You are on page 1of 13

What is the improvement in noise figure with RF equal to 200 kHz and an IF of 10 kHz? ANS.

10 log ( ) = 13 dB

For an FM super receiver that uses high side injection and has a LO frequency of 1355 kHz, determine the IF carrier, USF and LSF for an RF wave that is made up of a carrier, an upper and lower side frequency of 900, 905, 895 kHz respectively. ANS. A) IF = 1355 – 900 = 455 kHz B) USF = 1355 – 895 = 460kHz C) LSF = 1355 – 905 = 450kHz

Determine the bandwidth for lower side and upper side frequency of an AM signal (535-1605 kHz). (Q=54) ANS. BW= = = 10 kHz

A RECEIVER IS TUNED AT 590KHZ. CALCULATE a.) the image frequency b.) the IFRR with Q=40 ANS. A.) Fimg = Fs + 2IF = 590 + 2(455) = 1500 kHz B.) IFRR = 20 log √ 38.7dB X= = 2.149 = -

Find the Doppler shift caused by a vehicle moving toward a radar at 60 mph, if the radar operates at 10 GHz. ANS. FD =
( )(

=
)( )( )

= 1788.16 Hz

In a microwave system, the antenna sees a sky temperature of 120 K and the antenna feedline has a loss of 2dB. Calculate the noise temperature of the antenna/ feedline system, referenced to the receiver input.
( ) ( )

Compute for bandwidth for a signal whose carrier is 10 kHz a.) using a two single tuned amp b.) using three single tuned amp c.) using four single tuned amp d.) using double tuned amp with critical coupling equal to 0.02 at frequency equal to 10.7 MHz ANS. BW = fc √ ; n = number of tuned amp A) 6436 Hz; B) 5098 Hz; C) 4350 Hz; D) 359 Hz

ANS. Ta = 182 K

=

=

The system operates at a bit rate of 40 Mbps. Calculate the energy per bit to noise density ratio, in dB. (Given that PR = 631 pW, TNOISE = 350 K) ANS. Eb = = = 15.67 x 10
-21 -18

J

No = kT = k (350) = 4.83 x 10 (dB) = 10 log = 35.1 d Given: space diversity = 10 log

W/Hz

5 .) given: 1MHZ. C = 21pF/ft Find: Zo √ Zo = 75Ω Given: C= 96. lower freq = 99. 100 cycles/s Find: intelligence signal ans: 100 Hz (patibong lg.15in.000 b.9 Ω Given: fsig= 620 khz. IF=455 khz find: fim= fsig+2IF= 1530 khz Find Q(SSB): (SSB suppression formula) a. ANS.35 Given: S/N =2.) 1000 kHz (d sure) b.35 = 33.5kHz = 30 Calculate the energy per bit of a system given that the power received is equal to 1000 W and operates at 50 Mbps.8 Ghz DISTANCE = 2.F = 1. d = .) ans: a. Given: upper freq = 100.) b. 20 db suppression ans: 12.4 km R = 99.)2 (sa equation) e.) d.fsig= 5kHz. broadcasting signal find: worst case S/N ans: phi= N/S = . 80 db suppression ans: 125. given ang answer) Vf = .5 100 40 ANS.)5 kHz d.) --- GIVEN: 10MHz? F = -104 + 24 = 80 F = -80 +113.)power c.5 kHz S/N = 75kHz/2.500 (d sure) Given: L = 118µH/ft.5(5kHz)=2.025in.001 MHz.99% Smooth terrain = 4 Weather is humid = 0.69 Given: freq dev = 20 kHz.) given: 100 khz.) 40 kW c.)mf e.999 MHz.6pF. Eb = 10 log ( ) = -47 J Given: D = . FM = 30 log Dkm + 10 log 6abfGHz – 10 log (1-R) – 70 = 113.56nH.35 dB ans: 2 Given: fsig= 2000( blah blah blah) (xensya gd ) find: a. fm= 10 kHz Find: mf Or Find: Vf . Find: Zo Zo = 71. L = 241.

2 GHz.5 mm 4 4 L = NS = 8 x 62. ERP(dBm) = 10log 10log ERP = 1mW SWR = 4 dBm 17 = 42. Solution: The directivity of 2.6° N 8 b) G = A parabolic antenna has a diameter of 3m.638 Find the gain: G = Dn = 1. and operates at a frequency of 4 GHz.14 = 44. Solution: a) λ = Zo’ =86.44 Γ = .638 x 0.14/10) = 1.25 m 1200  10 6 0.8 dBi 4 4 104 104 c)  = = = 36.25 D= = 80mm   0.39 Convert to dBi: 300  10 6 = 0.66 Given: Ei = 5V. an efficiency of 60%. Calculate its gain in decibels.8c.25 S= = = 62.075 m 4  10 9 70  0.39 = 1. t = 1µs Find d – distance of object from the radar d = 120m 15N 15  8 = = 30 = 14. λ A helical antenna with eight turns is to be constructed for a frequency of 1. b) Calculate the antenna gain in dBi. Γ The ERP of a transmitting station is specified as 17W in a given direction.3 dBm 1  103 ERP(dBm) = 42.075 = 1.14 dB.75°  = 3  = . Zo = 50Ω. Calculate its gain and beamwidth. Solution: Convert the ERP to dBm.85 = 1.5 mm = 500mm Given: Vp = .6 Ω λ = 2m 3  10 8 = 0. Solution: Free-space wavelength is A dipole antenna has an efficiency of 85%. a) Calculate the optimum diameter and spacing for the antenna and find the total length of the antenna. then add 2. Er = 3V Find SWR.G(dBi) = 10log1. Express this as an ERP in dBm so that it can be used with the path loss equation.6 Given: f = 150MHz.3 + 2.14 dBi can be converted to a power ratio: D = antilog(2. ZL = 150Ω Vf = 1 Find: Zo’.43 dBi Vf = . c) Calculate the beamwidth.

) 4 GHz (used for satellite television) Solution c = fλ λ= (a) λ = = 300 m (b) λ = = 11. The bandwidth of the receiver is 6 MHz.075 m or 7. (These values are typical of FM broadcast receivers.000 )2 4R 100 P = = 0. b) power density at a point 10 km away. resistive. Solution: a) EIRP = PA = 100 x 10 = 1000W b) PD = uW/m c) PD = uW/m 2 J/K)(300K)(10 x 10 Hz) W 3 -17 100  10 PA = = 0.000 )2 4R 2 A 300 Ω resistor is connected across the 300 Ω antenna input of a television receiver.14 x 10 -23 = 9475 = 39. A resistor that matches the receiver input impedance is connected across its antenna terminals. and the resistor is at room temperature (293 K or 20°C or 68°F).7 μV )( )( )( ) -23 Calculate the wavelength in free space corresponding to a frequency of: a.) 1 MHz (AM radio broadcast band) b.796 2 4 (10.8 dBi If a transmit antenna has a directive gain A = 10 and radiated power Pr = 100W. c) power density had an isotropic antenna been used with the same input power and efficiency.075 2 Solution First convert the temperature to kelvins: T(K) = 27 +273 = 300 K PN = kTB = (1.) 27 MHz (CB radio band) c. the other half appears across the source resistance.2 fW 6 -15 A receiver has a noise power bandwidth of 10 kHz. Therefore the actual noise voltage at the input is 2. determine: a) EIRP.2 x 10 VN = = ( = 5.4 μV Of course. only one-half this voltage appears across the antenna terminals.5 cm J/K)(293K)(6 x 10 Hz) W or 24.38 x 10 = 24. if the resistor has a temperature of 27° C? A diode noise generator is required to produce 10 μV of noise in a receiver with an input impedance of 75 Ω.6   2  32 0. Solution PN = kTB = (1. What is the noise power contributed by that resistor in the receiver bandwidth.) What must the current through the diode be? .0796 2 4 (10. and a noise power bandwidth of 200 kHz.1m (c) λ = = 0.G=  2D2 2 = 0.38 x 10 = 4. find the noise power and noise voltage applied to the receiver input.

9 . R= 2 Ω Solution VN = √ = √(√ =√ =√ ( ) ) (√ ) Calculate: (a) fr. the open-circuit noise voltage for the resistor combination. A receiver produces a noise power of 200 mW with no signal. Calculate (S + N)/N as a power ratio and in decibels. will appear across the load. Solution The power ratio is (S + N)/N = = 25 In decibels. this is (S + N)/N (dB) = 10log25 = 14 dB Parallel LC circuit: L= 3 mH.133 x 10 A) / 2(1. over a bandwidth ot 100 kHz. The output level increases to 5 W when a signal is applied.Solution First.506 x 10 -15 W or 0. or 390 nV.276 A or 276 mA 3 -6 2 -19 2 2 = √ ( = 779 nV This is of course.6 x 10 C)(200 x 10 Hz) = 0. solve for Io: IN = ( I N= = I N/2qB = (0. using Ohm’s Law: IN = = = 0. Find the total noise voltage and noise power produced at the load.506 fW The circuit in the figure shows two resistors in series at two different temperatures. convert the noise voltage to current.47 µF.133 μA Next. P= = ( ) )( )( )( ) ( )( ) = 0. one-half of this voltage. (b) Q (c) Z max (d) BW Sol’n: (a) (b) (c) 4240 = 39. Since in this case the load is equal in value to the sum of the resistors. C = 0.

If its signal is derived from a crystal oscillator with a temperature coefficient of +1 ppm/degree C and it transmits at o exactly 146 MHz at 20 C.f2 = 1 MHz 2f2 = 20 MHz A varactor has a maximum capacitance of 80 pF and is used in a tuned circuit with a 100µH inductor. = = 1. SOL’N: a. What frequencies appear at the output? SOL’N . . SOL’N: (a) Capture range = 2(12 MHz – 10MHz) = 4 MHz Lock range = 2(16 MHz – 12 MHz) = 8 MHz (b) The frequency at which lock will be acquired. moving downward the frequency is. Tuning voltage: =20 pF .5 V A phase-locked loop has a VCO with a free-running frequency of 12 MHz. find the transmitting frequency at the two extremes of the operating temperature range.00219 MHz fmin = 146 MHz + (146 MHz)(1 x 10^-6)(-520) = 145.78MHz b. (a) find the resonant frequency with no tuning voltage applied. f2 = 10 MHz f1= 11 MHz 2 f1= 22 MHz f1 + f2 = 21 MHz f2 = 10 MHz f1 . to loop locks at 10 MHz and comes out of lock again at 16 MHz. As the frequency of the reference input is gradually raised from a zero. 12 MHz + 2 MHz = 14 MHz Lock will be lost on the way down at 12 MHz – 4 MHz = 8 MHz A portable radio transmitter has to operate at o o temperatures from -5 C to 35 C. (b) find the tuning voltage necessary for the circuit to resonant at double the frequency found in part (a). Sol’n: fT = fo + kfo(T-To) fmax = 146 MHz + (146 MHz)(1 x 10^-6)(3520) = 146.(d) BW= Let: f1= 11 MHz .99635 MHz Sine wave signals with frequencies of 10 MHz and 11 MHz are applied to a square-law mixer. V= 7. (a) find the capture range and the lock range (b) suppose that the experiment is repeated. Predict the frequencies at which lock would be achieved and lost. but this time the reference input begins with a very high frequency and steadily moves downward.

= 20 kHz.2 MHz For N = 100: fo = 100 x 20 kHz + 100 MHz = 12 MHz 20 dBm b) Pout(mW) = (1 x 10^4)(100)(40)(0. Also find the minimum amount by which the frequency can be varied. N=10: fo = 10 x 20 kHz + 100 MHz = 10.25) = -6 dB Convert absolute power ratio 200 to power gain in dB. and in dBm c) Each gain in dB d) Total Gain in dB Solution: a) Pin(dBm) ^-3) Pin(dBm) = 10 log ( 1x10^-4 / 1 x 10 = -10 dBm For fLO = 10 MHz. SOL’N: fo = Nfref + fLO b) Pout in mW .A synthesizer has fref = 20 kHz and a local oscillator operating at 10 MHz.25 Req’d : Req’d : a) a) Pin in dBm Pout in dBm Sol’n . Solution P(dB) = 10 log 200 P(dB)= 23 dB d) Ap(total) = Ap(1) + Ap(2) + Ap(3) = 20 + 16 -6 Ap(total) = 30 dB Three stage system Given: Three stage Pin = -20 dBm Given: Ap(1) = 13 dB Pin = 1 x 10 ^ -4 W Ap(2) = 16 dB Ap(1)= 100 Ap(2) = -6 dB Ap(2) = 40 Ap(3) = 0.25) Pout(mW) = 100 mW Pout(dBm) = 10 log (100mW / 1mW) = c) Each gain in dB Ap(1) = 10 log 100 = 20 dB Ap(2) = 10 log 40 = 16 dB Ap(3) = 10 log (0. Find the frequency range of the output as the value of N ranges from 10 to 100.

001 MHz .000 Internal Noise (Nd) = 6 x 10^ -12 W Req’d: a) S/N input in dB Sol’n: S/N (in) = 10 log (2x10^-10 / 2x10^-18) = 80 dB b) S/N output in dB Nout = 1.11 NF(dB) = 10 log (2.ideal amplifier Parameters: Input signal power = 2 x 10^-10 W Input noise power = 2x 10^ .000.Pout = Pin + Ap(1) + Ap(2) + Ap(3) = -20 dBm + 13 dB + 16 dB – 6dB Pout = 3 dBm c) b) Pout in mW = 10^(3/10) x 1mW = 2mW Sout = 1. Determine the frequency of operation if the temperature a) increase by 10 o C and b) decrease by 5 oC Solution: A. 5 dBm Non.000( 2x 10^-10) = 2 x 10 ^-4 W (S/N)out = 10 log (2x 10^-4 / 8 x 10^ -12) = 74 dB Noise Factor and Noise Figure NF = 80 – 74 = 6dB F = 10^(6/10) = 4 30) Three stage system NF = 3 dB Ap = 10 dB Req’d NF(total) F(total) Sol’n Signal power level 20 dBm combine with another signal power level 21 dBm.000(2x 10^-18) + 6x 10^-12 = 8 x 10 ^ -12 W F= 10^(3/10) = 2 G= 10^(10/10) = 10 F(total) = 2 + (2-1)/10 + (2-1)/100 = 2.24 dB A 10 MHz signal with temperature coefficient of k=10 Hz/Mhz/oC .000.000.225 W 10 log (0. Δf = k (fn x ΔC) = 10 Hz/MHz/oC (10 MHz x 10 oC) = 1000 Hz = 1 kHz fo = fn + Δf = 10 MHz + 1 kHz = 10. Sol’n: 10^(20/10) x* 1mW + 10^(21/10)*1mW = 0.18 W Power Gain = 1.225/ 1mW) = 23.11) = 3.

98 . .000 Hz – 15000 Hz = 1. Determine the following: a) PLL open loop gain in Hz/rad and rad/s b) Change in frequency needed to achieve lock (Δf) c) PLL output voltage (Vo) d) Phase detector output voltage (Vd) e) static phase error θe f) Δfmax Solution: a) KL = (Kd)(Kf)(Ka)(Ko) = (0. and transfer functions of Kd = 0. Solution: Upper sideband: 1.2)2 + (0. and 3V.399.400.1 V e) θe = Vd/Kd = 0.400.385 MHz Find the %m for the following conditions if the unmodulated carrier is 80V pk to pk.4 kHz **Refer to Tomasi.385.3741 An AM broadcast transmitter has a carrier output of 50 kW. Δf = k (fn x ΔC) = 10 Hz/MHz/oC (10 MHz x (-5 oC) ) = -500 Hz fo = fn + Δf = 10 MHz – 500 Hz = 9.100 m1 = 1V/10 V = 0.415 MHz Lower sideband: 1.400.980 Hz = 1.B. 600 rad/s b) Δf = fin – fn = 210 kHz – 200 kHz = 10 kHz c) Vout = Δf/Ko = 10 kHz/(20 khz/rad) = 0.5 V/ (1)(5) = 0.3 m = sqrt of (0.39998 MHz 1.415.1 V/ (0.000 Hz = 1.000 Hz = 1.3)2 = 0.65o f) Δfmax = (+ pi/2 rad)(20 kHz)/rad = + 31. respectively.5V d) Vd = Vout/(Kf)(Ka) = 0.1 m2 = 2V/10V = 0.8)2/2) = 66.1)2 + (0. pages 78. Kf = 1. Solution: For a PLL with a VCO natural frequency fn = 200 kHz. Find the range of the upper and lower sidebands. 020 Hz = 1.000 W)(1 + (0.2V/rad) = 0.4 MHz carrier is modulated by a music signal that has components of 20 Hz and 15 kHz.000 Hz – 20 Hz = 1. What will be the total power produced by 80% modulation? Solution: Pt = Pc (1 + m2/2) = (50. external input frequency fin = 210 kHz.000 Hz + 20 Hz = 1.000 Hz= 1.9995 MHz Find the modulation index of a 10 V carrier if amplitude-modulated by different signals of 1V.5 rad or 28.2 m3 = 3V/10V = 0.2V/rad)(1)(5)(20 kHz/V) = 20 kHz/rad Kv = 2pi x KL = 20 kHz/rad = (20 kilocycles/ rad-s)(2pi rads/cycle) = 125.400. Ka = 5.2 V/rad.400. 2V.663 = 125.000 Hz + 15. Ko = 20 kHz/V. modulated carrier max is 100V and modulated carrier min is 60V.000 W = 66 kW A 1.40002 MHz 1.

( ) ( m=0.25 Determine the sideband power if the carrier output is 1 kW and calculate the total transmitter power. ( ( ( ) f_USB= 100 + 3 kHz→ 100 kHz – 103 kHz f_LSB= 100 – 3 kHz→ 97 kHz – 100 kHz ) Required: ) Pc=34. ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ( ) ) Given: Pc=10 kW Pt=11. ( ( ) ) ( ) ( √ ( ) ) Given: Pc=10 kW in 100% modulation. f_LSB Solutions: f_USB= 100 + 5 kHz→ 100 kHz – 105 kHz Given: I=12A unmodulated I=13A modulated f_LSB= 100 – 5kHz→ 95 kHz – 100 kHz Calculate the modulation index. Determine the maximum output power transmitted. If the Pc is modulate by another modulation index of 50%.49 ) ( ) A 500 W carrier is to be modulated to a 90 % level. Calculate the sideband power in 70% modulation. ( ) Given: f_c= 100 kHz f_(m(max))= 5 kHz Required: f_USB.45 kW .f_LSB with single frequency tone of 3 kHz tone Solution: ) Given: Pt=50 kW m=95% Calculate the sideband power. Calculate the maximum output power transmitted.41 f_USB.2 kW Calculate m.Solution: %m = (VmaxVmin)/(Vmax+Vmin) = (100 – 60)/(100+60) = 0. ( ( ) Required: m=0.

5W Solution: flsb= 100 kHz – 5 kHz→ 95 kHz AM modulation DSBFC fusb=100 kHz + 5 kHz→ 105 kHz Given: .5W Solution: Required: Required: PTSB = (m^2 Pc)/2 =22.5〗^2 ) = 0.4〗^2+ 〖0.4. m1= 0.2〗^2+〖0.001 µf Solution: f= 5 kHz P_SBT = (m^2 Pc)/2 = █((1)^2 (5) )/2 = 2.45 W PT= Pc[1+m^2/2] = 122.67 Given: V= 10V Vp m=1 R_L= 10 Ω Required: P_C. m2=0.2. m3= 0. total transmitted power Solution: Total modulation index= √(m1^2+m2^2+m3^2 ) = √(〖0. total sideband power.5 Required: Total modulation index.BW Solution: BW= 2f_m = 2(5kHz)= 10 kHz Pc = 100 W.45 W Carrier frequency f_C= 1/((C_1 )(R_1)) = 1/((0.001 µf)(10 kΩ)) P_T = 100 kHz Solution: Required: P_T= Pc[1+m^2/2] fusb. flsb = 7. P_LSB and P_USB Solution: P_C = V^2/2RL P_LSB= P_USB= (m^2 Pc)/4 = (10^2)/(2(10)) = ((1)^2 (5))/4 = 5W = 1.25W Given: R_1= 10 kΩ Required: P_SBT C_1= 0.

. deviation/modulating freq.An fm modulator has kf= 30 kHz/V and operates at a carrier frequency of 175 MHz.37 V An FM communication transmitter has its maximum freq. deviation of 5khz and a range of modulating freq.1rad MfN = 0. of a. 150 mV b.1 Since Es>>En. 34 dB A phase modulator has Kp = 2rad/V. 360° = 2 rad 60° = 2 rad 60°/360° Vrms = Vpeak / = 0.)15khz b. 75khz/50hz = ans. deviation of 5khz and a modulating freq. 16.) Modulation index = freq. Es/En= antilog((S/N)(dB)/20) = antilog(20/20) = 10 En/Es = 1/10 = 0. 5 b. deviation/ modulating freq. 0. deviation does it produce with a sine wave input of 2V peak at a freq.94 MHz An FM signal has a freq. Calculate the approximate signal-to-noise ratio at the detector output.1 δN = mfFm = (0. Soln. The signal-to-noise ratio at the input to the receiver detector is 20dB. of 1Khz? Soln. from 300hz to 3khz. of 1khz. fsig= (175 X 10^6 Hz) + (30 X 10^3 Hz/V)(150 X 10^-3 V) = 175. Find the output frequency for an instantaneous value of the modulating signal equal to: a. Φmax = δ/fm Maximum phase shift = Mf = freq. what RMS voltage of a sine wave would cause a peak phase deviation of 60°? Soln.) Modulation index = freq.) 50hz Soln. -2V Solution: fsig= fc + (kf)(em) a. a.524 V A phase modulator has a sensitivity of Kp = 3 rad/V. What is its maximum phase shift that it produces? Soln. fsig= (175 X 10^6 Hz) + (30 X 10^3 Hz/V)(2V) = 174.7 rad Em = Φ/ Kp Em =(( )rad)/(2 rad/V) = /6 rad or 0.524/ = /3 rad Kp = Φ/Em = ans. we can use equation Φ = En/Es =0.0045 MHz b. 1500 (S/N)out(dB) = 20log(50) = ans. How much freq.1)(1Khz) = 100Hz (Es/En)out = δs/δn = 5khz/100Hz =50 An FM broadcast transmitter operates at its maximum frequency deviation of 75khz. Find the modulation index for a sinusoidal modulating signal with a freq. 75khz/15khz = ans. = 5khz/300hz = ans. deviation/modulating freq.

135 Hz . How far off could its output be at 27 MHz? Soln. F = (27 MHz) (0.0005%.0005/100) F = ans. 6 Khz 2V = 6 rad A crystal oscillator has an accurate rate of 0.Mp = Φmax = KpEm = 3 rad/V Mf = δ/fm δ = fmMf δ = 6 1 Khz δ = ans.