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These sentences violate the usual rules relating to subject-predicate agreement in number and in tense. But these sentences are considered grammatically correct ones. 1. Present Subjunctive-Mood: In sentences in the Subjunctive Mood, the verb is always in the singular and present tense form, even it the subject is in plural number, and the tense is in past tense or in future tense. Sentences in which you would normally have used the verbs is, are, was, were or will be should have the root word ‘be’ if they are in the Subjunctive mood. There are two ways in which sentences are formed in the Present Subjunctive Mood. In formal phrases expressing a wish or a hope or a cause. Examples: • Long live the Queen! • God, save the motherland! • May heaven help you! • Curse, be on him! In a noun clause formed as the object a verb indicating a desire, intention, command, recommendation, request, resolution etc… Examples: • The public have demanded that a flyover should be constructed at the traffic junction.(Incorrect) • The public have demanded that a flyover be constructed at the traffic junction.(Correct) • The disciplinary committee recommended that the manager should be dismissed from service. (Incorrect) • The disciplinary committee recommended that the manager be dismissed from service.(Correct) • The court ordered that the defendant pays the plaintiff a sum of ten thousand dollars.(Incorrect) • The court ordered that the defendant pay the plaintiff a sum of ten thousand dollars.(Correct) • The government official was willing to share some secrets with journalist on condition that the source must be kept secret.(Incorrect) • The government official was willing to share some secrets with journalist on condition that the source be kept secret.(Correct) • The rules relating to test cricket mandate that the fielding team should bowl a minimum of twenty overs in the last session.(Incorrect) • The rules relating to test cricket mandate that the fielding team bowl a minimum of twenty overs in the last session.(Correct) • It is important that your son should start studying for TOEFL and GMAT straightaway if he wishes to go to USA.(Incorrect) • It is important that your son start studying for TOEFL and GMAT straightaway if he wishes to go to USA.(Correct) These sentences are in Subjunctive-Mood. 2. Past Subjunctive-Mood: You have been taught the normal conjugation of the
verb ‘be’ in the present tense as I am, You are, He is, They are, We are. But in the sentence in the Past Subjunctive Mood, the grammatical conjugation for the present tense is itself “I were, You were, He were, They were”. When the verb used is different from BE, it is the past tense form of the verb (such as stayed, walked, lent, tackled) That is used even in sentences in the present tense. The Subordinate clauses, if any, in such sentences must also be expressed with verbs in the past tense. The Past Subjunctive is used in the following circumstances. After the verb ‘wish’. Examples: • I wish I were the Prime Minister of India for a year. • How I wish Harvard University gave me admission in MBA. • I wish my brother were here now so that he could teach me algebra. In sentences describing contrary to fact situations: Examples: • If the earth were to rotate in the opposite direction, the sun would rise in the west. • If we started now and travel at the speed of light, It would take us eight minutes to reach SUN. In sentences starting with ‘as if’ and ‘as though’. Examples: • George tries to order me about as if I were his wife. • Do you notice Robert walking as though he were drunk? • William spends money as if he had won a lottery. These sentences are in Subjunctive-Mood. In sentences starting with ‘it is time’. Sentences starting with ‘it is time’ indicate that it is already late for taking the indicated action. Examples: • The match will commence at 10o’clock and it is time you got ready. (Not ‘it is time you get ready) • It is already half past midnight, and it is time we returned home. (Not ‘it is time we return home) In sentences starting with ‘I would rather’, ‘he would rather’ etc… Such sentences indicate one’s preferences, and also are expressed in Subjunctive Mood. Examples: • I would rather you took up the job. • He wishes to study medicine • But his mother would rather he applied to the engineering college. These sentences are in Subjunctive-Mood.
Bring to a boil and simmer in medium heat for 15-30 minutes or until tender and liquid is reduced to almost dry.
Serve hot with a lots of rice.
Siopao Ingredients: Adobong Kambing Ingredients: • 1 kilo kambing spareribs (Goat’s Spare ribs), cut into serving pieces, bones intact • • • • • • • • • • • cooking oil 2 thumb size ginger, sliced 1/2 head garlic, crushed 1 large onion, sliced 1 tsp. peppercorns 2 stalk lemon grass 3 bay leaf 1/2 c. soy sauce 3-5 pcs. green hot chilli 3/4 c. vinegar salt and pepper • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 6 cups flour 1 package active dry yeast 1 lb cubed pork loin or chicken thighs 1 cup white sugar 2 teaspoons cooking oil 1 cup lukewarm water 1/2 cup boiling water 6 hard-boiled eggs 2 green onions 4 teaspoons light soy sauce 4 teaspoons brown sugar 4 teaspoons oyster sauce 1 teaspoon cornstarch, dissolved in 2 t. water 2 cloves garlic 3 teaspoons salt 6 teaspoons baking powder
Adobong Kambing Cooking Instructions: • Marinate kambing in 1/2 c. vinegar ( this will remove the pungent odor of the meat ) • • • 1 tsp. salt and 1/2 tsp. pepper for 15 to 30 minutes before cooking. Drain and discard marinade. In a frying pan fry kambing in batches until color changes to golden brown and start to sizzle. • In a saucepan put in fried kambing, pour in 2-3 c. of water, 1/4 c. vinegar and soy sauce. • Add lemon grass, ginger, onion, garlic, peppercorns, bay leaf and chilli.
Siopao Cooking Instructions: • Siopao Dough: ○ Mix flour, salt and baking powder in a medium bowl, set aside. ○ In another bowl dissolve yeast in lukewarm water then add 1 cup of the flour mixture. ○ ○ Mix thoroughly. Cover with a cloth and let rise 1 hour.
Meanwhile, dissolve the white sugar in the boiling water.
Roll each piece into a ball using your hands then rolling it flat into a 3 inch diameter circle.
Stir well then let cool to lukewarm. Pour into the yeast mixture, then add the rest of the prepared flour mixture. ○ ○
Dust with flour if needed to prevent sticking. Place 1 slice of egg into center of dough round, then 1 T. of filling with sauce.
○ ○ ○
Stir to blend well. Grease a large bowl. Turn dough out onto a floured board and knead for 3 minutes-you want your dough smooth, not sticky. ○ ○
Gather sides of round, pinch together and twist. Place pinched side down on parchment paper and place in steamer.
Place ball into bowl, turn once and cover with a damp cloth. ○ ○
Repeat until done. Cover with a damp cloth and let rise for 1 hour.
Let rise 2 hours or until doubled.
• • Siopao Filling: ○ Saute the garlic and onions in a small amount of oil in a wok. ○ Add meat and stir fry for 1 minute or until meat is no longer pink. ○ Add soy sauce, oyster sauce and brown sugar. ○ Pour in the dissolved cornstarch and stir fry quickly until meat is glazed well. ○ Remove from heat and let cool.
Steam Siopao for 20 minutes. You can freeze cooked Siopao, simply re-steam for 10 minutes.
Chicken Balls Tomato Soup Ingredients
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Chicken Balls: 100 g ground chicken 1/2 cup soft bread crumbs 1/4 cup chopped green onions 1 sachet 8g MAGGI MAGIC SARAP 1 pc egg 1/2 tsp salt 1/2 tsp pepper 2 tbsp oil 1 tbsp finely chopped garlic 1/2 cup chopped onions 1/4 cup chopped tomatoes 1/2 cup chopped carrots 1/4 cup chopped celery 1 cup chopped cabbage 2 pcs 11g MAGGI Chicken Broth Cube dissolved in 8 cups water 100 g sotanghon soaked in water and drained
How to make Siopao: ○ Punch down dough and knead on a floured board for 3 to 5 minutes. ○ Divide dough and roll each half into a 12×2 inch log. ○ Cut each into 12 pieces, making 24.
Chicken Balls Tomato Soup Cooking Instructions:
• • Combine ground chicken, bread crumbs, green onions, MAGGI MAGIC SARAP, egg, salt and pepper. Mix well and set aside. • • Heat oil and saute garlic, onions, and tomatoes. When the tomatoes are limp, add in the carrots, celery and cabbage for 5 minutes or until limp. • • Pour in prepared chicken broth and let boil. Form 1 teaspoon of chicken mixture into balls and add one by one into the boiling broth. Let boil for another 5 minutes. • Add sotanghon into the broth, simmer for another 2 minutes. Serve hot. Caldereta Rice Ingredients: • • • • • • • • • • 2 cups long grain rice uncooked 2 tbsp. cooking oil 2 sachets 8g MAGGI MAGIC SARAP 1/2 cup tomato paste 1/2 cup liver spread 2 tbsp brown sugar 1/2 cup cubed carrots 1/3 cup frozen peas 1/3 cup corn kernel 4 cups water
Cook rice over low fire for about 1 hour and 15 minutes or until done. Stir every 10 minutes.
Chicken Satay Ingredients: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 2 medium chicken thighs 1 tsp ground white pepper 1 tsp garlic powder 1 tbsp ground turmeric 1 tbsp aniseed powder 1 tbsp ground cumin 1 tbsp paprika powder 1 tbsp ground coriander 2 tbsp vegetable oil 1 medium lime 6 6 inch wooden skewers 1 teaspoon 1 tablespoon 1 knife 1 bowl
Chicken Satay Cooking Instructions:
Step 1: The Satay Mix Into a bowl put a teaspoon of ground white pepper, a teaspoon of garlic powder, a tablespoon of aniseed powder, a tablespoon of ground cumin, a tablespoon of ground coriander, a tablespoon of paprika, and a tablespoon of ground turmeric. Stir thoroughly to create a dry satay mix. Transfer 2 tablespoons of the mix into another bowl, one tablespoon for each of our two chicken thighs. Add 2 tablespoons of vegetable oil. Stir to create a paste.
Caldereta Rice Cooking Instructions: • • Soak rice in water for about 30 minutes. Drain well. Heat oil and sauté rice and MAGGI Flavor-it Meat Powder Beef for about 3 minutes. • Add in rest of the ingredients. Mix well.
Step 2: The Chicken Remove the bones by running a sharp knife down either side. The top end will
come away easily. Then cut around the bottom of the bone and remove the gristle. Trim and scrape off any excess fat. Tear the skin away as this will burn. Carefully cut from the middle into one side of the thigh and fold it open. Cut into the other side the same way to open it out. This will create a flat, evenly sized piece of chicken. Slice into pieces of about 5 centimetres. Repeat with the second thigh. Run the knife alongside the bone and cut it out along with the gristle. Feel with your fingers to make sure all the bones are removed and then tear away the skin. Cut into both sides and open out. Slice into strips ready to be marinated.
be a messy procedure so wash you hands well when finished.
Step 5: Grill Place the skewers onto a grill or griddle pan that has been preheated to a high temperature and leave to cook. Occasionally press them down but not too hard though as this may squeeze the flavours out. If the meat sticks gently prise it loose. After about 4 minutes, when the chicken is a golden brown, turn it, and leave the other side to brown for a further 4 to 5 minutes. To check the chicken is cooked through, cut into it. It should be white inside. When done transfer the satay to a serving plate.
Step 3: Marinate Place the chicken strips into the bowl with the marinade. Mix well. The consistency of the marinade should evenly coat the chicken, lift the strips up to make sure this is the case. As it is a strong sauce the chicken is ready to cook immediately.
Step 6: Serve TOP TIP Roll a lime back and forth under your hand. This will squeeze the insides making it juicier Cut a wedge from the lime and place it alongside the satay. Satay is an informal dish in Malaysia and is often bought and eaten on the streets. It is especially good served with a peanut dipping sauce. Sprinkle chopped peanuts on top of the sauce as a finishing touch.
Step 4: Get Skewering TOP TIP Soak the skewers in cold water for a few seconds, this will prevent them from burning when cooking. Take a skewer and thread on a chicken piece. Try to ensure that the skewer doesn’t show through either side. Push it down but leave room at the bottom for holding. Thread on a second, and then a third piece. Satay literally means ‘Triple Stacked’ so aim to thread 3 pieces on each skewer if you can. Repeat with the next skewer, and then the next until you have run out of meat. You should have enough chicken to fill at least three skewers. This can • • • • • • • • •
Chicken a la King Ingredients: 3 tablespoons butter 1 cup fresh sliced mushrooms 1/2 cup chopped green bell pepper 1/4 cup all-purpose flour 1 teaspoon salt 1/8 teaspoon pepper 2 cups evaporated milk or half-and-half 1 1/2 cups chicken broth 3 cups diced cooked chicken
1/4 cup chopped pimiento
Add shredded puso ng saging and simmer until puso is tender, about 7 minutes.
Chicken a la King Cooking Instructions: • • • • • • • Melt butter in a medium saucepan. Add mushrooms and green pepper; cook for 5 minutes. Blend in flour, salt, and pepper. Continue stirring and cooking until smooth and bubbly. Gradually add milk and chicken broth, stirring constantly. Cook for 10 minutes, stirring frequently. If you’d like a thicker sauce, blend 2 tablespoons of cornstarch with 1/4 cup cold water; add to sauce, a little at a time, until desired thickness is reached. • • • Cook for a few more minutes. Add chicken and pimiento; heat through. Serve on toast points or pastry shells or rice. Kinamunggayang Manok Ingredients: • • • • • • 1 tbsp crushed garlic 2 tbsp oil 1/2 cup sliced onion 1/2 k chicken cut into serving pieces 3 pcs MAGGI Chicken Broth Cube dissolved in • • • 6 cups water 3 cups puso ng saging, shredded 2 cups malunggay leaves • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Add malunggay leaves, bring to a boil then serve right away.
Tinola Manok Ingredients: 1 kilo whole chicken, cut into pieces. 1 small young papaya or sayote, cut into small pieces. 2 tablespoons ginger, crushed and slliced into strips 1/2 cup dahon ng sili (chili leaves) 1 liter of water 5 garlic cloves, minced 5 pieces of tomatoes, sliced 1 red onion, diced 4 tablespoons oil 2 tablespoons patis (fish sauce)
Tinolang Manok Cooking Instructions: In a stock pot, heat oil and sauté garlic, onion, tomatoes, chicken and ginger. When the tomatoes are cooked add water. Bring to a boil and simmer for about 20 minutes or until chicken is almost done. Season with patis or salt. Add papaya and continue to simmer for an additional 5 minutes or until papaya softens but not overcooked. Add sili leaves then turn off the heat. Serve steaming hot with plain rice.
La Paz Batchoy Ingredients:
1 kilo mami noodles Broth
Kinamunggayang Manok Cooking Instructions: • Heat oil, sauté garlic, onions and chicken together until chicken has changed color. • Pour in water and Maggi Broth Cubes. Bring to a boil then simmer for about 10 minutes or until chicken is tender.
1 medium size onion, quartered 1/2 head garlic, crushed 1/2 tsp. shrimp paste (bagoong) 1 tbsp. peppercorns, crushed 2 tbsp. worcestershire sauce 10-12 c. beef/pork stock 1 tbsp. sugar
1 tsp. soy sauce salt to taste Toppings • • • 250 g. pork 150 g. pork liver 150 g. shrimps 1 pc. chicken breast Garnishing chicharon, crushed ,chopped garlic,fried ,chopped spring onion La Paz Batchoy Cooking Instructions:
• • • • • • • • • • • •
1 tbsp MAGGI Savor Classic salt and cayenne pepper to taste 3/4 cup NESTLE All Purpose Cream 1 1/2 cups crabmeat reserve 6 shells 1/2 cup chopped button mushrooms 2 tbsp chopped parsley 1 tbsp minced onions 1 pc eggyolk, slightly beaten 1/2 tsp mustard 1 tbsp calamansi juice 1 tbsp butter, melted 1/2 tsp paprika
In a large pot, pour in 10-12 c. of stock (from boiled beef and pork bones) and add all broth ingredients and bring to a boil. Reduce heat and blanch shrimp until cooked. Remove shrimp from the pot, remove shell and head each shrimp, set aside. Add in pork, chicken and liver in the pot, let simmer for 20–25 minutes or until pork, chicken and liver are tender add more stock if necessary. Remove pork, chicken and liver from the pot, drain and let cool. Continue simmering the broth in low heat until ready to serve, season with salt to taste. Slice the pork, chicken and liver into thin strips and set aside. Place noodles in serving bowl and pour strained boiling stock over the noodles. Top with pork, chicken, liver, shrimp. Garnish with chicharon, spring onion and fried garlic. Serve immediately.
Tortang Alimasag Cooking Instructions: Melt butter, stir in flour, MAGGI Savor, salt and pepper. Stir in NESTLE All Purpose Cream and simmer until thick. Fold in crab meat, mushrooms, parsley and onions. Divide mixture into the six buttered crab shells. Set aside. Combine the egg yolk, mustard, calamansi, butter, and paprika then brush over crab meat. Pan fry until golden brown. Drain in paper towels and serve Tilapia With Gata and Bell Pepper Ingredients: • • • • • • • • 1 tbsp cooking oil 1 1/2 tsp minced ginger 1 tsp minced garlic 1/2 cup sliced onions 1 pc 11g MAGGI Chicken Broth Cube 2 cups coconut milk 1/2 kg tilapia, cut-up into 6 1 1/2 cups red bell pepper or 3 finger chilis, cut into strips
Tortang Alimasag Ingredients: • • 3 tbsp butter or margarine 1 tbsp flour
Cooking Instructions: • Heat cooking oil and saute ginger, garlic, onions and MAGGI Chicken Broth Cube. • • • Pour in coconut milk. Simmer for 1 minute. Add fish and red bell pepper or finger chilis. Cook about 2 minutes or until fish flakes easily. Tilapia Sisig Ingredients: • • • • • 1 1/2 cup flaked fried tilapia 3 tbsp MAGGI Savor Garlic 3/4 cup chopped onions 3 tbsp MAGGI Chili Sauce 1 tbsp cooking oil Cook’s Tips: For a crunchier sisig cook tilapia mixture longer. You can use leftover tilapia or any other fried fish. Tilapia Sisig Cooking Instructions: • • • • Combine tilapia, MAGGI Savor Garlic, onions, and MAGGI Chili Sauce. Mix well. In a hot plate put cooking oil and stirfry tilapia mixture. Serve hot.
• • • •
1/2 cup sliced baguio beans 1/4 cup vinegar 1 cup tomato sauce 1 11g MAGGI Chicken Broth Cube dissolved in
• • • •
1 cup water 1 piece bay leaf 1 tsp. sugar 1/4 tsp salt
Squid Estofado Cooking Instructions: Season squid with salt and pepper. Dredge with flour and brown in hot oil. Put squids on one side of the pan, and leave about 2 tablespoons of oil in the pan. Saute garlic and onions until limp. Add carrots, baguio beans and bay leaf, pour in vinegar, tomato sauce, and broth, bring to boil without stirring. Lower heat and simmer for another 5 minutes or until vegetables are crisp tender. Grilled Chicken Burger Ingredients:
• • • • • • • • • • • •
1/2 kg. ground chicken 1/4 cup cored seeded and finely chopped red pepper 1 tbsp. chopped parsley 1 tbsp. chopped wansoy leaves 1 tbsp. minced garlic 1/4 tsp. dried thyme 1/8 tsp. ground cumin 1 tsp. MAGGI Chilli Sauce 1 piece MAGGI Chicken Broth Cube 12 pieces hamburger buns toasted on the grill mayonnaise dijon-style mustard
Squid Estofado Ingredients: • 1/2 kg medium size squid cleaned ink sac removed • • • • 1/2 tsp salt 1/8 tsp. pepper 1/2 cup flour 1/4 cup oil for frying 1 tbsp minced
2 tbsp chopped onion 1 cup sliced carrots
lettuce tomatoes & cucumber for garnish
lower heat. Continue simmering until beef is tender or about 2 hours. Set aside. Using a different pan, heat oil then sauté
PROCEDURE Prepare medium-hot fire in a charcoal or gas grill. In a medium mixing bowl, combine the ground chicken with the next 8 ingredients. Divide mixture into 12 and form into patties. Place the patties on a well-oiled grill. Cook for 10 minutes or until done, turning once. Burgers are done when the juices run clear, prick to test. Serve immediately on buns that have been toated on the edge of the grill. Top burgers with the mayonnaise and mustard and your choice of garnish. Beef Caldereta Ingredients:
garlic and onions until limp. Add back tenderized beef and broth, bring to a boil. Add pickle relish, tomato sauce, liver spread and cheese. Continue simmering until sauce slightly thickens. Season with salt and pepper to taste. Add fried potatoes and carrots and cook for another 5 minutes. Breaded Chicken Fillet Ingredients:
• • • • • • • • • •
4 pcs chicken breast fillets 1 8g MAGGI MAGIC SARAP 2 tbsp lemon juice 2 eggs salt to taste 2 tbsp all-purpose flour 1/2 cup dry breadcrumbs oil for frying lemon wedges green peas, buttered
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2 cups and 2 tbsp unsweetened pineapple juice 1 kg. beef ribs 2 pieces small onions, sliced 2 8g. MAGGI Magic Sarap 2 tbsp. cooking oil 2 tbsp. minced garlic ¼ cup chopped onions 1 tbsp. pickle relish 1 250ml. tomato sauce 1 85g. can liver spread ¼ cup grated cheddar cheese salt and pepper to taste 2 pieces medium potatoes, cubed and fried 1 piece medium carrots, cubed and fried
Breaded Chicken Fillet Cooking Instructions: Flatten chicken breast fillets until the meat is of even thickness, about 1/2 inch. Cut meat into uniform serving portions. Rub with MAGGI MAGIC SARAP and lemon juice. Let stand 20 min. Beat eggs with salt and 2 tbsp water. Dust each chicken piece with flour then dip in the egg mixture. Roll in breadcrumbs to coat. Fry in hot oil until golden brown.Drain in paper towels and serve with lemon wedges and buttered green peas. Menudo Ingredients: • • 1/2 kilo pork (cut into small chunks) 1/4 kilo pork liver (cut into small cubes)
Beef Caldereta Cooking Instructions: Combine beef, pineapple juice, onions and MAGGI Magic Sarap in a pan. Boil briskly then
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5 pieces chorizo Bilbao (also cut in small pieces) 4 potatoes (peeled, cut in small cubes, fried) 1 green and 1 red bell pepper (diced) 1 cup chickpeas 1/4 cup raisins 1/2 teaspoon paprika 1 cup pork or chicken stock 2 teaspoons of patis (fish sauce) 3 tablespoons oil 1 tablespoon atsuete oil (optional) 3 tomatoes (diced) 1 small head of garlic (minced) 1 medium size onion (diced)
INGREDIENTS 2 avocados • • • • 1/2 lemon, juiced 2 tablespoons chopped onion 1/2 teaspoon salt 2 tablespoons olive oil
Menudo Cooking Instructions: • • In a pan or wok, heat cooking oil and atsuete oil. Saute garlic, onion. Then add the pork, liver, chorizo de Bilabo, tomatoes, bell pepper, paprika, patis and the stock. • • • • Cover and bring to a boil. Simmer for 20 minutes or until the pork is tender. Add the chickpeas, potatoes and raisins. Boil of another 2 minutes. Salt and pepper to taste. Serve hot with white rice.
Cut the avocados into halves. Remove the seeds, and scoop out the pulp into a small bowl. Use a fork to mash the avocado. Stir in lemon juice, onion, salt, and olive oil. Cover the bowl, and refrigerate for 1 hour before serving.
INGREDIENTS • • • • • 8 eggs 1/2 teaspoon prepared mustard 1 tablespoon creamy salad dressing salt and pepper to taste 1 pinch paprika
DIRECTIONS Place eggs in saucepan and cover with water. Bring to boil. Cover, remove from heat, and let eggs sit in hot water for 10 to 12 minutes. Remove from hot water and cool. Peel and cut in half lengthwise. Remove yolks and combine with mustard, salad dressing and salt and pepper. Mix together until smooth. Refill each egg half with the yolk mixture and sprinkle with paprika. 4. 3.
bits, and slim pretzels in prepared baking dish. Mix together, and spread out evenly in dish. In a medium bowl, combine oil, Worcestershire sauce, garlic salt, seasoned salt, and celery salt. Mix together, and pour mixture over dry ingredients. Place mixture into the 2 prepared baking dishes. Bake for 1 1/2 to 2 hours, or until toasted and crispy, stirring with a wooden spoon every 15 minutes.
INGREDIENTS • • • • 2 (8 ounce) packages cream cheese, softened 1 (1 ounce) package ranch dressing mix 2 1/2 cups shredded Cheddar cheese 1 1/2 cups chopped pecans
INGREDIENTS • • • • • 1 pound ground beef 1 pound fresh, ground pork sausage 1 onion, chopped 10 ounces processed American cheese, cubed 32 ounces cocktail rye bread
DIRECTIONS 1. In a medium size bowl, mash cream cheese. Mix dressing mix and Cheddar cheese into the cream cheese. Shape the mixture into a ball. Roll the ball in the chopped nuts. Refrigerate covered until ready to serve. NUTS AND BOLTS INGREDIENTS • • • • • • • • • • • • 1 pound chopped peanuts 1 pound mixed nuts 1 1/2 cups puffed wheat cereal 6 1/2 ounces crispy rice cereal squares 10 1/2 ounces toasted oat cereal 6 ounces pretzel bits 6 ounces slim pretzels 2 cups vegetable oil 2 tablespoons Worcestershire sauce 1 tablespoon garlic salt 1 tablespoon seasoning salt 1 tablespoon celery salt
DIRECTIONS 1. 2. 3. Preheat oven to 350 degrees F (175 degrees C). In a large skillet, brown ground beef and sausage. Mix onion into the sausage and beef mixture, and saute it until tender. Drain grease out of skillet. Stir processed cheese food into the mixture. Continue cooking until cheese melts. Arrange slices of bread on a cookie sheet, place heaping spoonfuls of the mixture onto each slice of bread. Bake 12 to 15 minutes.
BACON AND TOMATO CUPS INGREDIENTS • • • • • • • 8 slices bacon 1 tomato, chopped 1/2 onion, chopped 3 ounces shredded Swiss cheese 1/2 cup mayonnaise 1 teaspoon dried basil 1 (16 ounce) can refrigerated buttermilk biscuit dough
DIRECTIONS 1. 2. Preheat oven to 200 degrees F (95 degrees C). Lightly grease two 9x13 inch baking dishes. Combine peanuts, nuts, wheat cereal squares, rice cereal squares, toasted oat cereal, pretzel
DIRECTIONS 1. 2. Preheat oven to 375 degrees F (190 degrees C). Lightly grease a mini muffin pan. In a skillet over medium heat, cook bacon until evenly brown. Drain on paper towels. Crumble bacon into a medium mixing bowl, and mix with tomato, onion, Swiss cheese, mayonnaise and basil. Separate biscuits into halves horizontally. Place each half into cups of the prepared mini muffin pan. Fill each biscuit half with the bacon mixture. Bake for 10 to 12 minutes in the preheated oven , or until golden brown.
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1/3 cup unsweetened cocoa powder 2 eggs 1/2 cup buttermilk 1-1/2 teaspoons vanilla 3 cups tiny marshmallows Chocolate Topper or Chocolate-Peanut Topper
1. Preheat oven to 350 degrees F. Line a 15x10x1inch baking pan with foil, extending the foil up over the edges of the pan. Grease foil; set aside. In a large bowl, combine flour, sugar, baking soda, and salt; set aside. 2. In a medium saucepan, combine butter, the water, and cocoa powder. Bring mixture just to boiling, stirring constantly. Remove pan from heat. Add the chocolate mixture to the flour mixture; beat with an electric mixer on medium speed until combined. Add eggs, buttermilk, and vanilla. Beat for 1 minute more (batter will be thin). Pour batter into prepared pan. 3. Bake in the preheated oven about 25 minutes or until a toothpick inserted in the center comes out clean. 4. Sprinkle marshmallows over hot brownies. Top with Chocolate Topper or Chocolate-Peanut Topper. Cool in pan on a wire rack. 5. To serve, remove brownies from pan by lifting foil. Place on cutting board; cut into bars. Makes 48 brownies. Chocolate Topper: In a medium saucepan, combine one 12-ounce package semisweet chocolate pieces, 1/2 cup whipping cream, and 1/4 cup butter. Cook and stir over medium-low heat until melted. Drizzle over brownies. Chocolate-Peanut Topper: In a medium saucepan, combine 1-1/3 cups semisweet chocolate pieces, 1 cup creamy peanut butter, and 3 tablespoons butter. Cook and stir over medium-low heat until mixture is smooth. Drizzle over brownies. Sprinkle with 1 cup chopped dry roasted peanuts. TO STORE: Place brownies in a single layer in an airtight container; cover. Store in the refrigerator for up to 3 days.
MINI CHEESE CAKES
INGREDIENTS • • • • • • 12 vanilla wafers 2 (8 ounce) packages cream cheese, softened 2 eggs 2 tablespoons lemon juice 2/3 cup white sugar 1 (21 ounce) can cherry pie filling
DIRECTIONS 1. 2. 3. Preheat oven to 350 degrees F (175 degrees C). Line muffin tins with 12 paper baking cups. Place a vanilla wafer in each one. In a medium mixing bowl beat cream cheese until fluffy. Add eggs, lemon juice, and sugar. Beat until smooth and thoroughly combined. Fill each baking cup 2/3 full with cream cheese mixture. Bake in preheated oven for 15 to 17 minutes. Cool on a rack. Top with fruit pie filling. Pipe whipped cream or sweetened cream cheese into a rosette on top of each cheesecake just prior to serving, if desired.
Chunky Path Brownies
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2 cups all-purpose flour 2 cups sugar 1 teaspoon baking soda 1/4 teaspoon salt 1 cup butter 1 cup water
Sticks and Stones Candy Bark
INGREDIENTS • • • • • 1 (11 ounce) package NESTLE® TOLL HOUSE® Butterscotch Flavored Morsels, divided 1 1/2 cups NESTLE® TOLL HOUSE® SemiSweet Chocolate Morsels 1/2 cup creamy peanut butter 2 cups thin pretzel sticks 2 cups dry roasted peanuts 1 (10 ounce) package NESTLE® TOLL HOUSE® Semi-Sweet Chocolate-Covered Raisins
In a large bowl, combine cheese, butter or margarine, flour, crispy rice cereal, salt, Worcestershire sauce, garlic powder, cayenne pepper, and black pepper. Mix well and form small balls out of the dough (the dough will yield approximately 55 balls). Flatten each ball of dough with your fingertips until the dough is very thin and arrange the discs on a cookie sheet. Bake for 12 minutes; or until the Cheese Crispies are golden and slightly brown around the edges.
DIRECTIONS 1. 2. BUTTER a 9x13 inch glass baking dish. MICROWAVE 1 1/3 cups butterscotch morsels, semi-sweet morsels and peanut butter in large, microwave-safe bowl on HIGH (100 percent) power for 1 minute; stir. Microwave at additional 10- to 20-second intervals, stirring until smooth. ADD pretzels, peanuts and chocolate covered raisins; stir well to coat. Spread into prepared baking dish. PLACE remaining butterscotch morsels in small, heavy-duty plastic bag. Microwave on MEDIUMHIGH (70 percent) power for 30 seconds; knead bag to mix. Microwave at additional 10to 20-second intervals, kneading until smooth. Cut tiny corner from bag; squeeze to drizzle over candy. REFRIGERATE for 1 hour or until firm. Break into bite-size pieces.
MAJA BLANCA Maja Blanca Ingredients:
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1/2 c. thick coconut milk 1 c. rice flour 1 c. sugar 1/2 c. cornstarch 3 tbsp sweet corn kernel
INGREDIENTS • • • • • • • • • 1 pound shredded Cheddar cheese 1 cup butter, softened 2 cups all-purpose flour 2 cups crisp rice cereal 1/2 teaspoon salt 2 dashes Worcestershire sauce 1 pinch garlic powder 1/4 teaspoon cayenne pepper freshly ground black pepper
4 c. fresh coconut milk or water 1/2 c. grated frozen buko (optional)
Maja Blanca Cooking Instructions: • Boil thick coconut milk in a saucepan until the oil is extracted and the precipitate forms into a dark brown color. This is called latik. Drain the latik from the oil and set aside. • Grease a 13-inch rectangular dish with coconut oil. Set aside. In a medium saucepan, blend rice flour, sugar,sweet corn kernels, cornstarch, and fresh coconut milk. Stir in grated buko (if used). Boil over slow heat, stirring constantly to
DIRECTIONS 1. Preheat oven to 350 degrees F (175 degrees C).
prevent lumps, until mixture is clear for about 3-5 minutes. • Pour hot mixture into prepared dish and allow to set. Sprinkle latik on top. Cool before slicing. • When rice flour is not available, soak 2 cups rice in 2 cups water overnight. Put through blender and process until smooth. Palitaw Ingredients:
Allow the pads to dry out and cool down a little so that they don’t turn the sugar into a syrup when you roll it around in it.
Sprikle with grated coconut and the sesame seeds. Serve Cold.
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1 cup Glutinous rice flour ( Malagkit Rice ) 1/2 cup of water 1/2 kilo Brown Sugar Fresh grated coconut Toasted sesame seeds
Palitaw Cooking Instructions: • • Mix until the flour and water the two come together to form a pliable ball of dough. Take a heaping tablespoon full of the dough and roll it into a ball, then flatten it into a pad shape with the palm of your hand. • Poach the Palitaw in simmering water until they begin to float (about 30 seconds to 1 minute).
Preludes The preludes are for several reasons very much related to the études of Op. 10 and Op. 25. While composing them, Chopin had a conception similar to Bach with the Well Tempered Clavier: like his predecessor, Chopin put all preludes into an order of tonalities, however with a difference; in the Well Tempered Clavier all tonalities rise chromatically, while Chopin put his preludes into an order that follows the circle of tonalities. It is known that Chopin studied thoroughly the works of Bach before writing his preludes. He admired a lot the perfection of form and harmony in Bach’s music. In spite of this example, however, Chopin created something completely new. Originally the french word “prélude” means nothing more than “introduction,” but in this form Chopin let the 24 preludes develop into independent pieces of music. So much for the preludes. They are very beautiful and are worthy of the closest study and pains, not with a view of perfecting any stereotyped manner of playing each one, but of discovering the various methods which may be employed to bring out their beauty. Half the attraction of a beautiful woman lies in the various dresses she wears. She may be in blue today, in grey to-morrow, and in pink the day after, and with every change she appears more beautiful. So it is with the preludes. Each has a large wardrobe of different dresses. Do not, then, always dress them in the same colours. - Vladimir de Pachmann Chopin’s preludes are compositions of an order entirely apart. They are not only, as the title might make one think, pieces destined to be played in the guise of introductions to other pieces; they are poetic preludes, analogous to those of a great
contemporary poet, who cradles the soul in golden dreams, and elevates it to the regions of the ideal. - Franz Liszt (1841) I would term the preludes strange. They are sketches, beginnings of études, or, so to speak, ruins, individual eagle pinions, all disorder and wild confusions. - Robert Schumann Prelude in C Major, Op. 28 No. 1 — Agitato This is an arabesque of the finest colours. Vladimir de Pachmann: “The first one is in a style that reminds one very forcibly of Schumann.” Hans von Bulow called this prelude, Reunion. It was composed in Majorca in January 1839, published in 1839 and dedicated to Camille Pleyel and Johann Kessler. Prelude in A Minor, Op. 28 No. 2 — LentoSome say this prelude was composed in Stuttgart. The Polish pianist Jan Kleczynski (1837-1895) preferred to play the first prelude two times, and then skip this prelude, because he felt this prelude was too bizarre to play. Vladimir de Pachmann: “The second is, I think, somewhat poor and I remember that Liszt himself once told me that he thought it a little weak.” It was composed in Majorca, Nov/Dec of 1838 and published in 1839; it is dedicated to Camille Pleyel. Hans von Bulow called this prelude, Presentiment of Death. Prelude in G Major, Op. 28 No. 3 — VivaceThis work was composed between 1836 and 1839; it was finally published in 1839 and dedicated to Camille Pleyel. Vladimir de Pachmann: “The third, though it has not a very high meaning, is a delightful little prelude. The melody is so smooth that it reminds me of oil floating on water, while a sort of zither accompaniment is running.” Hans von Bulow called this prelude, Thou Art So Like a Flower. Prelude in E Minor, Op. 28 No. 4 — LargoWalter Gieseking recommends pedalling during the opening of this prelude: “The right-hand upbeat is very important. Pedal first on the second note and hold the same pedal into the first measure.” This prelude was played by organ at Chopin’s funeral. Hans von Bulow called this prelude, Suffocation. It was composed in Majorca, in November and December 1838 and published in 1839; it is dedicated to Camille Pleyel. Prelude in D Major, Op. 28 No. 5 — Allegro molto Hans von Bulow called this prelude Uncertainty. It was composed between 1836 and 1839 and published in 1839. It is dedicated to Camille Pleyel. Prelude in B Minor, Op. 28 No. 6 — Lento assai Hans von Bulow called this prelude Tolling Bells. It was composed between 1836 and 1839 and finally published in 1839; it is dedicated to Camille Pleyel. Prelude in A Major, Op. 28 No. 7 — Andantino Dencausse Federico Mompou (1893-1987) composed a Variaciones sobre un tema di Chopin based on this prelude. Hans von Bulow called this prelude, The Polish Dancer. It was composed in 1836, published in 1839 and dedicated to Camille Pleyel. Prelude in F-sharp Minor, Op. 28 No. 8 — Molto agitato Some say this one was composed in Majorca during a thunderstorm. Hans von Bulow called this prelude, Desperation. It was composed between 1836 and 1839, published in 1839 and dedicated to Camille Pleyel. Prelude in E Major, Op. 28 No. 9 — Largo This prelude uses 48 different chords! Hans von Bulow called this prelude, Vision. It was composed between 1836 and 1839 and published in 1839; it is dedicated to Camille Pleyel. Prelude in C-sharp Minor, Op. 28 No. 10 — Allegro molto This work was composed in Majorca in November and December of 1838. It was published in 1839 and dedicated to Camille Pleyel. It is a little cappricio. Vladimir de Pachmann: “In the tenth Chopin seems to me to point at and imitate his master, Hummel.” Hans von Bulow called this prelude, The Night Moth:A night moth is flying around the room there! It has suddenly hidden itself (the sustained G Sharp); only its wings twitch a little. In a moment it takes flight anew and again settles down in darkness — its wings flutter (trill in the left hand). This happens several times, but at the last, just as the wings begin to quiver again, the busybody who lives in the room aims a stroke at the poor insect. It twitches once... and dies. Prelude in B Major, Op. 28 No. 11 — Vivace Hans von Bulow called this prelude, The Dragon Fly. It was composed between 1836 and 1839 and published in 1839. It is dedicated to Camille Pleyel. Prelude in G-sharp Minor, Op. 28 No. 12 — Presto This one could have been an etude as well. Hans von Bulow called this prelude, The Duel. It was composed between 1836 and 1839, published in 1839 and dedicated to Camille Pleyel. Prelude in F-sharp Major, Op. 28 No. 13 — Lento Hans von Bulow called this prelude, Loss. It was composed between 1836 and 1839, published in 1839 and dedicated to Camille Pleyel.
Prelude in E-flat Minor, Op. 28 No. 14 — Allegro Hans von Bulow called this prelude, Fear. Composed between 1836 and 1839 and published in 1839, it is dedicated to Camille Pleyel. This is a torturous, frustrated piece. It wants to go in a certain direction, starting as if to go forwards. Then it falters and falls back. It is a very chromatic work, alternating between minor and major. At the end you fall on the tonic without a preceding dominant. You are here but have no solution. This is the atmosphere I find; therefore I don’t play it quickly because I would lose this torturous, frustrated, faltering, contradictory quality. - Tamas Vasary Prelude in D-flat Major, Op. 28 No. 15 — Sostenuto This work was composed between 1836 and 1839, published in 1839 and dedicated to Camille Pleyel. Hans von Bulow called this prelude, Raindrop. There is one that came to him through an evening of dismal rain—it casts the soul into a terrible dejection. Maurice and I had left him in good health one morning to go shopping in Palma for things we needed at our “encampment.” The rain came in overflowing torrents. We made three leagues in six hours, only to return in the middle of a flood. We got back in absolute dark, shoeless, having been abandoned by our driver to cross unheard of perils. We hurried, knowing how our sick one would worry. Indeed he had, but now was as though congealed in a kind of quiet desperation, and, weeping, he was playing his wonderful prelude. Seeing us come in, he got up with a cry, then said with a bewildered air and a strange tone, “Ah, I was sure that you were dead.” When he recovered his spirits and saw the state we were in, he was ill, picturing the dangers we had been through, but he confessed to me that while waiting for us he had seen it all in a dream, and no longer distinguishing the dream from reality, he became calm and drowsy. While playing the piano, persuaded that he was dead himself, he saw himself drown in a lake. Heavy drops of icy water fell in a regular rhythm on his breast, and when I made him listen to the sound of the drops of water indeed falling in rhythm on the roof, he denied having heard it. He was even angry that I should interpret this in terms of imitative sounds. He protested with all his might—and he was right to—against the childishness of such aural imitations. His genius was filled with the mysterious sounds of nature, but transformed into sublime equivalents in musical thought, and not through slavish imitation of the actual external sounds. His composition of that night was surely filled with raindrops, resounding clearly on the tiles of the Charterhouse, but it had been transformed in his imagination and in his song into tears falling upon his heart from the sky. - George Sand Sand does not specify the key or number of the prelude written on this occasion, and, although the D-flat major prelude is usually given the informal title, Raindrop, the story could in fact apply to any of the melancholy preludes with a repetitive figure (A minor, E minor, B minor, as well as D-flat major). Prelude in B-flat Minor, Op. 28 No. 16 — Presto con fuoco If one plays this prelude in the desired whirlwind tempo, presto con fuoco, one will find that the prime difficulty of this prelude is not the obvious difficulty of the right-hand 16th notes, but the follow-through motion required to play the three-note left-hand groups all in one sweep.The sixteenth is my great favorite! It is la plus grande tour de force in Chopin. It is the most difficult of all the preludes technically, possibly excepting the nineteenth. In this case, presto is not enough. It should be played prestissimo, or, better still, vivacissimo. - Vladimir De Pachmann Hans von Bulow called this prelude, Hades. It was composed between 1836 and 1839, published in 1839 and dedicated to Camille Pleyel. Prelude in A-flat Major, Op. 28 No. 17 — Allegretto This piece is a little romance, in which Chopin introduces some harmonies not previously found in other compositions. This one was the favorite of Clara Schumann and Anton Rubinstein. Hans von Bulow called this prelude, A Scene on the Place de Notre-Dame de Paris. It was composed in 1836, published in 1839 and dedicated to Camille Pleyel.
Prelude in F Minor, Op. 28 No. 18 — Allegro molto Hans von Bulow called this prelude, Suicide. It was composed between 1836 and 1839, published in 1839 and dedicated to Camille Pleyel. Prelude in E-flat Major, Op. 28 No. 19 — Vivace Hans von Bulow called this prelude, Heartfelt Happiness. It was composed between 1836 and 1839, published in 1839 and dedicated to Camille Pleyel. Prelude in C Minor, Op. 28 No. 20 — Largo Composed between 1836-1839, published in 1839, dedicated to Camille Pleyel. Chopin originally ended this piece at bar 9. Based on this prelude, Rachmanninov composed his Variations on a Theme of Chopin. These variations scare off even the best of pianists—they last more than a half of an hour and they are both technically and musically demanding. Hans von Bulow called this prelude, Funeral March. Prelude in B-flat Major, Op. 28 No. 21 — Cantabile This work was composed in Majorca, in November and December of 1838. It was published in 1839 and dedicated to Camille Pleyel. Hans von Bulow called it, Sunday. Prelude in G Minor, Op. 28 No. 22 — Molto agitato Hans von Bulow called this prelude, Impatience. It was composed between 1836 and 1839. It was published in 1839, dedicated to Camille Pleyel. Vladimir de Pachmann: “In the twenty-second Prelude, Chopin created energetic modern octave play. It was the first prelude of its kind in the world.” Prelude in F Major, Op. 28 No. 23 — Moderato Hans von Bulow called this prelude, A Pleasure Boat. Vladimir de Pachmann: “In the twenty-third Prelude pretty well all the editions indicate short legato passages. Chopin never played such passages. He sometimes introduced a long legato passage, but never short ones of a few notes only.” It was composed between 1836 and 1839. It was published in 1839 and dedicated to Camille Pleyel. Prelude in D Minor, Op. 28 No. 24 — Allegro appassionato Vladimir de Pachmann: “In the twenty-fourth the amateur would do well to remember that the whole beauty of this prelude is generally spoilt by the left-hand notes being banged. These should be masked the whole time and should never be allowed to drown the right hand.” Hans von Bulow called this prelude, The Storm. It was composed between 1836 and 1839. It was published in 1839 and dedicated to Camille Pleyel. Prelude in C-sharp Minor, Op. 45 Op. 45 is the twenty-fifth prelude with widely extending basses and shifting harmonic hues. It is a bit dark and elegiac but pinpricked with more hopeful excerpts, though still ultimately sorrowful. Nocturnes The nocturne is generally credited to John Field, an Irish composer and pianist, who published his first three nocturnes in 1814. These romantic character pieces are written in a somewhat melancholy style, with an expressive, dreamy melody over broken-chord accompaniment. The majority of Chopin’s nocturnes adopt a simple A-B-A form. The A part is usually in a dreamy bel canto style, whereas the B part is of a more dramatic content. In distinction of melody, wealth of harmony and originality of piano style, Chopin’s nocturnes leave Field’s far behind. The similarity of Chopin’s nocturnes to Bellini’s cavatinas (such as Casta diva from Norma) has often been noticed, though there is little evidence of direct influence in either direction. We have seen the shy, serenely tender emotions which Field charged them to interpret, supplanted by strange and foreign effects. Only one genius possessed himself of this style, lending to it all the movement and ardour of which it was susceptible. Chopin, in his poetic Nocturnes, sang not only the harmonies which are the source of our most ineffable delights, but likewise the restless, agitating bewilderment to which they often give rise. - Franz Liszt
Nocturne in B-flat Minor, Op. 9 No. 1 — Larghetto The first of Chopin’s works to be published in France, Germany and England were these nocturnes (Op. 9), which appeared over the period of December 1832 to June 1833. They were composed—in part—in Vienna and completed in Paris. This first work immediately confirms the character of the nocturne. The irregularity of the rhythmic patterns is one aspect of Chopin’s style of ornamentation that continues to find varied expression in later works such as Op. 27 No. 2. This piece was composed in 1830/1832 and published in 1832/1833; it is dedicated to Marie Pleyel, the wife of publisher and virtuoso pianist Camille Pleyel. Nocturne in E-flat Major, Op. 9 No. 2 — Andante This nocturne resembles the style of Field’s Nocturne No. 9 in the same key. The left hand figuration is similar, and both have cadenza-like passages toward the end. This is Chopin’s most famous nocturnes. It was composed in 1830/1832 and published in 1833; it is also dedicated to Marie Pleyel. Nocturne in B Major, Op. 9 No. 3 — Allegretto This nocturne is obscure and rarely performed. It is an exercise in lyricism and delicacy. Its development is paradoxical in its torrential gracefulness. It was composed in 1830/1832 and published in 1833; it is also dedicated to Marie Pleyel, a lovely pianist of the period. Nocturne in F Major, Op. 15 No. 1 — Andante Cantabile The introduction of this night piece is calm and serene. This peace is followed by a stormy F minor central section, which purges sudden doubts and worries. A recapitulation follows, appeasing the anxiety and restoring the tranquility. It was composed in 1830/31 and published in 1833/34; it is dedicated to Ferdinand Hiller, a German composer, conductor and music director. Nocturne in F-sharp Major, Op. 15 No. 2 — Larghetto Although this Nocturne is fairly popular, this song is not so well known as the very famous nocturne in E-flat major. It has many more technical difficulties and requires more technique and a greater range of dynamics. Arthur Hedley said this nocturne was composed in 1832, after Chopin’s arrival in Paris. It was composed in 1830/31 and published in 1833/34; it is also dedicated to Ferdinand Hiller. Nocturne in G Minor, Op. 15 No. 3 — Lento In this Nocturne it is the irregularity and unpredictability of the phrasing that demands attention. It is wistful in its outer sections, with a hymn-like passage at its heart, marked religioso. To enhance the purity of this passage, Chopin deliberately refrained from using the sustaining pedal. The expected return to the opening, however, is replaced by a new idea, also somewhat modal in character. This seems to approach a cadence in D minor, but the concluding chords bring the music back to G, with an archaic 4-3 suspension and Picardy 3rd. It is doubtful whether any consistent example of such harmony can be found of earlier date unless the third movement, “in the Lydian mode”, of Beethoven’s string quartet (Op. 132) is included. A story goes that Chopin, upon seeing Hamlet, composed this nocturne and named it, On the Graveyard. After being asked later the reason for which he did not publish this title, Chopin answered: “Let them guess...”. This work was composed in 1833 and published in 1833/34; it is dedicated to Ferdinand Hiller. Nocturne in C-sharp Minor, Op. 27 No. 1 — Larghetto This nocturne was composed in 1834/35 and published in 1836; it is dedicated to Countess d’Apponyi. It is also known as: “Les plaintives”. It is clouded in a dark atmosphere, full of suspense and inner tension. The middle part is leading into a more triumphant mood, as the chordal section expands a moment of temporary glory. Niecks, an important Chopin biographer, considers these nocturnes (Op. 27) the best.
Nocturne in D-flat Major, Op. 27 No. 2 — Lento sostenuto This Nocturne begins with a serene melody of hypnotic beauty, floating over a sea of D-flat major harmony. Its development heightens the sense of drama, and the piece closes in waves of melting nostalgia. It is indeed supreme in its class of Parisian salon pieces, if not more. It was composed in 1834/35 and published in 1836; it is dedicated to Countess d’Apponyi. Nocturne in B Major, Op. 32 No. 1 — Andantino sostenuto Artur Rubinstein had always ended this nocturne in major: “In the Debussy edition of Chopin, which I like, the B major nocturne ends with a major chord. In Chopin one shouldn’t discuss such things. Chopin changed his works constantly. [...] I play the major chord because the minor chord weakens the ending: it weakens the whole theme.” Chopin composed this work in 1836/37 and published it in 1837; it is dedicated to Madame la Baronne de Billing. Nocturne in A-flat Major, Op. 32 No. 2 — Lento Compared with previous nocturnes, the tempo in the middle section remains the same and only the figuration changes. The degree in contrast is thereby reduced. It is a beautiful work of dreamy melody and majestic harmony. This nocturne was composed in 1836/37 and published in 1837; it is dedicated to Madame la Baronne de Billing. Nocturne in G Minor, Op. 37 No. 1 — Andante sostenuto Also known as Les soupirs, this nocturne is not technically demanding. The middle section is a strange chorale-like intermezzo in plain chordal writing. It was composed in 1838/39 and published in 1840. Nocturne in G Major, Op. 37 No. 2 — Andantino The elegant theme, in parallel thirds and sexts, is presented in a surprising variety of keys, so that little sense of overall tonality remains. The middle section is a peaceful lullaby. It was composed just a few weeks after arriving at Nohant, in July of 1939. It was published in 1840. Guiomar Novaes said: “I find in those nocturnes that you emphasize reflection, nostalgia, serenity, and a certain deep feeling.” Nocturne in C Minor, Op. 48 No. 1 — Lento This one reaches beyond the accepted domain of the nocturne: its virtuoso piano writing is reminiscent of the ballades. Robert Schumann reviewed both nocturnes of opus 48, but his admiration was tinged with certain reservations. This piece was composed in October 1841 and published in 1841/42; it is dedicated to Laura Duperre. Nocturne in F-sharp Minor, Op. 48 No. 2 — Andantino A seemingly endless melody is played with restless triplets in the left hand. It was composed in October 1841 and published in 1841/42; it is dedicated to Laura Duperre. Nocturne in F Minor, Op. 55 No. 1 — Andante These nocturnes of opus 55 were not greeted by the superlatives that the early nocturnes attracted. Guiomar Novaes: "You play the second notes of the basses a little staccato, letting the pedal up. Rubinstein holds the pedal for each two bass notes." This work was composed in October 1843 and published in 1844; it is dedicated to Jane Stirling, a devoted pupil. Nocturne in E-flat Major, Op. 55 No. 2 — Lento This nocturne lies at the apogee of its form. It is an application of the greatest depth, containing a melody of infinite natural quality. Its development and flow are breathtaking. This nocturne was composed in October 1843 and published in 1844; it is dedicated to Jane Stirling, a devoted pupil. Nocturne in B Major, Op. 62 No. 1 — Andante A work of elaborate ornamentation and elementary simplicity, this piece suits the definition of charm. It is demanding in terms of both technique and musicality. For Kleczynski the nocturnes of opus 62 were evidence of an enfeebled creative power. Niecks, however, considers these nocturnes “not worth dwelling upon.” It was composed in October 1846 and published in 1846; it is dedicated to Mademoiselle R. de Konneritz.
Nocturne in E Major, Op. 62 No. 2 — Lento This work was composed in October 1846, and it is the last nocturne that Chopin published during his life (in 1846). He dedicated it to Mademoiselle R. de Konneritz. Leichtentritt described it as “lacking the features of great artistry.” Nocturne in E Minor, Op. 72 No. 1 (posth.) — Andante This nocturne lies clearly within the Field tradition. Its haunting melody rides the harmony of a most macabre scale. It was composed in 1827 and published in 1855. Chopin dedicated it to Mademoiselle R. de Konneritz. Nocturne in C-sharp Minor (posth.) — Lento con gran espressione This nocturne uses themes from the F minor concerto (Op. 21). Tamas Vasary: “If you didn’t know about the reminiscence, you would still have the impression that both works live in the same emotional climate.” Orazio Frugoni suggested to a student having trouble with this nocturne that she spend some time at night by the cathedral in Siena: “Yes it’s very romantic. As human beings we get these impressions that feed our creativity; if not we simply shouldn’t be artists.” This work was composed in the spring of 1830 and published in 1875. Nocturne in C Minor This nocturne was published in 1938 (TWMP, Warsaw) together with the E-flat minor Largo (BI109). It was composed in 1837 and published in 1938.
Chopin’s Works Chopin composed chiefly for solo piano. A few exceptions include the piano concerti and the Andante spianato et Grande
Polonaise in E-flat major (Op. 22), for which he composed orchestral accompaniments. In these cases, the piano is still the
star, but its music is introduced and supported with help from the orchestra. Chopin composed music from a variety of types. Some of his works are love songs (ballades), while others are night songs (nocturnes). Others are Polish dances (polonaises and mazurkas), while others follow more traditional structures (sonatas, scherzi and concerti) with a romantic touch. The majority of his music is discussed on this site. In order to find a specific piece, select a category below or use the search field in the header.
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