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Security refers to the degree of risk in a power system's ability to survive imminent disturbances (contingencies) without interruption to customer service. It relates to robustness of the system to imminent disturbances and, hence, depends on the system operating condition as well as the contingent probability of disturbances

Security of a power system is affected by three factors 1. Characteristics of the physical system: the integrated generation, transmission and distribution system 2. protection and control systems 3. Business structures of owning and operating entities 4. The regulatory framework

What is a blackout A blackout refers to the total loss of power to an area and is the most severe form of power outage that can occur in a power system. Blackouts which results in power stations tripping are particularly difficult to recover quickly. Outages may last from a few minutes to a few weeks depending on the nature of the blackout and the configuration of the electrical network.

power outage
A power outage (also power cut, blackout, or power failure) is a short- or long-term loss of the electric power to an area. There are many causes of power failures in an electricity network. Examples of these causes include faults at power stations, damage toelectric transmission lines, substations or other parts of the distribution system, a short circuit, or the overloading of electricity mains. Power failures are particularly critical at sites where the environment and public safety are at risk. Institutions such as hospitals, sewagetreatment plants, mines, and the like will usually have backup power sources such as standby generators, which will automatically start up when electrical power is lost. Other critical systems, such as telecommunications, are also required to have emergency power. Telephone exchange rooms usually have arrays of lead-acid batteries for backup and also a socket for connecting a generator during extended periods of outage.

2. It has been claimed[who?] that reducing the likelihood of small outages only increases the likelihood of larger ones. which can severely damage them.A blackout refers to the total loss of power to an area and is the most severe form of power outage that can occur. the short-term economic benefit of keeping the individual customer happy increases the likelihood of large-scale blackouts Protecting computer systems from power outages Computer systems and other electronic devices containing logic circuitry are susceptible to data loss or hardware damage that can be caused by the sudden loss of power. These can include data networking equipment. to an entire electrical grid. some observers[who?] have expressed concern that there is a tendency to erode the resilience of the network over time. to a block. video projectors. relating to the duration and effect of the outage: 1. a network component shutting down can cause current fluctuations in neighboring segments of the network leading to a cascading failure of a larger section of the network. Outages may last from a few minutes to a few weeks depending on the nature of the blackout and the configuration of the electrical network. which is only corrected after a major failure occurs. the use of an uninterruptible power supply or UPS can provide a constant flow of electricity in the event that a primary power supply becomes unavailable for a short period of time. This may range from a building. The term brownout comes from the dimming experienced by lighting when the voltage sags.A brownout or sag is a drop in voltage in an electrical power supply. to an entire city. In that case. To protect against this. which can damage hardware when power is restored. Blackouts which result from or result in power stations tripping are particularly difficult to recover from quickly. 3. . Under certain conditions. a special device called a surge protector that absorbs the excess voltage can be used. since there is no short-term economic benefit to preventing rare large-scale failures. Modern power systems are designed to be resistant to this sort of cascading failure. but it may be unavoidable (see below). To protect against surges (events where voltages increase for a few seconds). Moreover. Power is automatically restored once the fault is cleared. Protecting the power system from outages In power supply networks.A transient fault is a momentary (a few seconds) loss of power typically caused by a temporary fault on a power line. alarm systems as well as computers.Types of power outage Power outages are categorized into three different phenomena. Protective relays and fuses are used to automatically detect overloads and to disconnect circuits at risk of damage. the power generation and the electrical load (demand) must be very close to equal every second to avoid overloading of network components. Brownouts can cause poor performance of equipment or even incorrect operation.

320 million initially had power. about 300 million people. demand must be reconnected at the same pace that generation is restored. .Restoring power after a wide-area outage Restoring power after a wide-area outage can be difficult. have no electricity at all. Due to the late arrival of monsoons. this is done with the help of power from the rest of the grid. a so-called black start needs to be performed to bootstrap the power grid into operation. Normally. The means of doing so will depend greatly on local circumstances and operational policies. Further. In the total absence of grid power. The outage affected over 620 million people. Electrical power was restored in the affected locations between 31 July and 1 August 2012 Background The Indian electrical infrastructure is generally considered unreliable.The nation suffers from frequent power outages that last as long as 10 hours. An estimated 32 gigawatts of generating capacity was taken offline in the outage. extreme heat had caused power use to reach record levels in New Delhi. about 9% of the world population. but typically transmission utilities will establish localized 'power islands' which are then progressively coupled together. An article in The Wall Street Journal stated that of the affected population. Eastern. leading up to the failure. while the rest of the affected population lacked direct access. as power stations need to be brought back on-line. transmission and distribution organizations.The northern grid had previously collapsed in 2001. In the summer of 2012. To maintain supply frequencies within tolerable limits during this process. while peak supply falls short of demand by an average of 9%. occurring as two separate events on 30 and 31 July 2012. 2012 India blackouts The July 2012 India blackout was the largest power outage in history. or half of India's population.The late monsoon also meant that hydropower plants were generating less than their usual production. spread across 22 states] in Northern. and Northeast India. about 25% of the population. An estimated 27% of energy generated is lost in transmission or stolen..Projections suggest India remains decades away from having a sufficient energy supply. agricultural areas in Punjab and Haryana drew increased power from the grid for running irrigation pumps to paddy fields. requiring close coordination between power stations.

about 25% of India's population. Officials described the failure as "the worst in a decade". The Delhi Metro suspended service on all six lines. the 400 kV Bina-Gwalior line tripped.As a result. with parts of Eastern. Mathura and Bhatinda continued operating because they have their own captive power stations within the refineries and do not depend on the grid. was able to remain open. Power Minister Sushil Kumar Shinde stated that the exact cause of the failure was unknown.Over 600 million people (nearly half of India's population). He speculated that some states had attempted to draw more power than permitted due to the higher consumption.[5] while others relied on back-up generators.Sequence of events 30 July At 02:35 IST (21:05 UTC on 29 July). and power failures cascaded through the grid.Water treatment plants were shut down for several hours. It took 15 hours to restore 80% of service. On the day of the collapse. All major power stations were shut down in the affected states. but that at the time of the failure. because it switched to back-up power in 15 seconds. and had to evacuate passengers from trains that stopped mid-journey. Trains stalled for three to five hours.The outage caused "chaos" for Monday morning rush hour. Something went terribly wrong which caused the backup safety systems to fail. but officials later said they had all been rescued. were without power. in 22 out of 28 states in India. More than 300 intercity passenger trains and commuter lines were shut down as a result of the power outage. .Several hospitals reported interruptions in health services. PGCIL's chairman also stated that electrical service was restored "at a record time". North Central. A senior director for an Indian power company described the outage as "a fairly large breakdown that exposed major technical faults in India’s grid system. NTPC Ltd. Delhi Airport. the station also tripped. 31 July The system failed again at 13:02 IST (07:32 UTC). helped by the Delhi Disaster Management Authority. As this line fed into the Agra-Bareilly transmission section. power stations across the affected parts of India again went offline. The Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry of India stated that the blackout had "severely impacted" businesses. and East Coast railway zones. electricity use was "above normal". Punjab and Haryana were the states responsible for the overdraw. Spokesperson for Power Grid Corporation of India Limited (PGCIL) and the Northern Regional Load Dispatch Centre (NRLDC) stated that Uttar Pradesh. and millions were unable to draw water from wells powered by electric pumps. South Eastern and West Central railway zones. were without power. The busiest airport in North India. leaving many unable to operate. Oil refineries in Panipat. due to a relay problem near the Taj Mahal. The worst affected zones in the wake of the power grid's collapse were Northern. East Central. as passenger trains were shut down and traffic signals were non-operational." More than 300 million people. About 200 miners were trapped underground in eastern India due to lifts failing. causing an estimated shortage of 32 GW. stopped 38% of its generation capacity. Railways and some airports were shut down until 08:00.

while the demand was between 9 and 9. The following states were affected by the grid failure:    states on the northern grid: Delhi. Sikkim The following regions were not directly affected by the power outage:     Narora and Simbhaoli in Uttar Pradesh parts of Delhi such as Badarpur areas served by Sterlite and Ib Thermal Power Station (most of western Orissa) most of the Kolkata municipal area (CESC system) As of 2 August. West Bengal states on the northeast grid: Arunanchal Pradesh. Meghalaya. Uttarakhand states on the eastern grid: Bihar. Himachal Pradesh. Haryana. Orissa. Nagaland. Punjab. Manipur. began to do so because of the threat to basic infrastructure facilities like railways. Uttar Pradesh. lifts in multi-storey buildings. not normally mandated to investigate blackouts. Jammu & Kashmir.7 GW. . and movement of vehicular traffic. Rajasthan. Mizoram.The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA). Uttar Pradesh was being supplied about 7 GW power. Assam. metro rail system. Jharkhand.

Velayutham and A. "I don't want to start with the blame game. charged that this grid failure was a conspiracy to suppress the indefinite fast movement started on 25 July 2012 for the Jan Lokpal Bill and targeting Sharad Pawar. Madhya Pradesh which has a 14 kW solar power station built by US-based firm for $125. the private sector spent $29 billion to build their own independent power stations in order to provide reliable power to their factories. he observed that India was not alone in suffering major power outages. S. Power Minister Sushil Kumar Shinde ordered a three-member panel to determine the reason for the failure and report on it in fifteen days.Prior disaster-proofing Before the grid collapse. the supporters of anti-corruption activist Anna Hazare. and issued its report on 16 August 2012. Reactions On the day of the collapse. The Washington Post described the failure as adding urgency to Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh's plan for a US$400 billion overhaul of India's power grid. newly appointed Power Minister Moodbidri Veerappa Moily stated. saying.000. secretary general of the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) said." On 1 August 2012.produced in part by nuclear power. such as Meerwada. Rajiv Kumar. His plan calls for a further 76 gigawatts of generation by 2017. C. A. Indian companies have 35 GW of private offgrid generation capacity and plan to add another 33 GW to their off-grid capacity. . For that we will work out a proper strategy. Bakshi. Some technology sources and USAID proposed that another widespread outage could be prevented by integrated network of microgrids and distributed generation connected seamlessly with the main grid via a superior smart grid technology which includes automated fault detection. It concluded that four factors were responsible for the two days of blackout: Weak inter-regional power transmission corridors due to multiple existing outages (both scheduled and forced) High Loading on 400 kV Bina-Gwalior-Agra link. "First thing is to stabilize the grid and it has to sustain. The five biggest consumers of electricity in India have private off-grid supplies. In response to criticism. "One of the major reasons for the collapse of the power grid is the major gap between demand and supply. Some villages that were not connected to the grid were not affected. Reasons behind july Blackout The three-member investigation committee consisted of S. islanding and self-healing of the network." Team Anna." He declined to blame specific states. There is an urgent need to reform the power sector and bring about infrastructural improvements to meet the new challenges of the growing economy. Srivastava. as blackouts had also occurred in the United States and Brazil within the previous few years.

systemwide disturbance recording. The analog AC waveforms are digitized by an Analog to Digital converter for each phase. Time synchronization allows synchronized real-time measurements of multiple remote measurement points on the grid.Inadequate response by State Load Despatch Centers (SLDCs) to the instructions of Regional Load Despatch Centres (RLDCs) to reduce overdrawal by the Northern Region utilities and underdrawal/excess generation by the Western Region utilities.)The resultant time tagged phasors can be transmitted to a local or remote receiver at rates up to 60 samples per second. (The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a space-based satellite navigation system that provides location and time information in all weather conditions. The basic system building blocks are GPS satellite-synchronized clocks. system model validation. using a common time source for synchronization. The system provides critical capabilities to military. islanding detection. providing the instantaneous measurement of electrical magnitudes and angles. Monitoring of line voltage phase angles (phasors) can fill that gap. these are also commonly referred to as synchrophasors and are considered one of the most important measuring devices in the future of power systems. Loss of 400 kV Bina-Gwalior link due to mis-operation of its protection system. a phasor data concentrator (PDC). or the PMU function can be incorporated into a protective relay or other device Operation A PMU can measure 50/60 Hz AC waveforms (voltages and currents) typically at a rate of 48 samples per cycle (2880 samples per second). determining stability margins. In power engineering. phasor measurement units (PMUs). Synchronized phasors (synchrophasors) provide a real-time measurement of electrical quantities from across the power system. Applications include wide-area control. maximizing stable system loading. A phase-lock oscillator along with a Global Positioning System (GPS) reference source provides the needed high-speed synchronized sampling with 1 microsecond accuracy.A PMU can be a dedicated device. .Synchrophasor Monitoring Most monitoring of the grid is based on non-simultaneous average values . and visualization of dynamic system response. and visualization software. The committee also offered a number of recommendations to prevent further failures. including an audit of the protection systems Preventing Blackout 1. civil and commercial users around the world. anywhere on or near the Earth where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites. communication equipment. A phasor measurement unit (PMU) or synchrophasor is a device which measures the electrical waves on an electricity grid. It is maintained by the United States government and is freely accessible to anyone with a GPS receiver.

At the central control facility. The UPFC concept was described in 1995 by L. 2. which provide functional flexibility. or performance characteristics. readings differed by 47 microseconds – or a difference of 1 degree of at 60 Hz. The SSSC contains a solid-state voltage source inverter . It uses a pair of three-phase controllable bridges to produce current that is injected into a transmission line using a series transformer. protocols. GPS time stamping can provide a theoretical accuracy of synchronization better than 1 microsecond. PMUs must deliver between 10 and 30 synchronous reports per second depending on the application. China's solution to the problem was to build all its own PMUs adhering to its own specifications and standards so there would be no multi-vendor source of conflicts.” For 60 Hz systems. The SSSC injects a voltage in series with the transmission line where it is connected. The controller can control active and reactive power flows in a transmission line. The UPFC is a combination of a static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) and a static synchronous series compensator (SSSC) coupled via a common DC voltage link. The UPFC allows a secondary but important function such as stability control to suppress power system oscillations improving the transient stability of power system Static Synchronous Series Compensator The Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC) is a device that belongs to the Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) family using power electronics to control power flow and improve power oscillation damping on power grids. the first of which was begun in 2000 by the Bonneville Power Administration. The UPFC uses solid state unacceptable variance.FACTS devices Unified Power Flow Controller A Unified Power Flow Controller (or UPFC) is an electrical device for providing fast-acting reactive power compensation on high-voltage electricity transmission networks. “Clocks need to be accurate to ± 500 nanoseconds to provide the one microsecond time standard needed by each device performing synchrophasor measurement. the SCADA system presents system wide data on all generators and substations in the system every 2 to 10 seconds. The PDC correlates the data. PMUs often use phone lines to connect to PDC. In one test.Phasor networks A phasor network consists of phasor measurement units (PMUs) dispersed throughout the electricity system. Such a network is used in Wide Area Measurement Systems (WAMS). The complete network requires rapid data transfer within the frequency of sampling of the phasor data. standards. and controls and monitors the PMUs (from a dozen up to 60). PMUs from multiple vendors can yield inaccurate readings. Gyugyi of Westinghouse. which then send data to the SCADA or Wide Area Measurement System (WAMS) server. generally not attainable by conventional thyristor controlled systems. Phasor Data Concentrators (PDC) to collect the information and a Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) system at the central control facility.

environmental and security benefits  Small. modular.generates electricity from many small energy sources. Tidal energy  Offer significant economic.Distributed Generations Distributed generation. This connection enables the SSSC to control power flow in the line for a wide range of system conditions. dispersed generation. such as fossil fuel (coal. also called on-site generation. gas powered).connected in series with the transmission line through an insertion transformer. nuclear. Moreover. Solar arrays. Wave. located near load site . Such a device is able to rapidly provide both capacitive and inductive impedance compensation independent of the power line current. 3. Distributed generation allows collection of energy from many sources and may give lower environmental impacts and improved security of supply. Stream turbine from a small local stream. an SSSC with a suitably designed external damping controller can also be used to improve the damping of the low-frequency power oscillations in a power network. decentralized energy. Static synchronous series compensator (SSSC) uses a voltage source converter to inject a controllable voltage in quadrature with the line current of a power network. Geothermal. but usually transmit electricity long distances and can negatively affect the environment.  Use wind turbines. decentralized generation. embedded generation. Most countries generate electricity in large centralized facilities. distributed energy or district energy. These plants have excellent economies of scale. large solar power plants or hydropower plants.

research. lighting. industries. health and and water supply.Why blackout is a disaster    Electric power: Essential resource of national security It affects : finance. heating. computer and electronics. commercial enterprise and many more… Impact on grid and public life is countless… . communications.transportation. cooling.

nic. August 2012 2. http://www.REFERENCES . 3.