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Contents

Foreword Preface Special Features vii ix xix

1. Introduction and Philosophy of a Protective Relaying System
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10 1.11 Types of Faults 1 Abnormalities 6 Functions of Protective Relay Schemes 7 Major Components of an Electrical Power System 7 Basic Tripping Circuit with System Transducers 8 Testing and Maintenance of Relays 10 Zones of Protection 10 Requirements of a Protective System 11 Relay Operating Criteria 13 Main and Back-Up Protection 13 Evolution of Protective Relay Technology 14 Multiple Choice Questions 15

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2. Electromagnetic Relays
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 Classification of Relays 16 Thermal Relays (Overload Relays) 17 Instantaneous Overcurrent Relays 18 Time-Delayed Overcurrent Relays 19 Definite-Time Overcurrent Relays 19 Inverse-Time Overcurrent Relays 20 IDMT Overcurrent Relays 26 Non-Directional Normal Inverse-Time-Overcurrent Relays without the Need of Auxiliary Supply 26 2.9 Voltage-Controlled Inverse-Time Overcurrent Relays 2.10 Induction-Cup Relays 28

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2 3.5 4.11 2.1 3.xiv Contents 2.7 4.2 4.6 4.3 4.15 2.16 2.4 5.17 2.9 Advantages of Numerical (Digital) Relaying 64 Numerical Relay Hardware 69 Digital Signal Processing 72 Estimation of Phasors 79 Full-Cycle Fourier Algorithm 84 Half-Cycle Fourier Algorithm 86 Practical Considerations for Selection of Algorithm 87 Comparative Summary of Estimation Algorithm 88 Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) 89 Review Questions 91 Multiple Choice Questions 91 64 5.19 Differential Relays 29 Two-Input Relays 33 Directional Relays 34 Directional Overcurrent Relays 36 Impedance Relays 37 Reactance Relays 38 Ohm Relays 38 Mho Relays 39 Auxiliary Relays 42 Review Questions 49 Multiple Choice Questions 50 3.3 5.18 2. Microprocessor-Based Digital Protection 4.4 4.3 3.1 4.7 Differential Protection 94 Inter-Turn Fault Protection 104 Stator Earth-Fault Protection 105 Rotor Earth-Fault Protection 112 Negative Phase Sequence Protection (Protection Against Unbalanced Loading) 117 Field Failure Protection (Protection Against Loss of Excitation) 120 Overload Protection 123 93 . Static Relays 3.8 4.14 2.13 2.1 5. Generator Protection 5.2 5.6 5.5 5.12 2.4 Advantages of Static Relays Over Electromagnetic Relays 51 Limitations of Static Relays 52 Basic Elements of Static Relays 53 Static Relays 59 Review Questions 63 Multiple Choice Questions 63 51 4.

10 6.8 5.1 Faults in Transformers 143 Gas-Operated Relays 145 Overcurrent Protection 148 Restricted Earth-Fault Protection 148 Differential Protection 151 Protection Against Overfluxing 166 Protection of Grounding Transformers 166 Protection Against Overheating 168 Schemes for Small Transformers 168 Transformer Protection Using a Numerical Relay 169 Appendix 1 172 Review Questions 173 Multiple Choice Questions 174 143 7.A.3 6.2 5. Transformer Protection 6.8 7.11 5. Protection of Transmission Lines by Overcurrent Relays 7.14 5.9 5.9 6.2 6.A.7 6.6 6.1 7.13 5.2 7.A.12 5.A.5 6.1 6.1 5.3 7.8 6.10 175 Basic Radial Feeder 175 Methods of Discrimination 177 Rules for Setting the IDMT Relays 186 Two Overcurrent and One Earth-Fault Scheme for Protection of a Feeder 192 Three Overcurrent and One Earth-Fault Scheme for Protection of a Transformer Feeder 193 Common Problems with Overcurrent Relays 193 Directional Protection 200 Directional Relay 202 Maximum Torque Angle 204 Directional Earth-Fault Relays 206 .9 7.4 7.Contents xv 5.10 5.5 7.7 7.6 7.4 6.3 Overvoltage Protection 124 Reverse Power Protection 124 Pole-Slipping Protection 127 Back-up Impedance Protection 131 Under-Frequency Protection 131 Miscellaneous Protections 132 Numerical Approach to Generator Protection 134 Appendix 1—Class A. Class B and Class C Protections and Conditions Causing Alarm 134 Appendix 2—Field Suppression 136 Appendix 3—Information Required for Designing Protection Scheme for Generator and for Relay Settings 137 Review Questions 138 Multiple Choice Questions 141 6.

15 Limitations of Overcurrent Relays 222 Review Questions 222 Multiple Choice Questions 230 221 8.4 8.12 Dead Zone 207 7. Buszone Protection 10.3 8.14 Facilities Provided in Modern Numerical Overcurrent and Earth-Fault Relays 7. Carrier Current Protection of Transmission Lines 9.3 10.4 Pilot-Wire Protection 272 AC Wire Pilot Relaying 273 Limitations of AC Wire Pilot Relaying 273 Carrier-Current Protection 273 Review Questions 283 Multiple Choice Questions 283 272 10.5 Stepped Distance Characteristics of a Distance Relay 231 Quantities to be Fed to Distance Relays 232 Problems in Distance Measurement 239 Switched and Polyphase Distance Relaying Schemes 257 Limitations of Distance Protection for Transmission Lines 265 Review Questions 266 Multiple Choice Questions 270 231 9.xvi Contents 7.13 Coordination of Overcurrent Relays in an Inter-Connected System 215 7.1 8.1 9.1 11.5 11.2 9.11 Detailed Protective Scheme of Directional Overcurrent Protection of a High-Voltage Transmission Line 206 7.6 Starting of an Induction Motor 300 Faults in Induction Motors 301 Abnormalities of Induction Motors 302 Protection of Small Induction Motors 306 Protection of Large Induction Motors 307 Numerical Motor-Protection Relay 314 Review Questions 319 Multiple Choice Questions 321 300 . Induction Motor Protection 11.4 11.3 9.1 10.2 8.2 11.2 10.3 11.4 Protection Requirements 284 Non-Unit Protection by Back-up Relays 285 Unit Protection Schemes 285 Breaker Back-up Protection 296 Review Questions 299 Multiple Choice Questions 299 284 11. Protection of Transmission Lines by Distance Relays 8.

13 13.1 12.11 13.7 13.3 12.6 13.3 13. Protective Current and Potential Transformers 13.10 14.12 13.8 13.5 14.7 Acceptance Tests 322 Type Tests 322 Laboratory Set-up for Testing of Different Types of Relays 327 Dynamic Testing of Relays 337 Requirements for Testing of Static Relays 338 Recommended Application of Test Voltage Classes 339 Tests 339 Multiple Choice Questions 344 322 13.3 14.5 13.9 13.1 14.2 13.10 13.4 13.1 13. Commissioning and Maintenance of Relays 12. Re-Striking Voltage and Recovery Voltage Resistance Switching 388 Quenching of DC Arc 393 365 375 .9 14.8 14.5 12.4 14.6 12.14 Equivalent Circuit and Vector Diagram of a CT 345 Construction of Current Transformers 345 Magnetisation Curve of a CT (CT Saturation Characteristic) 347 Difference Between CT Cores Used for Measurement and those Used for Protective Relays 349 CT Errors 349 Calculation of CT Accuracy 350 Factors to be Considered while Selecting a CT 351 Problems Encountered in CT 353 CT Requirements for Different Protective Schemes 354 Specifications of a Current Transformer 357 Equivalent Circuit of a PT 359 Construction of Potential Transformer 360 Capacitor Voltage Transformer 360 Specifications of Voltage Transformer 362 Review Questions 363 Multiple Choice Questions 364 345 14.11 Functions of Circuit Breakers 365 Types of Circuit Breakers 366 Fundamentals of Circuit Breaking 367 The Gaseous Discharges 368 Ionisation Process in a Gaseous Insulating Medium 369 Decay Process 370 Quenching of AC Arc 371 Arc Interruption Theories 374 Factors Affecting RRRV.4 12. Circuit Breaking Fundamentals 14.7 14.6 14.2 14.Contents xvii 12.2 12. Testing.

4 16.6 Specifications of a Circuit Breaker 440 Basic Short-Circuit Testing Plant 442 Short-Time Withstand Capacity Test 444 Single-Phase Testing 444 Unit Testing 444 Synthetic Testing 444 Review Questions 447 Multiple Choice Questions 447 440 17.1 15.6 17.1 16.xviii Contents Review Questions 396 Multiple Choice Questions 398 15.3 16.3 17.5 17.1 17.7 Specifications of a Lightning Stroke 450 Protection Against Lightning Overvoltages 451 Different Types of Lightning Arresters Used in Practice 454 Overvoltage Factors 461 Choice of Insulation Level for Transmission Line 461 Insulation Coordination 463 Insulation Coordination Scheme for 132 kV Substation 464 Review Questions 465 Multiple Choice Questions 466 449 Answers of Multiple Choice Questions Annexure—List of International Codes for Drawings of Circuits for Protective Relaying Bibliography Index 467 469 472 476 .2 15.6 High-Voltage AC Circuit Breakers 400 High-Voltage DC (HVDC) Circuit Breakers 419 Isolators 420 Fuses 425 Miniature Circuit Breakers 434 Earth Leakage Circuit Breakers 436 Review Questions 437 Multiple Choice Questions 438 399 16. Electrical Switchgear 15.5 15.3 15.5 16.4 17. Lightning Overvoltage Protection 17.4 15. Short-Circuit Testing of Circuit Breakers 16.2 17.2 16.