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PHYSICS

!"m#h!matri"!e$u!m%&#h%sics

sx

CHAPTER 2

sy vy vx

CHAPTER 2: Kinematics of linear motion (5 hours)

ax

g ay

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2

2.0 Kinematics of Linear motion

is $efine$ as the studies of motion of an objects without considering the effects that produce the motion. There are t o t%#es of motion: 'inear or strai(ht line motion ()*+) ith constant (uniform) ,elocit% ith constant (uniform) acceleration- e!(! free fall motion Pro.ectile motion (2*+) /*com#onent (hori0ontal) %*com#onent (,ertical)

PHYSICS CHAPTER 2 Learning $utcome:


!"m#h!matri"!e$u!m%&#h%sics 2!) 'inear 1otion () hour)
At the end of this chapter, students should be able to: Define distance, displacement, speed, velocit , acceleration and related parameters: uniform velocit , average velocit , instantaneous velocit , uniform acceleration, average acceleration and instantaneous acceleration. !"etch graphs of displacement#time, velocit #time and acceleration#time.

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2

2.%. Linear motion &%#D'


2.%.%. Distance,

scalar 2uantit%! is $efine$ as the length of actual path between two points! 3or e/am#le :
Q

The len(th of the #ath from P to 4 is 25 cm!

PHYSICS
2!)!2 +is#lacement

CHAPTER 2

,ector 2uantit% is $efine$ as the distance between initial point and final point in a straight line! The S!I! unit of $is#lacement is metre (m)!

()ample %:
An o5.ect P mo,es 26 m to the east after that )6 m to the south an$ finall% mo,es 76 m to est! +etermine the $is#lacement of P N relati,e to the ori(inal #osition! !olution :
W 8 26 m )6 m 26 m
5

)6 m

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2
OP = 10 2 + 10 2 = 14.1 m

The ma(nitu$e of the $is#lacement is (i,en 5%

an$ its $irection is

= tan = 45 or to the south - west 10


2.%.* !peed, v

1 10

is $efine$ the rate of change of distance! scalar 2uantit%! E2uation:

change of distance speed = time interval

d v= t
6

PHYSICS
2!)!9 :elocit%

is a ,ector 2uantit%! The S!I! unit for ,elocit% is m s*)! is $efine$ as the rate of change of displacement! E2uation:

CHAPTER 2

Average velocit , vav


Its $irection is in the same direction of the change in displacement!


7

s2 s1 vav = t 2 t1 s vav = t

change of displacement vav = time interval

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2

+nstantaneous velocit , v is $efine$ as the instantaneous rate of change of displacement! E2uation:

limit s v= t 0 t

ds v= dt

An o5.ect is moving in uniform velocit if

ds = constant dt
8

PHYSICS
s

CHAPTER 2

s1

The (ra$ient of the tan(ent to the cur,e at #oint 4 ; the instantaneous ,elocit% at time- t = t1

t1
Therefore

<ra$ient of s-t (ra#h ; ,elocit%


9

PHYSICS
2!)!5 Acceleration

CHAPTER 2

,ector 2uantit% The S!I! unit for acceleration is m s*2! is $efine$ as the rate of change of velocit ! E2uation: change of velocity

Average acceleration, aav


aav =

v2 v1 aav = t 2 t1

time interval

v aav = t Its $irection is in the same direction of motion!

same direction of motion The acceleration of an o5.ect is uniform hen the magnitude of velocit changes at a constant rate and along fi)ed direction. 10

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2

+nstantaneous acceleration, a is $efine$ as the instantaneous rate of change of velocit ! E2uation: limit

v a= t 0 t
2

dv d s a= = 2 dt dt

An o5.ect is moving in uniform acceleration if

dv = constant dt
11

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2

Deceleration, a is a negative acceleration! The o5.ect is slowing down meanin( the speed of the object decreases with time!

v1

The (ra$ient of the tan(ent to the cur,e at #oint 4


0

; the instantaneous acceleration at time- t = t1

Therefore

t1

<ra$ient of v-t (ra#h ; acceleration


12

PHYSICS
2!)!= s

CHAPTER 2
<ra#hical metho$s
s

Displacement against time graph &s-t'

<ra$ient ; constant

<ra$ient increases ith time

s (a) >niform ,elocit%


(c)
P Q R

(5) The ,elocit% increases ith time <ra$ient at #oint R is ne(ati,e! The $irection of ,elocit% is chan(in(!
13

<ra$ient at #oint 4 is 0ero!

The ,elocit% is 0ero!

PHYSICS
v
>niform ,elocit%

CHAPTER 2
v
>niform acceleration

,elocit versus time graph &v-t'

A
6

t) (a) t2

t)

(5) t2

t)

t2 (c)

Area un$er the v-t (ra#h ; $is#lacement


The (ra$ient at #oint A is #ositi,e ? a @ 6(s#ee$in( u#) The (ra$ient at #oint A is 0ero ? a= 0 The (ra$ient at #oint C is ne(ati,e ? a B 6(slo in( $o n)
14

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2
3rom the e2uation of instantaneous ,elocit%-

ds = vdt
Therefore

ds v= dt

s = vdt
t1

t2

s = shaded area under the v t graph


Simulation 2!) Simulation 2!2 Simulation 2!7
15

PHYSICS
E/am#le 2 :

CHAPTER 2

A to% train mo,es slo l% alon( a strai(ht trac" accor$in( to the $is#lacement- s a(ainst time- t (ra#h in fi(ure 2!)!

s (cm
10 8 6 4 2 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 t (s a! E/#lain 2ualitati,el% the motion of the to% train! 5! S"etch a ,elocit% (cm s*)) a(ainst time (s) (ra#h! c! +etermine the a,era(e ,elocit% for the hole .ourne%! $! Calculate the instantaneous ,elocit% at t ; )2 s!
16

-igure 2.% 0

PHYSICS
!olution : a! 6 to = s

CHAPTER 2

: The train mo,es at a constant ,elocit% of 6!=C cm s)! = to )6 s : The train sto#s! )6 to )9 s : The train mo,es in the same $irection at a constant ,elocit% of )!56 cm s)! 5! v (cm s1 1.50

0.68

10 12 14

t (s
17

PHYSICS
!olution : c! v
av

CHAPTER 2
s2 s1 = t 2 t1

10 0 vav = 14 0 vav = 0.!14 cm s 1


$!

v = average velocity from 10 s to 14 s s2 s1 v= t 2 t1 10 4 v= 14 10 v = 1.50 cm s 1

18

PHYSICS
E/am#le 7 :

CHAPTER 2

A ,elocit%*time (v*t) (ra#h in fi(ure 2!2 sho s the motion of a lift!

v (m s 1
4 2 0 -2
-igure 2.2

10 15

20 25 "0 "5 40 45

50

t (s

-4

a! +escri5e 2ualitati,el% the motion of the lift! 5! S"etch a (ra#h of acceleration (m s*)) a(ainst time (s)! c! +etermine the total $istance tra,elle$ 5% the lift an$ its $is#lacement! $! Calculate the a,era(e acceleration 5et een 26 s to 96 s!
19

PHYSICS
!olution : a! 6 to 5 s

CHAPTER 2
: 'ift mo,es u# ar$ from rest ith a constant acceleration of 6!9 m s2!

5 to )5 s : The ,elocit% of the lift increases from 2 m s) to 9 m s) 5ut the acceleration $ecreasin( to 6!2 m s2! )5 to 26 s : 'ift mo,in( ith constant ,elocit% of 9 m s)! 26 to 25 s : 'ift $ecelerates at a constant rate of 6!C m s2! 25 to 76 s : 'ift at rest or stationar%! 76 to 75 s : 'ift mo,es $o n ar$ ith a constant acceleration of 6!C m s2! 75 to 96 s : 'ift mo,in( $o n ar$ ith constant ,elocit% of 9 m s)! 96 to 56 s : 'ift $ecelerates at a constant rate of 6!9 m s2 an$ comes to rest!
20

PHYSICS
!olution : 2 5! a (m s 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 -0.2 -0.4 -0.6 -0.8 5 10 15

CHAPTER 2

20 25 "0 "5 40 45

50

t (s

21

PHYSICS
!olution : 1 v (m s c! i! 4 2 0 -2 -4 A) 5 A2 10 15 A7

CHAPTER 2

20 25 "0 A"5 40 45 9 A5

50

t (s

#otal distance = area under the graph of v-t


1 1 1 1 1 #otal distance = ( 2 )( 5) + ( 2 + 4 )(10 ) + ( 5 + 10 )( 4 ) + ( 5)( 4 ) + (15 + 5)( 4 ) 2 2 2 2 2

= $1 + $ 2 + $ " + $ 4 + $ 5

#otal distance = 115 m


22

PHYSICS
!olution : c! ii! %isplacement

CHAPTER 2
= area under the graph of v-t
= $1 + $ 2 + $ " + $ 4 + $ 5

1 1 1 1 1 %isplacement = ( 2)( 5) + ( 2 + 4)(10 ) + ( 5 + 10 )( 4) + ( 5)( 4 ) + (15 + 5)( 4) 2 2 2 2 2

%isplacement = 15 m
$!

v2 v1 aav = t 2 t1
44 aav = 40 20 aav = 0.4 m s 2
23

PHYSICS
E/ercise 2!) :

CHAPTER 2

)! 3i(ure 2!7 sho s a ,elocit% ,ersus time (ra#h for an o5.ect constraine$ to mo,e alon( a line! The #ositi,e $irection is to the ri(ht!

-igure 2.*

a! +escri5e the motion of the o5.ect in )6 s! 5! S"etch a (ra#h of acceleration (m s*2) a(ainst time (s) for the hole .ourne%! c! Calculate the $is#lacement of the o5.ect in )6 s! 24 A.!. : / m

PHYSICS
E/ercise 2!) :

CHAPTER 2

A train #ulls out of a station an$ accelerates stea$il% for 26 s until its ,elocit% reaches C m s)! It then tra,els at a constant ,elocit% for )66 s- then it $ecelerates stea$il% to rest in a further time of 76 s! a! S"etch a ,elocit%*time (ra#h for the .ourne%! 5! Calculate the acceleration an$ the $istance tra,elle$ in each #art of the .ourne%! c! Calculate the a,era(e ,elocit% for the .ourne%!
Ph%sics 3or A$,ance$ 'e,el- 9th e$ition- Dim Areithau#t- Eelson Thornes- #(!)5- no! )!))

A.!. : 0.0 m s 2,0 m s 2,#0.2/1 m s 2, 20 m, 200 m, %20 m3 /./1 m s %.

25

PHYSICS CHAPTER 2 Learning $utcome:


!"m#h!matri"!e$u!m%&#h%sics 2!2 >niforml% accelerate$ motion () hour)
At the end of this chapter, students should be able to: Derive and appl e4uations of motion with uniform acceleration:

v = u + at 1 2 s = ut + at 2 2 2 v = u + 2as

26

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2

2.2. 5niforml accelerated motion


3rom the $efinition of a,era(e acceleration- uniform (constant) acceleration is (i,en 5%

v = u + at
here

v u a= t

())

v u a t

: final ,elocit% : initial ,elocit% : uniform (constant) acceleration : time

27

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2
3rom e2uation ())- the ,elocit%*time (ra#h is sho n in fi(ure 2!9: velocity

u
-igure 2.0

3rom the 0 (ra#h-

time

The $is#lacement after time- s ; sha$e$ area un$er the (ra#h ; the area of tra#e0ium Hence-

1 s = ( u + v)t 2

(2)
28

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2
A% su5stitutin( e2! ()) into e2! (2) thus

1 s = [ u + ( u + at ) ]t 2

1 2 s = ut + at 2

(7)

3rom e2! ())3rom e2! (2)-

t 2s ( v + u )( v u ) = ( at ) t

( v u ) = at 2s (v + u) =

multi#l%

v 2 = u 2 + 2as

(9)
29

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2
Eotes: e2uations ()) ? (9) can 5e use$ if the motion in a straight line with constant acceleration.

3or a 5o$% mo,in( at constant ,elocit%- & a 6 0' the e2uations ()) an$ (9) 5ecome

v=u

Therefore the e2uations (2) an$ (7) can 5e ritten as

s = vt

constant velocit

30

PHYSICS
E/am#le 9 :

CHAPTER 2

A #lane on a run a% ta"es )=!2 s o,er a $istance of )266 m to ta"e off from rest! Assumin( constant acceleration $urin( ta"e offcalculate a! the s#ee$ on lea,in( the (roun$5! the acceleration $urin( ta"e off! !olution : a =&

u=0

v=&

s = 1200 m t = 16.2 s 1 a! >se s = ( u + v ) t 2 1 1200 = ( 0 + v )(16.2) v = 148 m s 1 2

31

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2

!olution : 5! A% usin( the e2uation of linear motion-

v 2 = u 2 + 2as (148) 2 = 0 + 2a(1200) a = '.1" m s 2


1 2 s = ut + at 2 1 2 1200 = 0 + a(16.2 ) 2 2 a = '.14 m s
32

$7

PHYSICS
E/am#le 5 :

CHAPTER 2

A 5us tra,ellin( stea$il% at 76 m s) alon( a strai(ht roa$ #asses a stationar% car hich- 5 s later- 5e(ins to mo,e ith a uniform acceleration of 2 m s2 in the same $irection as the 5us! +etermine a! the time ta"en for the car to ac2uire the same ,elocit% as the 5us5! the $istance tra,elle$ 5% the car hen it is le,el ith the 5us! 1 2 !olution : vb = "0 m s = constant ( u c = 0( ac = 2 ms a! <i,en vc = vb = "0 m s >se vc = u c + ac t c
1

"0 = 0 + ( 2 ) tc t c = 15 s

33

PHYSICS
5!

CHAPTER 2
vb = "0 m s 1
vb

b c

uc = 0 t = 0s

ac = 2 m s 2

b c

vb

3rom the $ia(ram-

s c = sb

t = 5s
Therefore

t =t

1 2 uc t + ac t = vbt 2

s c = sb

t c = tb = t

1 0 + ( 2) t 2 = ( "0) t 2
t = "0 s

sc = vb t sc = ( "0)( "0) sc = '00 m


34

PHYSICS
E/am#le = :

CHAPTER 2
s = "t 3 4t 2 + 2t

A #article mo,es alon( hori0ontal line accor$in( to the e2uation Fhere s is $is#lacement in meters an$ t is time in secon$s! At time- t ;2!66 s- $etermine a! the $is#lacement of the #article5! Its ,elocit%- an$ c! Its acceleration! !olution : a! t ;2!66 s G

s = "( 2.00) 4( 2.00) + 2( 2.00)


" 2

s = "t 4t + 2t

s = 12.0 m
35

PHYSICS
!olution :

CHAPTER 2
ds v= dt

5! Instantaneous ,elocit% at t ; 2!66 s>se

d " v= "t 4t 2 + 2t dt v = 't 2 8t + 2


Thus
2

v = '( 2.00 ) 8( 2.00) + 2


v = 22.0 m s 1

36

PHYSICS
!olution :

CHAPTER 2
dv a= dt

c! Instantaneous acceleration at t ; 2!66 s>se

d a= 't 2 8t + 2 dt a = 18t 8
Hence

a = 18( 2.00 ) 8
a = 28.0 m s 2

37

PHYSICS
E/ercise 2!2 :

CHAPTER 2

A s#ee$5oat mo,in( at 76!6 m s*) a##roaches stationar% 5uo% mar"er )66 m ahea$! The #ilot slo s the 5oat ith a constant acceleration of *7!56 m s*2 5% re$ucin( the throttle! a! Ho lon( $oes it ta"e the 5oat to reach the 5uo%H 5! Fhat is the ,elocit% of the 5oat hen it reaches the 5uo%H
Eo! 27-#(! 5)-Ph%sics for scientists an$ en(ineers ith mo$ern #h%sics- Ser a% I De ett-=th e$ition! A.!. : 0.8* s3 %0.% m s %

An unmar"e$ #olice car tra,ellin( a constant J5 "m h*) is #asse$ 5% a s#ee$er tra,elin( )96 "m h*)! Precisel% )!66 s after the s#ee$er #asses- the #olicemen ste#s on the acceleratorG if the #olice carKs acceleration is 2!66 m s*2- ho much time #asses 5efore the #olice car o,erta"es the s#ee$er (assume$ mo,in( at constant s#ee$)H
Eo! 99- #(! 9)-Ph%sics for scientists an$ en(ineers #h%sics- +ou(las C! <iancoli-7r$ e$ition! A.!. : %0.0 s ith mo$ern

38

PHYSICS
E/ercise 2!2 :

CHAPTER 2

A car tra,elin( J6 "m h*) is )66 m 5ehin$ a truc" tra,elin( L5 "m h*)! Assumin( 5oth ,ehicles mo,in( at constant ,elocit%- calculate the time ta"en for the car to reach the truc"!
Eo! )5- #(! 7J-Ph%sics for scientists an$ en(ineers #h%sics- +ou(las C! <iancoli-7r$ e$ition! A.!. : 20 s ith mo$ern

A car $ri,er- tra,ellin( in his car at a constant ,elocit% of C m s*)- sees a $o( al"in( across the roa$ 76 m ahea$! The $ri,erKs reaction time is 6!2 s- an$ the 5ra"es are ca#a5le of #ro$ucin( a $eceleration of )!2 m s*2! Calculate the $istance from here the car sto#s to here the $o( is crossin(assumin( the $ri,er reacts an$ 5ra"es as 2uic"l% as #ossi5le!
A.!. : %.1* m

39

PHYSICS CHAPTER 2 Learning $utcome:


!"m#h!matri"!e$u!m%&#h%sics 2!7 3reel% fallin( 5o$ies () hour)
At the end of this chapter, students should be able to: Describe and use e4uations for freel falling bodies. -or upward and downward motion, use

a 6 g 6 9.2% m s 2

40

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2

2.*. -reel falling bodies


is $efine$ as the vertical motion of a bod at constant acceleration, g under gravitational field without air resistance. In the earthKs (ra,itational fiel$- the constant acceleration "no n as acceleration due to gravit or free#fall acceleration or gravitational acceleration! the ,alue is g 6 9.2% m s 2 the $irection is towards the centre of the earth &downward'. Eote: In sol,in( an% #ro5lem in,ol,es freel% fallin( 5o$ies or free fall motion- the assumption made is ignore the air resistance!

41

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2
Si(n con,ention: + 3rom the si(n con,ention thus+

a = g

Ta5le 2!) sho s the e2uations of linear motion an$ freel% fallin( 5o$ies! Linear motion -reel falling bodies

v = u + at
v = u + 2 as 1 2 s = ut + at 2
2 2

v = u gt

:able 2.%

v 2 = u 2 2 gs 1 2 s = ut gt 2
42

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2
An e/am#le of freel% fallin( 5o$% is the motion of a 5all thro n ,erticall% u# ar$s ith initial ,elocit%- u as sho n in fi(ure 2!5! ,elocit% ; 6

H u v

v=u

-igure 2.8

Assumin( air resistance is ne(li(i5le- the acceleration of the 5all- a ; g hen the 5all mo,es u# ar$ an$ its velocit decreases to ;ero hen the 5all reaches the ma)imum height, H!
43

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2
s H v =0

The (ra#hs in fi(ure 2!= sho the motion of the 5all mo,es u# an$ $o n! Derivation of e4uations At the ma/imum hei(ht or $is#lacement- H here t = t1its ,elocit%-

v=0
hence

0 v u 0

t1

2t1

0 = u gt1 therefore the time ta"en for


the 5all reaches H-

v = u gt

t1

2t1

u a
0 t1 2t1 t
44

Simulation 2!9

u t1 = g

-igure 2./

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2
To calculate the ma/imum hei(ht or $is#lacement- H: 1 2 use either

s = ut1
2

gt1

$7

Fhere s

=H

v = u 2 gs
ma/imum hei(ht-

0 = u 2 2 gH

u H= 2g
v y = u y gt 2 2 v y = u y 2 gs y 1 2 s y = u y t gt 2

Another form of freel% fallin( 5o$ies e/#ressions are

v = u gt v 2 = u 2 2 gs

1 2 s = ut gt 2

45

PHYSICS
E/am#le L :

CHAPTER 2

A 5all is thro n from the to# of a 5uil$in( is (i,en an initial ,elocit% of )6!6 m s) strai(ht u# ar$! The 5uil$in( is 76!6 m hi(h an$ the 5all .ust misses the e$(e of the roof on its a% $o n- as sho n in A fi(ure 2!L! Calculate a! the ma/imum hei(ht of the stone from #oint A! 5! the time ta"en from #oint A to C! u ;)6!6 m s) c! the time ta"en from #oint A to +! A $! the ,elocit% of the stone hen it reaches #oint +! (<i,en g ; J!C) m s2)

76!6 m

-igure 2.1

46

PHYSICS
A

CHAPTER 2
2 v2 = u y y 2 gs y 2 ( ) 0 = 10.0 2( '.81) H H = 5.10 m

!olution : a! At the ma/imum hei(ht- H- vy = 0 an$ u

= uy = )6!6 m s) thus

u
A

C 5! 3rom #oint A to C- the ,ertical $is#lacement- s = 6 m thus y

76!6 m

1 2 s y = u y t gt 2 1 0 = (10.0 ) t ( '.81) t 2 2 t = 2.0" s

+
47

PHYSICS
!olution : A

CHAPTER 2
1 2 s y = u y t gt 2 1 "0.0 = (10.0) t ( '.81) t 2 2 4.'1t 2 10.0t "0.0 = 0
a b c
2

c! 3rom #oint A to +- the ,ertical $is#lacement- sy= 76!6 m thus

u
A C

76!6 m

A% usin(

) ) 4ac t= 2a t = ".6' s $7 1.66 s

:ime don<t have negative value.


48

PHYSICS
A

CHAPTER 2
v y = u y gt v y = (10.0 ) ( '.81)( ".6' )

!olution : $! Time ta"en from A to + is t ; 7!=J s thus

u
A C

v y = 26.2 m s
$7 m 3rom A to +- sy ; 76!6
2 2

76!6 m

v y = (10.0 ) 2( '.81)( "0.0 ) 1 v y = ,elocit% 26.2 m s Therefore the 5allKs at + is v y = 26.2 m s 1


2 2
49

v y = u y 2 gs y

PHYSICS
E/am#le C :

CHAPTER 2

A 5oo" is $ro##e$ )56 m from the (roun$! +etermine a! the time ta"en for the 5oo" reaches the (roun$! 5! the ,elocit% of the 5oo" hen it reaches the (roun$! ((i,en g ; J!C) m s*2) !olution :

uy ; 6 m s)

a! The ,ertical $is#lacement is

sy ; )56 m

s y = 150 m

)56 m

1 2 s y = u y t gt 2 1 150 = 0 ( '.81) t 2 2

Hence

t = 5.5" s

50

PHYSICS
!olution : 5! The 5oo"Ks ,elocit% is (i,en 5%

CHAPTER 2

uy = 0

v y = u y gt

v y = 0 ( '.81)( 5.5")

v y = 54.2 m s 1
s y = 150 m
$7

( )( ) v = 0 2 '.81 150 y vy = & v y = 54.2 m s 1 1 v = 54.2 m s Therefore the 5oo"Ks ,elocit% is y


2
51

v y = u y 2 gs y

PHYSICS
E/ercise 2!7 :

CHAPTER 2

A 5all is thro n $irectl% $o n ar$- ith an initial s#ee$ of C!66 m s)- from a hei(ht of 76!6 m! Calculate a! the time ta"en for the 5all to stri"e the (roun$5! the 5allKs s#ee$ hen it reaches the (roun$!
A.!. : %.19 s3 28./ m s %

5! A fallin( stone ta"es 6!76 s to tra,el #ast a in$o 2!2 m tall as sho n in fi(ure 2!C!

2.2 m

to tra,el this $istance too" 6!76 s

3rom hat hei(ht a5o,e the to# of the in$o s $i$ the stone fallH
A.!. : %.18 m
52

-igure 2.2

PHYSICS CHAPTER 2 Learning $utcome:


!"m#h!matri"!e$u!m%&#h%sics 2!9 Pro.ectile motion (2 hours)
At the end of this chapter, students should be able to: Describe and use e4uations for projectile,

u x = u cos u y = u sin ax = 0 ay = g

=alculate: time of flight, ma)imum height, range and ma)imum range, instantaneous position and velocit .

53

PHYSICS CHAPTER 2 2.0. >rojectile motion

A #ro.ectile motion consists of t o com#onents: ,ertical com#onent (%*com#!)

motion un$er constant acceleration- ay; g motion ith constant ,elocit% thus ax; 6

hori0ontal com#onent (/*com#!)

The #ath follo y e$ 5% a #ro.ectile is calle$ tra.ector% is sho n in fi(ure 2!J!

v1y
P

v1

v
4

1 v1x

Simulation 2!5
-igure 2.9

uy
A

sy=H

v2y
t2

v2x 2 v2
C
54

ux

t)

sx= R

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2
3rom fi(ure 2!J The )#component of velocit alon( AC (hori0ontal) at an% #oint is constant,

u x = u cos

The #component &vertical' of velocit varies from one #oint to another #oint alon( AC! 5ut the %*com#onent of the initial ,elocit% is (i,en 5%

u y = u sin

55

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2
Ta5le 2!2 sho s the / an$ %*com#onents- ma(nitu$e an$ $irection of ,elocities at #oints P an$ 4! >oint > >oint ?

,elocit /*com#! %*com#! ma(nitu$e

v1 x = u x = u cos
v1 y = u y gt1

v2 x = u x = u cos

v2 y = u y gt 2
2

v1 =

( v1x )

+ v1 y

( )

v2 =

( v2 x )
1

+ v2 y

( )

$irection

1 = tan v 1x
:able 2.2

v 1 1 y

v2 y 2 = tan v 2x

56

PHYSICS
2!9!) 1a/imum hei(ht- H

CHAPTER 2
The 5all reaches the hi(hest #oint at #oint A at ,elocit%- v here /*com#onent of the ,elocit%- v = v = u = u cos x x %*com#onent of the ,elocit%- v = 0 y %*com#onent of the $is#lacement- s = H y >se
2 2 vy = uy 2 gs y

0 = ( u sin ) 2 gH
2

u sin H= 2g
2 2

57

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2

2!9!2 Time ta"en to reach ma/imum hei(ht- t At ma/imum hei(ht- H

Time, t

= t* and vy= 0

>se

v y = u y gt

0 = ( u sin ) gt +
t = 2t + 2u sin t = g

u sin t + = g

2!9!7 3li(ht time- t (from #oint A to #oint C)

58

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2
Since the /*com#onent for ,elocit% alon( AC is constant hence 3rom the $is#lacement formula ith uniform ,elocit%- thus the /*com#onent of $is#lacement alon( AC is

2!9!9 Hori0ontal ran(e- R an$ ,alue of R ma/imum

u x = v x = u cos

s x = u x t an$ s x = R R = ( u cos )( t ) 2u sin R = ( u cos ) g 2 u R = ( 2 sin cos ) g

59

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2
3rom the tri(onometr% i$entit%thus

sin 2 = 2 sin cos


2

u R = sin 2 g

The ,alue of R ma/imum hen = 08 an$ sin 2 therefore

=1

Rma,

u2 = g
Simulation 2!=
60

PHYSICS
2!9!5 Hori0ontal #ro.ectile

CHAPTER 2
3i(ure 2!)6 sho s a 5all 5earin( rollin( off the en$ of a ta5le ith an initial ,elocit%- u in the hori0ontal $irection!

vx
h
-igure 2.%0

vy

Hori0ontal com#onent alon( #ath AA!

velocity- u x = u = v x = constant displacement- s x = x

:ertical com#onent alon( #ath AA!

displacement- s y = h

initial velocity- u y = 0

Simulation 2!L
61

PHYSICS
1 2 s y = u y t gt 2 1 2 h = 0 gt 2

CHAPTER 2

:ime ta"en for the ball to reach the floor &point @', t A% usin( the e2uation of freel% fallin( 5o$ies-

2h t= g
Aori;ontal displacement, x >se con$ition 5elo :
:he time ta"en for the ball free fall to point A -igure 2.%%

:he time ta"en for the ball to reach point @


62

(Refer to fi(ure 2!)))

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2
Since the /*com#onent of ,elocit% alon( AA is constant- thus the hori0ontal $is#lacement- x

sx = u xt

an$

sx = x

2h x = u g

Eote : In sol,in( an% calculation #ro5lem a5out #ro.ectile motionthe air resistance is negligible!

63

PHYSICS
E/am#le J : y

CHAPTER 2

u
-igure 2.%2 8

H
P

= 60.0
R

v1x
v1
4

x v2x v2
64

v1y 3i(ure 2!)2 sho s a 5all thro n 5% su#erman ith an initial s#ee$- u ; 266 m s*) an$ ma"es an an(le- ; =6!6 to the hori0ontal! +etermine a! the #osition of the 5all- an$ the ma(nitu$e an$
$irection of its ,elocit%- hen t ; 2!6 s!

v2y

PHYSICS
calculate the ,alue of H!

CHAPTER 2

5! the time ta"en for the 5all reaches the ma/imum hei(ht- H an$ c! the hori0ontal ran(e- R $! the ma(nitu$e an$ $irection of its ,elocit% hen the 5all reaches the (roun$ (#oint P)! e! the #osition of the 5all- an$ the ma(nitu$e an$ $irection of its ,elocit% at #oint 4 if the 5all as hit from a flat*to##e$ hill ith the time at #oint 4 is 95!6 s! ((i,en g ; J!C) m s*2) !olution : The com#onent of Initial ,elocit% :

u x = 200 cos 60.0 = 100 m s 1 u y = 200 sin 60.0 = 1!" m s 1


65

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2

!olution : a! i! #osition of the 5all hen t ; 2!6 s Hori0ontal com#onent :

:ertical com#onent :

sx = u xt s x = (100 )( 2.00) s x = 200 m from point .

therefore the #osition of the 5all is &200 m, *2/ m'

1 2 s y = u y t gt 2 1 2 s y = (1!")( 2.00 ) ( '.81)( 2.00) 2 s y = "26 m a)ove the ground


66

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2

!olution : a! ii! ma(nitu$e an$ $irection of 5allKs ,elocit% at t ; 2!6 s Hori0ontal com#onent : :ertical com#onent :

v x = u x = 100 m s 1

v y = 15" m s 1 1a(nitu$e2 2 2 ( ) ( ) v = vx + v2 = 100 + 15" y 1 v = 18" m s +irectionv 1 y 1 15" = tan = tan v 100 x = 56.8 from positive )#a)is anticloc"wise

v y = u y gt v y = (1!") ( '.81)( 2.00)

67

PHYSICS
!olution : 5! i! At the ma/imum hei(ht- H :

CHAPTER 2
vy = 0

Thus the time ta"en to reach ma/imum hei(ht is (i,en 5%

ii! A##l%

0 = (1!") ( '.81) t t = 1!.6 s 1 s y = u y t gt 2 1 2 H = (1!")(1!.6 ) ( '.81)(1!.6) 2 H = 1525 m


68

v y = u y gt

PHYSICS
t = 2(1!.6) t = "5.2 s

CHAPTER 2

!olution : c! 3li(ht time ; 2(the time ta"en to reach the ma/imum hei(ht)

Hence the hori0ontal ran(e- R is

$!

sx = u xt R = (100)( "5.2) R = "520 m Fhen the 5all reaches #oint P thus


The ,elocit% of the 5all at #oint PHori0ontal com#onent: v1x = u x :ertical com#onent:

sy = 0
1

= 100 m s v1 y = u y gt v1 y = (1!") ( '.81)( "5.2 ) 1 v1 y = 1!2 m s

69

PHYSICS
!olution : 1a(nitu$e- v
1 2 1x

CHAPTER 2

= v + v = (100 ) + ( 1!2 ) v1 = 200 m s v +irection1 1 y 1 1!2 = tan v = tan 100 1x


2 1y 1 2

therefore the $irection of 5allKs ,elocit% is e!

= 60.0

= "00 from positive )#a)is anticloc"wise The time ta"en from #oint 8 to 4 is 95!6 s! i! #osition of the 5all hen t ; 95!6 sHori0ontal com#onent :
sx = u xt s x = (100)( 45.0)

s x = 4500 m from point .

70

PHYSICS
!olution : :ertical com#onent :

CHAPTER 2
1 2 s y = u y t gt 2 1 2 s y = (1!")( 45.0) ( '.81)( 45.0) 2

therefore the #osition of the 5all is &0800 m, 2/2 m' e! ii! ma(nitu$e an$ $irection of 5allKs ,elocit% at t ; 95!6 s Hori0ontal com#onent : :ertical com#onent :

s y = 268 m )elow the ground


v2 x = u x = 100 m s
1

v2 y = u y gt v2 y = (1!") ( '.81)( 45.0 ) v2 y = 26' m s 1

71

PHYSICS
!olution : 1a(nitu$e- v2
2 2x

CHAPTER 2

= v +v
2

v2 = (100 ) + ( 26' ) v2 = 28! m s 1 +irectionv 1 2 y = tan v 2x


26' = tan 100 = 6'.6
1

2 2y

therefore the $irection of 5allKs ,elocit% is

= 2'0

from positive )#a)is anticloc"wise


72

PHYSICS
E/am#le )6 :

CHAPTER 2

A trans#ort #lane tra,ellin( at a constant ,elocit% of 56 m s) at an altitu$e of 766 m releases a #arcel hen $irectl% a5o,e a #oint M on le,el (roun$! Calculate a! the fli(ht time of the #arcel5! the ,elocit% of im#act of the #arcelc! the $istance from M to the #oint of im#act! ((i,en g ; J!C) m s*2) !olution :

u = 50 m s 1
766 m M

73

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2
u = 50 m s 1 u x = u = 50 m s 1 an$ u y = 0 m s 1

!olution : The #arcelKs ,elocit% ; #laneKs ,elocit% thus a!

The ,ertical $is#lacement is (i,en 5%

s y = "00 m

Thus the fli(ht time of the #arcel is

1 2 s y = u y t gt 12 "00 = 0 ( '.81) t 2 2

t = !.82 s

74

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2

!olution : 5! The com#onents of ,elocit% of im#act of the #arcel: Hori0ontal com#onent: v = u = 50 m s 1 x x :ertical com#onent: v = u gt

v = v + v = ( 50 ) + ( !6.! ) 1 v = ' 1 . 6 m s +irectionv 1 y 1 !6.! = tan v = tan 50 x =the 56.' therefore $irection of #arcelKs ,elocit% is
1a(nitu$e2 x 2 y 2

v y = 0 ( '.81)( !.82 ) 1 v y = !6.! m s

= "0" from positive )#a)is anticloc"wise

75

PHYSICS
!olution : c!

CHAPTER 2
'et the $istance from M to the #oint of im#act is d! Thus the $istance- d is (i,en 5%

sx = u xt

d = ( 50 )( !.82 )

d = "'1 m

76

PHYSICS
E/ercise 2!9 :

CHAPTER 2

>se (ra,itational acceleration- ( ; J!C) m s2 N A 5as"et5all #la%er ho is 2!66 m tall is stan$in( on the floor )6!6 m from the 5as"et- as in fi(ure 2!)7! If he shoots the 5all at a 96!6 an(le a5o,e the hori0ontal- at hat initial s#ee$ must he thro so that it (oes throu(h the hoo# ithout stri"in( the 5ac"5oar$H The 5as"et hei(ht is 7!65 m!

-igure 2.%* A.!. : %0.1 m s %

77

PHYSICS
E/ercise 2!9 :
N

CHAPTER 2
An a##le is thro n at an an(le of 76 a5o,e the hori0ontal from the to# of a 5uil$in( 26 m hi(h! Its initial s#ee$ is 96 m s)! Calculate a! the time ta"en for the a##le to stri"es the (roun$5! the $istance from the foot of the 5uil$in( ill it stri"es the (roun$c! the ma/imum hei(ht reache$ 5% the a##le from the (roun$! A stone is thro n from the to# of one 5uil$in( to ar$ a tall 5uil$in( 56 m a a%! The initial ,elocit% of the 5all is 26 m s) at 96 a5o,e the hori0ontal! Ho far a5o,e or 5elo its ori(inal le,el ill the stone stri"e the o##osite allH

A.!. : 0.90 s3 %10 m3 00.0 m

A.!. : %0.* m below the original level.

78

PHYSICS

CHAPTER 2

THE END
Next Chapter
CHAPTER 7 : 3orce- 1omentum an$ Im#ulse

79