A Model of Cyberspace

by

Sanjay Sharma (1998)
1225 Duplin Road Raleigh, NC – 2 !" ##hama$%&'n(#u'edu

Sanjay Sharma )b%pl1$gmail'(om ***')b%pl'(om

2

+,-./ 01 C0N+/N+S
1) 1i2e Di33eren(e# be%*een +radi%ional 4 Ne* 5edium''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''6 1) Di#rup%i2e 7mpa(% o3 8ni)uene## o3 %he Ne* 5edium ''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''5 a) 9o* 5u#i( Changed'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''5 b) 9o* +hea%re Changed'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''! 2) De#(rip%ion o3 9yperSpa(e and Cyber#pa(e : , 5odel''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''! a) 1our .e2el# o3 /&i#%en(e in Cyber#pa(e'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' b) +hree .e2el# o3 +ime in Cyber#pa(e'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''8 6) +he /&ponen%ial 7n(rea#e in ;o##ibili%ie# o3 7n%era(%ion in Cyber#pa(e'''''''''''''''''''''''''9 <) Communi(a%ion in 9yper#pa(e : Segmen%a%ion 4 Re(on#%ru(%ion'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''9 5) /##en%ial /lemen%# o3 Cyber#pa(e (9yper#pa(e )'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''1" !) /##en%ial /lemen%# o3 9yper#pa(e De#ign''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''1" ) /lemen%# %o /nhan(e %he 9yper#pa(e /&perien(e'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''1" 8) Con(lu#ion'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''11

Sanjay Sharma )b%pl1$gmail'(om ***')b%pl'(om

6

1) Five Differences between Traditional & New Medium
+he 7n%erne% i# unli=e any o%her %radi%ional medium' 7%# populari%y ha# in(rea#ed be(au#e o3 %he >orld >ide >eb *hi(h i# %he graphi(al por%ion o3 %he in%erne%' 9ere, %e&%, image#, audio, and 2ideo (an #eamle##ly blend' 7% (an al#o hold limi%le## da%a %ha% (an be made in#%an%ly a2ailable by (hoo#ing %he rele2an% op%ion' +hi# po*er o3 %remendou# dep%h, and in#%an% a((e##, ma=e i% 2ery di33eren%, 3or e&ample, reading a boo=' Con#ider %he boo=? 1. , boo= i# a finite collection, i# generally an i#ola%ed en%i%y 3rom o%her boo=#' So, i3 a per#on #%ar%# reading a boo=, *ha% i# in#%an%ly a2ailable i# only %he (hoi(e# %ha% %he edi%or made, and 3inally pu% in %ha% boo=' . +o abrup%ly mo2e 3rom one #e(%ion %o ano%her #e(%ion no% in a prede%ermined order in a boo=, or %o a #e(%ion in ano%her boo=, %he u#er ha# %o actively ma!e a decision and t"en #ear(h 3or %he rele2an% #e(%ion or phy#i(ally ob%ain %he o%her boo=' #. >hen %he per#on de(ide# %o read %he boo=, %he pace is completely at "is or "er discretion, and %he edi%or ha# no (on%rol : e&(ep% o3 #e%%ing %he pa(e impli(i%ly %hrough %he #%yle o3 *ri%ing' $. Reading a boo= i# generally a solitary e%ercise e&(ep% *hen publi( reading@in%era(%ing o3 boo=# are under%a=en' 7% generally %a=e# #ome %ime %o mo2e %o and 3ro 3rom i#ola%ed reading %o publi( reading@in%era(%ing' &. ,nd 3inally, %he (hoi(e o3 *ha% %he edi%or pu%# in a boo= i# de(ided hi# or her be#% gue## o3 *ha% %he 'avera(e' audience i#, and %he #ame me##age ha# %o be gi2en %o ea(h reader (o3 (our#e, *ha% %he reader %a=e# 3rom i% may be di33eren% among#% ea(h o3 %he reader#)' ,n 7n%erne% #i%e, *hi(h pro2ide# %he #ame in3orma%ion a# %he boo=, i# on %he o%her hand di33eren% in ea(h re#pe(%?

Sanjay Sharma )b%pl1$gmail'(om ***')b%pl'(om 1. , #i%e may be a 3ini%e (olle(%ion 3rom %he #i%e admini#%ra%or# poin%:o3:2ie*, bu% 3rom %he audien(e# poin%: o3:2ie*, t"e site is an infinite collection, be(au#e %here i# no%hing %ha% #epara%e# i% 3rom %he o%her #i%e# (%hey are all a (li(= a*ay)' So, 3rom %he audien(e# poin%:o3:2ie*, %he #i%e# are no% 3ini%e and a #i%e doe# no% e&i#% in i#ola%ion' 1rom %heir poin%:o3:2ie* %here are no boundarie# %ha% i#ola%e one #i%e 3rom %he o%her' ,nd *ha% i# a2ailable %o %he audien(e i# no% *ha% i# pu% on %he #i%e by one >ebma#%er, bu% %he (olle(%ion o3 *ha% i# pu% %oge%her by all %he *ebma#%er#' . +o abrup%ly mo2e 3rom one #e(%ion %o ano%her #e(%ion (a page %o ano%her page, or #i%e %o ano%her #i%e), %he u#er (an a(%i2ely ma=e a de(i#ion, or passively respond to t"e su((ested pat"ways (*hi(h may in2ol2e# numerou# (ombina%ion# o3 abrup% jump#) in *hi(h (a#e he or #he doe# no% ha2e %o a(%i2ely #ear(h o3 %he ne&% #e(%ion, bu% ju#% de(ide *hi(h #e(%ion and %he #e(%ion *ill be deli2ered righ% %o him or her' #. >hen a per#on de(ide# %o 2i#i% a *eb #i%e, he or #he (an (on%rol %he pa(e %o #ome e&%en%, bu% t"e pace is also still under t"e control of t"e webmaster' No% only %ha%, %he %ran#mi##ion %o %he u#er (an be in%er#per#ed *i%h li2e upda%e#, and in%era(%ion# *i%h o%her u#er#' +hu#, %he >ebma#%er, in addi%ion %o impli(i% (on%rol o3 %he pa(e, al#o re%ain# #ome mea#ure o3 e&pli(i% (on%rol o3 %he pa(e' $. Ai#i%ing a #i%e may be a #oli%ary e&perien(e *hen done on a (ompu%er, or may be a #mall group e&perien(e *hen done on >eb+A or large #(reen (ompu%er#, bu% no ma%%er *ha% mode i# (ho#en, users can instantly flip between solitary pursuit and public readin()interaction' &. ,nd 3inally, %he (hoi(e o3 *ha% %he *ebma#%er pu%# on %he #i%e i# de(ided by *ha% %he *ebma#%er be#% o33er#, and %he a2erage audien(e %a=e# *ha% %he *ebma#%er ha# %o be#% o33er, pu%# i% %oge%her *i%h %he be#% o33ering# o3 %he o%her *ebma#%er#, %o a(hie2e an e&perien(e %ha% i# uni)ue' /a(h member o3 %he audien(e i# %hu# e33e(%i2ely #er2ed *i%h a uni)ue and 'best of best' e%perience, ra%her %ha% an a2erage e&perien(e a# a boo= migh% ha2e pro2ided' +he boo= i# a produ(% o3 ma## produ(%ionB %he *eb#i%e e&perien(e o3 ma## (u#%omiCa%ion'

<

Sanjay Sharma )b%pl1$gmail'(om ***')b%pl'(om

5

1) Disruptive Impact of Uniqueness of the New Medium
+here are #ome %e(hnologi(al ad2an(emen%# %ha% %a=e pla(e in(remen%ally, *hile #ome are ine&pli(able leap#' ,nd *ha% #ome o3 %he leap# a(hie2e (an ne2er be a%%ained by in(remen%ally impro2ing %he #%a%u# )uo : no amoun% o3 in(remen%al ad2an(emen%# (an ma=e a hor#e (arriage (ompe%e *i%h an au%omobile' +he e33e(% o3 a %e(hnologi(al ad2an(emen% i# rele2an% no% only %o (ompe%i%or# *ho are (ompe%ing on a %e(hnologi(al ba#i#, bu% al#o %o *+*,- #e% o3 (ompe%i%or#' 1or e&ample, *hen mu#i( and #ound# (ould be re(orded, one *ould e&pe(% i% %o a33e(% only %he (ompanie# in %he bu#ine## o3 organiCing (on(er%# and #elling mu#i( #hee%#, no% %he ar%i#%# : *ho#e ar% *e may #ay i# independen% o3 %e(hnology'

a) 9o* 5u#i( Changed
.ut/ in an e%cellent demonstration of "ow tec"nolo(ical c"an(es influence almost everyt"in(/ consider "ow t"e artists t"emselves "ad to c"an(e. Ta!e for e%ample music.

.efore mu#i( (ould be re(orded, li#%ening %o mu#i( *a# a group
e&perien(e' Dou had %o go %o %he (on(er%, or *here e2er i% *a# being played' 7% *a# e&perien(ed in a #o(ial (ir(le and maybe (on%inuou#ly 3or an hour %o 2 hour#, and only a% (er%ain %ime# o3 %he day *hen %he ar%i#%# *ere per3orming' +ha% i# *ha% %he ar%i#%# had %o #a%i#3y'

After i% *a# po##ible %o re(ord %he mu#i(, people (ould li#%en %o i%
in #oli%ude' +hey (ould (on%rol %he 2olume o3 %he mu#i(, and la%er, many o%her a#pe(%# and, hen(e, li#%en %o i% in *ay# unimagined by %he earlier ar%i#%#' +hey (ould al#o (hoo#e %o li#%en %o i% 3or 5 %o 1" minu%e# ra%her %han an hour or %*o %ha% *a# (u#%omary : *hi(h %hen re)uired mu#i( %o a((ompli#h i%# 3un(%ion di33eren%ly' ,nd %hey (ould al#o #%op li#%ening %o a re(ord abrup%ly, and li#%en %o any o%her re(ord 3rom %heir library a% %he %urn o3 a #*i%(h : *hi(h *a# no% po##ible earlier' T"us/ music "ad to satisfy a w"ole of different e%pectations, and %he ar%i#%# had %o a((ordingly adap% %o i%' +he (la##i(al mu#i( %ha% *e li#%en %o %oday *a# %he produ(% o3 ar%i#%# *ho#e *or= (ould mee% %odayE# re)uiremen%#' +here are a lo% o3 ar%i#%# *ho *ere big during %ho#e %ime#, bu% are no% heard o3 no*aday# be(au#e %he mu#i( i# da%ed' +hu#, %he 3a(% *e li#%en %o (la##i(al mu#i( %oday, doe# no% mean %ha% mu#i( (an (omple%ely %ran#(end %e(hnology and be agele##, i% ju#% mean# %ha% %he (la##i(al mu#i( %ha% (ould %ran#(end %e(hnology i# *ha% *e li#%en %o'

Sanjay Sharma )b%pl1$gmail'(om ***')b%pl'(om

!

b) 9o* +hea%re Changed
0t is a similar case wit" visual drama' 7% *a# a((ompli#hed in %hea%re, *hi(h *a# again a group e&perien(e' 1ur%her, %he *hole #ho* *a# #een 3rom one #po% and %he a(%or# ena(%ed i% on #%age a# li3e #iCe (hara(%er#' +hen (ame mo2ie#' -u%, in#%ead o3 mo2ie# %ha% 3ilmed %hea%er and played i% ba(=, %he mo2ie# %ha% be(ame #u((e##3ul *ere %he one# %ha% u#ed %he po*er o3 %he medium %o e&pre## more and di33eren%ly : %he (lo#e:up, %he di33eren% (amera angle#, a#pe(%# li=e )ui(= ju&%apo#i%ion, imagina%i2e #e)uen(e#, e%(' +hu#, %he 3a(% %ha% human drama (ould be re(orded, (hanged %he 2ery na%ure o3 *ha% drama# *ere %o be re(orded, and ho*' +he 7n%erne% i# a %e(hnology %ha% *ill (hange %he *ay da%a@in3orma%ion@=no*ledge *ill be (ommuni(a%ed' ,nd *ha% *ill be impor%an% i# *ha% %he *ebma#%er# pro2ide, and ho* %he audien(e 3ind# i%'

) Description of 1yper2pace and Cyberspace 3 A Model
, #imple model %o illu#%ra%e a 2arie%y o3 po##ible a(%ion# and in%era(%ion# on %he >orld >ide >eb i# de#(ribed belo*' 7% i# impor%an% %o no%e %ha% many o3 %he po##ible a(%ion#@in%era(%ion#, *hen judged 3rom pre(on(ei2ed no%ion# abou% %radi%ional media, run %he ri#= o3 being prema%urely di#mi##ed : bu%, i% #hould be remembered %ha% ea(h one o3 %he#e ha# %he po%en%ial %o be(ome #igni3i(an%ly more impor%an% : or e2en (ri%i(al' See 1igure 1 3or a depi(%ion o3 %he model :belie2e me, i% i# mu(h ea#ier %o #ee %he de%ail#

%hi# *ay') ;eople are repre#en%ed a# *hile do(umen%# are repre#en%ed a# ', do(umen% (an repre#en% any%hing *hi(h #%ore# in3orma%ion *he%her i% i# %e&%, audio, 2ideo, or any o%her me%hod (#mell F) *e (an (ome up *i%h'

Sanjay Sharma )b%pl1$gmail'(om ***')b%pl'(om

Fi(ure 1 4 A conceptual framewor! to visuali5e t"e interactions in a networ! suc" as t"e 0nternet.

a) Four 6evels of *%istence in Cyberspace.
+here are %hree re(%angle# in %he 1igure' +he ou%ermo#% re(%angle in 1igure 1 en(lo#e# %he in%erne% : e2ery%hing ou%#ide %he re(%angle i# %he real *orld' >i%hin %he Gin%erne% (ommuni%y G re(%angle i# ano%her re(%angle %ha% depi(%# a *eb#i%e' >i%hin a *eb#i%e i# ano%her bo& %ha% depi(%# #ome%hing on our *eb#i%e %ha% i# %he G%hea%erG : li=e pro3e##ional# going on line, in%era(%ion# among#% %he employee# o3 %he #i%e, or any (hara(%er# %ha% migh% be (rea%ed 3or %he #i%e' +he %hea%er in #ome *ay ha# %he #ame e##en%ial (hara(%eri#%i(# o3 a #oap opera : people %une in %o #ee *ha% i# happening ne&%, and may e2en in%era(%, bu% %he #ho* goe# no% *he%her %hey in%era(% or no%' 7n %he#e 3our le2el# : %he real *orld, *i%hin *hi(h i# %he 7n%erne% (ommuni%y, *i%hin

*hi(h i# our *eb#i%e, and *i%hin *hi(h i# our #i%e %hea%er : %here are people

and

Sanjay Sharma )b%pl1$gmail'(om ***')b%pl'(om

8

do(umen%# ' ,nd in %he real *orld, in addi%ion %o %he people and do(umen%#, *e al#o ha2e %he ad2er%i#er#' ,ll %hi# i# depi(%ed in %he 1igure 1' No* %he 2ariou# %ype# o3 in%era(%ion# %ha% are po##ible are a) per#on %o per#on b) per#on %o do(umen% () per#on ob#er2ing per#on:%o:per#on, i'e' per#on ob#er2ing a) d) per#on ob#er2ing per#on:%o:do(umen%, i'e' per#on ob#er2ing b) e) per#on ob#er2ing () or d), and #o on' 3) per#on ob#er2ing ad2er%i#er#, and ad2er%i#er# ob#er2ing per#on# No*, ea(h per#on or do(umen%, (an be pre#en% in %he real *orld, on %he in%erne%, on our *eb#i%e, or in %he %hea%er o3 our *eb#i%e' T"us t"e above mentioned a) to f) interactions are now ta!in( place across $ levels of people/ and $ levels of documents' +ha% i#, a per#on on our *eb#i%e may be in%ere#%ed in a do(umen% on %he 7n%erne%' 0r a per#on on %he 7n%erne% may be in%ere#%ed in a do(umen% on our *eb#i%e' 0r a per#on on our *eb#i%e may be in%ere#%ed in a do(umen% or per#on in %he real *orld'

b)Three Levels of Time in C berspace
7n addi%ion %o %he abo2e in%era(%ion#, %here are %hree di33eren% (lo(=# %ha% are in opera%ion and %he in%era(%ion# are a(ro## %he#e (lo(=:%ime#' +he#e %ime# are #ho*n a# %hree a&e# o3 %he boundarie# %ha% #epara%e %he 3our le2el# o3 e&i#%en(e' 1#%) Clo(= %i(=ing in %he real *orld 2nd) Clo(= %i(=ing on %he *eb#i%e (al#o one 3or ea(h o3 %he o%her *eb#i%e#) 6rd) Clo(= %i(=ing 3or %he %hea%er %ha% i# running on our *eb#i%e /a(h (lo(= (rea%e# a pa#%, ha# a pre#en%, and i# loo=ing %o a 3u%ure' So ea(h o3 %he abo2e 6 (lo(=# (rea%e %hree pa#%#, %hree pre#en%#, and %hree 3u%ure#' ,nd %here i# a lo% o3 in%era(%ion po##ible in %he#e 9 #egmen%# : i'e' 6 pa#%#, 6 pre#en%#, and 6 3u%ure#' +ha% mean#, 3or e&ample, %ha% %he people in %he

Sanjay Sharma )b%pl1$gmail'(om ***')b%pl'(om 1#%) (lo(=# pre#en% (real *orld) *ould li=e %o =no* abou% %he pa#% o3 %he 6rd) (lo(=, i'e *ha% ha# happened in %he pa#% on %he #ho* in our %hea%er' 0r %he people on our *eb#i%e a((ording %o 2nd) (lo(=# pre#en%, are in%ere#%ed in %he pa#% o3 %he real *orldH# 1#%) (lo(=, or %he 3u%ure a((ording %o %he 6rd) (lo(=' ,nd #o on, %he in%era(%ion# (an %a=e pla(e in %he 2ariou# %ime#'

9

#) T"e *%ponential 0ncrease in 7ossibilities of 0nteraction in Cyberspace
>e #ee %ha% %here i# a 2a#% amoun% o3 in%era(%ion# %ha% are no* po##ible, mo#% o3 *hi(h *ere no% po##ible prior %o %he 7n%erne%' +here are in%era(%ion# ba#ed on *he%her i% i# per#on:%o:per#on, or per#on:%o:do(umen%#, or #omeone ob#er2ing %he#e, and *he%her %he per#on or do(umen% i# in %he real *orld, on %he in%erne%, on our *eb#i%e, on in %he %hea%er o3 our *eb#i%e, and 3inally on *he%her %he %ime i# a((ording %o %he real *orld, or a((ording %o %he *eb#i%e#, or a((ording %o %he %hea%er on our *eb#i%e' +he 7n%erne% ha# no* opened up po##ibili%ie# %ha% *ere unimaginable earlier, and *e #%ill do no% =no* *hi(h o3 %he#e in%era(%ion# #er2e# *hi(h 3un(%ion be#%' -u% %he 3ir#% #%ep %o being able %o harne## %heir uni)ue po%en%ial i# %o under#%and %ha% %hey e&i#%, and %hen %o de2i#e e&perien(e# %ha% be#% #a%i#3ied by %he appropria%e in%era(%ion' >e belie2e %ha% *e are in %he po#i%ion %o do #o, and %he (on(ep% di#(u##ed in %hi# bu#ine## plan i# one o3 %he mo#% appropria%e and %imely %o implemen%'

$) Communication in 1yperspace 3 2e(mentation & ,econstruction
, (on(ep% #i%e ha# %o (ommuni(a%e %he (on(ep% %o %he audien(e' +here are %*o #%ep# %ha% %a=e pla(e' +he *ebma#%er# ha2e %o brea= %he uni3ied (on(ep% in%o #egmen%# %ha% %hey (an %hen pre#en% %o %he u#er#' +he u#er# %hen ha2e %o re(ombine %he #egmen%ed (on(ep%# %o re(on#%ru(% %he uni3ied (on(ep%' +hi# %a#= o3 e##en%ially (ommuni(a%ing %he (on(ep% 3ai%h3ul i# e#pe(ially (hallenging be(au#e %here are many po##ible *ay# in *hi(h %he (on(ep% (an be #egmen%ed by %he *ebma#%er#, and many di33eren% *ay# in *hi(h i% (an be re(on#%ru(%ed by %he u#er#' +he ideal #i%ua%ion i# *hen %he ba#i# on *hi(h %he #egmen%a%ion *a# done i# al#o %he ba#i# ho* %he re(ombina%ion *a# done' +he po##ible ba#e# on *hi(h %he de2eloper (an se(ment %he (on(ep% i# ba#ed on %imeline (or (hronologi(al order) (on%en% G(hun=#G : #egmen%a%ion by (on%en% GdeeperG (on%en%# : #egmen%a%ion by %he le2el o3 %he (on%en% +he po##ible ba#e# on *hi(h %he u#er# (an re(on#%ru(% are loo=ing 3or GdeeperG (on%en%#

Sanjay Sharma )b%pl1$gmail'(om ***')b%pl'(om 1" idea mapping G(hun=#G %imeline ((hronologi(al order) #i%e:%o:#i%e #%ringing o3 idea# >>>>> and 9 in%en% : loo=ing 3or in#pira%ion, mo%i2a%ion#, en%er%ainmen%, e%(' : #%ringing a##o(ia%ing idea *i%h ano%her idea +hu# %he *eb#i%e ha# %o be de2eloped =no*ing %he abo2e *ay# in *hi(h i% (an be #egmen%ed and pu% on %he *eb, and %hen %a=en 3rom %he *eb and re(on#%ru(%ed'

&) *ssential *lements of Cyberspace 81yperspace )
Some o3 %he impor%an% (hara(%eri#%i(# o3 %he *eb#i%e are i%# lin=ing #%ra%egy : ho* are %he page# lin=ed' +hen i# %he (on(ep% o3 *he%her %hey are in meaning3ul (hun=# o3 #e)uen(e#' ,nd ho* deep i# %he hierar(hy 3or ea(h o3 %he (hun=# in %he #e)uen(e' 9o* are %he (hun=# in #imilari%y o3 (on%en% and lin=age#F 9o* i# %he na2iga%ion and doe# #ome%hing #er2e a# a homeba#e' ,re %here #ear(h (apabili%ie#F

9) *ssential *lements of 1yperspace Desi(n
Some o3 %he o%her )ue#%ion# %o a#= 3or online do(umen%a%ion (a# #ugge#%ed in %he 5i(ro#o3% >indo*# help ,u%horing 5anual) *hi(h (ap%ure %he e##en%ial (ri%eria 3or a good *eb#i%e are are %hey 3un(%ionally rela%edF #ame =indF (ompari#on ea#yF lin=ed %oge%herF order o3 pre#en%a%ionF mo#% impor%an%F lea#% dominan%F hierar(hy o3 impor%an(eF #%and# ou%F #%ru(%ure (learF #imple #ummariCing #%oryF mi#lead# u#er#F

:) *lements to *n"ance t"e 1yperspace *%perience

Sanjay Sharma )b%pl1$gmail'(om ***')b%pl'(om 11 Some o%her good de#ign habi%# are a2oiding unne(e##ary #(rolling, ma=ing hyperlin=# a2ailable a% a (on#i#%en% pla(e, ha2ing only rele2an% hyperlin=#, and pro2iding a (on#i#%en% e&perien(e o3 3orma%'

;) Conclusion
+he 7n%erne% i# a 2ery po*er3ul, bu% a# *e ha2e #ho*n, a 2ery di33eren% medium' +he de#ign o3 a *eb#i%e mu#% be #u(h %ha% i% %ap# %he mo#% po*er3ul 3ea%ure# o3 %he in%erne%, ra%her %han being ju#% a re3le(%ion o3 %he %radi%ional idea# in%o %he 1H# "H# o3 %he (ompu%er' >e under#%and %he 7n%erne%, and (an u#e i% 2ery e33e(%i2ely' +he idea pre#en%ed in %hi# bu#ine## plan i# an e&(ellen% 3i% 3or %he 7n%erne%

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