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Muhamad Faris Azmi and Mohd Hamizi Yusoff 2

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EFFECT OF CONCENTRATION ON THE RATE OF REACTION
Teacher’s Guide / Chemistry Form 5 / Spreadsheet

SCIENTIFIC CONCEPT

Chemistry reactions occur when substances react with one another. How active of one
chemistry reactions is known as rate of reaction. When reaction occur, reactant will decrease and
the product will increase as the time pass away. So, the rate of reaction can be determined with
the measurement rate of loosing reactant or rate of products form.

Rate of reaction can be determined as the changing of substance quantity with time. For a
reaction produce gas, rate of reaction is measured from the volume gas released per unit time.

The rate of reaction will increase when the concentration of the reactant increase.

No. experiment 1 2 3 4 5
Volume of Sodium 45 35 25 15 5
Thiosulfate, V1 (cm3)
Volume of water (cm3) 0 10 20 30 40
Volume of Sulfuric 5 5 5 5 5
acid (cm3)
Total Volume (cm3) 50 50 50 50 50
Time taken for ‘X’ to 24 32 44 68 130
disappear, t (s)
1/Time, 1/t (s-1) 0.0417 0.0313 0.0227 0.0147 0.0077

We use the knowledge / concept of concentration for our benefit.

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UNIQUE FEATURE OF THIS ACTIVITY

This activity needs the students to determine and understand the rate of reaction. The unique
features of this spreadsheet are:

i. The changing of environment of reactant or product will resulting different rate of


reactions.
ii. Concentration of the reaction can manipulate the resulting data.
iii. Controlling the variables to get such result by relating it with time.
iv. The changing of concentration of the substance in chemistry reaction will resulting a few
different time for time taken for ‘X’ symbol to disappear.
v. The ability of spreadsheet to show the data taken from experiment and view it in simple
form and easy to produce and process the data.
vi. Allow the students to explore some kind of visualizing important data in digital graphic
form like graph that generate by spreadsheet data like Microsoft Excel.

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ENGAGE

THE

MAGICAL OF COLOUR

Figure 1

There are 5 glasses with same solution but different in composition. The colour of the solution is
green, from light green to dark green.

• What is the density of light from left solution to the right solution?

• Why the solution is different in density of colour even the volume of the solution is
same?

• How could this happen?

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EMPOWER

Steps
1. Students are briefly given information about the rate of reaction. About its meaning and
application in daily life.
2. Students are knows the rate of reaction is including with time.
3. Students are given
- Measuring cylinder
- Stop watch
- Conical flask
- White paper with marked “X” at the center
- Sodium Thiosulphate
- Hydrochloric acid
4. Students are thinking about the relationship of the reaction between sodium thiosulphate with
hydrochloric acid and relating it with the measure of time.
5. Students need to plan an experiment by using the given apparatus and chemicals to determine
the effect of concentration on the rate of reaction.
6. Students have to construct a hypothesis for the relationship of the concentration of substance
and the rate of reaction.
7. Students should know the effect on varying concentration of sodium thiosulphate on the rate
of reaction.
8. Help students to determine the data needed by using appropriate scientific experimental
procedures.
9. The instructions given to start the activity may be as given below:
- Open spreadsheet file
- Name the file as ‘Concentration factor affecting rate of reaction’
- Measuring 45cm3 sodium thiosulphate 0.2M and put into conical flask.
- The conical flask is put on the white paper with marked “X” at the center.

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- By using 10 cm3, 5 ml sulphuric acid is measured and put into the conical flask. At the
same time, stop watch begin.
- Swirl the conical flask. Precipitation of yellow solution is appeared slowly. Marked ‘X’ is
observed perpendicularly from the top of the conical flask through the solution.
- The time taken for the marked ‘X’ disappear is recorded by stopping the stop watch.
- The time taken is recorded in the column C8 of your spreadsheet.
- Repeat step by reducing the concentration of sodium thiosulphate by diluting with
distilled water but fix the total volume and the record in the next column, C8, D8, E8, F8,
and G8.

How to set up your spreadsheet:


1. Click on cell C7, enter formula =C4*(C5/(C5+C6)) to find the concentration for the sodium
thiosulphate solution used.
2. Copy cell C7, then paste it into cell D7 or click cell C7 then drag it to the next columns (to
determine the concentration for the sodium thiosulphate solution with different amount
volume in dilution with water).
3. Click cell C11, type =1/C10 to determine the rate of reaction. Drag the cell C11 to the next
column. Rate of reaction for each repeating experiment will appear.

How to draw a graph with your spreadsheet:

1. Graph Concentration of Sodium Thiosulphate against Time


i. Highlight cells B7 to G7
ii. Hold down the button CTRL
iii. Highlight cells B10 to G10
iv. Get Insert > Graph
v. Rewrite the title for each axis and give title for the graph.

2. Graph Concentration of Sodium Thiosulphate against 1/Time


i. Highlight cells B7 to G7
ii. Hold down the button CTRL
iii. Highlight cells B11 to G11
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iv. Get Insert > Graph
v. Rewrite the title for each axis and give title for the graph.
vi. Select Design>Move Chart>Object In: Sheet 2

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Results

Figure 2

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Figure 3
QUESTIONS:

1. In this experiment, a few types of concentration of the sodium thiosulphate are use to
determine the rate of reaction. How can we differentiate the concentration of sodium
thiosulphate from basic solution of 0.2 mol dm-3?
2. From the graph of the concentration against time (Figure 2), how can we get the rate of
reaction at instantaneous time?
3. Base on the graph of concentration against 1/t (Figure 3), describe the relationship between
the reducing of concentration with the rate of reaction?
4. Why we must use the same size of conical flask in each repeating experiment?

ANSWER:

1. We can differentiate the concentration of sodium thiosulphate by diluting the initial solution
with water. The initial concentration of sodium thiosulphate is 0.2 mol dm-3, to get another
solution which is less concentrated than 0.2mol dm-3, diluting is done base on the equation

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M1V1=M2V2. The water needed to diluting the initial concentration is depends on the initial
concentration and final concentration needed.
2. To get the rate of reaction at instantaneous time, get the tangent of the graph at that time, then
count their gradient.
3. The graph of concentration against 1/time showed 1/time increase linearly with the
increasing of concentration. When the concentration of sodium thiosulphate reduce, the time
taken for marked ‘X’ disappeared longer than more concentrated solution. So, the rate of
reaction for less concentrated is less than more concentrated.
4. We must use the same size of conical flask because area for yellow precipitate must be same.
If we use larger connical flask, the time taken for yellow precipitate to cover marked ‘X’ will
be longer than expected.

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ENHANCE

Figure 4

1. You are given two same liquid but different in concentration. ‘A’ is less concentrated than
‘B’. If the two liquid getting boil at the same temperature, which one of them will boil first?
Why?
2. The rate of reaction is the speed with which its reactions disappear and its product form. The
speed is measured by the amount of products form. One of the factors that determine the rate
of reaction is concentration of the substance. Give other factors that influence the rate of
reaction of the chemicals reaction?

Answer:

1. Liquid B will boil first because it is more concentrated. A liquid which is more concentrated
has much same molecules per volume. The possibility for molecules to collide each other is
greater and the effective collision will form products. So, the time taken for the concentrated
solution, B, to reach the products is less than less concentrated solution, A.
2. There are a few factors that influence reaction rates like temperature, the absence of catalyst
and the nature of the substance like size of the molecules.

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