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Tricia Kannegieter Deepak Subramony EDT 634: Planning/Managing Educational Technology Grand Valley State University Summer, 2010


Technology Innovation Introducing the iPad For the past decade, Tablet PCs and like technologies have become increasingly popular not only for recreational use, but also educational purposes. In April of 2010, Apple introduced their answer to the Tablet PC: the iPad. If distributed, implemented, and supported in the correct way, the Apple iPad could be the next “big” technology to aide and supplement student learning (Waters, J., 2010). For the purposes of this proposal, I will be advising a hypothetical rural West Michigan school district, which I will name Sequoia Public Schools, particularly the Middle School and High School, to implement a 1:1 iPad initiative. Mac vs. PC When proposing the iPad, the first natural opposition would be why choose an Apple product (Mac) when they are more expensive and the district already has all of

the software and training for IBM platform computers or netbooks? The answer is simple: Macs are more user-friendly and costefficient in the long run. Perhaps the unpopularity of Mac products over IBM platform products is the Mac's biggest

advantage. Because more people own Macs than own PCs, viruses are targeted at PC

iPads in Education 3 users a vast majority of the time. And unlike PCs, where the user is required to install third party anit-virus software and pay a premium to have it updated regularly, Mac products come pre-installed with anti-virus protection that is updated regularly, free of cost (“Why you!ll love a Mac”). Macs also come pre-loaded with all of the software a user could need without including all of the “junk software” that IBM compatible computers are often installed with (“Advantages of Mac vs. PC”). One of the biggest selling points for Mac products in schools, the iPad in particular, is the outstanding customer support. Unlike many IBM platform computers, Apple Support Centers are not only localized but most calls are sent directly to a customer service representative and subsequently to a technical support staff instead of an automated response system. If replacement parts are needed, the customer can either hand deliver or ship the computer to a local Apple Store and, with the AppleCare Protection Plan (a one-time purchase at the time of the sale), all repairs are done without a charge and the product is returned to the owner in a short time-span. The iPad stands out against other tablet PCs, laptops, netbooks, and textbooks in the school realm for many reasons. It is lightweight, only 1.5 pounds, and with textbooks loaded onto it or available online, it would be significantly lighter for a student to carry home one iPad than numerous textbooks weighing an average of 3.5 lbs+ each. It has a long-lasting battery of 10 hours that will last well past the average school day (McCracken, H., 2010). Also

iPads in Education 4 it has hundreds of educational applications that can be used in numerous instructional environments (Barack, 2010). Another selling point for the iPad in the Sequoia school district is the fact that it is not capable of multi-tasking, and thus acts as an agent to keep students on task and keeps them from being distracted by applications other than the one being used in the class. The Sequoia Situation Sequoia Middle and High Schools are severely lacking in 1:1 student technology. The closest apparatuses they have are three Computers on Wheels carts with 30 computers on each cart. These Dell laptops are six years old and are riddled with hardware and software issues. Additionally, students are becoming noticeably disinterested in subject matter and are urging faculty to integrate technology into their lessons. The iPad would be the ideal solution because not only is it a sleek, modern, fun-to-use technology, but it is also practical in the school setting. Convincing Stakeholders Stakeholders and Needs Assessment Among the people who will be impacted by the decision to implement a 1:1 iPad initiative, are current and future students, parents, teachers, and community members. In order to ascertain the need for this technology, I will distribute a School Technology Needs Assessment (STNA) to all teachers and administrative staff at the two schools (Corn, 2010). Assuming the results accurately portray the dire technology situation in the school district, I would disclose the results in the presentations I plan to make.

iPads in Education 5 Advocating the iPad Using the Diffusion Model and Change Management Strategies My first step to diffuse my innovation with the staff would be to have private oneon-one conversations and demos with various open-minded staff in order to get the seed planted within the school that an iPad would be an effective teaching and learning tool. It would be my hope that the teachers I manage to get thinking about the idea would consult their networks about the idea and begin to discuss the possibility of adopting the iPad as part of the school system. In order to present my idea, I would contact an Apple Representative and inquire about using some iPads for various educational demonstrations. In the first presentation, a sample test with students, I would have a control group doing a 20minute lesson without the iPad, but perhaps with the laptops the school is currently using. I would have another group of students doing the lesson with an iPad, using numerous tools and applications. Afterwards, I would combine the groups and have them talk about the differences between their lessons. iPads are so popular among young people that I doubt there would be much trouble convincing them that an iPad would be an asset to their learning. Hopefully, after allowing all students to experiment with the iPad, word of mouth would spread and these students would get other students excited about the possibility of iPads in the classroom. For my second presentation, the proposal to teachers and administrators, I would present to all of them the same 20-minute lesson I taught the students without iPads. Afterwards, I would get every teacher into groups of five and give each group an iPad and teach the same 20-minute lesson using a variety of different applications and web

iPads in Education 6 tools on the iPad. The iPad sells itself. After using it, one!s immediate thought is often “I!ve got to have one of those.” Many, if not all, of the teachers would most likely fall in love with the iPad. Afterwards, I would show them the results of their STNAs as well as the results of the test with students and the iPads and I would encourage them to discuss the need for such technology in their classrooms in regard to these results. My final presentation would be to members of the PTO, as well as any community members who wanted to participate. I would pitch the idea to them in the exact same way I did to the teachers and administrators with a discussion following (Gulikers, Baartman, 2010). Stakeholder Ownership In order to have a successful systematic change to the current Sequoia school system, stakeholders will have to take ownership of the idea. After the presentations, I will propose a “iPad Infusion Leadership Team” consisting of interested teachers, parents and community members. Their main goal will be to have meetings “to develop the district!s framework of mission, vision and ideal beliefs” and decide how and if they fit with iPad initiative (Joseph & Reigeluth, 2010). I will also propose an “iPad Infusion Design Team” consisting of teachers, technology staff, technically savvy parents and community members. It will be their mission to design how the iPads could technologically fit into the buildings and student life (Joseph & Reigeluth, 2010). Organizational Learning and Mindset Change In order to effectively implement change, both the leadership team and the design team will have to foster learning environments. I will encourage the teams to hold

iPads in Education 7 large community forums where people will have small discussion groups, focusing on double-loop learning, or establishing and then changing and developing previous values and mindsets of how schools have been run in the past. If possible, I would like to visit schools that are currently implementing iPads or iPod Touches into their curriculum and conduct a site visit for the leadership and design teams to witness how these schools operate. Lastly, I would establish a wiki where people on both teams as well as other interested parties can openly “exchange ideas and share resources about double-loop learning” (Joseph & Reigeluth, 2010). Systems Design Plan for Curricular Integration The iPad will be fully integrated: each teacher and student would be equipped with one and all of the technology in every classroom would be compatible. It most certainly will not be used in every class every day, but it will be there as a teaching and learning tool as needed. How the individual teacher plans to utilize the iPad will be up to her and her department. Because it is Internet equipped, students can access Google Docs in order to word process and create slide shows individually and collaboratively. They can also utilize one of the hundreds of aforementioned applications to aide in their learning (Banister, 2010). Challenges: Identification & Solution When implementing the innovation, stakeholders may have trouble “transcend[ing] their images of school (”Joseph & Reigeluth, 2010).” Many stakeholders have old fashioned, outdated ideas of what a school should look like and what should

iPads in Education 8 be happening inside a school. They need to realize that the ways of the past should not necessarily be the ways of the future. The classic classroom design of the past does not

fit in with modern students and teachers. In order for students to get the most out of their school experience, their classrooms need to be equipped to handle the type of

work they will be doing. The solution to this challenge is to encourage stakeholders to have discussions where the can discuss “critical factors which impact on change within the School, make recommendations for four new programs utilizing existing units, create action plans to implement those programs; and identify units that would no longer be required” if the iPad were fully adopted (Tynan, Adlington, et. al., 2010). They could also talk about the classrooms they grew up with and how they would have liked to experience learning. From there they can revitalize a whole new system that would work better for today!s students. I would encourage them to think of ways the iPad could add to their vision of the ideal classroom. Plan for Equitable Access Equitable Access is not really an issue for the iPad because, while it does run on wi-fi networks, it also has 3G availability, which can be accessed anywhere. Students without internet at home would have no trouble connecting to the internet or the

iPads in Education 9 applications that require a connection because they would be connected anywhere they went. For students that required printing access, though would be able to access printing labs before, after, and during school. Funding: External & Internal For funding proposals, I would put forth that some of the technology funds that have been saved over the years that we have been using the outdated Dells be put to use. I would also propose that voters in the district!s precinct vote on a proposal to help fund the initiative through taxes. The leadership team could be in charge of creating a campaign to inform voters about the importance of the initiative and would invite them to our community discussions about the evolution of education. Along with this, Apple offers discounts and education packages for educators and students that would be put to good use. If all else fails, we can get our fingers typing and write grant applications and urge community support with various media outlets. Performance Improvement Plan for Training The full integration of iPads “into professional practice requires teachers who themselves understand and believe in the capacity of the new technologies to transform learning in positive ways (Thang Siew, Hall, et. al., 2010).” In order to get teachers and students up to speed on how Apple products and the iPad work, I will conduct numerous workshops at different times first for technical staff, who will then help with conducting workshops for teachers during professional development time. Apple provides tutorials for every aspect of their products on their websites and teachers will be welcome to do

iPads in Education 10 these tutorials either on their own time or with a technical support staff until every teacher is comfortable with the technology. Another workshop will be available for students who do not yet feel comfortable with the technology. Plan for Support After the prototype is tested and the iPad is distributed using a step-by-step process determined by the leadership and design teams, there needs to be a means of support for the technology (Molenda, & Pershing, 2004). Technology staff trained in the workings of the iPad will be on staff for any immediate repairs or help. For more critical matters, the Apple Geniuses will be shipped the items in question and they will be repaired, free of charge. I will have the contact information for an Apple Rep that all teachers and technical staff will have access to so they may ask questions during any point of the process. There will definitely be kinks that will need to be worked out, but with a well-trained staff and support team, troubleshooting and problem solving should not be a problem.

iPads in Education 11 References

"Advantages of a Mac vs PC: What's better about Macs?" Find Health, Education, Science & Technology Articles, Reviews, How-To and Tech Tips At Bright Hub. 01 Aug. 2010. <>. Banister, S. (2010). Integrating the iPod touch in K-12 education: Visions and vices. Computers in the Schools, 27(2), 121-131. doi:10.1080/07380561003801590. Barack, L. (2010). Is the iPad fit for school?. School Library Journal, 56(5), 12. Retrieved from Education Research Complete database. Corn, J. (2010). Investigating the quality of the school technology needs assessment (STNA) 3.0: A validity and reliability study. Educational Technology Research & Development, 58(4), 353-376. doi:10.1007/s11423-009-9140-y. Joseph, R., & Reigeluth, C. M. (2010). The systemic change process in education: A conceptual framework. Contemporary Educational Technology, 1(2), 97-117. Gulikers, J., Baartman, L., & Biemans, H. (2010). Facilitating evaluations of innovative, competence-based assessments: Creating understanding and involving multiple stakeholders. Evaluation & Program Planning, 33(2), 120-127. doi:10.1016/j.evalprogplan.2009.07.002. McCracken, H. (2010). iPad vs. everything else. PC World, 28(6), 76-86. Retrieved from Education Research Complete database.

iPads in Education 12 Molenda, M., & Pershing, J. A. (2004). An integrative approach to performance improvement and instructional systems design. TechTrends: Linking Research & Practice to Improve Learning, 48(2), 26-32. Thang Siew, M., Hall, C., Azman, H., & Joyes, G. (2010). Supporting smart school teachers' continuing professional development in and through ICT: A model for change. International Journal of Education & Development using Information & Communication Technology, 6(2), 1-16. Retrieved from Education Research Complete database. Tynan, B., Adlington, R., Stewart, C., Vale, D., Sims, R., & Shanahan, P. (2010). Managing projects for change: Contextualised project management. Journal of Distance Education, 24(1), 187-206. Retrieved from Education Research Complete database. Waters, J. (2010). Enter the iPad (or not?). The Journal, 37(6), 38-45. Retrieved from Education Research Complete database. "Why you!ll love a Mac - it has a better operating system." Apple. 01 Aug. 2010. <>.