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Cellular-Planning and Optimization

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Timing Advance With Calculation
A Timing Advance (TA) is used to compensate for the propagation delay as the signal travels between the Mobile Station (MS) and Base Transceiver Station (BTS). The Base Station System (BSS) assigns the TA to the MS based on how far away it perceives the MS to be. Determination of the TA is a normally a function of the Base Station ontroller (BS )! bit this function can be handled anywhere in the BSS! depending on the manufacturer.

Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) re"uires precise timing of both the MS and BTS systems. #hen a MS wants to gain access to the networ$! it sends an access burst on the %A &. The further away the MS is from the BTS! the longer it will ta$e the access burst to arrive at the BTS! due to propagation delay. 'ventually there comes a certain point where the access burst would arrive so late that it would occur outside its designated timeslot and would interfere with the ne(t time slot.

Access Burst
As you recall from the TDMA Tutorial! an access burst has )*.+, guard bits at the end of it.

This guard time is to compensate for propagation delay due to the un$nown distance of the MS from the BTS. -t allows an access burst to arrive up to )*.+, bits later than it is supposed to without interfering with the ne(t time slot.

MS/) as its modulation method! which has a data throughput of +01.aussian Minimum Shift /eying (.)45s 7 )*. Propagation Delay 6ow! if an access burst has a guard period of )*.SM uses . The ne(t step is to calculate how far away a mobile station would have to be for a radio wave to ta$e +. bits). bits doesnt mean much to us in the sense of time! so we must convert )*.)*. So now we $now that it ta$es 2. bits this results in a ma(imum delay time of appro(imately +. To do this! it is necessary to calculate the duration of a single bit! the duration is the amount of time it would ta$e to transmit a single bit. Calculate duration of a bit.)45s to transmit a single bit. bits into a frame of time.*22 $ilobits3second ($b3s).+5s after it is e(pected and it would not interfere with the ne(t time slot.+5s to arrive at the BTS! this would be the .+5s (2. This means that a signal from the MS could arrive up to +.+.+.+.+. Duration of a Single Bit As you recall! .

&owever! we must ta$e into account that the MS synchroni9es with the signal it receives from the BTS. So! when the MS receives the syncroni9ation signal on the S &! it synchroni9es its time with the timing of the system. #hen the MS receives the synchroni9ation signal from the BTS! it has no way of determining how far away it is from the BTS. #e must account for the time it ta$es for the synchroni9ation signal to travel from the BTS to the MS..theoretical ma(imum distance that a MS could transmit and still arrive within the correct time slot.)$m away from a BTS when it transmits its access burst and still not interfere with the ne(t time slot. &owever! by the time the signal arrives at the MS! the timing . So! we can determine that a MS could theoretically be up to 0. The speed of light (c) is 211!111 $m3s. 8sing the speed of light! we can calculate the distance that a radio wave would travel in a given time frame.

The . :or e(ample! if a MS were e(actly 0.. It would take 2 2!s "or this signal to return to the #TS. %&!s e)uals about *+.2 bits o" guard time would absorb some o" the delay o" *+.. The MS would then synchronize with this timing and send its access burst on the RACH. bits.-..t time slot a who$$ing .-. So' by the time the signal "rom the MS arri(es at the #TS' it will be %&!s behind the timing o" the #TS.+5s for the signal to travel from the BTS to the MS. The total round tri$ time would be %&!s.2 bits. bits' but the access burst would still cut into the ne. .)$m away from the BTS! then it would ta$e +. Therefore! the timing of the MS will now be behind the timing of the BTS for an amount of time e"ual to the travel time from the BTS to the MS.of the BTS has already progressed some.

-f the delay is less than 2. -n .Maximum Size of a Cell -n order to compensate for the two.*$m and transmits an access burst it will most li$ely interfere with the following time slot.SM! which is e(plained below. How a BSS Determines a Timing Advance :or each 2.)45s! no ad=ustment is used and this is $nown as TA1..)45s (or one bit) early. . 'ach TA really corresponds to a range of propagation delay.way trip of the radio lin$! we must divide the ma(imum delay distance in half.$m. This is due mainly to the number of timing advances allowed in .)$m in half! we get appro(imately 20.*$m and the access burst should arrive within the guard time allowed for an access burst and it will not interfere with the ne(t time slot. Any distance less than 20.)45s of propagation delay! the TA will be incremented by <. :or every TA! the MS will start its transmission 2.bit delay detected in the synchroni9ation se"uence. 'ach TA is essentially e"ual to a <.SM! the ma(imum distance of a cell is standardi9ed at 2.* $m. -f a MS is further out than 20. So! dividing 0.

)45s. As we learned from above! the duration of a single bit is appro(imately 2.)45s.-n order to determine the propagation delay between the MS and the BSS! the BSS uses the synchroni9ation se"uence within an access burst. So! if the BSS sees that the synchroni9ation is late by a single bit! then it $nows that the propagation delay is 2. The Distance of a Timing Advance #hen calculating the distances involved for each TA! we must remember that the total propagation delay accounts for a two. -f we want to $now the true distance of the MS from the BTS! we must divide the total propagation delay in half. :or e(ample! if the BSS determines the total propagation delay to be 2.)45s! we can determine the distance of the MS from the BTS.way trip of the radio wave. . This is how the BSS $nows which TA to send to the MS. The BSS e(amines the synchroni9ation se"uence and sees how long it arrived after the time that it e(pected it to arrive. The first leg is the synchroni9ation signal traveling from the BTS to the MS! and the second leg is the access burst traveling from the MS to the BTS.

#e determined earlier that for each propagation delay of 2.+. You might also like: . meters from the tower...m. Because of the two. So! we see that each TA is e"ual to a distance of .)45s the TA is inceremented by one.way trip of the radio signal! if the MS transmits more than <... The TA becomes very important when the MS switches over to using a normal burst in order to transmit data.++5s after it is supposed to then it will interfere with the ne(t time slot.2. bits! the normal burst can only be received up to 21..)45s e"uals a one. bits of guard time! so the MS must transmit with more precise timing. The normal burst only has *.>>5s late and not interfere with the ne(t time slot. meters..+..way distance of . #e =ust learned that a propagation delay of 2.2. Starting from the BTS (1 meters) a new TA will start every . The normal burst does not have the )*. #ith a guard time of *. bits of guard time.+.2.