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# What is the improvement in noise figure with RF equal to 200 kHz and an IF of 10 kHz? ANS.

10 log ( ) = 13 dB

For an FM super receiver that uses high side injection and has a LO frequency of 1355 kHz, determine the IF carrier, USF and LSF for an RF wave that is made up of a carrier, an upper and lower side frequency of 900, 905, 895 kHz respectively. ANS. A) IF = 1355 – 900 = 455 kHz B) USF = 1355 – 895 = 460kHz C) LSF = 1355 – 905 = 450kHz

Determine the bandwidth for lower side and upper side frequency of an AM signal (535-1605 kHz). (Q=54) ANS. BW= = = 10 kHz

A RECEIVER IS TUNED AT 590KHZ. CALCULATE a.) the image frequency b.) the IFRR with Q=40 ANS. A.) Fimg = Fs + 2IF = 590 + 2(455) = 1500 kHz B.) IFRR = 20 log √ 38.7dB X= = 2.149 = -

Find the Doppler shift caused by a vehicle moving toward a radar at 60 mph, if the radar operates at 10 GHz. ANS. FD =
( )(

=
)( )( )

= 1788.16 Hz

In a microwave system, the antenna sees a sky temperature of 120 K and the antenna feedline has a loss of 2dB. Calculate the noise temperature of the antenna/ feedline system, referenced to the receiver input.
( ) ( )

Compute for bandwidth for a signal whose carrier is 10 kHz a.) using a two single tuned amp b.) using three single tuned amp c.) using four single tuned amp d.) using double tuned amp with critical coupling equal to 0.02 at frequency equal to 10.7 MHz ANS. BW = fc √ ; n = number of tuned amp A) 6436 Hz; B) 5098 Hz; C) 4350 Hz; D) 359 Hz

ANS. Ta = 182 K

=

=

The system operates at a bit rate of 40 Mbps. Calculate the energy per bit to noise density ratio, in dB. (Given that PR = 631 pW, TNOISE = 350 K) ANS. Eb = = = 15.67 x 10
-21 -18

J

No = kT = k (350) = 4.83 x 10 (dB) = 10 log = 35.1 d Given: space diversity = 10 log

W/Hz

5 .) given: 1MHZ. C = 21pF/ft Find: Zo √ Zo = 75Ω Given: C= 96. lower freq = 99. 100 cycles/s Find: intelligence signal ans: 100 Hz (patibong lg.15in.000 b.9 Ω Given: fsig= 620 khz. IF=455 khz find: fim= fsig+2IF= 1530 khz Find Q(SSB): (SSB suppression formula) a. ANS.35 Given: S/N =2.) 1000 kHz (d sure) b.35 = 33.5kHz = 30 Calculate the energy per bit of a system given that the power received is equal to 1000 W and operates at 50 Mbps.8 Ghz DISTANCE = 2.F = 1. d = .) ans: a. Given: upper freq = 100.) b. 20 db suppression ans: 12.4 km R = 99.)2 (sa equation) e.) d.fsig= 5kHz. broadcasting signal find: worst case S/N ans: phi= N/S = . 80 db suppression ans: 125. given ang answer) Vf = .5 100 40 ANS.)5 kHz d.) --- GIVEN: 10MHz? F = -104 + 24 = 80 F = -80 +113.)power c.5 kHz S/N = 75kHz/2.500 (d sure) Given: L = 118µH/ft.5(5kHz)=2.025in.001 MHz.99% Smooth terrain = 4 Weather is humid = 0.69 Given: freq dev = 20 kHz.) given: 100 khz.) 40 kW c.)mf e.999 MHz.6pF. Eb = 10 log ( ) = -47 J Given: D = . FM = 30 log Dkm + 10 log 6abfGHz – 10 log (1-R) – 70 = 113.56nH.35 dB ans: 2 Given: fsig= 2000( blah blah blah) (xensya gd ) find: a. fm= 10 kHz Find: mf Or Find: Vf . Find: Zo Zo = 71. L = 241.

2 GHz.5 mm 4 4 L = NS = 8 x 62. ERP(dBm) = 10log 10log ERP = 1mW SWR = 4 dBm 17 = 42. Solution: The directivity of 2.6° N 8 b) G = A parabolic antenna has a diameter of 3m.638 Find the gain: G = Dn = 1. and operates at a frequency of 4 GHz.14 = 44. Solution: a) λ = Zo’ =86.44 Γ = .638 x 0.14/10) = 1.25 m 1200  10 6 0.8 dBi 4 4 104 104 c)  = = = 36.25 D= = 80mm   0.39 Convert to dBi: 300  10 6 = 0.66 Given: Ei = 5V. an efficiency of 60%. Calculate its gain in decibels.8c.25 S= = = 62.075 m 4  10 9 70  0.39 = 1. t = 1µs Find d – distance of object from the radar d = 120m 15N 15  8 = = 30 = 14. λ A helical antenna with eight turns is to be constructed for a frequency of 1. b) Calculate the antenna gain in dBi. Γ The ERP of a transmitting station is specified as 17W in a given direction.3 dBm 1  103 ERP(dBm) = 42.075 = 1.14 dB.75°  = 3  = . Zo = 50Ω. Calculate its gain and beamwidth. Solution: Convert the ERP to dBm.85 = 1.5 mm = 500mm Given: Vp = .6 Ω λ = 2m 3  10 8 = 0. Solution: Free-space wavelength is A dipole antenna has an efficiency of 85%. a) Calculate the optimum diameter and spacing for the antenna and find the total length of the antenna. then add 2. Er = 3V Find SWR.G(dBi) = 10log1. Express this as an ERP in dBm so that it can be used with the path loss equation.6 Given: f = 150MHz.3 + 2.14 dBi can be converted to a power ratio: D = antilog(2. ZL = 150Ω Vf = 1 Find: Zo’.43 dBi Vf = . c) Calculate the beamwidth.

9 . R= 2 Ω Solution VN = √ = √(√ =√ =√ ( ) ) (√ ) Calculate: (a) fr. the open-circuit noise voltage for the resistor combination. A receiver produces a noise power of 200 mW with no signal. Calculate (S + N)/N as a power ratio and in decibels. will appear across the load. Solution The power ratio is (S + N)/N = = 25 In decibels. this is (S + N)/N (dB) = 10log25 = 14 dB Parallel LC circuit: L= 3 mH.133 x 10 A) / 2(1. over a bandwidth ot 100 kHz. The output level increases to 5 W when a signal is applied.Solution First.506 x 10 -15 W or 0. or 390 nV.276 A or 276 mA 3 -6 2 -19 2 2 = √ ( = 779 nV This is of course.6 x 10 C)(200 x 10 Hz) = 0. solve for Io: IN = ( I N= = I N/2qB = (0. using Ohm’s Law: IN = = = 0. Find the total noise voltage and noise power produced at the load.506 fW The circuit in the figure shows two resistors in series at two different temperatures. convert the noise voltage to current.47 µF.133 μA Next. P= = ( ) )( )( )( ) ( )( ) = 0. one-half of this voltage. (b) Q (c) Z max (d) BW Sol’n: (a) (b) (c) 4240 = 39. Since in this case the load is equal in value to the sum of the resistors. C = 0.

If its signal is derived from a crystal oscillator with a temperature coefficient of +1 ppm/degree C and it transmits at o exactly 146 MHz at 20 C.f2 = 1 MHz 2f2 = 20 MHz A varactor has a maximum capacitance of 80 pF and is used in a tuned circuit with a 100µH inductor. = = 1. SOL’N: a. What frequencies appear at the output? SOL’N . . SOL’N: (a) Capture range = 2(12 MHz – 10MHz) = 4 MHz Lock range = 2(16 MHz – 12 MHz) = 8 MHz (b) The frequency at which lock will be acquired. moving downward the frequency is. Tuning voltage: =20 pF .5 V A phase-locked loop has a VCO with a free-running frequency of 12 MHz. find the transmitting frequency at the two extremes of the operating temperature range.00219 MHz fmin = 146 MHz + (146 MHz)(1 x 10^-6)(-520) = 145.78MHz b. (a) find the resonant frequency with no tuning voltage applied. f2 = 10 MHz f1= 11 MHz 2 f1= 22 MHz f1 + f2 = 21 MHz f2 = 10 MHz f1 . to loop locks at 10 MHz and comes out of lock again at 16 MHz. As the frequency of the reference input is gradually raised from a zero. 12 MHz + 2 MHz = 14 MHz Lock will be lost on the way down at 12 MHz – 4 MHz = 8 MHz A portable radio transmitter has to operate at o o temperatures from -5 C to 35 C. (b) find the tuning voltage necessary for the circuit to resonant at double the frequency found in part (a). Sol’n: fT = fo + kfo(T-To) fmax = 146 MHz + (146 MHz)(1 x 10^-6)(3520) = 146.(d) BW= Let: f1= 11 MHz .99635 MHz Sine wave signals with frequencies of 10 MHz and 11 MHz are applied to a square-law mixer. V= 7. (a) find the capture range and the lock range (b) suppose that the experiment is repeated. Predict the frequencies at which lock would be achieved and lost. but this time the reference input begins with a very high frequency and steadily moves downward.

= 20 kHz.2 MHz For N = 100: fo = 100 x 20 kHz + 100 MHz = 12 MHz 20 dBm b) Pout(mW) = (1 x 10^4)(100)(40)(0. Also find the minimum amount by which the frequency can be varied. N=10: fo = 10 x 20 kHz + 100 MHz = 10.25) = -6 dB Convert absolute power ratio 200 to power gain in dB. and in dBm c) Each gain in dB d) Total Gain in dB Solution: a) Pin(dBm) ^-3) Pin(dBm) = 10 log ( 1x10^-4 / 1 x 10 = -10 dBm For fLO = 10 MHz. SOL’N: fo = Nfref + fLO b) Pout in mW .A synthesizer has fref = 20 kHz and a local oscillator operating at 10 MHz.25 Req’d : Req’d : a) a) Pin in dBm Pout in dBm Sol’n . Solution P(dB) = 10 log 200 P(dB)= 23 dB d) Ap(total) = Ap(1) + Ap(2) + Ap(3) = 20 + 16 -6 Ap(total) = 30 dB Three stage system Given: Three stage Pin = -20 dBm Given: Ap(1) = 13 dB Pin = 1 x 10 ^ -4 W Ap(2) = 16 dB Ap(1)= 100 Ap(2) = -6 dB Ap(2) = 40 Ap(3) = 0.25) Pout(mW) = 100 mW Pout(dBm) = 10 log (100mW / 1mW) = c) Each gain in dB Ap(1) = 10 log 100 = 20 dB Ap(2) = 10 log 40 = 16 dB Ap(3) = 10 log (0. Find the frequency range of the output as the value of N ranges from 10 to 100.

001 MHz .000 Internal Noise (Nd) = 6 x 10^ -12 W Req’d: a) S/N input in dB Sol’n: S/N (in) = 10 log (2x10^-10 / 2x10^-18) = 80 dB b) S/N output in dB Nout = 1.11 NF(dB) = 10 log (2.ideal amplifier Parameters: Input signal power = 2 x 10^-10 W Input noise power = 2x 10^ .000.Pout = Pin + Ap(1) + Ap(2) + Ap(3) = -20 dBm + 13 dB + 16 dB – 6dB Pout = 3 dBm c) b) Pout in mW = 10^(3/10) x 1mW = 2mW Sout = 1. Determine the frequency of operation if the temperature a) increase by 10 o C and b) decrease by 5 oC Solution: A. 5 dBm Non.000( 2x 10^-10) = 2 x 10 ^-4 W (S/N)out = 10 log (2x 10^-4 / 8 x 10^ -12) = 74 dB Noise Factor and Noise Figure NF = 80 – 74 = 6dB F = 10^(6/10) = 4 30) Three stage system NF = 3 dB Ap = 10 dB Req’d NF(total) F(total) Sol’n Signal power level 20 dBm combine with another signal power level 21 dBm.000(2x 10^-18) + 6x 10^-12 = 8 x 10 ^ -12 W F= 10^(3/10) = 2 G= 10^(10/10) = 10 F(total) = 2 + (2-1)/10 + (2-1)/100 = 2.24 dB A 10 MHz signal with temperature coefficient of k=10 Hz/Mhz/oC .000.000.225 W 10 log (0. Δf = k (fn x ΔC) = 10 Hz/MHz/oC (10 MHz x 10 oC) = 1000 Hz = 1 kHz fo = fn + Δf = 10 MHz + 1 kHz = 10. Sol’n: 10^(20/10) x* 1mW + 10^(21/10)*1mW = 0.18 W Power Gain = 1.225/ 1mW) = 23.11) = 3.