You are on page 1of 6


Avenue North Largo, FL 33773-3724, USA Tel: 727-544-2326 Fax: 727-546-0121


Reference: Advantages that Optimize Security and Reliability



24 The vfHz function is designed to work properly from 2Hz to 80Hz. This is
required for converter start Gas Turbine and Steam Turbine (where rotor pre-
warming is used) generators where the generator frequency during startup and
shutdown can be as low as 2 Hz.

25 Sync Check using voltage Difference and Slip Frequency Difference
(optional). This allows use of a smaller angle than the phase angleftime method,
decreasing the opportunity for a malsynchronization. Dead voltage limits are also

NOTE: 40 and 7S Loss of Field and Out of Step functions are designed to work
properly from 50Hz to 70 Hz (Nachines with 60Hz Nominal). This is required as
the frequency can vary widely during power swing conditions and these relays
are expected to operate (or not misoperate) during these conditions.

49 Thermal overload protection is provided employing the !EC-255-8 thermal
model for stator overload protection.

NOTE: 50J50NJ51N functions are designed to operate properly from 2Hz to
80Hz. !t is very important to provide protection for the generator from phase and
ground faults during startup and shutdown when machine frequencies can be
low. These functions backup the 87 function and extend the frequency range
down to 2Hz.

59N, 27TN or 59D 100 stator ground fault detection is provided employing
neutral Overvoltage protection (59N) and a choice of either a) third harmonic
neutral Undervoltage measurement with power, vAr, PF, power band and
Undervoltage supervision (27TN)

or b) third harmonic voltage differential using a
ratio comparator technique of the line and neutral terminal quantities (59D).
Third Harmonic Differential is for use where the neutral 3
harmonic voltage
signature varies widely with different operating conditions. This provides


Avenue North Largo, FL 33773-3724, USA Tel: 727-544-2326 Fax: 727-546-0121

security against false tripping due to third harmonic voltage drop out at both the
neutral and terminal ends of the generator.

59X An independent voltage input is provided for inter-turn protection or
ungrounded bus ground-fault protection. The 59X function is a Nulti Purpose
Overvoltage that may be applied for ungrounded bus ground fault protection.
This is desirable when backfeeding auxiliary systems when the generator
disconnect switch is open and no ground source is available due to the bus
supplying the auxiliary transformer being supplied from the GSU delta winding.

NOTE: Over voltage functions {59D, 59N, and 59X) are designed to work
properly from 50Hz to 120Hz, inclusive. The high frequency of 120Hz is
important for Hydro Generators where the generators can experience high speed
(high frequency) during full load rejection. Since the vfHz during this condition is
low the 2+ function will not operate, however, the 59 function will provide proper
protection from Overvoltage.

64S 100 Stator Ground Protection by !njection is provided for use where the
neutral 3
harmonic signatures are too low to be useful over the majority of the
machines power operating range, and for off-line ground fault protection
(optional). This is also useful for 100 stator ground fault protection in cross
compound machines. 100 stator ground fault detection is provided employing
sub harmonic frequency injection and detection. This may be employed in
addition to the neutral Overvoltage (59N) element.

64F, 64B Field ground protection (6+F) and field and ground brush lift off
detection (6+B) are provided using a low frequency square wave injection
method that measures the field-ground impedance under offline, normal
operating, as well as fault conditions. Alarm and trip setpoints are provided.

67N A residual directional overcurrent element shall be provided, polarized
from either calculated 3v0, neutral voltage (vN) or another input from an
external broken delta voltage (vX). The operating current shall be selected as
either 3!0 (calculated by the relay using 3 phase currents) or !N (input to the
relay from a residual doughnut" CT).

74TC Trip Circuit Continuity to determine an open in the trip circuit, indicating
the inability of the trip circuit to function.

7S Out of Step protection shall be provided based on a single blinder scheme
employing a single positive sequence mho element with blinders. Out of step


Avenue North Largo, FL 33773-3724, USA Tel: 727-544-2326 Fax: 727-546-0121

tripping shall be selectable to trip on exit from the mho element or on exit from
the blinders, and shall be subject to a pole slip counter if desired.

S1A Frequency Accumulation Timers that accumulate in six underfrequency
bands per Scheme 1" of !EEE C37.106. This is useful for tracking cumulative
damage to turbine blades at various prohibited frequencies during start up and
system frequency excursions (typically underfrequency is of concern).

S1R Rate of Change of Frequency (ROCOF) Two elements are provided that
may be used to detect grid islanding and initiate remedial load shedding or
generator shedding schemes.

S7GD A ground differential element shall be provided with a directional element
that shall differentiate between internal and external faults. At extremely low
zero-sequence currents, this element shall become non-directional. This element
shall be based on a low impedance principle that may be sourced from the
ground CT input and the same set of phase CTs that supply other protective

NOTE: S7 Differential elements are designed to operate properly from 10Hz
to 80Hz. Proper operation of differential functions at off-nominal frequencies is
important to provide protection for the generator from internal faults during

IPS !PSlogic to create programmable schemes based on element status and
!fO status using logic and timers in a graphical format. This is useful for
supervising elements on balance of plant status, and creating schemes based on
element(s) pick up, trip or drop outs and delays. Setting changes as well as
output assertions may be initiated with !PSlogic.

BM Breaker Nonitor employing !t or !
t. This is useful to track cumulative
electrical wear of generator breakers that are often cycled, as in peaking plants.


Avenue North Largo, FL 33773-3724, USA Tel: 727-544-2326 Fax: 727-546-0121


21 Phase Distance added a third zone that may be used to block tripping on
stable swings. This allows the reach of Z2 to be set to reach remote buses
instead of pulling back the reach for fear of tripping on a stable swing. Load
encroachment blinders are also available for all zones which restrict tripping near
unity power factor load encroachment and stable swings. This aging allows
setting of backup zones with further reactive reach as the resistive reach is cut,
therefore adding security. The third zone may also be employed to trip, allowing
Z1 to set into the GSU to back up the unit differential wrap, Z2 to overreach the
GSU to afford local bus backup and near line terminal backup protections, and Z3
to overreach the remote bus for system backup protection. Proper supervision of
the distance element afford greater security under system upset conditions.

27 Phase Undervoltage added a third zone of settings. Undervoltage may be
used to trip for low voltage conditions that can lead to low power transfer and
unit instability.

27TN Third Harmonic Neutral Undervoltage, additional supervisions for
increased security.
Positive sequence undervoltage block
Underpower block, forward and reverse
Under vAr block, lead and lag
Power Factor block, lead and lag
Definable Power band block
This allows use of the element under widely variable generator output conditions

32 Directional Power, added a third zone of settings that may be applied as
forwardfreverse and overfunder. This allows reverse power based sequential
and non-sequential tripping, as well as the opportunity to apply low forward
power, or, one power element may be configured for reactive power supervision
to allow tripping scheme tripping for various reactive inputfoutput situations.

40 Loss of Field, added the ability to use voltage control to accelerate tripping
for all zones if desired. This can help mitigate system undervoltage collapse
using loss for field events, as the generator may be the cause of the voltage
drop. You may also place either mho element independently with any offset,
positive or negative, as well as apply directional blinders. This allows optimizing
the shape of the R-X characteristic to match the limits as expressed on the P-Q


Avenue North Largo, FL 33773-3724, USA Tel: 727-544-2326 Fax: 727-546-0121
46 Negative Sequence Overcurrent, added a programmable reset time to
better coordinate with the cooling characteristic of the machine. This is
beneficial asset preservation where the negative sequence current impressed in
the machine is repeated moving into and out of the damage curve. With the
rests time, the memory will prevent reset of the element and rotor damage
through heating.

50 !nstantaneous Overcurrent, added a second zone of settings. Both zones
may have delays placed on them for coordination purposes.

59N Neutral Overvoltage added a third zone of settings. Nultiple zones allow
proper coordination for PT fuses, capacitive coupling of system ground fault
current through the GSU and other coordination requirements. This allows
elements to be set at the fastest possible speeds to avoid placing high dielectric
stress on the machine, isophase bus and transformer windings during prolonged
clearing of ground faults on high impedance machines. Grounds faults on these
machines cause the neutral to shift and results in near line-to-line voltages
across the unfaulted phases.

60FL vT Fuse Loss Detection, added three phase detection to detect loss on all
three fuses. This allows PT fuse failure on one set of PTs for single fuse, double
fuse and all three fuse loss, avoiding full load rejection under load.

S7 Phase Differential Current, added a second element for use with static
starting equipment. You can set the differential element with a higher pickup
during the static start operation. This optimizes the protection for both start up
and normal running. The element can also accommodate different line side and
neutral side CT ratios

Event Logging The event log holds 512 events and provides information
such as elements picked up, tripped or reset; discrete !fO status; voltages and
currents (including sequence quantities and select harmonics), impedances, at
each selected event occurrence. Event occurrences are selectable as to element
pick up, trip and reset, and changes in !fO status. This allows improved
information for concise operational and forensic (post trip) analysis.

Oscillograph Recorder !ncreased record capacity from 170 cycles and +
partitions to +72 cycles and up to 16 partitions. This is useful for capturing and
analyzing non-internal short circuit events (abnormal operating conditions and
system events) that take long amounts of time to transpire. This allows improved
information for concise operational and forensic (post trip) analysis.


Avenue North Largo, FL 33773-3724, USA Tel: 727-544-2326 Fax: 727-546-0121


plus Upgraded program provides analog curve traces with RNS

and harmonic analysis. You can view phasors, and examine R-X and P-Q plots.
Tripped and timing elements are available for display. This allows improved
information for concise operational and forensic (post trip) analysis.

Ethernet Added an optimal Ethernet port which supports NODBUSfTCP and
BECOfTCP protocols.

COMTRADE Added CONTRADE format support for the oscillograph files.