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Reflections on South East Asia

South East Asia comprises of one of the most densely collected varieties of culture, history, religion
and art to be found anywhere in the world. The Pacic Rim has long been an area of shifting
politics, of colonial imperialism, military unrest, and of erce national pride. It juxtaposes the
ancient and modern. Where artifacts invoking the era of the mythological Nagas sit comfortably
alongside the most blatant examples of westernization. Where warring people have jostled for land
and resources for thousands of years and where three major religions collide. It is a melding pot
teeming with variety, conict, harmony, history and a culture that can be mistaken with none other
the world over.
...South East Asians have been extremely adept at absorbing, manipulating and
adapting external cultures and technologies
to maintain their own cultural autonomy
and distinctiveness. excerpt from A
Travellers History of South East Asia by JM
Barwise & NJ White
Cambodia History
According to Legend, in the rst century AD, Kaundinya, an Indian Brahman priest, came to the
great lake of Cambodia, Ton Le Sap, to nd his fortune. There he met the daughter of the Naga king
and married her founding the rst kingdom called Phnom. He introduced Hindu customs and law,
along with the Sanskrit language. Historians would refer to this as the Funan kingdom, the
precursor to the Khmer empire. The Khmer people, who are closely related to the Mon of Thailand
and Burma, migrated from southeastern China into the Indochinese Peninsula and Mekong River
Valley. The Mon-Khmer people intermingled with the indigenous population that were probably of
Austro-Asiatic extraction and would eventually establish the Funan kingdom according to the
earliest historical records.
Funan was among the rst South- east Asian kingdoms to embrace the Hindu culture. Located on
the lower reaches of the Mekong Delta and from it main port of Oc Eo it beneted from it proximity
to the east- west trade route between China and India. From its contact with Indian merchants,
diplomats and theologians, Funan gradually adopted the Sanskrit language, an Indian hierarchical
system of government and law as well as Hindu and Buddhist beliefs.
The Funan kingdom was eventually supplanted by the Chenla kingdom but still retained the social,
political and religious institutions from the earlier kingdom. During this time the kingdom expanded
to include all of Laos and west into southern Thailand. Internal disputes caused the kingdom to split
into Land Chenla (Upper) and Water Chenla (Lower). While Land Chenla remained relatively
stable, Water Chenla came under the control of the Sailendra dynasty of Java. This lasted until a
Khmer prince, Jayavarman II, having spent time in the Sailendra court, returned to Cambodia and
declared all the areas inhabited by the Khmer people independent from Java. Having proclaimed
himself universal monarch, Jayavarman instituted the cult of Devaraja, which conferred divine
status upon the ruler. He relocated the capital north of the Tonle Sap at Hariharalaya near Angkor
and reunited the two Chenlas thus founding the famed Khmer Empire. His successors would begin
building on the site at Angkor, which included the construction of an elaborate system of canals and
reservoirs to provide irrigation for wet rice cultivation. This was a key to their prosperity and
signaled the golden age of the Khmer Empire. It was during this time that the great temple
complexes were built along with a system of roads and elevated causeways, rest houses and
hospitals.
Being a Hindu state, the King was the earthly representation of the Hindu deities. The temples were
constructed for worship of the king and the gods and the structural features, which included the
towers, terraces and moats, represented various elements in the Meru mythology. At Angkor Wat the
tower in the centre is the mythical Mount Meru, representing the centre of the universe, while the
moat portrays the ocean and the outer wall are the mountains at the world's edge. Temple wall
carvings and the external relief's are fables from various Hindu mythologies.

The Khmer Empire would ourish for
over 600 years and at its zenith in the 12
century covered most of the Southeast
Asian peninsula. The kingdom suffers
repeated invasions by the Annamese and
the Champas from present day Vietnam.
Under Jayavarman VII, the Khmers
would conquer the Champas and the
kingdom would reach its largest extent.
Jayavarman VII would convert to
Buddhism, making it the national religion
and begin construction on a new temple
complex Angkor Thom in 1200. Having
over extended themselves in terms of
territory and nancing the lavish
constructions couple with the deterioration of the irrigation system that fueled their economy, this
would signal the beginning of the end for the Khmer Empire. The Thai kingdoms in the west now
threatened them and in the 15th century, Ayutthaya captured the capital at Angkor.
Angkor was abandoned to the jungle and the capital moved to a site near present day Phnom Penh
at the conuence of the Mekong and Tonle Sap. The emphasis shifted from an agricultural to a
trading society and they were able to prosper by linking the river commerce to the international
trade routes. Maritime trade was further stimulated by the arrival of the Europeans in the region.
During the 16th century the capital was moved to Lovek on the Tonle Sap river and it ourished
with its foreign trade communities of Spanish, Portuguese, Arabs, Chinese, Japanese, Indonesians,
Malays and later the English and the Dutch. The Thais eventually captured Lovek and at this point
in history Thais and the Vietnamese would alternately subjugated them until they became a French
protectorate.
The French interest in Cambodia was aroused by the much-publicized travels of the explorer and
naturalist Henri Mouhot, who was responsible for rediscovering the ruins of Angkor Wat as well as
journeying up the Mekong to the Laotian kingdom of Luang Prabang. Through their gunboat
diplomacy, they had already annexed the provinces of the Mekong Delta or Cochinchina as it was
called as well as Saigon. A French protectorate was established in exchange for the rights to explore
and exploit the Cambodian forest and mineral resources. Using its usual means of persuasion, the
French would later amend that treaty to give the French governor of Cochinchina far-reaching
control over the kingdom and effectively rendering the monarchy powerless. This led the formation
of the Union Indochinoise, or Indochina Union that encompassed Cambodia as well as the three
regions of Vietnam. Realizing that there was no hidden wealth to be exploited and that it would
never achieve the free port status of a Singapore, Cambodia was reduced to a heavily taxed efcient
rice-producing colony.
Vietnam History
The people that settled in the region of what is now know as Vietnam are a fusion of different races,
languages and cultures. Just as in other areas of Southeast Asia, the Indochina Peninsula became a
nal destination for the migrations of many different people, which included speakers of Tai, Mon-
Khmer, and Austronesian languages. The Vietnamese language itself is indicative of the cultural
mix of the Vietnamese people, borrowing elements from Mon-Khmer, Tai, Austronesian languages
as well as infusions of Chinese terminology.
Their pre-history consisted of two sophisticated Bronze Age cultures from 2000 B.C. to the rst
century, The Phung-nguyen and the Dong Son. The south became part of the Indianized kingdom of
Funan, which was supplanted by the Hindu kingdom of Champa. The Tai-speaking peoples that
migrated from the Yunnan region in China settled in Tonkin and Annam, the northern and central
regions of Vietnam. Their distinct tribal
groupings were known as the Tai Dam
(Black Tai), Tai Deng (Red Tai), Tai Khao
(White Tai), and the Nung.
According to legend the founder of
Vietnam was Hung Vuong, the rst ruler
of the Hung dynasty (2879 258 B.C.) in
the kingdom of Van Lang. In Vietnamese
mythology, Lac Long Quan (Lac Dragon
Lord) came to the Red River Delta from
the sea and taught the people how to
cultivate rice. Hung Vuong was his eldest
son with the Chinese immortal Au Co.
Vietnamese scholars associate the Hung
dynasty with the Dong Sonian culture.
After the last Hung king was overthrown,
the kingdom was conquered by the
Chinese Qin dynasty. Shortly after the Qin
was replaced by the Han dynasty in China and the Qin military commander, Trieu Da, unwilling to
accept the new rulers combined all the territories under his control into the kingdom of Nam Viet.
Viet was the term for all the people on the fringes of the Han Empire so Nam Viet meant Southern
Viet. Although he was originally a conqueror, Vietnamese historians consider Trieu Da as a
defender of their homeland against the Han Chinese. After his death the Han incorporated Nam Viet
into the Han Empire. This was the beginning of a thousand years of Chinese rule that resulted into
the Sinoization of the Vietnamese culture. One positive aspect of this was the adoption of a
Confucian bureaucratic, family and social structure since it gave them the strength to resist the
Chinese domination in later centuries.
With the break up of the Han dynasty in China, a former Han ofcial in charge of the region around
the present city of Hue, established his own kingdom. Gradually coming under Indian cultural
inuence, this became the kingdom of Champa. It was originally a decentralized country made up
of four states. The Cham people were of Malayo-Polynesian ethnicity with a maritime tradition and
a powerful eet that was used for commerce and piracy. They were nally united in 400AD but
would continue to be attacked by the Chinese, Java from the south, the Khmer Empire in the west
and later the Vietnamese kingdom in the north over the years.
Toward the end of the rst millennium, the Chinese were nally driven out of Vietnam. The rst
great dynasty of Vietnam was the Ly dynasty with its capital in Dai La (Hanoi). The dynasty would
have to endure repeated invasions from China as well as the Khmer and Champa kingdoms from
the south. The kingdom was then known as Dai Viet with it capital in present day Hanoi. This was
the rst stable Vietnamese dynasty and would adopt many of the characteristics that were found in
later Vietnamese states. They would adopt Buddhism as their state religion, promote literature and
art, and pattern their administration after the Chinese. The Ly would also begin to spread their
inuence southward into to the territory controlled by the Champas. The Ly dynasty was replaced
by the Tran dynasty through an arranged marriage. The Tran are best known for repelling repeated
attacks by the powerful Mongol Empire of Kublai Khan and they would continue the southward
expansion into Champa. Insurrections by the peasant class caused the downfall of the Tran dynasty
and an ambitious general seized the throne and instituted a number of reforms. These reforms were
unpopular with the feudal lords who appealed to the Ming dynasty in China to help restore the Tran.
The Ming reasserted Chinese control over Vietnam and administer the county as a province of
China. During this time much of the cultural and governmental inuence on Vietnam can be
attributed to the Ming. However, because of its location on the South China Sea and contact with
merchants from other cultures as well as the Indianized Champa and Khmer kingdoms served to
counterbalance the Chinese inuence.
Le Loi is credited with defeating the Chinese army and establishing the Le dynasty, considered to
by the greatest and longest lasting dynasty of Vietnam. The greatest Le ruler, Le Thanh Tong, would
permanently subjugate Champa and institute the formation of the Hong Duc legal code. The legal
code was based on Chinese law but featured the recognition of the higher position of women in
Vietnamese society. Later Le rulers would come under the control of ambitious family magnates.
The two families, the Nguyen and the Trinh, would ruler in the name of the Le crown but had
effectively divided the country into north and south while trying to depose one another.
Three Tay Son brothers would lead a peasant rebellion and bring an end to the weaken Le dynasty
along with the Trinh and Nguyen families. The country was united once again with each of the three
brothers controlling a section of the country. A nephew of the last Nguyen lord, Nguyen Anh,
managed to escape and appealed to the French for assistance. Nguyen Anh began to win back
portions of the south controlled by the youngest and weakest Tay Son brother. With French support
he would nally succeed in taking control of the rest of the country. As the new ruler, he adopted
the name of Gia Long and change the name of the country to Nam Viet although the Chinese would
insist on inverting the name to Viet Nam.
The French presence in Vietnam increased in the form of traders, missionaries, diplomats and naval
personnel and they were beginning to where out their welcome. The rulers made attempts to curb
the French inuence to which the French responded with an invasion force without any effort to
negotiate a treaty. It was their rationalization that it was their duty to bring the benets of a superior
culture to the less fortunate in Asia. By the end of the 19th century, the French had established the
Indochinese Union which was comprised of the colony of Cochinchina (the southern part of
Vietnam and the protectorates of North and Central Vietnam, renamed Tonkin and Annam
respectively, as well as Cambodia and Laos.
The French objectives, as with most of the colonial
administrations in Southeast Asia, was to exploit the
region without regard for the Vietnamese people.
This gave rise to nationalism and independence
movements in many different forms. Ho Chi Minh
and the Vietnamese Communist party were able to
succeed where others had failed because he was
able to meld the forces of urban nationalism with
the peasant rebellion. Unlike their former Union
Indochina neighbors Cambodia and Laos, Vietnam
was not given its independence from the French.
They had to ght two long wars against the French
and then the United States before an independent
united Vietnam was achieved in 1975.
Thailand History
The majority of the population of Thailand could trace their heritage to the Tai people who migrated
to the region from southern China. The united kingdom of what is now know as Thailand dates back
to around the thirteenth century but various civilizations have thrived in this area. Excavations done
in at Ban Chiang in Northeastern Thailand shows evidence of an advanced civilization that
flourished on the Khorat Plateau as far back as 3600 BC. The inhabitants of Ban Chiang forged
bronze, and were the first to cultivate rice in Asia. This pre-dates the Bronze Age in the Middle
East.
By the end of the first millennium B.C., a kingdom would emerge from the tribal territories. Funan
was the one of the earliest kingdoms in the area controlling the centre of modern Thailand and all of
Cambodia. Through its close contact with India, Brahman merchants brought Hindu culture to
Southeast Asia. Around this time Indians were also migrating to the area where they would engage
in trade and intermarry with the locals. India's cultural influence was evident in all areas of
Southeast Asian society, religion as well as architecture.
The migration of the closely related Mon and Khmers from southern China commenced around the
ninth century B.C. The Khmer would settle in the Mekong River Valley, while the Mon would
gravitate toward the delta region of Burma and the central plains and northern highlands of
Thailand. The original inhabitants of the northern highlands were the Lawa but through kingdom
expansion by the Mon they were forced further up into the highlands and continue to survive today
as one of the major hill tribes. With the decline of the Funan Empire in the sixth century A.D., the
Mon would establish their independent kingdoms of Dvaravati and Haripunjaya. The Khmer would
take over the heart of the Funan Empire and centre their kingdom in Angkor. The Mon were
receptive to the South Asian influences and in the eighth century missionaries from Ceylon would
introduce the Mon to Theravada Buddhism. Through the Mon, Buddhism would spread to the
Khmer kingdom. Hinduism would continue to be the foundation of society in Southeast Asia with
Buddhist religious values and ethical standards. Just as in Burma, the Mon would eventually
succumb to the control of their neighbours and by the tenth century Dvaravati was absorbed by the
Khmer empire.
On a mountainous plateau south of the Yangtze River in what is now known as Yunnan province
live a people known as the Tai. The Chinese of the Tang Dynasty referred to them as the southern
barbarians from the state of Nanchao. The Nanchao rebelled against the Chinese, eventually
extending their domain into Burma and northern Vietnam. By the thirteenth century the armies of
Kublai Khan conquered the Nanchao incorporating their kingdom into the Chinese empire. All this
time the Tai people continued migrating south into Southeast Asia. They were referred to by the
Khmers as syam, or 'dark brown' people, which is the origin of the term Siam. In Burma they were
known as the Shan and in the upper Mekong region as the Lao. The majority would settle in
Thailand, which at the time was the northern and western fringe of the Khmer Empire. A Tai
chieftain would declare his independence from the Khmer and establish the kingdom of Sukhothai.
It was there that the people took the name Thai, meaning 'free' having freed themselves from Khmer
rule. Further north another Tai prince would defeat the old Mon kingdom of Haripunjaya and found
the kingdom of Lan Na, which was centred around the present day city of Chiang Mai.

Founded in the fourteenth century on the banks of the Chao
Phraya River is the Kingdom of Ayuttahya. The Thai would
rule there for over 400 years, absorbing most the Khmer
empire, the kingdom of Sukhothai, and much of the Malay
peninsular region. The kingdom of Lan Na eluded Ayutthayan
control in the beginning but they were later conquered by the
Burmese Toungoo dynasty in the sixteenth century who would
also capture the city of Ayutthaya. The Burmese would be
driven from Thailand for the time being until the eighteenth
century when Ayutthaya was completely destroyed by the
Toungoo kingdom. The Thai made a remarkable recovery and
re-establish their capital further south in the city of Bangkok.
From there they were able to reunite the entire Thai kingdom.
As Europe developed an interest in Southeast Asia, the
westerners began to take increasing note of Thailand's
influence in the area. The Portuguese were the first to make
contact after their capture of Malacca, followed by the Dutch,
the French and the English. Trade agreements were signed with all the European powers as well as
the United States. The Thai's were successful at playing off one against the other while maintaining
sovereignty over most of their lands and increasing the nation's economy. With the French in
Indochina and the British in Malaya and Burma, Thailand became a buffer between the two
European rivals.
Despite some internal struggles and
bout s of economi c uncert ai nt y,
Thailand has remained a stable,
prospering nation. This could be
attributed to the fact that it was never
subjugated by a colonial ruler but more
than likely because they are bound
together by three basic tenets. The Thai
people have a pride in the citizenship;
they support the Thai monarchy and
their commitment to Theravada
Buddhism.
Myanmar History
Myanmar (Burma)
The western most country in the Southeast Asian peninsula is Myanmar or Burma, as it was known
in history. A study in contrast, it is a country that developed as a divided state of conicting ethnic
beliefs that continue to this day. This contradicts the serenity of its devotion to Theravada
Buddhism. Just as in other parts of the peninsula, the Irrawaddy River Valley saw a succession of
people from other parts of Asia and who would pattern their society and culture after its Indian
neighbor. The rst of these would be the Mon, who came from the Khmer region of Southeast Asia
as early as 5,000 years ago. They settled in the Irrawaddy delta in the southern and eastern parts of
Burma stretching down the Tenasserim into the Malay Peninsula and parts of Thailand.
The rst kingdom of the Mon was know as Suwarnabhumi, the Golden Land and centred around the
port city of Thaton. It was there that they received the emissaries from India. It was the Great
emperor of India, Asoka that is credited with introducing Theravda Buddhism to the Mon
civilization and establishing the ancient monastic settlement of Kalasa.
Between the 1st century BC and 7th cen- tury AD a second group of people began migrating from
the north. Speakers of Tibeto-Burman languages and known as the Pyu, they established their
capital in Prome on the western banks of the Irrawaddy River. Like the Mon, the Pyu were
Indianized and, in all likelihood, were Buddhist. Being a peace loving society there were no
rivalries or conict be- tween the two kingdoms until the mid 9th century. At that time another
Tibeto-Burman speaking people from the north, known as the Burmese moved into the Irrawaddy
valley and absorbed the Pyu kingdom.
The Burmese established the capital of their kingdom at Bagan, 400 miles from the mouth of the
Irrawaddy. As the power and inuence of this kingdom grew, they conquered their neighbours to the
south- east, the Mon. It was the Mon craftsman and artisans that would dene the Bagan culture.
The Bagan dynasty became known for the large number of temples, shrines and monasteries built
and maintained during this period. This was the kingdom that united all of present day Myanmar.
The Bagans would continue there conquests to include the Shan realm to the east and the Arakan
region to the west until they succeeded in uniting all of what is present day Myanmar. This period
of peace would last until the 1287 when the Mongols under Kublai Khan defeated the Bagan
kingdom. In the ensuing centuries the Mon would re-establish their kingdom in Pegu while the
north became divided into the various splinter groups.
For two centuries the Burmese, the Shan and the Mon were at
war with each other. By the 16th century, a new dynasty
emerged from the capital city Toungoo in central Burma.
Under its third king Bayinnaung, the Toungoo dynasty would
extend as far as Laos when it conquered the LanNa (Chiang
Mai) and Ayutthaya kingdoms in Thailand. After his death they
lost much of their conquered territory and the capital was
moved north to Ava. In 1752 a Mon rebellion succeeded in
taking over the capital of Ava. A few short years later the
Konbaung dynasty defeated the Mon kingdom for a nal time.
During this period there was an on going struggle against the
British in the west and the Thais at Ayutthaya in the east. The
Burmese army completely destroyed the city of Ayutthaya and
it was never rebuilt. The defeat of the Arakan kingdom in the
west brought it into conict the British in neighboring Bengal.
In the 19th century there were three Anglo-Burmese wars and
by 1886 the entire territory of Burma fell under the authority
of British colonial India.
During the Second World War
the Japanese drove the British
from Burma. Following the
war, Burma achieved
independence in 1948. Almost
immediately the new
government faced a revolt
from the northern factions.
Even after democratic
elections a split in the ruling
party caused the new prime
minister, U Nu , to create a
t e mp o r a r y mi l i t a r y
government under General Ne
Win. In 1962, an army revolt
lead by Ne Win re-established
military rule. After 25 years, a
pro- democracy demonstration
led to clashes with the military and the deaths of over 3000 people. The leadership promised
elections in 1989 and in spite of efforts to control the outcome, the National League for Democracy
achieved an overwhelming victory. The elected ofcials were prevented from taking ofce. Aung
San Suu Kyi was kept under house arrest until just recently and won a seat in Parliament in the last
by-election. The State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) has held power for the last
four decades but it appears to have relaxed some of its control and the rest of the world has openly
embraced some of the changes that are happening there.
Malaysia History

The Kingdom of Malaysia is today a diverse mix of immigrant Chinese, Indian and indigenous
Malays. With a population of 20 million, the region is vibrant and alive with mixed ideas and
religions, and thriving as a participant in world trade.
Malaysia is born of ancient kingdoms and a complex cultural history. The Malays as a race have a
long history. Through their migration they have settled many of the islands surrounding the Malay
Peninsula including Borneo and Sumatra. Their culture over the years has been strongly inuenced
by people they came in contact with including the Thais to the north, the Javanese, the Sumatrans,
and most signicantly the Indians. It could be said that the Malays adopted the Hindu culture as
their own and many of the endemic rituals have survived the Islamic conversion along with many of
the animistic beliefs. Being situated along the trade routes between India and China has resulted in
an exchange of ideas, art, religion and models of government. It is the synthesis of Indian and
indigenous ideas that attributed to their cultural and political patterns over the years.
Initially many small kingdoms and city-states contested ownership of the Malay Peninsula. All
would later come under the control of the Sumatran empire Sri Vijaya and at various other times fall
under the sovereignty of the kingdoms of Angkor, Majapahit and the Thai Ayutthaya. Eventually the
Indian-modied beliefs of Islam began to exert its inuence over the peninsula.. Muslim merchants
from Bengali and the Malabar Coast drew large numbers of converts in the ports that they traded in.
This is probably due to the social contact resulting from trade through marriages. Politically and
economically motivated aristocracy converted to the Muslim faith and were followed by the
common people in gradual stages down the social scale. It was this spread of Islam along with the
prosperous Indian trade that became the nucleus of the most powerful of the Malay kingdoms.
Fueled by commerce, it was the port of Malaka that became the spearhead that advanced the spread
of Islam to the ports of Borneo, Java and as far east as the Moluccas and the Philippines.
The Portuguese were the rst Europeans to take advantage of Malaka's strategic location in the
Straits of Melacca by capturing the city. Their interest did not extend much past the port and they
constantly had to repel attacks from the neighboring kingdoms. When the Dutch came to the region,
it was an alliance with the Johore kingdom to the south that enabled them to drive the Portuguese
from the area.
It was the British, who next became interested in the peninsula and their strategic Melacca straits.
They acquired the island of Penang from the Sultan of Kedah in 1786 and by the end of the 19th
century they controlled what would be considered all of modern Malay states. After the Japanese
occupation during World War II the course was set for independence on the Malay Peninsula. This
was accomplished in 1957. Six years later the former British colonies of Singapore and those on
Borneo united to become the Federation of Malaysia. Singapore became an independent state in
1965.

The development of modern day Malaysia has
resulted in multiracial society and an independent
nation of substantial wealth. With a population of 20
million that includes indigenous Malays and
immigrant Chinese and Indians, each community is
very guarded of its cultural identity. Like the former
Melaka kingdom, it is much more cosmopolitan than
some of its neighbors. Malaysia is part of the global economy, with international interest high.
Borneo
There is little known about the early history of the island, but it can be surmised that there are early
traces of Indian influences. This can possibly be attributed to the Kingdom of Sri Vijaya in Sumatra,
then later to the Kingdom of Majapahit of Java, which laid claim to a good portion of southern
Borneo. By the late 15th century, the sultanate of Brunei was founded and they controlled most of
the island as well as the neighbouring Sulu islands. Both the Dutch and the British showed an
interest in the islands trade from the 17th through to the 19th century. The British were mainly
active along the northern coastal region, which was all under the sultanate of Brunei. In 1841, a
British adventurer, James Brooke came to the aid of the sultan to put down a rebellion and was
awarded the title of raja over the Sarawak region of Brunei. By the end of the 19th century all of
North Borneo, including Brunei was now a British protectorate. Meanwhile the Dutch, who were in
competition with the British in Borneo, took control of the southern region of Borneo. After World
War II, the British protectorates were made into
Crown colonies and the Dutch transferred
sovereignty of the southern regions to Indonesia.
While the states of Sarawak and Sabah later merged
with the Malaya peninsular to become a part of the
Federation of Malaysia, the sultanate of Brunei
remained a British protectorate and was later granted
independence.
Borneos ancient history is relatively obscure, the
indigenous inhabitants of Borneo are known as the
Dayaks. Ethnologically the Dayaks appear to be a
mix of Malay, Negrito and Chinese and are
comprised of six groups, the Penans, Kemantans,
Kenyahs, Kayans, Muruts and Ibans. The first three
represent the oldest inhabitants of Borneo. The Sea
Dayaks or Ibans inhabit the coastal region and were
famous as pirates and conquerors. Many intermarried with the Malays and were converted to Islam
while still maintaining many of their animistic beliefs. The older groups have held on to most of the
ancient customs and beliefs although their practice of headhunting is not as common in recent
times. It has become a concern that the traditional lifestyles of the Dayaks is endangered because of
industrialization, forced resettlement and logging. The Dayaks themselves have become politically
active in the struggle to save their rainforest habitat and their way of life.
Z00Z CIifford W, Terry & Anthony MurreII
10
Appendi - Episode Suide
Episode Z - 8orneo
There is IiffIe known obouf fhe eorIy hisfory of fhe isIond buf if con
be surmised fhof fhere ore eorIy froces of Indion infIuences. This
con possibIy be offribufed fo fhe kingdom of Sri Vijoyo in Sumofro
fhen Iofer fo fhe kingdom of Mojopohif of Jovo which Ioid cIoim fo
o good porfion of soufhern 8orneo. 8y fhe Iofe Ib
fh
cenfury fhe
suIfonofe of 8runei wos founded ond fhey confroIIed mosf of fhe
isIond os weII os fhe neighbouring SuIu isIonds. 8ofh fhe Dufch ond
fhe 8rifish showed on inferesf in fhe isIond's frode from fhe I7
fh
fhrough fo fhe I9
fh
cenfury. The 8rifish were moinIy ocfive oIong
fhe norfhern coosfoI region which wos oII under fhe suIfonofe of
8runei. In I84I o 8rifish odvenfurer Jomes 8rooke come fo fhe oid
of fhe suIfon fo puf down o rebeIIion ond wos oworded fhe fifIe of
rojo over fhe Sorowok region of 8runei. 8y fhe end of fhe I9
fh
cenfury
oII of Morfh 8orneo incIuding 8runei wos now o 8rifish profecforofe.
MeonwhiIe fhe Dufch who were in compefifion wifh fhe 8rifish in
8orneo fook confroI of fhe soufhern region of 8orneo. Affer WorId
Wor II fhe 8rifish
profecforofes were mode info
Crown coIonies ond fhe Dufch
fronsferred sovereignfy of
fhe soufhern regions fo
Indonesio. WhiIe fhe sfofes
of Sorowok ond Soboh Iofer
merged wifh fhe MoIoyo
peninsuIor fo become o porf
of fhe Federofion of MoIoysio
fhe suIfonofe of 8runei
remoined o 8rifish
profecforofe ond wos Iofer
gronfed independence.
Z00Z CIifford W, Terry & Anthony MurreII
10
Appendi - Episode Suide
Episode Z - 8orneo
There is IiffIe known obouf fhe eorIy hisfory of fhe isIond buf if con
be surmised fhof fhere ore eorIy froces of Indion infIuences. This
con possibIy be offribufed fo fhe kingdom of Sri Vijoyo in Sumofro
fhen Iofer fo fhe kingdom of Mojopohif of Jovo which Ioid cIoim fo
o good porfion of soufhern 8orneo. 8y fhe Iofe Ib
fh
cenfury fhe
suIfonofe of 8runei wos founded ond fhey confroIIed mosf of fhe
isIond os weII os fhe neighbouring SuIu isIonds. 8ofh fhe Dufch ond
fhe 8rifish showed on inferesf in fhe isIond's frode from fhe I7
fh
fhrough fo fhe I9
fh
cenfury. The 8rifish were moinIy ocfive oIong
fhe norfhern coosfoI region which wos oII under fhe suIfonofe of
8runei. In I84I o 8rifish odvenfurer Jomes 8rooke come fo fhe oid
of fhe suIfon fo puf down o rebeIIion ond wos oworded fhe fifIe of
rojo over fhe Sorowok region of 8runei. 8y fhe end of fhe I9
fh
cenfury
oII of Morfh 8orneo incIuding 8runei wos now o 8rifish profecforofe.
MeonwhiIe fhe Dufch who were in compefifion wifh fhe 8rifish in
8orneo fook confroI of fhe soufhern region of 8orneo. Affer WorId
Wor II fhe 8rifish
profecforofes were mode info
Crown coIonies ond fhe Dufch
fronsferred sovereignfy of
fhe soufhern regions fo
Indonesio. WhiIe fhe sfofes
of Sorowok ond Soboh Iofer
merged wifh fhe MoIoyo
peninsuIor fo become o porf
of fhe Federofion of MoIoysio
fhe suIfonofe of 8runei
remoined o 8rifish
profecforofe ond wos Iofer
gronfed independence.
Indonesia History
Although 87% of its population would consider themselves Muslim, Indonesia is home to a varied
array of cultures and a synergistic belief system that would also include Hindu-Buddhist ideas as
well as animist or indigenous beliefs. Until the 12th century ad Indonesia was under the rule of the
Mahayana Buddhist Sri Vijaya Empire. The maritime kingdom centred on the south east coast of
Sumatra in the city of Palembang was greatly inuenced by India and China and was the center of
trade for the region. It also attracted many pilgrims and scholars from all over Asia including the
Buddhist scholar Atisha who was credited with the development of Tibetan Buddhism.
Around this same time another Buddhist kingdom, the Sailendra, in Central Java was responsible
for building the Borobudur temple com- plex northwest of Yogyakarta. It is said the Sailendras were
the original rulers of the Funan Empire in Cambodia. The Hindu Kingdoms, Mataram, Kediri and
Singosari dominated the eastern part of Java. Located east of Yogyakarta in the Prambanan temple
complex dedicated to the Durga, the Hindu Divine Mother. By the 13th century the Buddhist king
Kertanagara asserted Java's dominance over all the areas in Sumatra that were previously ruled by
Sri Vijaya. The successor to Kertanagara, Prince Vijaya succeeded in repelling the Mongol invaders
sent by Khubilai Khan and founded a new dynasty, Majapahit, the greatest Javanese empire. This
empire cultivated both Hinduism and Mahayana Buddhism and included much of the territory of
what is now Indonesia today.
Ironically, the spread of Islam is attributed to Melaka a rich port on the Malay Peninsulas that
dominated the Strait of Malacca and controlled much of the trade in the 15th century. Melaka was
supposedly founded by on the descendants of the rulers of Sri Vijaya, having ed Palembang when
Majapahit attacked it. The Hindu-Buddhist prince converted to Islam and took the name Iskandar
Syah. Iskandar Syah's origins may be a matter of dispute but whether he came from Palembang,
Singapore or Johor the fact remains that the kingdom of Malacca was responsible for the spread of
Islam through much of the archipelago almost solely by virtue of trade, marriage and politics.
The 17th century saw the coming of Dutch in the form of the VOC or Dutch East India Company.
The VOC initially established a trading post on the north coast of Java, which later became their
capital city of Batavia (now Jakarta). Their chief strategy was to isolate the Spice Islands from other
international competitors there by insuring a virtual monopoly in Europe. This was accomplished
by intimidation, coercion, military and political control over the entire archipelago. Even though
they asserted their control over all the islands, the Dutch were initial satised with just maintaining
a base of operations in Batavia. They did not envision them becoming involved in local politics
except to insure their trading monopoly but political instability especially on Java forced the VOC
to take an active interest. The result was an increase in their territorial claims.
During the 16th and 17th century, the kingdom of Makassar was a haven for Portuguese merchants.
Having a mutual hatred of the Dutch interlopers in the Moluccas, this alliance proved to be
prosperous for both the Portuguese and the Makassar sultans. The Dutch nally forced the
Portuguese out of most of the eastern islands leaving them with just Portuguese Timor.
The Moluccas is a chain of islands stretching north south some hundred kilometers east of Borneo.
The island cultures there are diverse and the people unique and independent of each other. These
were the legendary spice islands that attracted all the East Indian traders including the Chinese,
Arab, Indian and later the Europeans. However thanks to the Dutch interference in creating their
monopoly of the spice trade there is no longer any cultural depth to the inhabitants of the islands.
The French occupation of the Netherlands at the beginning of the 19th century saw the end of the
VOC and all their territories came under the control of the Dutch government. The British at war
with France, took control of Java and Stamford Rafes was appointed lieutenant governor. He
instituted many enlightened re- forms but before they could take effect the territories were returned
to Dutch control at the end of the Napoleonic Wars. The Dutch squeeze every bit of revenue they
could out of the Indonesian colony during the 1800's. By the beginning of the twentieth century, the
overwhelming poverty and overpopulation and the guilt of a liberal Dutch administration brought
about a series of welfare and education reforms called the Ethical Policy. Ironically, this policy
created a new western-educated Indonesian elite and by 1920 Indonesia was pushing hard for its
independence, but it wasn't until after the Japanese occupation that such independence was
declared. Dutch attempts to regain control were met by erce opposition, and in what is now known
as the National Revolution, independence was won in 1949. The leader of the independent
Indonesia, Sukarno, had a massive public following but was only able to stay in power through an
uneasy coalition of two antagonistic political groups the PKI or Indonesian Communist Party and
the ABRI, Armed Forces of the Republic of Indonesia.
With Sukarno's health failing, an
alleged coup attempt in 1965
gave General Suharto enough of a
reason to massacre all of the PKI
supporters and seize supreme
authority over the republic.
Suharto instituted a New Order
regime backed by the ABRI,
which on the surface saw a period
of economic growth and orderly
development but was actually
fraught with corruption and
responsible for over- whelming social and economic inequalities. In 1976 Indonesia annexed
Portuguese East Timor, with the resistance lasting into the 1990s. With Irian Jaya attempting to
unify with Papua New Guinea at the same time, Indonesia was under immense military pressure.
The issues were resolved, largely thanks to the UN. However Indonesia still carries a mighty
military presence in South East Asia.
The Philippines
Since 1935 the Philippines have been an independent nation comprising over 7000 islands. The
Filipino civilization evolved from the mixture of very diverse cultures. Many of the existing beliefs,
practices and traditions had their origin back in the pre-colonial period. Inuences from the traders
that frequented the islands brought changes to the economy and social structure. This included
China, India, the Middle East and the near by Kingdom of Sri Vijaya in Sumatra. By the late 1500s
Islam had exerted its inuence through much of the archipelago. With the Spaniards came the
missionaries and the conversion to Catholicism was essential to establishing the Spanish rule. The
end result was the creation of a feudal system with a landed elite and the conversion of a large
majority of the population. When in the 19th century, the Philippines, which for over two hundred
year of Spanish rule had been literally isolated from the rest of the world, nally opened to world
trade the rst hints of rebellion began to form. The Filipino nationalist movement continue to
harass the colonial authority through much of the 19th century. Their cause was unknowingly help
by another revolution in another Spanish colony, Cuba which drew the United States into war
against Spain. With the help of the US Pacic eet, the Filipino rebels overwhelmed the Spanish
forces and declared the independence of the Philippines on
the 12th of June 1898.
However, in a treaty with the United States, Spain illegally
ceded the Philippines to the United States effectively
ending their short lived independence. Even though the
Spanish feudal system was dismantled during the US
occupation, the colonial mentality and reinforced elitism
continued along with an active Philippine independence
movement. In 1935, a commonwealth government was
establish with limited self rule. This however was
interrupted by the invasion of the Japanese. Following the
Japanese occupation during WWII, the Philippines became
an independent republic in 1946, with the support of the
US military. The political system, patterned after the US
remained elitist and following more social and economic
unrest, the Moro National Liberation Front and the New
Peoples Army in Luzon led a communist resurgence.
President Marcos declared martial law, assuming dictatorial
power. The dictatorship collapsed in 1986, although not
before economic reform had stabilized the local economy.
The eruption of Mt Pinartubo in 1991 pushed the fragile economy back into disaster. Sitting right on
the joining of two major tectonic plates, the area is a volcanic hot spot.
Z00Z CIifford W, Terry & Anthony MurreII
1Z
Appendi - Episode Suide
Episode 3 - The PhiIippines
Since I93b fhe PhiIippines hove been on independenf nofion compris-
ing over 7000 isIonds. The FiIipino civiIi;ofion evoIved from fhe mix-
fure of very diverse cuIfures. Mony of fhe exisfing beIiefs procfices
ond frodifions hod fheir origin bock in fhe pre-coIonioI period. InfIu-
ences from fhe froders fhof frequenfed fhe isIonds broughf chonges
fo fhe economy ond socioI sfrucfure. This incIuded Chino Indio fhe
MiddIe Eosf ond fhe neor by kingdom of Sri Vijoyo in Sumofro. 8y fhe
Iofe Ib00's IsIom hod exerfed ifs infIuence fhrough much of fhe or-
chipeIogo. Wifh fhe Sponiords come fhe missionories ond fhe conver-
sion fo CofhoIicism wos essenfioI fo esfobIishing fhe Sponish ruIe. The
end resuIf wos fhe creofion of o feudoI sysfem wifh o Ionded eIife ond
fhe conversion of o Iorge mojorify of fhe popuIofion. When in fhe I9
fh
cenfury fhe PhiIippines which for over fwo hundred yeor of Sponish
ruIe hod been IiferoIIy isoIofed
from fhe resf of fhe worId fi-
noIIy opened fo worId frode fhe
firsf hinfs of rebeIIion begon fo
form.
The FiIipino nofionoIisf movemenf
confinue fo hoross fhe coIonioI
oufhorify fhrough much of fhe
I9
fh
cenfury. Their couse wos
unknowingIy heIp by onofher
revoIufion in onofher Sponish
coIony Cubo which drew fhe
Unifed Sfofes info wor ogoinsf
Spoin. Wifh fhe heIp of fhe US
Pocific fIeef fhe FiIipino rebeIs
overwheImed fhe Sponish forces
ond decIored fhe independence
of fhe PhiIippines on fhe IZ
fh
of
June I898.
Z00Z CIifford W, Terry & Anthony MurreII
1Z
Appendi - Episode Suide
Episode 3 - The PhiIippines
Since I93b fhe PhiIippines hove been on independenf nofion compris-
ing over 7000 isIonds. The FiIipino civiIi;ofion evoIved from fhe mix-
fure of very diverse cuIfures. Mony of fhe exisfing beIiefs procfices
ond frodifions hod fheir origin bock in fhe pre-coIonioI period. InfIu-
ences from fhe froders fhof frequenfed fhe isIonds broughf chonges
fo fhe economy ond socioI sfrucfure. This incIuded Chino Indio fhe
MiddIe Eosf ond fhe neor by kingdom of Sri Vijoyo in Sumofro. 8y fhe
Iofe Ib00's IsIom hod exerfed ifs infIuence fhrough much of fhe or-
chipeIogo. Wifh fhe Sponiords come fhe missionories ond fhe conver-
sion fo CofhoIicism wos essenfioI fo esfobIishing fhe Sponish ruIe. The
end resuIf wos fhe creofion of o feudoI sysfem wifh o Ionded eIife ond
fhe conversion of o Iorge mojorify of fhe popuIofion. When in fhe I9
fh
cenfury fhe PhiIippines which for over fwo hundred yeor of Sponish
ruIe hod been IiferoIIy isoIofed
from fhe resf of fhe worId fi-
noIIy opened fo worId frode fhe
firsf hinfs of rebeIIion begon fo
form.
The FiIipino nofionoIisf movemenf
confinue fo hoross fhe coIonioI
oufhorify fhrough much of fhe
I9
fh
cenfury. Their couse wos
unknowingIy heIp by onofher
revoIufion in onofher Sponish
coIony Cubo which drew fhe
Unifed Sfofes info wor ogoinsf
Spoin. Wifh fhe heIp of fhe US
Pocific fIeef fhe FiIipino rebeIs
overwheImed fhe Sponish forces
ond decIored fhe independence
of fhe PhiIippines on fhe IZ
fh
of
June I898.
In 1996 a peace treaty was made with the Muslim Moro National Liberation Front (MMNLF), a
Muslim rebel group in the state of Mindanao and again in 1998. This time it included aid for
economic development for the southern region of Mindanao and the possibility of autonomy in the
region. Despite the agreements the violence has continued to escalate in this region.
Singapore
The independent city-state of Singapore is located at the southern end of the Strait of Malacca.
Although there is little known of its pre-colonial history, this convenient trading location was put to
use by the various ruling empires of the region, which included Sri Vijaya, Majapahit, the Thai
kingdom of Ayutthaya and the Malacca and Johore sultanates. It was one of the rulers of Sri Vijaya,
Sri Tri Buana, who gave the city its name, Singapura or lion city. Many years later, another ruler
from Palembang, King Paramesvara was eeing the Majapahit invader and was given asylum by the
ruler of Singapura. It is said that he murdered his host and briey became the new ruler, but he was
force to ee again when Majapahit took control. He would eventually end up founding the kingdom
of Malacca and converting to Islam. Ironically, it was the kingdom of Malacca that would become
the focal point for the spreading of Islam throughout Southeast Asia. When the Portuguese captured
Malacca, the sultan ed to Johore on the Malay Peninsula and established a new sultanate.
Separated from the peninsula by the narrow Johore strait, Singapura would become part of this new
Johore sultanate and also serve as a base for one of
its senior ofcials.
Much of the development of Singapore into a
modern trading centre and free port is owed to the
vision of Sir Thomas Stamford Rafes. In 1818,
Rafes was lieutenant governor of Bencoolen on the
south coast of Sumatra. At the time the Dutch
effectively controlled the Strait of Malacca and as a
consequence the trade with China. Rafes
recognized the strategic location of Singapore
harbour and convinced the British East India
Company to set up a trading post there. Singapores
status as a free port turned it into a successful
commercial centre. It would eventually be given its
independence after World War II and in 1963 united with peninsula Malaya, North Borneo and
Sarawak to form the Federation of Malaysia. Two years later it would separate from Malaysia and
become a sovereign state.
The architect of modern Singapores phenomenal growth can be attributed to the stable
administration of the Peoples Action Partys leader Lee Kuan Yew. Often criticized for its overly
paternalistic social and political policies and the lack of a substantial opposition party, they have
nevertheless turn this multiethnic society into a major economic power in the region.
Z00Z CIifford W, Terry & Anthony MurreII
Z
Appendi - Episode Suide
Episodes 9 - Singopore
The independenf cify-sfofe of Singopore is Iocofed of fhe soufhern
end of fhe Sfroif of MoIocco. AIfhough fhere is IiffIe known of ifs
pre-coIonioI hisfory fhis convenienf froding Iocofion wos puf fo use
by fhe vorious ruIing empires of fhe region which incIuded Sri Vijoyo
Mojopohif fhe Thoi kingdom of Ayuffhoyo ond fhe MoIocco ond Johore
suIfonofes. If wos one of fhe ruIers of Sri Vijoyo Sri Tri 8uono who
gove fhe cify ifs nome 5EC=FKH= or 'Iion cify'. Mony yeors Iofer
onofher ruIer from PoIembong king Poromesvoro wos fIeeing fhe
Mojopohif invoder ond wos given osyIum by fhe ruIer of Singopuro. If
is soid fhof he murdered his hosf ond briefIy become fhe new ruIer
buf he wos force fo fIee ogoin when Mojopohif fook confroI. He wouId
evenfuoIIy end up founding fhe kingdom of MoIocco ond converfing fo
IsIom. IronicoIIy if wos fhe kingdom of MoIocco fhof wouId become
fhe focoI poinf for fhe spreoding of IsIom fhroughouf Soufheosf Asio.
When fhe Porfuguese copfured MoIocco fhe suIfon fIed fo Johore on
fhe MoIoy PeninsuIo ond es-
fobIished o new suIfonofe.
Seporofed from fhe peninsuIo
by fhe norrow Johore sfroif
Singopuro wouId become porf
of fhis new Johore suIfonofe
ond oIso serve os o bose for
one of ifs senior officioIs.
Much of fhe deveIopmenf of
Singopore info o modern
froding cenfre ond free porf
is owed fo fhe vision of Sir
Thomos Sfomford PoffIes.
In I8I8 PoffIes wos Iieufen-
onf governor of 8encooIen on fhe soufh coosf of Sumofro. Af fhe
fime fhe Dufch effecfiveIy confroIIed fhe Sfroif of MoIocco ond os o
consequence fhe frode wifh Chino. PoffIes recogni;ed fhe sfrofegic
Iocofion of Singopore horbour ond convinced fhe 8rifish Eosf Indio
Z00Z CIifford W, Terry & Anthony MurreII
Z
Appendi - Episode Suide
Episodes 9 - Singopore
The independenf cify-sfofe of Singopore is Iocofed of fhe soufhern
end of fhe Sfroif of MoIocco. AIfhough fhere is IiffIe known of ifs
pre-coIonioI hisfory fhis convenienf froding Iocofion wos puf fo use
by fhe vorious ruIing empires of fhe region which incIuded Sri Vijoyo
Mojopohif fhe Thoi kingdom of Ayuffhoyo ond fhe MoIocco ond Johore
suIfonofes. If wos one of fhe ruIers of Sri Vijoyo Sri Tri 8uono who
gove fhe cify ifs nome 5EC=FKH= or 'Iion cify'. Mony yeors Iofer
onofher ruIer from PoIembong king Poromesvoro wos fIeeing fhe
Mojopohif invoder ond wos given osyIum by fhe ruIer of Singopuro. If
is soid fhof he murdered his hosf ond briefIy become fhe new ruIer
buf he wos force fo fIee ogoin when Mojopohif fook confroI. He wouId
evenfuoIIy end up founding fhe kingdom of MoIocco ond converfing fo
IsIom. IronicoIIy if wos fhe kingdom of MoIocco fhof wouId become
fhe focoI poinf for fhe spreoding of IsIom fhroughouf Soufheosf Asio.
When fhe Porfuguese copfured MoIocco fhe suIfon fIed fo Johore on
fhe MoIoy PeninsuIo ond es-
fobIished o new suIfonofe.
Seporofed from fhe peninsuIo
by fhe norrow Johore sfroif
Singopuro wouId become porf
of fhis new Johore suIfonofe
ond oIso serve os o bose for
one of ifs senior officioIs.
Much of fhe deveIopmenf of
Singopore info o modern
froding cenfre ond free porf
is owed fo fhe vision of Sir
Thomos Sfomford PoffIes.
In I8I8 PoffIes wos Iieufen-
onf governor of 8encooIen on fhe soufh coosf of Sumofro. Af fhe
fime fhe Dufch effecfiveIy confroIIed fhe Sfroif of MoIocco ond os o
consequence fhe frode wifh Chino. PoffIes recogni;ed fhe sfrofegic
Iocofion of Singopore horbour ond convinced fhe 8rifish Eosf Indio
Laos
The Khmers then the kingdom of Sukhithai rst controlled the territory of Laos until Fa Ngum
founded the rst Laotian state of Lan Xang (a million elephants) in 1353. The rst capital of Lan
Xang was located at Luang Prabang and Buddhism was declared the national religion. They were
briey occupied by the Vietnamese in the 15th century and in the 16th century began a long drawn
out war against Burmese and the Thai kingdom of Ayutthaya. They succeeded in capturing the Thai
kingdom of Lan Na, which marked their largest territorial expansion and the capital was shifted to
Vieng Chan (present day Vientaine). After Lan Na fell to the Burmese, the Laotian kingdom would
repel two invasions by the Burmese until Vieng Chan was nally seized in 1575. The kingdom is
restored under Soulingna Vongsa, the borders are xed by means of treaties with the Thais and the
Vietnamese and Lan Xang enters its golden age for a short time. After a dispute over succession, the
kingdom is placed under Vietnamese rule. Refusing to accept become a vassal state, separate
kingdoms are established at Luang Prabang and Vieng Chan in the north and Champassak in the
south signaling the end of the Lan Xang kingdom. The territory comes under Burmese rule again
until Laos becomes part of the new Siamese
kingdom ruled out of Bangkok.
With the French in control of the northern and
central regions of Vietnam, they let it be known that
these interests extended to the territory of Laos,
which was former under Vietnamese suzerainty.
Send- ing two warships to Bangkok, the French
demanded that Siam accept a treaty renouncing all
their claims in Laos. Laos was later added to the
Union Indochinois and became a French colony
along with Cambodia and Vietnam. In 1949, Laos is
given its independence and it was followed by
Cambodia in 1953.
Z00Z CIifford W, Terry & Anthony MurreII
43
Luos
The khmers fhen fhe kingdom of Sukhifhoi firsf confroIIed fhe ferri-
fory of Loos unfiI Fo Mgum founded fhe firsf Loofion sfofe of Lon
Xong (u m////on c/cpnun!s) in I3b3. The firsf copifoI of Lon Xong wos
Iocofed of Luong Probong ond 8uddhism wos decIored fhe nofionoI re-
Iigion. They were briefIy occupied by fhe Viefnomese in fhe Ib
fh
cen-
fury ond in fhe Io
fh
cenfury begon o Iong drown ouf wor ogoinsf 8ur-
mese ond fhe Thoi kingdom of Ayuffhoyo. They succeeded in copfur-
ing fhe Thoi kingdom of Lon Mo which morked fheir Iorgesf ferriforioI
exponsion ond fhe copifoI wos shiffed fo Vieng Chon (presenf doy
Vienfoine). Affer Lon Mo feII fo fhe 8urmese fhe Loofion kingdom
wouId repeI fwo invosions by fhe 8urmese unfiI Vieng Chon wos finoIIy
sei;ed in Ib7b. The kingdom is resfored under SouIingno Vongso fhe
borders ore fixed by meons of freofies wifh fhe Thois ond fhe Vief-
nomese ond Lon Xong enfers ifs goIden oge for o shorf fime. Affer o
dispufe over succession fhe kingdom is pIoced under Viefnomese ruIe.
Pefusing fo occepf become o vossoI sfofe seporofe kingdoms ore es-
fobIished of Luong Probong ond
Vieng Chon in fhe norfh ond
Chompossok in fhe soufh sig-
noIIing fhe end of fhe Lon Xong
kingdom. The ferrifory comes
under 8urmese ruIe ogoin unfiI
Loos becomes porf of fhe new
Siomese kingdom ruIed ouf of
8ongkok.
Wifh fhe French in confroI of
fhe norfhern ond cenfroI re-
gions of Viefnom fhey Ief if
be known fhof fhese inferesfs
exfended fo fhe ferrifory of
Loos which wos former under
Viefnomese su;eroinfy. Send-
ing fwo worships fo 8ongkok
fhe French demonded fhof
Siom occepf o freofy renounc-
Z00Z CIifford W, Terry & Anthony MurreII
43
Luos
The khmers fhen fhe kingdom of Sukhifhoi firsf confroIIed fhe ferri-
fory of Loos unfiI Fo Mgum founded fhe firsf Loofion sfofe of Lon
Xong (u m////on c/cpnun!s) in I3b3. The firsf copifoI of Lon Xong wos
Iocofed of Luong Probong ond 8uddhism wos decIored fhe nofionoI re-
Iigion. They were briefIy occupied by fhe Viefnomese in fhe Ib
fh
cen-
fury ond in fhe Io
fh
cenfury begon o Iong drown ouf wor ogoinsf 8ur-
mese ond fhe Thoi kingdom of Ayuffhoyo. They succeeded in copfur-
ing fhe Thoi kingdom of Lon Mo which morked fheir Iorgesf ferriforioI
exponsion ond fhe copifoI wos shiffed fo Vieng Chon (presenf doy
Vienfoine). Affer Lon Mo feII fo fhe 8urmese fhe Loofion kingdom
wouId repeI fwo invosions by fhe 8urmese unfiI Vieng Chon wos finoIIy
sei;ed in Ib7b. The kingdom is resfored under SouIingno Vongso fhe
borders ore fixed by meons of freofies wifh fhe Thois ond fhe Vief-
nomese ond Lon Xong enfers ifs goIden oge for o shorf fime. Affer o
dispufe over succession fhe kingdom is pIoced under Viefnomese ruIe.
Pefusing fo occepf become o vossoI sfofe seporofe kingdoms ore es-
fobIished of Luong Probong ond
Vieng Chon in fhe norfh ond
Chompossok in fhe soufh sig-
noIIing fhe end of fhe Lon Xong
kingdom. The ferrifory comes
under 8urmese ruIe ogoin unfiI
Loos becomes porf of fhe new
Siomese kingdom ruIed ouf of
8ongkok.
Wifh fhe French in confroI of
fhe norfhern ond cenfroI re-
gions of Viefnom fhey Ief if
be known fhof fhese inferesfs
exfended fo fhe ferrifory of
Loos which wos former under
Viefnomese su;eroinfy. Send-
ing fwo worships fo 8ongkok
fhe French demonded fhof
Siom occepf o freofy renounc-