner anxiety by providing comprehensible input by means of a multi-sensory experience. A subtitled film is also likely to impact at least three of the major learning styles: auditory, visual, and auditory-visual, and provides a novel classroom learning experience for the majority of the subjects. In the North American culture, one is exposed to combinations of visual and textual messaging in most aspects of our society, e.g., billboards, cartoons, slogans, road signs, and

4 packaging products. The latter contain cross-lingual advertising. For example, “shampoo & conditioner” contains a combination of literal and interpretive messages. It is translated into French as, “shampooing et revitalisant.” It is important that students are aware that translations may not always be literal or direct because certain words would not be culturally appropriate or necessarily used in that sense (as previously noted). Could subtitles in a very literal or direct French language film produce comprehensible input to learners in a L2 setting? Could subtitles be used to bridge the gap between the known and the unknown information? Vocabulary acquisition is one aspect of SLA that might benefit from such exposure. “Fluency is only a part of overall language proficiency” (Harley, Allen, Cummins, & Swain, 1993); other elements include pronunciation, grammar, reading (comprehension), writing, and in this case, vocabulary. The element of vocabulary has been selected as the primary focus of this study because the researcher’s goal is to improve a learner’s overall language proficiency by targeting part of the aspect that constitutes it. Vocabulary learning is also relatively easy to measure by means of suitable tests. It can also be argued that a quick speed of delivery alone does not constitute oral fluency. “Fluency is not strictly limited to features. . .such as hesitations, repair, and rate, and amount of speech. . . Students who are rated low in fluency are also somewhat low in proficiency. . . O.oher factors influencing oral fluency need to be proficient such as grammar, pronunciation, and vocabulary to mention a few” (Riggenbach, 1991, p. 434). Relevant research has indicated that fluency ratings are affected by “grammar, vocabulary, and pronunciation” (Lennon, 1990, p. 408; Freed, 1995, p. 135).

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B.

Review of Literature on Learning Styles Many factors influence how well people can learn what we want to teach them. For

example, mental perspective, which is shaped by the learner’s age, gender, generation, culture, beliefs, and attitudes, influences the learning process. Education (formal and informal), intelligence (degree and type of intelligence), disabilities (physical, neurological, and neurobiological), and language fluency affect how people learn also. In addition, a teacher must be aware of the learning environment, reasons for learning, learning strategies, sources of motivation, and an individual’s preferred learning style (Stuart, 1992). Theories that categorize the way that people process information not only offer insight, but also provide the basis for increasing the effectiveness of communication. Awareness of how another person understands best provides a means of increasing the effectiveness of communication, and effective communication increases the likelihood that the message (or lesson) will be understood, applied, and retained more readily. In essence, Learning Style is “the biologically and developmentally imposed set of characteristics that make the same teaching method wonderful for some and terrible for others” (Dunn & Griggs, 1988, p. 3). This study addresses the impact on vocabulary acquisition of exposure to a subtitled film in relation to learning styles. Significantly, learning styles are not dichotomous (black or white; present or absent), but generally operate on a continuum or on multiple, intersecting continua. For example, a person might be more extroverted than introverted, more closure-oriented than open, or equally visual and auditory but less kinaesthetic and tactile. Few people if any could be classified as having all or nothing in any of these categories (Ehrman, 1996).

6 In essence, Wyman (1996) classified learning styles and modalities as sensory. These styles empower the teacher to determine a student’s learning style preference by identifying the student as visual dominant, auditory dominant, or tactile (kinaesthetic) dominant. In addition, Ehrman (1996) discussed various learning styles relevant to L2 learning, termed as sensory preferences, which can be categorized as four main areas: visual, auditory, kinaesthetic (movement-oriented), and tactile (touch-oriented). Using a multi-sensory teaching strategy or method such as subtitled film, the opportunity to acquire a L2 may be broadened, that is, a majority of the needs of the various learning styles that exist in a regular classroom, may be met. Dunn and Dunn (1978) focused on manipulating the school environment through the learning style methods. They believed that learning style reflects the manner in which elements of the five basic stimuli, those of environmental, emotional, sociological, physiological, and psychological stimuli affect an individual’s ability to perceive, interact with, and respond to the learning environment. Renzulli (1997) recommended varying teaching strategies and uses “The Total Talent Portfolio” (TTP) as a vehicle for systematically gathering, recording, and using information about students’ abilities, interests, and learning style preferences. Students and teachers cooperatively review and analyze best-case samples of students’ work, as well as information resulting from interest and learning style assessment scales to make meaningful decisions about necessary curricular modifications and enrichment opportunities. Gardner (1993) suggested that each individual has seven distinct areas of intelligence: linguistic, musical, spatial, logical-mathematical, bodily kinaesthetic,

7 interpersonal, and intrapersonal. He believes that individuals’ abilities will differ in each area as will their learning style and he does not consider this a “learning style” model. He views intelligence as a capacity geared to a specific content and style, as a general approach that can be applied equally to all content. Grasha-Reichmann Student Learning Style Scales (GRSLSS) by Anthony Grasha and Sheryl Reichmann are a social interaction model, and classifies students as avoidant, participative, competitive, collaborative, dependent, and independent (Suskie, 2002, Social Interaction Instruments section, ¶2). Other researchers have worked on personality factors and on how they affect learning styles. Kolb (1976) describes (along two axes) how learners both perceive and process information. He labels the “perception” axis, abstract-concrete, and the “processing” axis, active-reflective. These two axes delineate four quadrants or types of preferred learning styles. Kolb’s well-established model, “Experiential Learning Cycle” (1984), identified “types” of people as a) accommodator (concrete/ active), b) diverger (concrete/reflective), c) assimilator (abstract/reflective), and d) converger (abstract/active). Kolb (1986) furthered this theory by stating that to be most effective, a teaching situation should move through these “learning styles” in a prescribed sequence, in order to maximize the effectiveness of a learning situation. Specifically, instruction should move from “feeling” (a concrete experience), to “watching” (reflective observation), then to “thinking” (active conceptualization), and finally to “doing” (active experimentation). Earlier than Kolb, Gregorc (1979) also used two axes to describe learning styles. He describes perception along an axis from abstract to concrete and ordering of information along an axis from random to sequential. Moreover, he enabled people to categorize their

8 strengths as abstract-sequential, abstract-random, concrete-sequential, and concreterandom. Later, Keirsey and Bates (1984) added the factor of personality. Using the personality descriptors developed by Myers and Briggs in 1962 (based on the work of Jung) (Myers & McCaulley, 1985), they describe four types of learners in terms of how personality affects the learning environment and one’s ability to learn. The inventory is classified as: 1. Sensing/Judging personality types value service and belonging. Their preferred learning style is concrete. 2. Sensing/Perceiving personality types value freedom and spontaneity. They learn best with variety, action, and entertainment. 3. Intuitive/Feeling personality types value personal growth and learn through relevance, cooperation, and application. 4. Intuitive/Thinking personality types value competence; they learn best through theory, concepts, discovery, and experimentation. This is the most widely used personality inventory to date. The instrument provides an accurate picture of a person’s personality type. Learning style is thus a complex area of research, and no learner fits neatly into a given category. In order to clarify the problem and solution, this research will focus on the sensory mode, that is, the auditory and visual components, as it relates to SLA theories. Classroom modifications made to take advantage of student learning strengths are very valuable. However, it is also necessary for students to develop alternative learning strategies and thinking skills to prepare them for the tasks that require specific modalities.

9 As an example, the auditory dominant learner will periodically face problems that require a hands-on solution, as the visual dominant learner will encounter problems and situations that demand the use of kinaesthetic and/or auditory skills. Consequently, we need to find a balance between building on students’ natural strengths and developing an adequate range of alternative learning strategies. “If there is harmony between a)the student (in terms of style and strategy preference) and b) the instructional methodology and materials, then the student is likely to perform well, feel confident, and experience low anxiety” (Oxford, 2001, p. 359).

C.

Review of Literature on Second Language Acquisition The other field of learning theory in which this study is grounded relates to second

language acquisition (SLA), specifically the role of “input” in the L2 development process. One of the most prominent theorists has been Stephen Krashen (1985). Although considered controversial, his theory of SLA has had a large impact on L2 teaching and research since the 1980s. He believed that language “acquisition” is typical of children and adults who are in informal learning environments, yet much “learning” occurs in more formal but limited situations where language is being taught. Krashen argued that the value of L2 classes lies not only in the grammar instruction, but is also in their potential to provide “comprehensible input.” One means of achieving this is through suitably modified “teacher talk,” which is characterized for example by simple and succinct vocabulary. Krashen (1985) stated there are also several ways in which exposure to out-of-class (naturalistic) L2 settings can facilitate acquisition, especially for the intermediate level learner. First, it is very clear that the outside world can supply more input; for example,

10 living in France, where French is spoken, can result in an all-day L2 “lesson” (listening). Second, the range of discourse that the student can be exposed to in a L2 classroom is quite limited. No matter how natural an environment a teacher designs, there is simply no way that the classroom can match the variety of the outside world, and will probably never be able to overcome its limitation, nor is that its role. Its role is not to substitute for the outside world, but to bring students to the point where they can begin to use the outside world for further language acquisition (Krashen, 1985). The classroom accomplishes this goal in three ways: a) It supplies the L2 input required for learners to progress in SLA and understand “real” language to at least some extent. b) It makes the learner conversationally competent, by giving the learner tools to manage conversations despite a less than perfect competence in the L2. c) It promotes writing fluency. In contrast to Krashen (input/listening), Richard-Amato (1988) and Swain & Lapkin (1995) theorized that output (speaking) could play a substantial part in the language acquisition process, as it not only helps in receiving comprehensible input (listening), but that it offers opportunities for practice and seems to be a valuable means for testing hypotheses. This is by means of the feedback received from the interlocutor. Comeau (1982) agrees with Richard-Amato (1988) that student-to-student interaction between capable and competent partners allows for the maximum degree of communication. Nevertheless, this represents a challenge for the teacher, since Young (1990), Price (1991) and Loughrin-Sacco (1992) concur that in the case of students in beginning French classes, speaking was considered the highest anxiety-causing activity. The theories of Vygotsky (1978) refined the role of interaction in SLA. When a

11 student is ready to learn and is in the area of potential development, the student is in a “zone of proximal development.” Krashen states a similar idea through the formula i+1 (the i is the student’s present level of learning; 1 that the concept to be learned or input is one-step beyond their level of learning). Both terms imply two levels--actual and potential development. Where Vygotsky stresses the importance of social interaction, Krashen stresses the nature of the input, minimizes the role of the output, and believes language can be acquired simply by comprehending input. Unlike Krashen and Vygotsky, Swain, and Lapkin (1998) suggest that it is not input per se that is important to SLA but input that occurs in interaction where meaningful dialogue is exchanged between L2 learners. Krashen (1985) emphasizes that spoken fluency is not acquired by practicing talk but by understanding language input, listening, and reading. An enormous quantity of input is a necessary condition for acquisition, but it is not sufficient. The input must be comprehensible. Krashen explains that there is a “filter” between our organs of perception (eyes for reading and ears for listening) and our Language Acquisition Device (LAD), (Krashen, 1985) (Figure 1).

Figure 1

Operation of the “Affective Filter”
Filte r || || || || || || ||| ||| ||| |||

Comprehensible Input →

---

Languag e Acquisiti on Device

Acquired Competence

12 He calls this the affective filter. The thicker it is the less input gets past it to the LAD and the LAD acquires less. It operates as an imaginary wall that is placed between the learner and language input. If the filter is activated, the learner is blocking out input. The filter is activated when anxiety is high, esteem is low, or motivation is low. Hence, low anxiety classes are better for language acquisition. In essence, people acquire a L2 only if they obtain comprehensible input and if their affective filters are low enough to allow the input “in.” This study may provide information on the role of input but not interaction. Learners may acquire a L2 by reading listening and understanding messages, thus receiving comprehensible input. The messages may contain vocabulary that is challenging enough so learners can incidentally acquire L2 vocabulary. Acquisition may lead to an understanding that is just beyond the learner’s level of FSL competence. In essence, it may reflect a learner’s acquisition potential to understand FSL without conscious effort at learning. Teachers in a L2 setting must also be aware of individual factors that may affect a learner’s SLA, particularly the type and intensity of their motivation. Many students may want to know another language but they are less interested in the process of learning itself and the dedication it requires, thus easily becoming frustrated and discouraged, lacking the necessary motivation to learn a L2, (MacAulay, 1980). In addition, “self-concept was a greater motivational factor in achievement than intelligence. . .Students achieved higher levels when taught by warm, less dominating teachers” (Bower, Boyer, & Scheirer, 1970, p. 34).

13 Moreover, teachers can spark enthusiasm by engaging students in motivating activities that are practical, useful, constructive, and fun, wherever possible. According to Krashen, when designing second language curriculum, teachers must plan the activities (at i+1) or one-step ahead of the students’ current knowledge; that is the activity must build on existing knowledge, thus the input is assimilated rather than accommodated. Students want and need to know where they are going and what is expected of them. As in any subject, if the goals are unrealistic (e.g., i+25), the low motivated students will find it painful to compete, and as a result they may give up or fail. Motivation of the students “depends on the motivation of the teacher. . .curiosity is often the stepping stone to motivation” (Bower, Boyer, & Scheirer, 1970, p. 13).

D.

Review of Literature on Subtitled Film as Source of Input Subtitled film may offer an effective means of providing comprehensible input to the

learner, using a motivating teaching technique that is unobtrusive and provides low anxiety, high interest, positive attitude and self-confidence, and is multi-sensory so it accommodates students various learning modalities. These are all elements that are key links to viewing subtitled film. In addition, “DVD film provides more pedagogical options and are a rich resource of intrinsically motivating materials for learners” (King, 2002, p. 1). Also, “Showing complete film enhances student motivation to such an extent that students are visibly impressed with how much English they can figure out. Their confidence soars when they realize that understanding a movie is not as difficult as they had originally imagined” (p. 3).

14 “DVD has replaced video as the medium of the new millennium after it hit the market four years ago. DVD is vastly superior to videotape. This is because of its durability, compactness, audiovisual quality, availability, and other interactive features. In educational settings, many classrooms and language labs have been upgraded from VHS to this most popular movie medium” (p. 4). In addition, “Language teachers should prepare for the coming of DVD and consider the benefits of incorporating DVD into language classrooms” (Chun, 1996). From experience and observation, the value and benefits of using films for language learners can be summarized as follows. “When students are provided with well-structured tasks and activities designed to promote active viewing and stimulate involvement for making the most of learning opportunities of movies, there is no doubt that feature films are the most stimulating and enjoyable learning materials for the E-generation” (King, 2002, p. 4). Such enjoyment may be a factor in reducing the affective filter (Above).

When learners are bored, angry, frustrated, nervous, unmotivated, or stressed, they may not be receptive to language input. The focus of this study is the impact of viewing subtitled film on vocabulary acquisition. This is seen as an implicit rather than an explicit process (“learning” in Krashen’s terminology). These are all elements that are key links to viewing subtitled TV programs. According to DeCarrico (2001, p. 286), “explicit vocabulary learning engages students in activities that focus attention on vocabulary.” On the other hand, “A common view in vocabulary studies, is that we have not been explicitly taught the majority of words that we know, and that beyond a certain level of proficiency in a second language, vocabulary learning is more likely to be mainly implicit (incidental)” (p. 289). Lastly, “just

15 as having multiple exposure to a word is important in explicit learning, so it is important for incidental learning. . .a good way to combat this problem is to expose students to extensive reading, sometimes referred to as a ‘book flood’ approach” (p. 289). Viewing a subtitled film in dual modes, that is, both in standard and in reversed subtitling format, is like mentally acquiring a L2 with the assistance of a translator (subtitles) and interpreter (soundtrack), it becomes a weaving experience. The learner has the ability to process the L1 and L2 input twice, so that the information becomes clearer and more understandable by viewing the film both in the standard and reversed subtitled format. Whether one’s strength lies in listening in French and reading in English or viceversa, there is a crossover in the information of the film, which helps fill the gaps in one’s knowledge and understanding. As the learner “joggles” his mind from one language to another, that is from L1 to the L2 and vice versa, looking for that comprehension via translation and interpretation, one fills one’s gap in knowledge, as a result, becoming a mental “cut and paste” activity, between L1 and L2. In essence, this bridges the gap between the known and unknown word(s) and phrase(s). As stated earlier, the SLA

potential of subtitled film is grounded in input rather than interactional theory. According to Lenneberg (1962), it is theoretically possible to acquire language without ever talking. He demonstrated this theory in his description of the case of a boy with congenital dysarthria, a disorder of the peripheral speech organs. The child was never able to speak, but when Lenneberg tested him, he found out that the child was able to understand spoken English perfectly. Although it may be argued that conversation is responsible for language acquisition, it may also be argued that conversation is only one causative variable in SLA, and it is only

16 one way to obtain input. It is possible theoretically to acquire language without participating in conversation. However, language has to be comprehensible, so in a practical sense it may be impossible for someone to acquire a L2 merely by listening to the radio or watching television. SLA may or may not be hindered when not all dimensions are present. As a result, the language input may be simply beyond comprehension. Does

this mean that teachers should consciously try to simplify their speech when they talk to students? Should they think about slowing down, using shorter sentences, a more common vocabulary, using several picture-word associations, or less complex grammar? Cummins (1981) emphasized the importance of understanding the learner’s knowledge of the world in choosing topics of discussion that are familiar to the learner. If the message is completely unknown, it will be of no interest, and the student probably will not attend to its meaning. The learner must focus on the message, which must be something that the learner really wants to hear about or read. Subtitling enables the learner to gain an early understanding of the topic and to evaluate its interest. There is one basic issue, which was has been investigated through research on SLA (Andersen, 1981; Hatch, 1983; Liceras, 1986; Pfaff, 1986; Ritchie, 1978; Scarcella & Krashen, 1980). Are adults and children capable of attaining the same level of proficiency? Some scholars assume essential differences between the adult and the child due to determined changes in maturation, and argue that the adult learner is unable to achieve a level of completeness in L2 equal to L1 competency. In a similar way, Lenneberg (1967) hypothesized that language could be acquired only within a critical period, extending from infancy until early puberty (an important observation for elementary education). More recently, Johnson and Newport (1989) obtained evidence in support of the conclusion that

17 there is a critical period for SLA, and proposed that proficiency in a L2 is related to the age of acquisition up to puberty. After puberty, performance was low and highly variable. When d’Ydewalle and Van de Poel (1999) examined SLA in children and adults through watching subtitled television programs, they found no evidence of a critical period. There was no more acquisition by children in their study than by adults. The SLA did not profit from the more formal language learning at school (Grades 5 and 6). However, unlike the adults, the children tended to acquire more when the foreign language was in the sound track than in the subtitles, suggesting that children need to hear the L2, and read the English (standard subtitling format); whereas adults preferred the opposite (reversed subtitling format). d'Ydewalle and Van Rensbergen (1989) also found that younger children preferred watching movies in the standard format (L1 in the soundtrack and L2 in the subtitles), in contrast to older children and adults who preferred viewing movies in the reversed format (soundtrack in L2 and subtitles in L1). An explanation for the difference in preference could simply be that young children are not provided with sufficient reading capacities to allow reading foreignlanguage subtitles presented. Although d'Ydewalle and Van Rensbergen (1989) demonstrated adult-like reading of subtitles in children from age of 8-years-old on, the study only investigated reading subtitles in the native language (i.e., there was no reversed-subtitling condition). “Reading in a foreign language takes much more time through the lack of contextual (verbal) information” (Cziko, 1978, pp. 473-489) and “through the lack of sufficiently developed phonologically recoding processes” (Van Orden, Johnston, & Hale, 1988). As a child’s reading ability increases with age, older children will likely perform better in reading L2 subtitles, which is a necessary condition to attain language acquisition in the reversed subtitling condition.

18 Do learners process the soundtrack and the subtitles to a film simultaneously? Are subtitles a distraction to the L2 learner? Which subtitling option better improves a learner’s SLA, the standard or the reversed mode? (Table 1).

Table 1

Options for a L2 Learner

OPTION Soundtrack Subtitles Standard L2 L1 Reversed L1 L2 Many studies focus mainly on improving TV programs for the hearing-impaired (Baker & de Kanter, 1981), and others examine the effects of standard and reversed subtitling modes, with children and adults. Sohl (1989) demonstrated that another prerequisite for language acquisition to occur is that children and adult viewers should be able to process the text in the subtitle, simultaneously with the verbal message in the audio. Using a reaction time test, Sohl’s study obtained indirect evidence that reaction times were slower when subjects watched the (standard) subtitled film instead of the un-subtitled film. However, both children and adults do listen to the audio involving the unknown spoken language while they are engaged in processing the subtitle. Although more processing resources are needed in such cases, it suggests that both children and adults made an effort to process the foreign language in the sound track, thus, processing simultaneously the written and spoken information (see also d’Ydewalle, Van Rensbergen, & Pollet, 1987). d'Ydewalle and Van de Poel (1999), concluded that children (ages 8-12; grades 3-6) tended to acquire more when the foreign language was in the soundtrack/audio, than in the subtitles, that is, in the standard subtitling format, rather than the reversed format. The results of the vocabulary test indicated substantial acquisition effects for both standard and

19 reversed subtitling conditions, regardless of the similarity between the native and foreign language. Performance in tests on syntax and grammar acquisition remained relatively poor. d'Ydewalle G. and Pavakanun, U. (1995) studied native English-speaking university students studying Dutch as a second language, who were assessed on vocabulary, sentence construction, and movie comprehension. They reported that subtitles, regardless of the subjects’ knowledge of the L2, in the standard or reversed condition were a benefit to the subjects. It was concluded that adding the English soundtrack to the Dutch subtitles did not disturb one’s ability to focus on the movie, in fact, subtitles helped in the understanding of the movie. Interestingly, males understood better than females; older students acquired more language (vocabulary) than younger students did. Moreover, Roffe (1995) states: “Techniques of language transfer by means of subtitling. . .for multi-lingual development. . .the audience hears the sound track, understands it completely, partially, or not at all, and sees the translation simultaneously with the images” (p. 215). In essence, subtitling is particularly useful to L2 learners because it supplies them with the three different channels of information: the pictorial information, the sound track, and the translation of the text in the subtitles. Koolstra van der Voort & Kamp (1997) in a 3-year panel study tested subjects (grades 2 and 4 Dutch elementary students) and reported that watching standard subtitled foreign television programs was found to stimulate the development of decoding skills, because reading subtitles does provide an opportunity to practice word recognition. Subtitles provide no practice in comprehending normal texts and have to be read quickly and accurately. This leaves little opportunity to absorb the information presented in the subtitled film and reflect on it. Therefore, it is doubtful that children’s reading comprehension profits much from watching subtitled foreign-language programs. However,

20 “there is evidence that one sub-skill of reading comprehension, vocabulary, may profit from watching subtitled programs” (Neuman & Koskinen, 1992). Lambert, Boehler,

and Sidoti (1981) found that when English elementary pupils in Grades 5 and 6 French Immersion classes with advanced training in L2 were exposed to a standard subtitling format, it did not improve SLA. In their research, they transcribed dialogues of radio programs into screen texts, with various simultaneous presentations of the messages such as newscasts, radio dramas, and call-in programs. This study employed a) standard subtitling format (voice in L2 and subtitles in L1) and b) reversed subtitling format (voice in L1 and subtitles in the L2). Two conclusions are of interest: i) Subjects who received the standard subtitling format and testing in L2, performed worse or did not differ significantly from the worst possible combinations in all posttesting comparisons, suggesting that subtitling under usual conditions does not improve SLA; and ii) Subjects who received the (reversed subtitling format), L1 in audio, L2 in subtitles) and testing in the L2, performed surprisingly well. Interestingly, reversed subtitling provided the dominant English language through the transient auditory channel, which gave the subjects more time to match the message with the translated text in the subtitles. Moreover, the reversed subtitling format provided a convenient structure for relating a message, picked up automatically through the easy to follow L1 sound track, to the continuously present script in the L2. In addition, after having listened to the audio channel, subjects inputted the subtitle with a set of translations to confirm or verify their understanding of the passage. In the standard subtitling condition, subjects did not listen automatically to the French sound track, but in some

21 cases, the added subtitles increased subjects’ understanding of a program, which is auditorily given in their L1. Further research was needed to clarify one’s preference of the standard or reversed subtitled condition. Intriguing is the especially good performance in the reversed subtitled condition. One can conclude that learners in the French immersion classes mirror the preference of the reversed subtitled mode of the adult learners (See d’Ydewalle & Van de Poel, 1999). In contrast, a study conducted by Holobow, Lambert and Sayegh (1984) reported that (Anglophone) elementary subjects (grades 5-7) learning a L2 were more proficient in the reversed subtitling mode than in the standard subtitling mode. They argued that two channels were processed in the reversed subtitling condition and only one channel in the standard subtitling condition. This may be due to their (instructional) reading level ability in the French language, and proficiency with their home (English) language. It is this researcher’s experience that if an individual approaches similar proficiency in both languages, the subtitles may prove to be a distraction. Some learners in the process of learning a L2, or some learners who have strengths in one language and partial strengths in the other, may benefit most from subtitled film. In essence, “the rendering of screen translation is intended to convey meaning to the viewer and enhance enjoyment and this fact has implications for the emphasis of assessment” (Roffe, 1995, p. 222). Koolstra and

Beentjes (1999) in a study involving elementary Dutch children in Grades 4 and 6 (N=246) concluded that: a) standard subtitled television programs seemed to provide a rich context for foreign language acquisition for these subjects, b) they were generally quite motivated to understand what was shown and said on television, and c) L1 (Dutch) subtitles did not distract them from hearing the L2 (English) words, but that “vocabulary acquisition of

22 English words were higher in the subtitled than in the non-subtitled condition. . .English words are better recognized when their translations can be read in the subtitles because recognition of words on the basis of a two-channel input (listening and reading) is easier than on the basis of a one-channel input (listening)” (p. 58). (See also d’Ydewalle, Praet, Verfaillie, & Van Rensbergen, 1991). Moreover, vocabulary acquisition scores were higher for sixth graders than for fourth graders. In addition, “instead of ‘just watching’ the television program as the children in the experiment did, learning effects may be stronger when teachers play the broadcasts repeatedly and analyze with the children parts of the material being viewed. When used correctly, subtitled television programs, through their unique combination of multisensory presentation of information, may add to the variety and effectiveness of educational activities when learning a foreign language” (Koolstra & Beentjes, pp. 59-60). Again, teachers must take into account the age of the learners and their ability level. Selecting to view subtitled film in standard and/or reversed mode(s) may be a critical factor in a learner’s ability to acquire successfully a L2. Reverse subtitling

format fits nicely with current theories of information processing, which stresses the “top down” nature of efficient information processing in reading, as well as comprehension in general. Although reading in a foreign language takes much more time through the lack of contextual (verbal) information (Cziko, 1978), reversed subtitling format provides subjects with the opportunity to process the L1 dialogue automatically onto the L2 script, thus attending to and rehearsing the L2 written transformation of the already comprehended underlying story line. Lambert Boehler, and Sidoti (1981) concluded that for high school subjects the advantages of the reversed subtitling L2 format were seen in tests of comprehension, contextual meaning, phrasing form, and spelling. The potential of this

23 input format is exciting because it could assist even the novice in L2 as they start to develop listening and reading skills, and the benefits might well accumulate with practice and exposure. A recent study conducted by Mokhtar (1997) reported the effects of standard subtitling of television programs. The subjects were Malaysian university students learning Spanish as a second language. The purpose of this study was to investigate viewers’ knowledge of program content under various television translation/subtitle modes and viewing experiences. Findings indicate: 1) Learners who viewed the program without translation/ subtitles had significantly lower scores on a multiple-choice test compared to those who viewed the same program in translations, both under single and repeated viewing conditions. 2) Repeated viewings appeared to help viewers significantly to acquire more knowledge of program content than single viewings. However, effects of repeated viewings were not consistent in all translation modes. 3) Interactions between modes and viewing experiences were statistically significant. This phenomenon can be comprehended by understanding that television is a “dualsensory medium.” In this case, part of the information is conveyed through visual channels and the rest are through auditory channels. In another recent study, Katchen (1996) investigated whether native Chinese speakers in an ESL class found the standard subtitled format to be a help or a hindrance. The following conclusions are reported: 1) Auditory learners disliked subtitles but did benefit from them.

24 2) Most technical vocabulary can be accessed and learned through the standard subtitling format (English audio with Chinese subtitles). 3) With the benefit of repetition and with L1 subtitles, they were able to fill in places they had missed at first viewing and they did learn some new words and phrases. 4) Learners, whose listening skills were not as high, reported depending more on the L1 subtitles even to get the general idea of the story (some found errors in subtitles). Nevertheless, all subjects admitted that with the benefit of repetition and with L1 subtitles (standard format), they were able to fill in places they had missed. Research indicates that a (repeated) viewing of a subtitled film in the standard or reversed modes will lead to some acquisition in the L2 for both children and adults, at least in vocabulary. The difference between the preferred modes for children and adults may be due to a) age, b) grade level (elementary, high school or university), c) present level of language proficiency, d) French Immersion or core French, e) format (standard or reversed). A number of studies of the impact of subtitles have thus attributed positive gains to either the standard or reversed mode. A few studies have attributed such gains to learner preference for either listening or reading It is this researcher’s expectation that the same learners may benefit from watching a subtitled film in two presentation formats, (i.e. the first time in the standard mode, and the second in the reversed mode). If learners have the option to mentally comprehend the input of the L1 and L2 words/phrases, through viewing this dual presentation format, the learners may channel and process the auditory and visual information from the L1 and L2 soundtrack and the L1 and L2 subtitles to their dominant learning style (auditory and/or

25 visual). Thus, compartmentalizing this input, and demonstrating their retention of SLA knowledge, via a pre-test (to establish a prior knowledge baseline) and a post-test mean, regardless if a learner has stronger or weaker listening (auditory), or reading (visual) skills. However, it appears logical that learners who demonstrate having strengths in both auditory and visual skills should achieve the greatest gains. Very little work has been

done in this area with elementary L2 learners in relation to the effect of learning styles. This study will focus on the connection between sensory learning style and SLA through a repeated viewing of a standard and reversed subtitled film. The styles in question will be (1) auditory, (2) visual, or (3) a combination of auditory and visual. The research recognizes that this preference co-exists with other learning styles in the individual. In the review of the literature there were few available studies which directly spoke of this focus on a sensory learning style. Some studies have focused on using repeated viewings of a film in the standard or reversed modes, but none spoke of combining various modes to accommodate a learner’s preferred sensory style. Presenting learners with standard and reversed subtitled film enables them to choose how the input will be filtered, processed, and incidentally acquire L2 competence. The specific medium chosen for this study/research will be a 5-minute clip of a subtitled Disney (DVD) film (viewed twice), of which both presentation modes will be presented to the students, that is, (standard subtitling format), French audio with English subtitles, followed by (reversed subtitled format) English audio with French subtitles. In approaching this study, certain ideas arise for the

researcher. From these ideas, the researcher will formulate the working hypothesis. In order to arrive at the working hypothesis, the researcher will consider certain inquiries,

26 which arise from the search of the literature, as well as ideas arising from personal experience as a teacher.

E.

Definition of Terms Auditory: This is learning through hearing, with its three aspects of receptive,

processing, and expressive language. Such techniques as audiotapes, lectures, debates, discussions, and verbal instructions are important to those who prefer this learning style. Auditory students are comfortable without visual input and therefore enjoy and profit from unembellished lectures, conversations, and oral instructions. They are excited by classroom interactions in role-plays and similar activities. Sometimes, however, they may have difficulty with written work (Oxford, 1990, p. 360). Comprehensible Input: Any message that is understood when reading or listening (Richard-Amato, 1988); vocabulary that should be easy enough that learners can understand it, but just beyond their level of competence “regulated input will lead to acquisition so long as the input is challenging, yet easy enough to understand without conscious effort at learning (Krashen, 1985). Interpretive Meaning: A word or phrase

conveys a particular meaning in another language. As the opposite of a literal translation, an interpretive translation depends upon the different words or expressions that are appropriate and correct to the culture. Knowledge of a culture, and thus conveys an interpretation not available through direct translation. Kinaesthetic: This is learning through physical activity. These learners like to be directly involved with hands-on tasks, moving, touching, and experiencing the learning. Kinaesthetic and tactile students like lots of movement and enjoy working with tangible

27 objects, collages, and flashcards. “Sitting at a desk for very long is not for them as they prefer to have frequent breaks and move around the room” (Oxford, 1990, p. 360). Learning Style/Learning Style Preference: This term is used in a variety of ways in the learning process. Each learner is unique and possesses differences, which might include personality, mental processing, physical levels of activity, and any combination of these differences as well as others. All learners utilise multiple modes of learning but most people display a preference for one style. In early childhood, the students will be rather evenly distributed among auditory, visual, kinaesthetic, or a combination of these. In this study, learning style (mode) and learning style (preference) will mean the learner is auditory, visual, or auditory-visual dominant. Literal/Direct Meaning: Refers to words or phrases that exist in both the L1 and the L2 and can be translated word-for-word. Reversed Subtitling Format: L1 (dialogue) in the audio; L2 in (written) subtitles. Sensory Preferences: Refer to the physical, perceptual learning channels with which the student is the most comfortable (Oxford, 1990, p. 360). Standard Subtitling Format: L2 (dialogue) in the audio; L1 in (written) subtitles. Visual: This style is learning through seeing, and is composed of receptive processing and expressive aspects. These learners rely heavily upon reading, video, and demonstration. Visual students like to read, and obtain a great deal from visual stimulation. For them, lectures, conversations, and oral instructions without any visual backup can be very confusing (Oxford, 1990 p. 360).

28 Vocabulary Acquisition: Is a student’s ability to gain words and ideas, and incorporate them into his/her own language. In this study, it will originate from a French film with English subtitles, and vice versa, as measured by pre and post-tests.

F.

Research Question This research is an exploratory investigation into the impact of certain learning

styles upon the acquisition of a L2, in this case FSL. The proposed study is centred on three group’s learning styles (auditory, visual or auditory-visual) established through an inventory (Wyman, 1996) and examines the results when students are exposed to the specific media teaching technique, of the use of subtitled film. Based on previous experimental findings on learning styles and children’s incidental learning of words in a second language we expect that subtitled film (viewed in standard or reverse subtitling modes) offer a rich context for vocabulary acquisition and understanding a foreign language. Will children be able to discern the separate words that are spoken and/or viewed in that film? The research question to be examined is: In learning a L2, will there be a difference in achievement scores among three learning style groups--auditory, visual, and auditoryvisual when the subtitled medium of film is utilised?. Drawing from the review of the literature, this researcher has formulated the hypothesis that the auditory-visual learning style group will score higher than the auditory or visual learning style group in the pre-test and in the post-test results as measured by the total means. To test this hypothesis, pre-test (before the film) scores and post-test (after the film) scores will be examined with the self-identified learning style.

29 One can draw conclusions from knowledge of the learning styles and from the pre and post-tests results. Other factors such as personality, motivation, and the ability to pay attention are not included, even though they may influence performance. This study focuses only on three sensory learning style preferences 1) auditory dominant, 2) visual dominant, and 3) the duality of the auditory-visual dominant.

30 CHAPTER II DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY

A.

Subjects Letters requesting permission were sent to the Ethics Committee (Appendix A), the

Superintendent at the Windsor-Essex Catholic District School Board (Appendix B), and the Principal of the School (Appendix C). Consent was invited from the students (Appendix D), and the parents of those who chose to participate in the study received a letter of information and a consent form allowing their child to participate in this introductory study (Appendix E). Subjects were two Grade-6 classes with a total sample size of 48. The subjects were of both genders, 33 male and 15 female, and the age range was between 11 and 12. The subjects were English speakers learning French as a Second Language in a school in which this researcher taught. All students were invited to participate; there was no instructorstudent relationship. All students who returned their parent consent forms (Appendix E) were included in the experiment. Students could have chosen to withdraw at anytime. Each student was assigned a student identification number which was necessary in order that the researcher could complete the promise made to report to the parents if they so requested. In this interview, actual scores would not to be released; only the student’s learning style was to be discussed vis-à-vis the ramifications for academic achievement and programming, suggestions for strengthening the alternate learning style, and suggestions for more productive study habits. Upon completion of the study, each student and parent would be invited to this conference.

31

B.

Instrumentation and Procedures The following procedures were administered to each class separately. The researcher

ensured that the second group received the same instructions and followed the same process as the first. The subjects were first told that the researcher was interested in how they learn, and that this experiment would help us to become better teachers, and help them to become better students. They were then administered the “Personal Learning Styles

Inventory” (Wyman, 1996). This inventory was deemed reliable since it had been tested with over 50,000 students and had yielded the same results when compared to others completed by, a) psychologists or counsellors; and b) The Abiator’s Online Learning Style Inventory I/II. The adapted “Personal Learning Styles Inventory” measures two learning styles, which were delineated as the auditory or visual, and a third style auditory-visual was derived from these two scores. There were 40 randomly distributed questions throughout the test, 20 auditory and 20 visual preference questions drawn mainly from (Wyman, 1996) and some from (Abiator, 2000). In the first part, each question was answered by a preferential rating on a 4,3,2,1 scale, (and in the second part, a Yes/No) (Appendix F). On the rating question, the subjects were asked direct questions; for example: “I prefer reading to hearing a lecture.”

32

On the preferential rating scale: 4 equated to strongly agree (elicited a Yes response); 3 equated to agree (elicited a Yes response); 2 equated to disagree (elicited a No response); 1 equated to strongly disagree (elicited a No response). On the second inventory, the subjects were presented with a sentence to which a Yes or No response was elicited: Example: I prefer reading to hearing a lecture ___Yes___No.The instructions that appeared on

the questionnaires were to be read out-loud to the students. Two questionnaires were stapled together, and had assigned student numbers on them (i.e., 1A. . .48A), which remained the same for the pre and post-tests. The first one involved a rating scale (4 to 1), and the second one involved Yes or No responses. The researcher numbered all the packages from 1A to 48A. This work was completed in two sections (1A to 29A and 30A to 48A). Instruction to the students was brief and succinct; (i.e., they were instructed that they were completing two questionnaires, and to answer all the questions as accurately as possible). Pencils and erasers were made available to them. The students completed each questionnaire and test. The students were instructed that they have approximately 30 minutes to complete the questionnaire package. The students all began at the same time. After the time limit, the students were asked to submit their questionnaire package to the researcher. The researcher recorded the student number and checked the name on the tracking class list

33 obtained from the first page of the student’s stapled questionnaire package, and placed it in a secure place. For reliability purposes, both inventories were scored and the average was determined from the two scores. It was expected that some subjects would not be strongly visual nor strongly auditory, but would be a combination (i.e., auditory-visual). In order to determine the three categories, and due to the comparative brevity of the inventories, a randomly selected score, which was greater than 10 percent (difference in the average of the auditory and visual scores), would determine the category. Auditory and visual scores less than a 10 percent difference would categorize the subject as auditory-visual dominant (see Scoring Key, Appendix G). The following examples demonstrate test results and category placement. Each category placement may not have had an equal number of subjects (e.g., 16 per group). In this case, the distribution was 20 auditory, 8 visual, and 20 auditory-visual. On gender, there were 33 boys and 15 girls. Example 1: Test 1 (scale inventory)--a student scored 16/20 for auditory, and 12/20 for visual; Test 2 (Yes/No)--this student scored 15/20 for auditory, and 11/20 for visual. In percentages, the student’s Test 1 and Test 2 results were (77.5% auditory and 57.5% visual). The difference is 20%. Therefore, a student would be classified as auditory (See Table 2).

34 Table 2 Example of Student Score with Auditory Learning Style Test 1 Score % Test 2 Score % Total Scores Average Auditory 16/20 80 15/20 75 31/40 77.5% Visual 12/20 60 11/20 55 23/40 57.5%

The difference in the two scores is 20%, placing this student in the auditory classification.

Example 2: Test 1 (scale inventory) - this student scored 10/20 for auditory, and 14/20 for visual. Test 2 (Yes/No) – a student scored 9/20 for auditory, and 15/20 for visual. In percentage, the student’s Test 1 and Test 2 results were (47.5% auditory and 72.5% visual). Therefore, a student would be classified as visual (Sable 3).

Table 3

Example of Student Score with Visual Learning Style Test 1 Score % Test 2 Score % Total Scores Average Auditory 10/20 50 9/20 45 19/40 47.5% Visual 14/20 70 15/20 75 29/40 72.5%

The difference is 25%, placing this student in the visual classification.

Example 3: Test 1 (scale inventory) - this student scored 17/20 for auditory, and 16/20 for visual. Test 2 (Yes/No) – a student scored 16/20 for auditory, and 15/20 for visual. In percentage, the student’s Test 1 and Test 2 results were (82.5% auditory and 77.5% visual). Therefore, a student would be classified as auditory-visual (Sable 4).

35 Table 4 Example of Student Score with Auditory-Visual Learning Style Test 1 Score % Test 2 Score % Total Scores Average Auditory 17/20 85 16/20 80 33/40 82.5% Visual 16/20 80 15/20 75 31/40 77.5%

The difference in the two scores is 5%, placing this student in the auditory-visual classification.

36 C.

Subtitled Film Testing

In the two-week interval

following the Learning Style Preference Inventories, the second half of the research testing was administered. The design of the multiple-choice pre and post-tests used for this study reflected the format used by a research study conducted by Krashen and Dupuy (1993). In this section, the students were given a 20-question pre-test of material that would appear in the subtitled film. These items were comprised of a French language question with answer choices in English, and material was extracted verbatim from the subtitled film. The English answers were in multiplechoice format consisting of four responses. The correct response was the actual word or phrase that appeared in the written subtitle. The other three choices were generated by the researcher (See Form A, Appendix H). The choices were a combination of false cognates, lexical interferences, (that may look and sound correct). For example, a pre-test question would be in standard format (French question, English response choices):

37 1. Prise de répulsion, le Prince la chasse et c’est alors. . . a) b) c) d) turned her away chased her scolded her consulted her

The students had 20 minutes to complete this pre-test. After completion, the researcher collected the tests, recorded the student number from the pre-test package, and distributed the post-test with its matching pre-test package number. The subjects were instructed to place the post-test package face down until further notice (Form B, Appendix I). The posttest had a blank page at the front and at the back of the booklet to prevent any students from trying to read questions and answers before the next section of the experiment. Following this pre-test, a 5-minute clip of the DVD film “Disney’s Beauty and the Beast” (Read-along) was viewed twice by the learners: first in English with French subtitles (standard format), and second, in French with English subtitles (reversed format). This film was selected according to preferred criteria established by Karamitroglou (1998), an audiovisual translator. He recommended for maximization of the legibility and readability that the inserted text: a) b) c) d) e) appeared at the lower part of the screen, contained no more than two lines of subtitles presented at a time, contained no more than 2.5 screen images per subtitle, contained approximately 35 characters/subtitle, and contained less than 40 characters, because anything over 40 reduces the legibility of the subtitles because font would need to be reduced as well.

38 For optimum viewing of the DVD, (i.e., sight and sound), DVD technology, and audio-visual equipment was utilised (e.g., a projection machine, two stereo speakers, and the classroom’s overhead screen). The film came equipped with multi-language and multisubtitle options of which French and English were used. The language in the film reflected mostly literal, and some interpretive meanings. The target words only occurred once. Light and sound were adjusted prior to the experiment and remained constant across sessions. Speed and clarity of the spoken language was considered, and the recommended colour and timing of the subtitles was taken into account in order to achieve the ideal learning enjoyment. The researcher ensured that there would be no interruptions (i.e., announcements, disruptions at the door, etc.) during the course of the experiment. Regular classroom rules applied during the experiment (i.e., no talking, or sharing of the responses). A title page and a (back) blank page were added to each questionnaire test package, to prevent any students attempting to read items before the researcher’s instructions, or prior to viewing the subtitled film. The subtitled film was viewed first in French with English subtitles (standard format). Immediately following the film clip, the same introductory scene was

replayed, but in the reversed subtitled format, that is, in English, with French subtitles. Upon completion of the film, the students were asked to turn their tests over and begin. The test was completed in approximately 20 minutes. On the post-test, the questions appeared in reversed format (English question, French response choices). For example, question one (eelow):

39 1. Repulsed by her ugliness, he turned her away. a) b) c) d) la chasse la poursuite la frappe la consulte

Correct answers were recorded for pre and post-tests, a mark out of 20 was obtained, and the score was recorded as percentages. The researcher evaluated the pre and post-tests and recorded the student’s score next to their assigned student number. Records of the distribution and submission of the inventory and the pre and post-tests were tracked using the “Student Number Class List.” The purpose of assigning a student number was to provide accurate feedback to the parent and student. Only the researcher was aware of who was assigned the particular student number. Thus, the researcher was able to accurately identify each student’s work, assess and interpret the impact (if any) of learning style on the language acquisition.

40 CHAPTER III DATA ANALYSIS A. Quantitative The scores of the three groups Auditory, Visual, and Auditory-Visual were examined quantitatively using descriptive statistics. Based on the results of the Personal Learning Style Inventory (PLSI), the learners (N=48) were grouped into low, medium, and high learning style scores and categorized within all styles. Auditory scores in rank order (ranging from 0 to 100) allowed for three categories - Low (N=13), Medium (N=21) and High (N=14). Visual scores in rank order (ranging from 0 to 100) led to the following three categories - Low (N=12), Medium (N=22) and High (N=14). Auditory-visual learners in rank order (ranging from 0 to 100) led to these three categories - Low (N=17), Medium (N=15) and High (N=16). The scores for the auditory-visual group were the averages of both the learner’s auditory and visual scores. For example, a score of 70 auditory and 60 visual would result in a 65 auditory-visual score. Thus, the learner’s scores on the personal learning style inventory were the basis for categorizing them in a hierarchy of low, medium and high. Each category e.g., low auditory, medium auditory and high auditory,

(similarly for visual and auditory-visual groups), was examined with respect to pre-test and post-test performance scores. The pre-test consisted of 20 questions in which the question was in French and the four choices (responses) were in English. This format reflects the standard subtitling format e.g., French soundtrack with English subtitles. In the top section of Table 5, the statistics for the three auditory group’s pre-test, as indicated by the means, do not show significant differences among these groups, F(2,45) = 1.43, p>.05.

41 In the lower half of Table 5, these same groupings results were based on a post-test of 20 questions, a reverse of the pre-test. The questions are in English and the responses are in French. This format is referred to as reversed. In these post-test results, the various group means do not show significant differences among these groups, F(2,45) = 0.16, p>.05. However, there are apparent gains indicated when pre-test results are compared to post-test results. The pre-test total mean is 7.54 and the post-test test total mean is 11.69. These statistics may suggest that learning did take place in this phase of the research. Statistical comparisons are not warranted, however, since two different tests were used and normative data were not available for the test scores.

Table 5

Descriptive Statistics – Results of the Auditory Group PRE Auditory Low on Auditory Medium on Auditory High on Auditory Total Low on Auditory Medium on Auditory High on Auditory Total Mean 7.77 8.10 6.50 7.54 11.54 11.52 12.07 11.69 Std. Deviation 3.30 3.16 1.29 2.82 2.82 2.93 3.36 3.08 N 13 21 14 48 13 21 14 48

POST

Table 6 contains the descriptive statistics for the subjects (N=48) on their visual scores. All 48 were placed in rank order and placed into three groups, low, medium, and high on visual scores. The pre-test scores and post-test scores were from the same two tests from which the statistics for the auditory (Table 5) were derived. The top half of Table 6 Visual Group contains the results for the pre-test. Similar to the auditory pre-test scores, these three groups’ results did not indicate any significant differences, F(2,45) = 1.78, p>.05.

42 In the lower half of Table 6 Visual, the post-test results do not indicate any significant differences among the three groups, F(2,45) = 0.22, p>.05. As with the auditory group, the pre-test total mean of 7.54 when compared to the post-test total mean does suggest that, positive learning may have occurred.

Table 6

Descriptive Statistics – Results of the Visual Group PRE Visual Low on Visual Medium on Visual High on Visual Total Low on Visual Medium on Visual High on Visual Total Mean 6.83 8.36 6.96 7.54 11.50 12.00 11.36 11.79 Std. Deviation 2.37 3.57 1.56 2.82 3.07 3.08 3.15 3.08 N 12 22 14 48 12 22 14 48

POST

In Table 7, the results of the auditory-visual group are shown. In the top section, on the pre-test scores, the low on auditory-visual group (N=17) does not differ significantly from the medium on auditory-visual (N=15) nor do each of these groups differ significantly from the high on auditory-visual group (N=16), F(2,45) = 1.21, p>.05. In the bottom section of this table, the results of the auditory-visual group post-test are shown. In the same manner as the pre-test, the post-test results do not indicate significant differences among the three groups, F(2,45) = 0.15, p>.05. However, the pre-test total mean of 7.54, when compared to the post-test total mean of 11.69, does suggest gains in learning by the whole auditory-visual group. Within each level of the group, there were no significant differences.

43

Table 7

Descriptive Statistics – Results of the Auditory-Visual Group PRE Auditory/Visual Low on Auditory/Visual Medium on Auditory/Visual High on Auditory/Visual Total Low on Auditory/Visual Medium on Auditory/Visual High on Auditory/Visual Total Mean 7.76 8.20 6.69 7.54 11.65 11.40 12.00 11.69 Std. Deviation 3.11 3.53 1.30 2.82 3.08 3.11 3.01 3.08 N 17 15 16 48 17 15 16 48

POST

One can conclude that there were no correlations between a learner’s sensory preferred learning style (independent variable) and French second language acquisition (dependent variable) of English speakers when exposed to a French and English standard and reversed subtitled film.

B.

Gender This research was not intended to inquire into gender-based differences, but as a

matter of interest to those who inquire about these results based on gender, a brief quantitative analysis has been included.

44 Results indicated that no differences were found between the boys’ and the girls’ sensory preference and their scores. However, both gender groups recorded positive gains from pre to post-test results (Table 8).

Table 8

Descriptive Statistics and Gender: Auditory PLSI Audio PLSI Pre-test Total Post-test Total Gender Male Female Total Male Female Total Mean 7.76 7.07 7.54 11.79 11.47 11.69 N 33 15 48 33 15 48

Using quantitative descriptive statistics, the subjects were divided into low and high on the Auditory PLSI. In the Total Mean statistics based on gender, there were no significant differences between males and females in the pre-test. The two groups were not evenly distributed, with male: female ratio as 2:1. In a comparison of the pre and post-test results for males, Figure 3 indicates a pre-test mean of 38.8% and a post-test mean of 58.95% with a gain of 20.15%.

45 Figure 3:
12 11 10

Based on Gender (Boys): A Comparison of Pre-test and Post-test Results

Number of Respondents (N=33)

9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100

Scores Expressed in Percentages
Pre-test Post-test

Pre-test Mean: 38.8% / Post-test Mean: 58.95%

Females (Figure 4) showed a pre-test mean of 35.35% and post-test mean of 57.35% with a gain of 22%.

46 Figure 4:
6

Based on Gender (Girls): A Comparison of Pre-test and Post-test Results

5

Number of Respondents (N=15)

4

3

2

1

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100

Scores Expressed in Percentages
Pre-test Post-test

Pre-test Mean: 35.35% / Post-test Mean: 57.35%

The conclusion could be drawn that gender did not play a significant role in this research. Again, one must be cautioned that the group sample of each group is relatively small.

47 CHAPTER IV SUMMARY A. Conclusion The purpose of the research was to test the hypothesis of a positive relationship between the subjects’ personal learning style and their language acquisition by means of a subtitled film. The results obtained may suggest that the use of subtitled film had an overall positive effect in the FSL classroom. This may be due to the format’s accommodation of the three learning style preferences of the two groups tested. The dual mode delivery of the input may have accommodated equally the auditory, visual and auditory-visual learners, since none of the groups achieved higher scores than their counterparts. Although there was value in the PLSI, the research was unable to prove a connection between learning style and achievement. Some learners, especially young students, may “seem particularly single-mode on one or more continua, and while they may possess a personal preference for a particular mode, they are able to work in other modes. . .most people are multi-modal” (Dorwick, n.d., p. 4). These students find value in their chosen mode and may resist or fail in learning situations,which are presented in a different mode. Special education teachers speak of the difficulties in conveying information to students who have problems with receptive (input), processing, in which information is conveyed to the brain for interpretation and storage, or in expression (output) difficulties in either visual or auditory modes. Add to this the variables, hich cannot be controlled such as kinaesthesia, attention span or those due to

48 medication. The learning styles addressed in this study are but two of the prevalent learning styles and their combinations.

B.

Limitations of the Study This was a one-time experiment, which had many limitations, which became

apparent only after the research was conducted. 1. 2. The sample size was not very large or balanced. The self-identification tests may not have been complete enough. The rating scale (4 to 1) did not allow for a neutral response, since “4” and “3” were considered positive and “2” and “1” negative. 3. 4. The method of identifying the learning styles was in itself visual. Tactile and kinaesthetic learners were not part of the self-identified (sensory preferences) learning style. 5. 6. The selection process was extremely brief and limited. Due to time limitations, the study only tested the sub-skills of reading comprehension and vocabulary. It did not address other components of L2 proficiency skills, such as pronunciation, reading, writing, fluency, or oral communication. 7. Only a few “Auditory or Visual Dominant Inventories” exist online for the classroom teacher’s use. Although their reliability and validity may be considered questionable, we were able to locate a well-established inventory that had been tested with over 50,000 students and yielded the same results as tests conducted by psychologists.

49 8. There is an ongoing debate as to what the best measuring tool is. There is no valid test designed purposefully for vocabulary acquisition and subtitled film (in DVD format), as each test varies according to the subject matter. In this study, the format was modelled on previously published studies. Upon completion of the process, one can reflect, that on the positive side, it is a beginning step, as it has yielded some positive results. The study suggests that overall, French language acquisition has occurred, and that subtitled film, even from a novelty perspective, may be an effective way to learn L2 vocabulary. Further research on the issue could investigate: a) whether removing the subtitles would decrease such learning,

b) whether viewings would increase such learning, c) the ideal presentation modes of a subtitled film (standard vs. reversed),

d) the ideal pre-test format: L2 questions with L1 answers or the reverse, e) the ideal post-test format: to have L1 questions with L2 answers or the reverse; or both the questions and answers in L2, f) whether administering to a larger sample (from children to adults) would standardize the pre and post-test formats providing validity to the results (i.e. which test (Form A or Form B) do L2 learners find easiest, most challenging and most beneficial for L2 acquisition and use it as both the pre and post-tests), g) the effects of reading, writing, spelling, and oral communication. The subjects may have experienced the learning benefits of subtitles, but it would be interesting to explore the long-term effects of subtitles, perhaps by extending the short film clip to longer time increments. Lastly, a researcher could conduct longitudinal studies,

50 more field studies, examine, explore, and investigate the effects of subtitled film on a L2 other than French (i.e., Italian students learning English in Italy), using a variety of academic levels as subjects. Also, professionals (doctors, nurses, lawyers, interpreters etc.) who have patients or clients with limited competency in English, as well as (retired) adults who are interested in learning some L2 vocabulary (expressions and phrases) for the purpose of travelling or self-satisfaction. The acquisition of a L2 consists of the ability to read, write, and speak the language, and hopefully to think in the new language without the necessity to think in English (L1) first. Given the short and limited time factor of this experiment, it is presumed that a longitudinal study with prolonged and repeated exposure to viewing subtitled films would better reflect the reliability content set out in the style of pre and post-tests that were designed for this investigation. The potential competency

in acquiring L2 vocabulary through subtitled film may strengthen one’s ability to become fluent in the French language. Other components such as grammar, pronunciation, spelling, writing, reading activities with the subtitled soundtrack on or off, small group interactions, and communicative competence through class presentations and experiences may be experienced. Which presentation mode of viewing a subtitled film would yield the highest achievement (according to ages and abilities)? For example, would L1 in audio and the L2 in subtitles be more beneficial than the reverse? Which is the best format for pre and post-tests? A preferred way of presenting a subtitled film as well as a preferred way of constructing pre and post (bilingual) tests so students achieve optimum performance is a goal for future research. In order to gain L2 fluency, the exposure to subtitled film throughout one’s daily life and repeated viewing of well-scripted and translated movies, can reduce the typically

51 frustrating and tedious formal L2 setting into a lifelong enjoyment of an innovative and constructive way of acquiring a L2. Recently, companies like APEX of China have designed a DVD player with capabilities of viewing any DVD around the world including NSTC and PAL systems. Until recently, DVDs have had closed captions included for the hearing impaired. Would it not be interesting if DVDs began offering more language options for acquiring a L2? In addition, countries like Switzerland, whose official languages are French, German, Italian, and Swiss, are capitalizing on the multi-lingual format, as they have DVDs available in many languages. As an officially bilingual country, Canada offers many DVDs in French and English. The United States has many DVDs available in English and Spanish. The reality of multiculturalism is ever-present around the world. Given the potential success and capabilities of DVD film, it is only a matter of time before countries begin offering a wide selection of a multi-lingual DVD format. The United States (and recently Canada) has been the first in introducing “Disney’s multi-lingual DVDs” (English, French, Italian, Spanish, and German in audio and/or subtitles). Should positive results of using such resources in the language classroom over time, companies will not only offer more language options on DVDs, but writers and translators will have to do their absolute best in translation and interpretation. Schools, colleges, and universities may use subtitled film to teach a L2, e.g. critically analysing the written and spoken language for a specific outcome, memorizing vocabulary words, phrases, and expressions, and using it in day-today living, working, or travelling, in hopes of enhancing overall language proficiency. It would also be interesting to investigate if the duration of a subtitled film has an impact on learners’ attention span.

52

C.

Perceived Usefulness of the Study There are many issues, some controversial, surrounding the process of SLA. This

study attempted to match learning modalities and SLA via L2 film that is age and ability appropriate for elementary students. The goal was to enhance the learning of a L2 by means of an innovative and motivating methodology, beginning with the identification of the students’ learning styles, focussing on the sensory auditory or visual styles, and providing feedback to teachers and students on techniques for accommodating these styles. The purpose was to reinforce the existing modality, as well as to enhance others, since the theory behind the identification of learning styles implies that how much individuals learn has more to do with whether the educational experience accommodates their particular style of learning than with their ability. In fact, educators should not ask, “Is this student smart?” They should ask, “How is this student smart?” Research shows that as children develop, they appear to use one modality in preference to others in learning, but modality dominance tends to be overcome by most children around the age of nine. Slower developing individual modalities is a natural process, which should not be confused with other disabilities, and educational programs should be developed to suit the modality preference of the individual child (Wepman, 1968). Although this research was unable to prove a significant connection between learning styles and achievement, it does not preclude the possibility of further research on this topic. Classrooms may have students with learning styles, which do not match teaching styles. Ideally, L2 learners in an elementary FSL class may find it beneficial to be exposed to a bilingual teaching style approach; a subtitled film (in dual formats) has the ability to

53 deliver a similar style, that is, the L1 in audio and visual modes, as well as the L2 in audio and visual modes. In a L2 classroom situation, a teacher with a single teaching style

preference (e.g., auditory dominance-lecture), who becomes aware that his/her class is composed of auditory, visual, and kinaesthetic learners, may consider altering lesson implementation formats. This could be by changing from a lecture dominant teaching style to a mix of various instructional methods that address auditory, visual, and kinaesthetic teaching and learning characteristics. Similarly, a visual or kinaesthetic learner in a predominantly lecture style class may need to strengthen his/her auditory modality, so it matches with that of the teacher’s teaching style. Thus, both the L2 learner and a teacher may benefit by familiarizing themselves with the characteristics of the three most prevalent learning styles-auditory, visual, and kinaesthetic (Appendix K). A positive way to motivate teachers to adopt a learning style approach is to administer one of the readily available learning style inventories to the teachers themselves. When they see how they themselves vary from their peers in learning style preferences, they may be more inclined to appreciate differences among their own students and apply a learning styles approach in their own classrooms.When planning a lesson, a teacher may now want to consider reviewing, a) the learning strengths of the auditory, visual, or kinaesthetic/tactile learner, b) the strategies for the auditory, visual, or kinaesthetic/tactile learner, and c) the teaching strategies for the auditory, visual, and kinaesthetic/tactile learner. As students discover their existing learning traits and strategies, teachers could empower them to be responsible in enhancing their sensory modes (i.e., auditory, visual, or kinaesthetic) (Appendix K). Subtitled film may be used as a motivating medium in the L2 classroom. Its multi-sensory capabilities may enhance the understanding of dialogue and

54 subtitles, which may be analysed through classroom activities. Students may acquire language skills such as incidental vocabulary, interpretation, written work and reflection, and social skills such as collaboration, communicative experiences, and interactions. Naturalistic L2 learners may benefit most from exposure to target language films. However, they may be effective in instructional settings if the level of difficulty is adjusted for grade and level, as well as for purpose. Various types of comprehension are possible: True or False, multiple-choice, short answer, journal writing, essay, critique, debate, roleplay compare and contrast, and translation. Subtitles may increase a learner’s interest and therefore provide an effective way to promote reading literacy. Examples of extension activities are: teaching a character trait through teamwork in “Remember the Titans,” or teaching ethical principles which develop fairness, caring, and respect in “Hamlet.” These and other examples are found on the website, www.teachwithmovies.org and could be translated from English to other languages if necessary. To assist any L2 teacher with the design and implementation of a subtitled, DVD-based, lesson plan, a practical questioning technique format may be used to elicit and reinforce oral/communication and higher-level thinking skills, namely Bloom’s Taxonomy (Appendix L). Bloom’s general blueprint offers six levels of questions/thinking. The teacher is ultimately responsible to supply his/her learners with challenging but attainable educational objectives. Teachers are free to select any questions from the six levels of thinking that corresponds to his/her student's current and potential learning level. Some students may not go through these levels in order, and some may actually skip them altogether. This process may allow teachers to present ideas and concepts at many different levels to meet the needs of a variety of learners. To

summarize: the results of this study may encourage FSL teachers to examine their teaching

55 techniques, and incorporate innovative techniques based on subtitled films into their existing methodologies. Such resources may be used in conjunction with current L2 textbooks, whereby the teacher may extract key vocabulary words or phrases from a subtitled film and generate vocabulary lists to complement existing L2 material. They may also be used to develop other aspects of language proficiency, such as pronunciation, idiomatic expressions, reading, and written expression.

D.

Implications of the Study Educational research frequently seems to have taken place without an overall plan.

Teachers, ultimately, decide whether the recommendations of research make sense and are applicable to the classroom. This research promotes the usage of subtitled film as a positive attempt to offer an opportunity for innovation in teaching and learning in FSL. The results appear to be inconclusive. One reason may be that there is no universally accepted definition of the term “learning style,” even though we hear this term being used constantly and with a sense of authority. “The most popular definition includes cognitive, affective, and physiological factors that affect how learners perceive, interact with, and respond to the learning environment” (Keefe, 1979). From this definition have arisen numerous models and research instruments that have not yet been integrated into a single learning style theory. Some of their principles are seen, in parts, in the various models so that there are similarities across them. The good news is that most teachers do agree that learning styles exist. How can you deny that some students prefer reading books, while others prefer books on tape?

56 Researchers, however, feel that validity and usefulness are called into question unless they are validated by a study. There is some danger in the use of single study, which will have far-reaching effects on education. Teachers must develop an eclectic approach since their clientele is so diverse. One must take care not to place a student in a single learning style without taking into account other factors such as age, experience, and learning environment. What about this study? Although an introductory investigation, its results suggested that either subtitled film can augment learning, or the subjects found the post-test easier than the pre-test, thus accounting for the positive gains. This success occurred in each learning style tested (between pre-test and post-test scores). This result cannot be explained fully at this time. It is only one technique, perhaps a starting point to alleviate ennui in order to promote learning. Educators must remember that these learning styles are presented in a simplified manner, usually as a dichotomy, while in reality they are simply points on a continuum and are subject to change over time and experience. Another important thought for educators is that frequently, success in learning depends heavily upon the educator’s own personality and feelings about an approach. Students have personalities and feelings about various approaches. Finding a match between teacher and student is a condition of success. The process of viewing a film in subtitles (standard and

reversed) is very complicated. The physical labour itself of moving the eye over the screen, attending to each word and phrase, as well as the workings of the brain in codifying what is presented to it, stands between us and the total appreciation of the work in the first reading. Usually a film should be viewed more than once to appreciate its full impact and to capture details missed the first time. Teachers could explore and select a resource that is

57 relevant to the learners and has standard and reversed subtitle options. This ready-made resource provides the teacher in a L2 classroom with a wide variety of lesson delivery and evaluation possibilities. Plato wondered how children could possibly acquire so complex a skill as language with so little experience in life. Dante once stated, “There is no knowledge without retention.” Information does not constitute knowledge or learning, of course. In this study, learners have had previous, but basic, formal FSL instruction. Overall, the expected hypothesis was to have the auditory-visual group demonstrate the highest gain over the other two groups (auditory or visual), however, the results suggest that all three groups of learners (auditory, visual, and auditory-visual) demonstrated a knowledge of FSL by retaining various words and phrases of the film as measured by their pre and post-test means.It is this researcher’s hope that both language learners and language teachers will have opportunities to capitalize on this potential resource, which may allow L2 teachers to present ideas and concepts in an alternative way to meet the needs of a variety of learning styles. In the process, the L2 teacher may assist in enriching learners’ language skills, such as vocabulary acquisition, and may ultimately contribute to their development of the global skills of critical thinking, reading, writing and effective communication.

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66

APPENDIX A Letter of Permission to the Ethics Committee

67

2034 Charlene Lane, Tecumseh, ON N9K 1B1 25-January-2003 Dr. L. Morton, Chair, Ethic Committee Faculty of Education University of Windsor, Ontario Dear Dr. Morton: As a graduate student in the Faculty of Education at the University of Windsor, I am writing to request approval for research, which will be conducted to meet the Major Paper requirement for a Masters of Education. The study will inquire whether Grade-6 students can demonstrate French language acquisition via a subtitled (Disney) film, and compare their results with their dominant learning style (auditory/visual). Participation is voluntary and confidentiality is ensured. There are no known risks associated with this study and participants may withdraw at any time. The enclosed Research Proposal outlines the procedure to be followed, a description of the inventory to be used, and letters requesting permission and consent. Should you have any questions, I can be contacted at 519-979-9108 (home) or 519-735-4583 (school), or my advisor, Dr. Diffey, can be contacted at 519-253-3000, ext. 3800. Thank you for your time. Sincerely,

Piero Bachetti Encl.

68

APPENDIX B Letter of Permission to the WECDSB

69

2034 Charlene Lane, Tecumseh, ON N9K 1B1 25-January-2003 Janet Ouellette, Superintendent WECDSB Windsor, Ontario Dear Janet Ouellette: As a graduate student in the Faculty of Education at the University of Windsor, I am writing to request approval for research, which will be conducted to meet the Major Paper requirement for a Masters of Education. The study will inquire whether Grade-6 students can demonstrate French language acquisition via a subtitled (Disney) film and compare their results with their dominant sensory learning style (auditory/visual). Participation is voluntary and confidentiality is ensured. There are no known risks associated with this study and participants may withdraw at any time. I would like to obtain your permission to undertake this experiment with two Grade6 classes at St. Gregory School during the normally scheduled French classes, (date TBA) for the purpose of determining their learning styles, writing a pre-test, viewing a section of a subtitled (Disney) film, and writing a post-test. A verbal confirmation would be much appreciated. Should you have any questions, I can be contacted at my school, 519-735-4583 or my advisor, Dr. Diffey, can be contacted at 519-253-3000, ext. 3800. Thank you for your time and consideration. Sincerely,

70

Piero Bachetti Encl.

71

APPENDIX C Letter of Permission to the Principal

72

2034 Charlene Lane, Tecumseh, ON N9K 1B1 25-September-2003 Fred Lessard, Principal St. Gregory School, Windsor, Ontario Dear Fred Lessard: As a graduate student in the Faculty of Education at the University of Windsor, I am writing to request approval for research, which will be conducted to meet the Major Paper requirement for a Masters of Education. The study will support whether Grade-6 students can demonstrate French language acquisition via a subtitled (Disney) film, and compare their results with their dominant sensory learning style (auditory/visual). Participation is voluntary and confidentiality is ensured. There are no known risks associated with this study and participants may withdraw at any time. I would like to obtain your permission to undertake this experiment with two Grade6 classes at St. Gregory school during two normally scheduled French classes, (date TBA), for the purpose of: determining their learning style (auditory/visual); writing pre and posttests; viewing a subtitled section of a film in English and French. A verbal confirmation would be much appreciated. Should you have any questions, I can be contacted at school or at my home, 519-979-9108, or my advisor, Dr. Diffey, can be contacted at 519-253-3000, ext. 3800. Thank you for your time and consideration. Sincerely,

73

Piero Bachetti Encl.

74

APPENDIX D Student Consent Form

75

STUDENT CONSENT FORM

I am a student researcher, and I am doing a study on the way you learn, and how well you can learn French vocabulary by watching a short section of a subtitled (Disney) film. This study will help me become a better teacher, and you a better student. In this study, you will be doing the following things: completing two brief surveys, two short multiple-choice quizzes, and watching a 5-minute section of a subtitled Disney film (in French and in English). This study will take place during one or two French periods. You will be identified by a number, and your survey and quiz will not have your names printed on them. Only your parents/guardians will have the right to know your results. The data from this study may be used in future research studies. If you volunteer to be in this study, you also have the right to withdraw at any time without consequences of any kind. I also have the right to remove you from this study if circumstances arise, such as, disrupting the classroom environment. I understand what I am being asked to do in this study, and I agree to be in this study. Along with this “Student Consent Form,” I also understand that in order to participate in this study I would need to return the “Letter of Information and the Parent Consent Form” signed.

76 (Please Print Clearly) ____________________ First Name ____________________ Witness ____________________ Last Name ____________________ Date ________________ Signature

77

APPENDIX E Letter of Information; and Parent Consent Form

78

LETTER OF INFORMATION Dear Parent/Guardian, As a graduate student in the Faculty of Education at the University of Windsor, I am conducting a research study that will meet the Major Paper requirement for a Master of Education. The purpose of this study is to determine your child’s learning style preference, focusing on the auditory and visual components. The goal is to investigate the impact of individual learning styles upon the acquisition of French as a second language, via a specific media teaching technique, mainly the use of a subtitled (Disney) film. The existing learning style may be adjusted for maximum results, so that students become better students, and teachers become better teachers. Your child will be asked to participate in a few activities. Specifically, he/she will complete a brief multiple-choice questionnaire on learning styles, and a short multiplechoice pre-test (in French, with answer choices in English). As a medium through which the auditory and visual components can be measured, a (5-minute) section of a subtitled (Disney) film will be viewed twice: once in French with English subtitles, and second in English with French subtitles. Your child will then complete a short multiple-choice posttest (in English, with answer choices in French). Please note that all the students will be assigned a number, and no names will be written on their questionnaire and test. Please refer to the “Parent Consent Form” for further details. Thank you in advance for your support. Sincerely,

79

Piero Bachetti

80

PARENT CONSENT FORM FOR CHILD TO PARTICIPATE IN RESEARCH Title: The impact of learning style on French language acquisition via a subtitled film. Your child is asked to participate in a research study by Piero Bachetti, a Masters student under the supervision of Dr. Diffey and Dr. Morton from the Faculty of Education at the University of Windsor. The results will contribute to a Major Paper and fulfill the requirements for a Master of Education. If you have any questions or concerns about the research, please feel to contact Dr. Diffey or Dr. Morton at (519) 253-3000 ext. 3800, or Piero Bachetti at (519) 735-4583. • PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The study examines the relationship between learning style and French language acquisition through the use of a subtitled Disney film. • PROCEDURES

If you give permission for your child to participate in this study, please be aware of the following: a) b) This is an experiment generally affecting a second language environment; therefore, it will primarily take place during the French period. Work Involved Your child will be involved in paper and pencil tasks (e.g., 2 brief questionnaires and 2 short multiple-choice tests). Your child will also be viewing a (5-minute) section of a subtitled film from the Disney collection. Duration: It will take place during one or two French periods.

c)

81 d) Follow-up Upon completion of the study, each student and parent will be invited to a conference in which only the learning style will be discussed and its ramifications for the student’s programming.

82 • POTENTIAL RISKS AND DISCOMFORTS

There are no perceived risks in this study, since results will be discussed privately and in a manner, which emphasizes only the positive aspects and results. There will be a classroom discussion (teacher-led) as to the meaning of each learning style, its positive qualities, and ways in which one can improve its other side. Using the analogy of right-hand and left-hand preference, both are functional, but one side may be preferred over the other. It is emphasized that this is not a contest, but rather a chance to view one aspect of one’s total learning style. The teacher will explain the major learning styles that work within each learner. • POTENTIAL BENEFITS TO SUBJECTS AND/OR TO SOCIETY

The awareness of one’s learning strengths reinforces existing strengths simultaneously making one aware of any areas, which could be improved by the use of particular strategies. Every educator wants to know which strengths and weaknesses are being indicated. Also, in order that the student may be assisted and understand how he/she can improve oneself. • PAYMENT FOR PARTICIPATION The student will not receive any payment from this experiment. • CONFIDENTIALITY

Students will be identified by a number, and their questionnaire and test will not have their names printed on them. Only students and their parents/guardians will have the right to know the individual result of their child. The data from the subjects of this research may be used in subsequent research studies. • PARTICIPATION AND WITHDRAWAL

Your child may choose whether or not to be in this study. You may withdraw your child at any time. You may exercise the option of removing their data from the study. The investigator may exercise the right to remove your child from this research if circumstances arise which warrant doing so. • RIGHTS OF RESEARCH SUBJECTS

You may withdraw your consent for your child at any time and discontinue participation without penalty. This study has been reviewed and it has received ethics clearance through the University of Windsor Research Ethics Board. If you have questions regarding your child’s rights as a research subject, contact: Research Ethics Co-ordinator University of Windsor Windsor, Ontario, N9B 3P4 Telephone: 519-253-3000, #3916 E-mail: ethics@uwindsor.ca

83 • SIGNATURE OF PARENT/GUARDIAN

I understand the information provided for the study “The impact of one’s learning style on French Language Acquisition using a subtitled Disney film.” My questions have been answered to my satisfaction, and I agree to have my child participate in this study. Please complete this form and have your child return it to school as soon as possible. I have been given a copy of this form. (PLEASE PRINT CLEARLY) _______________________ Name of Parent/Guardian __________________________ Signature of Parent/Guardian ____________ Date

SIGNATURE OF INVESTIGATOR

In my judgement, the parent/guardian is voluntarily and knowingly, giving consent to their child to participate in this research study. _________________________ Signature of Investigator _____________________ Date

APPENDIX F Personal Learning Style Inventory (4 to 1; Y/N)

Personal Learning Style Inventory

Student #______

Please check () the appropriate circle after each statement.  Strongly Agree 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.  Agree  Disagree  Strongly Disagree                            

When I put something together, I always read the instructions first. I prefer to hear a book on tape rather than reading it. When I am alone, I usually have music playing. I prefer reading to hearing a lecture. I can always tell directions like north and south no matter where I am. I love to write letters or in a journal. When I talk, I like to say things like, “I hear ya, that sounds good or that reminds me of something.” I know most of the words to the songs I listen to. It’s easy to talk for long periods of time on the phone with my friends. When others are talking, I usually am creating images in my mind of what they are saying.

8. 9. 10 .

           

 Strongly Agree

 Agree

 Disagree

 Strongly Disagree

11. Without music, life isn’t any fun. 12 . 13 . I am very comfortable in social groups and can usually strike up a conversation with almost anyone. When I recall an experience, I mostly hear the sounds and talk to myself about it.

       

   

14 .

I like music more than art.

   

15 . 16 . 17 . 18 . 19 .

When I recall an experience, I mostly see a picture of it in my mind. I often doodle when I am on the phone, watching TV or in a class. I like reading stories more than listening to stories. I like talking better than writing. I get very distracted if someone talks to me when the TV is on.

                   

20 . 21 . 22 . 23 .

I like spelling and think I am a good speller. I can multiply and add quickly in my head. I can easily remember what people say. I like to write down instructions that people give me.

               

 Strongly Agree 24 . 25 . 26 . 27 .

 Agree

 Disagree

 Strongly Disagree

I prefer new or difficult information to be presented by using posters, books, and/or video. If I have to learn how to do something new or difficult, I learn best if someone tells me how to do it. I remember new or difficult things better if I write it down. I prefer it when my teacher uses the chalkboard, the over-head projector, or posters when they talk about new or difficult topics.

   

   

       

28 . 29 . 30 . 31 .

I can remember more about something new or difficult by talking about it rather than reading about it. When I take a test, I can see my notes or the textbook in my head. I would rather listen and learn something new or difficult than read and learn something new or difficult. I try to remember things by picturing them in my head.

   

       

   

32 . 33 .

When someone is telling me about something, I enjoy listening but I also interrupt often and say something as well. I prefer to read a map rather than listen to someone giving me directions.

   

   

 Strongly Agree 34 . 35 . 36 . 37 . 38 . 39 . 40 .

 Agree

 Disagree

 Strongly Disagree

I enjoy drawing or writing things. I can best remember new or difficult things by listening rather than by reading. I need a quiet place to get my work done. When trying to solve a problem, I will write or draw diagrams to see possible solution. I learn the spelling of new or difficult words best by saying the words again and again. I am good at solving geometric puzzles (e.g. jigsaw puzzles, tangrams, pentominoes, mazes etc.). I like listening to someone talking about new or difficult topics.

               

   

   

   

Personal Learning Style Inventory

Student #______

Please check [] Yes

or No after each statement. Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No No

1. When I put something together, I always read the instructions first. 2. I prefer to hear a book on tape rather than reading it. 3. When I am alone, I usually have music playing. 4. I prefer reading to hearing a lecture. 5. I can always tell directions like north and south no matter where I am. 6. I love to write letters or in a journal. 7. When I talk, I like to say things like, “I hear ya, that sounds good or that reminds me of something.” 8. I know most of the words to the songs I listen to. 9. It’s easy to talk for long periods of time on the phone with my friends. 10 When others are talking, I usually am . creating images in my mind of what they are saying. 11. Without music, life isn’t any fun.

Yes Yes Yes

No No No

Yes

No

12 I am very comfortable in social groups and . can usually strike up a conversation with almost anyone. 13 When I recall an experience, I mostly hear the . sounds and talk to myself about it. 14 I like music more than art. . 15 When I recall an experience, I mostly see a . picture of it in my mind. 16 I often doodle when I am on the phone, . watching TV, or in a class. 17 I like reading stories more than listening to . stories. 18 I like talking better than writing. . 19 I get very distracted if someone talks to me . when the TV is on. 20 I like spelling and think I am a good speller. . 21 I can multiply and add quickly in my head. . 22 I can easily remember what people say. .

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes Yes Yes

No No No

Yes Yes Yes

No No No

23 I like to write down instructions that people . give me. 24 I prefer new or difficult information to be . presented by using posters, books, and/or video. 25 If I have to learn how to do something new or . difficult, I learn best if someone tells me how to do it. 26 I remember new or difficult things better if I . write it down. 27 I prefer it when my teacher uses the . chalkboard, the over-head projector, or posters when they talk about new or difficult topics. 28 I can remember more about something new or . difficult by talking about it rather than reading about it. 29 When I take a test, I can see my notes or the . textbook in my head.

Yes Yes

No No

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

30 .

I would rather listen and learn something new or difficult than read and learn something new or difficult.

Yes

No

31 I try to remember things by picturing them in . my head.

Yes

No

32 When someone is telling me about something, . I enjoy listening but I also interrupt often and say something as well. 33 I prefer to read a map rather than listen to . someone giving me directions. 34 I enjoy drawing or writing things. . 35 I can best remember new or difficult things by . listening rather than by reading. 36 I need a quiet place to get my work done. . 37 When trying to solve a problem, I will write or . draw diagrams to see possible solution. 38 I learn the spelling of new or difficult words . best by saying the words again and again. 39 I am good at solving geometric puzzles (e.g., . jigsaw puzzles, tangrams, pentominoes, mazes etc.). 40 I like listening to someone talking about new . or difficult topics.

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes Yes

No No

Yes Yes

No No

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

APPENDIX G Personal Learning Style Inventory Scoring Key and Researcher’s Category

Personal Learning Style Inventory Scoring Key For the purpose of assessing French language acquisition via subtitled film, this inventory measures auditory and visual learning style preferences (scores in percentages). Auditory Learning Style 2 11 19 32 3 12 22 35 7 13 25 36 8 14 28 38 9 18 30 _____/20 40 ______% (Rating Scale: 4 to 1) Raw Score Percent _____/20 (Yes or No) Raw Score ______% Percent

(Rating Scale) _____% + (Y/N) _____% divided by 2 = (Average) _____ % -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------(Rating Scale: 4 to 1) Visual Learning Style Raw Score Percent 1 15 23 31 4 16 24 33 5 17 26 34 6 20 27 37 10 21 29 _____/20 39 ______% _____/20 (Yes or No) Raw Score ______% Percent

(Rating Scale) _____% + (Y/N) _____% divided by 2 = (Average) _____ % Scenario 1: Subject remained within a 10 point (10%) interval between the auditory and visual measures, so the sensory preference is the Learning Style with the greater score. Scenario 2: Subject exceeded a 10 point (10%) interval between the auditory and visual measures; the sensory preference is the Learning Style with the greater score. RESULT: Student # ______ Researcher’s Category: Auditory, Visual, or Auditory-Visual
Adapted from Pat Wyman, M.A., (1996) The Center for New Discoveries in Learning, “Personal Learning Style Inventory,” and “Personal Learning Style Inventory Scoring Key”; and “Abiator’s Online Learning Styles Inventory Test 1” and “Abiator’s Online Learning Styles Inventory Test 2” (2000).

APPENDIX H Pre-Test (Form A)

Multiple Choice Instructions: Pre-Test (Form A) 1. 2. 3. Read the item(s) in French. Focus on the highlighted word(s). Circle the best English equivalent.

Student # _____

1.

La belle et la bête a) princess, b) queen, c) beauty, d) bold,

wizard king beast beautiful

2.

Il était une fois un Prince qui vivait dans un splendide château. a) kingdom b) castle c) mansion d) villa Par une nuit glaciale, une vieille mendiante se présenta au palais… a) glacial, miser b) cold, beggar c) frigid, sorcerer d) dark, wizard …et lui offrit une rose en échange d’un abri pour la nuit. a) room b) loft c) shelter d) chamber Prise de répulsion, le Prince la chasse et c’est alors… a) turned her away b) chased her c) scolded her d) consulted her …qu’elle se transforma en une jeune et belle magicienne. a) magistrate b) princess

3.

4.

5.

6.

c) d)

enchantress duchess

7.

Pour punir le Prince, elle le changea en une bête monstrueuse. a) rebel b) mock c) punish d) fight Puis, elle lui donna un miroir magique, et la rose enchantée… a) mirror b) armoire c) mirage d) metal …qui fleurirait jusqu’à son vingt et unième anniversaire. a) would grow b) would bloom c) would flounder d) would wilt

8.

9.

10. Pour briser le sortilège, le Prince devrait aimer une femme… a) break, spell b) dissolve, potion c) dissipate, wizardry d) control, sorrow 11. …et s’en faire aimer en retour avant la chute du dernier pétale de la rose. a) wilted b) last c) first d) falling 12. Près de là, dans un petit village, un ravissante jeune fille du nom de Belle… a) beautiful b) ravenous c) sleepy d) vivacious 13. …se hâtait, tout en saluant les villageois, chez le libraire. a) laboratory b) library c) bookstore d) newsstand

14. Qui lui fit cadeau d’un livre. a) gift b) box c) receipt d) cadence 15. La jeune fille prit un air rêveur: a) fresh b) exhausted c) dreamy d) airy 16. J’aime les romans de cape et d’épée. . . a) daring sword fights b) murder mysteries c) cape crusaders d) pirates 17. Merci, merci infiniment. a) infinitely b) very much c) a million d) kindly 18. En chemin, elle rencontra un beau chasseur du nom Gaston. a) lumberjack b) shoemaker c) hunter d) blacksmith 19. Tout le monde en ville est de mon avis, les femmes ne sont pas faites pour lire. a) read b) litter c) mock d) lie 20. Belle, le moment est venu de laisser tes romans et de t’intéresser à des choses plus importantes …Comme moi! a) it’s time you ignore those rumours b) it’s about time you got your nose out of those books c) it’s time you forget the romance novels d) it’s time you resign from your work

APPENDIX I Post-Test (Form B)

Multiple Choice Instructions: Post-test (Form B) Student #______ 1. 2. 3. Read the item(s) in English. Focus on the highlighted word(s). Circle the best French equivalent.

1.

beauty and the beast a) princesse, b) reine, c) belle, d) prince,

magicien roi bête princesse

2.

Once upon a time, a young Prince lived in a shining castle. a) royaume b) château c) manoir d) villa One cold night an old beggar woman arrived… a) froid, glandeur b) glaciale, mendiante c) frigide, sorcière d) gel, pauvre …offering him a single rose in return for shelter from the cold. a) cabane b) petite maison c) abri d) hutte Repulsed by her ugliness, he turned her away. a) la chasse b) la poursuite c) la frappe d) la consulte Suddenly, she transformed into a beautiful enchantress. a) femme b) princesse c) magicienne

3.

4.

5.

6.

d)

duchesse

7.

To punish the Prince, she turned him into a hideous beast. a) se rebeller b) battre c) punir d) lutter Then she gave him a magic mirror and the enchanted rose… a) miroir b) armure c) mirage d) mirador …telling him it would bloom until his twenty-first year. a) deviendrait b) fleurirait c) changerait d) dépérirait

8.

9.

10. To break the spell, he must love another and… a) briser, sortilège b) craquer, écrit c) brouter, sorcier d) perdre, magie 11. …earn that person’s love in return before the last petal fell. a) dernier b) dissolu c) derrière d) premier 12. Nearby, in a small village a beautiful young woman named Belle… a) ravissante b) à la mode c) élégante d) animé 13. She greeted the townspeople and then rushed to her favourite shop, the bookstore. a) magasin des livres b) bibliothèque c) libraire d) kiosque à journaux

14. The owner gave her a book as a gift. a) cadeau b) boîte c) prix d) don 15. A dreamy look crossed Belle’s face. a) fraîche b) tête en l’air c) rêveur d) déroute 16. It’s my favourite!…daring sword fights… a) porter la guerre chez l’ennemi b) se battaient dangereusement c) cape et d’épée d) personnes à combats 17. …Oh thank you, thank you very much! a) beaucoup b) infiniment c) très beaucoup d) remerciements 18. Belle rushed outside, reading as she walked. As Belle walked, a handsome hunter named Gaston ran after her. a) bûcheron b) cordonnier c) chasseur d) forgeron

19. Belle, the whole town’s talking about you. It’s not right for a woman to read! a) lire b) mentir c) être au chômage d) être érudite 20. . . . it’s about time you got your nose out of those books and paid attention to more important things – like me! a) le moment est venu d’enlever ton nez des livres b) le moment est venu de laisser tes romans c) le moment est venu d’oublier les romans d’amour d) l moment est venu de démissionner de votre travail

APPENDIX J Answer Key to the Pre-Test and Post-Test

Beauty and the Beast—la belle et la bête (Answer Key: Multiple Choice) Student # _______

Pre-test (Form A) 1. c 2. b 3. b 4. c 5. a 6. c 7. c 8. a 9. b 10. a 11. b 12. a 13. c 14. a 15. c 16. a 17. b 18. c 19. a 20. b Total Correct: (Pre-test—Form A) ______ / 20 ______ %

Post-Test (Form B) 1. c 2. b 3. b 4. c 5. a 6. c 7. c 8. a 9. b 10. a 11. a 12. a 13. c 14. a 15. c 16. c 17. b 18. c 19. a 20. b Total Correct: (Post-test—Form B) ______ / 20 ______ %

APPENDIX K Learning Styles Characteristics and Strategies

Learning Styles Characteristics and Strategies MULTI-SENSORY TEACHING  Most of the school population excels through kinaesthetic means: touching, feeling, experiencing the material at hand. Children enter kindergarten as kinaesthetic and tactual learners, moving and touching everything as they learn. By second or third grade, some students have become visual learners. During the late elementary years some students, primarily females, become auditory learners. Yet many adults, especially males, maintain kinaesthetic and tactual strengths throughout their lives.  No one uses one of the styles exclusively, and there is usually significant overlap in learning styles.  When one identifies one’s unique learning style, one can begin to build upon it. Understanding learning styles is only a first step in maximizing potential and overcoming learning differences.  The way in which people learn, affects the sort of learning style they should consider using to store information. The three main learning styles are: visual, auditory and kinaesthetic.

Visual Learner’s Background and Characteristics:

• • • • • • • •

The visual learners make up around 65% of the population, and remember 75% of what they see and read; Demonstrations from the blackboard, diagrams, pictures, graphs and charts are all valuable tools for the visual learner; Generally, analytic visual learners will process the printed word before pictorial information; Typically they will be unhappy with a presentation where they are unable to take detailed notes--to an extent that information does not exist for a visual learner unless it has been seen written down; Some visual learners will take notes even when they have printed course notes on the desk in front of them; Visual learners will tend to be most effective in written communication, symbol manipulation etc.; and may even overreact to sounds; Prefers to see words written down; When something is being described, the visual learner prefers a picture to view;

• • • • • • • • • •

Prefers a time-line or some other similar diagram to remember historical events; Prefers written instructions rather than verbal instructions; Observes all physical elements in a classroom; Carefully organizes their learning materials; Enjoys decorating their learning areas; Prefers photographs and illustrations with printed content; Remembers and understands through the use of diagrams charts and maps; Appreciates presentations using overhead transparencies or handouts; Studies materials by reading notes and organizing it in outline form; Enjoys visual art activities.

Learning Strengths for the Visual Learner: • • • • Remembers what they read and write; Enjoys what they read and write; Can remember diagrams, charts, maps well; Understands information best when they SEE it.

Learning Strategies for the Visual Learner: • • • • • • • • • • • Write things that you want to remember down; you will remember them better that way (i.e., instructions, directions, notes); Look at the person who is speaking to you; it will help you focus; Try to work in a quiet place. Wear earplugs if necessary. Some visual learners do, however, like soft music in the background; If you miss something a teacher says or do not understand, ask politely if they could repeat or explain; Most visual learners learn best alone; When studying, take many notes and write down lots of details; When trying to learn material by writing out notes, cover your notes then rewrite. Re-writing (or re-typing) will help you remember better; Use colour to highlight main ideas; Before starting an assignment, set a goal and write it down. Even post it in front of you. Read it as you do your assignment; Before reading a chapter book, preview it first by scanning the pictures, headings and so on; Try to put your desk away from the door and windows and close to the front of the class;

• • •

Write your own flashcards. Look at them often and write out the main points, then check; Where possible, use charts, maps, posters, films, videos, computer software, overhead projectors both to study from and to present your work (where appropriate); Colour code and organize notes and possessions, use agenda daily.

Teaching Strategies for the Visual Learner: • • • • • • • Provide lots of interesting visual material in a variety of formats; Make sure visual presentations are well-organized; During lessons, ensure auditory learners are in a position to hear well; Make handouts and all other written work as visually appealing as possible, and easily read and understood; Make full use of a variety of technologies: computer, cable television, (DVD) film, video camera, photography, and internet etc.; When giving oral instructions, use gestures and write them on the board, (i.e., there are three reasons…). The teacher may indicate the three reasons by holding up three fingers, then proceeding to the board and writing down, the number 3. This method assists students in organizing their notes, and formats their notes in a coherent manner.

Activity Suggestions for the Visual Learner: • • • • • • • • • • • • Diagrams; Graphs; Photographs; Artwork; Colouring books; Maps; Charts; Illustrations; Displays; Comic strips/Cartoons; Slide shows/Power Point; Posters;

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Collages; TV shows; Games; Books; Reading; Recipes; Newspapers; Writing; Games; View subtitled film (standard and reversed); Flashcards; Overhead transparencies; Magazines; Books; Crossword and word find puzzles; Letters; Bulletin boards; Workbooks; Information wheel; (Flip) quiz book.

The Auditory Learner’s Background and Characteristics: • • • • • • • • • • • The auditory learner MUST HEAR things for them to have the best chance of learning; Only 30% of the general school-age population is auditory; Generally, the auditory learner will remember 75% of what they hear in a lecture; Using the auditory modality is the most difficult way to learn new material. However, auditory learners relate most effectively to the spoken word; They will tend to listen to a lecture, and take notes afterwards, or rely on printed notes; Often information written down will have little meaning until it has been heard-it may help auditory learners to read written information aloud; Auditory learners may be sophisticated speakers, and may specialize effectively in subjects like law or politics; Remembers what they say and what others say very well; Remembers best through verbal repetition and by saying things aloud; Prefers to discuss ideas they do not immediately understand; Remembers verbal instructions well;

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Enjoys the opportunities to present dramatically, including the use of music; Finds it difficult to work quietly for long periods of time; Easily distracted by noise, but also easily distracted by silence; Verbally expresses interest and enthusiasm; Enjoys class and group discussion.

Learning Strengths of the Auditory Learner: • • • • Remembers what they hear and say; Enjoys classroom and small-group discussion; Can remember oral instructions well; Understands information best when they hear it.

Learning Strategies for the Auditory Learner: • • • • • • • • • • Study with a friend so you can talk about the information and HEAR it, too; Recite aloud the information you want to remember several times; Ask your teacher if you can submit some work (if appropriate) as an oral presentation, or on audio tape; Make your own tapes of important points you want to remember and listen to it repeatedly. This is especially useful for learning material for tests; When reading, skim through and look at the pictures, chapter titles, and other clues and say aloud what you think this book could be about; Make flashcards for various concepts you want to learn and use them repeatedly, reading them aloud. Use different colours to aid your memory; Set a goal for your assignments and verbalise them. Say your goals out each time you begin work on that particular assignment; Read aloud when possible. You need to HEAR the words as you read them to understand them well; When doing math calculations, use grid paper to help you set your sums out correctly and in their correct columns; Use different colours and pictures in your notes, exercise books, etc. This will help you remember them.

Teaching Strategies for the Auditory Learner: • • • • Rephrase points, questions. Vary speed, volume, pitch, as appropriate, to help create interesting aural textures; Write down key points or key words to help avoid confusion die to pronunciation; During lesson, ensure auditory learners are in a position to hear well; Incorporate multi-media application utilizing sounds, music, or speech (use DVD film with multi-language option), tape recorders, computer sound cards/recording applications, musical instruments, etc.);

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For comprehension, have test questions or directions/ instructions read aloud; and encourage student to ask for rephrasing of questions or answers; ask them to repeat the steps of the instructions; Situate student near the teacher (i.e., towards the front of the class--a quieter environment).

Activity Suggestions for the Auditory Learner: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Oral report or presentation; Teach the class or a group; Panel discussion; Debate; Tape recordings; Musical performance; Puppet show; Improv or script, TV/radio show; Verbal games; Songs; Raps; Poems (create a poetry café); Show and tell/Current events; Peer tutoring oral presentations; Oral recitation; demonstrations; View subtitled (DVD) film (reversed and standard format).

Background and Characteristics of the Tactile-Kinaesthetic Learner: • • • • • • The tactile learner learns most effectively when he/she activates the sense of touch; Kinaesthetic learners make up around 5% of the population; The kinaesthetic learner learns most effectively when he/she involves use of the whole body rather than just the sense of touch (hands-on); Predominately, kinaesthetic learners can appear slow, in that information is normally not presented in a style that suits their learning methods; The tactile-kinaesthetic learner must do things for themselves to have the best chance of learning; The tactile-kinaesthetic learner remember best the things they experience, from touch to movement; and learns skills by imitation and practice;

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Getting information from written materials or by listening is not as easy as the auditory or visual methods; Remembers what they DO very well; Remembers best through getting physically involved in whatever is being learnt; Enjoys acting out a situation relevant to the study topic; Enjoys making and creating; Enjoys the opportunities to build and physically handle learning materials; Will take notes to keep busy but will not often use them; Enjoys the hands-on experience in using computers; Physically expresses interest and enthusiasm by getting active and excited; Has trouble staying still or in one place for a long time; Enjoys hands-on activities; Tends to want to fiddle with small objects while listening or working; Tends to want to eat snacks while studying.

Learning Strengths of the Tactile-Kinaesthetic Learner: • • • • • • Remembers what they DO, what they experience with their hands or bodies (movement and touch); Enjoys using tools or lessons which involve active/practical participation; Can remember how to do things after they’ve done them once (motor memory); Have good motor coordination; May listen to music while studying; May skim through reading material to get the main idea of what it’s about before settling down to read it verbatim.

Learning Strategies for the Tactile-Kinaesthetic Learner: • • To memorise, pace or walk around while reciting to yourself or using flashcards or notes; When reading a short story or chapter in a book, try a whole-to-part approach. This means you should first scan the pictures, then read headings, then read the first and last paragraph and try to get a feel for the book. You could also try skim-reading the chapter or short story backwards, paragraph-by-paragraph;

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If you need to fidget, try doing so in a way, which will not disturb the learning environment. Try jiggling your legs or feet, try hand/finger exercises, or handle a stress ball, or something similar; You might not study best while at a desk. Try lying on your stomach or back. Try studying while sitting in a comfortable lounge chair or on cushions or a beanbag; Studying with music in the background might suit you (baroque music is best--as opposed to heavily rhythm-based music); Use coloured construction paper (and have it laminated) to cover your desk or even decorate your area. Choose your favourite colour as this will help you focus. This technique is called colour grounding; Your notes may be brightly coloured so upon reading them it will help your draw your attention and help you focus. Try a variety of colours to see which colours work best; While studying, take frequent breaks, but be sure to settle back down to work quickly. Depending on the grade level, a reasonable schedule for a Grade 8 student would be 15-25 minutes of study, 3-5 minutes of break time; When trying to memorize information, try closing your eyes and writing the information in the air or on a surface with your finger. Try to picture the words in your head as you are doing this. Try to hear the words in your head, too; Later, when you try to remember this information, close your eyes and try to see it with your mind’s eye and to hear it in your head; When learning new information, make task cards, flashcards, card games, floor games, etc. This will help process the information.

Teaching Strategies for the Tactile Kinaesthetic Learner: • • Allow tactile-kinaesthetic students to take breaks during lessons and move around. (maybe the whole class can take a break, so it would appear that none of the students are receiving special privileges); Encourage tactile-kinaesthetic students to write down their own notes (or at beginning writing stages, the students can model their teacher and motion with their finger in the air to make the letter “t”). The students then can try it on paper; Encourage tactile-kinaesthetic students to stand or move while (reciting information or learning new material; working away from their desks or in the hallway may be an alternative to being at their desk); Incorporate multi-media resources (DVD technology, cable TV, computer, video camera, overhead transparencies, photographs etc.) into teacher presentations and student presentations;

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Provide lots of tactile-kinaesthetic activities in the class (i.e., building and constructing); Conduct surveys outside the classroom (i.e., visit other classrooms, or have them conduct field work/research on the playground during recess); Visit museums, historical sites, or a job site to gain first-hand experience of the subject matter.

Activities Suggestions for the Tactile and Kinaesthetic Learner: Tactile: • Modeling; • Scrapbooks; • Colouring books; • Artistic creations; • Dioramas; • Needlework; • Posters; • Task cards; • Blackboard/whiteboard activities; • Sandpaper/felt letters; • Games; • Calculators; • Puzzles; • Collections; • Workbooks; • Sculptures; • Mobiles; • Displays; • Collages; • Info wheels; • Origami; • Learning circles; • Computers; • Cut-and-paste activities. Kinaesthetic: • Demonstrations; • Dance; • Products; • Movement games;

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Rocking and reading; Make a video show; Dress characters; Role-play/interviews; Charades; Pantomimes; Plays; Projects; Walking and Reading; Puppet Shows; Musical performances; Science labs/Experiments.

APPENDIX L Critical Thinking DVD and Bloom’s

Bridging Critical Thinking and Subtitled (DVD) Film via Bloom’s Taxonomy The level of the cognitive taxonomy identifies the level of complexity. The higher the taxonomic level, the more complex the learning involved. Bloom’s taxonomy can be used to plan instruction based on learning outcomes. For example, in the cognitive domain, the teacher decides whether students should know, comprehend, apply, analyze, synthesize, or evaluate. The teacher states these decisions as performance objectives—what students will know and be able to do. A teacher selects which level of intellectual ability to use (level 1 to 6); an example is included, which links critical thinking and subtitled (DVD) film. The teacher uses the appropriate key word(s) in the assessment process. The key words used and the type of questions asked may aid in the establishment and encouragement of critical thinking (in a second language setting), especially in the higher levels. Level 1: Knowledge – the recall of specific facts, methods, and processes, patterns, and structures. The focus of these outcomes is remembering. For example, being able to list the four characters in a subtitled film is a knowledge outcome. Key words a teacher may use in the assessment process: who, what, why, when, where, which, choose, find, how, define, label, show, spell, list, match, name, relate, tell, recall, select, identify, quote, name. Questions: What is . . . ? How is . . . ? Where is . . . ? When did _______ happen? How did ______ happen? How would you explain . . . ? Why did . . . ? How would you describe . . . ? When did . . . ? Can you recall . . . ? How would you show . . . ? Can you select . . . ? Who were the main . . . ? Can you list three . . . ? Which one . . . ? Who was . . . ? Level 2: Comprehension – the first level of understanding. At this level, the learner can know what is being communicated and make use of the idea appropriately. For example, after having viewed a subtitled film, a student may be able to translate various nouns, verbs, and other parts of speech. Key words a teacher may use in the assessment process: compare, contrast, demonstrate, interpret, explain, extend, illustrate, infer, outline, relate, rephrase, translate, summarize, show, classify

Questions: How would you classify the type of . . . ? How would you compare . . . ? contrast . . . ? Will you state or interpret in your own words . . . ? How would you rephrase the meaning . . . ? What facts or ideas show . . . ? What is the main idea of . . . ? Which statements support . . . ? Can you explain what is happening . . . what is meant . . .? What can you say about . . . ? Which is the best answer . . . ? How would you summarize . . . ? Level 3: Application – ability to use information in new situations. The information can be general ideas, rules, methods, principles, or theories that must be remembered and then applied. For example, a student may construct a model of a favourite scene from the subtitled movie. Key words a teacher may use in the assessment process: apply, build, change, choose, construct, develop, discover, interview, make use of, organize, experiment with, manipulate, plan, select, solve, utilize, model, identify, demonstrate, calculate, complete, relate, change, Questions: How would you use . . . ? What examples can you find to . . . ? How would you solve _______ using what you have learned . . . ? How would you organize _______ to show . . . ? How would you show your understanding of . . . ? What approach would you use to . . . ? How would you apply what you learned to develop . . . ? What other way would you plan to . . . ? What would result if . . . ?

Can you make use of the facts to . . . ? What elements would you choose to change . . . ? What facts would you select to show . . . ? What questions would you ask in an interview with . . . ? Level 4: Analysis – ability to identify elements embedded in a whole and to recognize relations among elements. For example, after having viewed the subtitled film, students might analyze elements of a character, setting, and plot, as well as the moral to the story. Key words a teacher may use in assessment: analyze, categorize, classify, diagram, differentiate, separate, dissect, divide, examine, inspect, simplify, survey, take part in, test for, distinguish, list, distinction, theme, relationships, connect, arrange, function, motive, inference, assumption, conclusion Questions: What are the parts or features of . . . ? How is _______ related to . . . ? Why do you think . . . ? What is the theme . . . ? What motive is there . . . ? Can you list the parts . . . ? What inference can you make . . . ? What conclusions can you draw . . . ? How would you classify . . . ? How would you categorize . . . ? Can you identify the difference parts . . . ? What evidence can you find . . . ? What is the relationship between . . . ? Can you make a distinction between . . . ? What is the function of . . . ? What ideas justify . . . ?

Level 5: Synthesis – ability to put elements together to form a new whole. For example, after students have viewed a subtitled film, they can engage in the writing process (i.e., outline, draft an essay; re-write or correct translations). Students are encouraged to relate knowledge from several areas (i.e., Science (grade 8) – students can write a script, and use a video camera to tape a scene and show lighting effects and colour mixing to attain a desired effect in a movie scene; Art, Music and Drama – create backgrounds, costumes, for their own movie (with parental approval) ensuring it has a beginning, middle and end, and an appropriate moral. Students may change a character’s outcome, or elaborate and change a dialogue. Key Words: choose, combine, compile, compose, construct, create, design, develop, estimate, formulate, generalize, imagine, invent, integrate, make up, originate, plan, predict, prepare, propose, solve, solution, suppose, discuss, modify, change, original, improve, adapt, minimize, maximize, delete, theorize, elaborate, test, improve, happen, change, What if? Re-write. Questions: What changes would you make to solve . . . ? How would you improve . . . ? What would happen if . . . ? Can you elaborate on the reason . . . ? Can you propose an alternative . . . ? Can you invent . . . ? How would you adapt ________ to create a different . . . ? How could you change (modify) the plot (plan) . . . ? What could be done to minimize (maximize) . . . ? What way would you design . . . ? What could be combined to improve (change) . . . ? Suppose you could _______, what would you do . . . ? How would you test . . . ? Can you formulate a theory for . . . ? Can you predict the outcome if . . . ? How would you estimate the results for . . . ? What facts can you compile . . . ?

Can you construct a model that would change . . . ? Can you think of an original way for the . . . ? Level 6: Evaluation – judgements based on criteria of value or worth. For example, after having viewed a subtitled film, students may defend an opinions by making judgments about information (i.e., an edited portion of the “Erin Brokowich” film may be used). Arguments may be debated in a mock trial, “Industrialists vs. Environmentalists, or the “People vs. Company Y.” Other classmates could make choices based on the reasoned arguments. The students will be engaged in gathering and verifying evidence, as well as recognizing subjectivity (The duration of this activity could span over a few weeks). Key Words: assess, award, choose, conclude, convince, criticize, decide, defend, determine, dispute, evaluate, judge, justify, measure, compare, mark, rank, rate, recommend, rule on, select, agree, interpret, explain, appraise, prioritize, opinion, summarize, support, importance, criteria, prove, disprove, assess, influence, perceive, value, estimate, influence, deduct Questions: Do you agree with the actions . . . ? with the outcomes . . . ? What is your opinion of . . . ? How would you prove . . . ? disprove . . . ? Can you assess the value or importance of . . . ? Would it be better if . . . ? Why did they (the character) choose . . . ? What would you recommend . . . ? How would you rate the . . . ? What would you cite to defend the actions . . . ? How would you evaluate . . . ? How could you determine . . . ? What choice would you have made . . . ? What would you select . . . ? How would you prioritize . . . ? What judgment would you make about . . . ? Based on what you know, how would you explain . . . ?

What information would you use to support the view . . . ? How would you justify . . . ? What data was used to make the conclusion . . . ? Why was it better that . . . ? How would you prioritize the facts . . . ? How would you compare the ideas . . . ? characters . . . ?

VITA AUCTORIS Piero Bachetti was born in 1969 in Windsor, Ontario. He graduated from the University of Windsor in 1992 where he obtained a Bachelor of Arts degree in Languages and Psychology, and obtained a Bachelor of Education degree the following year. He is an elementary teacher with the Windsor-Essex Catholic District School Board and teaches Italian in the International Languages Programme. He has recently established and taught the Language Enrichment Activities Program (LEAP) at the University of Windsor, Faculty of Education (An English as a Second Language [ESL] program for elementary students). He enjoys providing English and Italian translations for various agencies worldwide. He takes great pleasure in spending time with his family, playing his guitar, and reading great works from the Italian Renaissance. He graduated from the University of Windsor in 2004 where he obtained a Master of Education degree, specializing in Second Language Acquisition.