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ISBN 978-0-620-44584-9

Proceedings of the 16th International Symposium on High Voltage Engineering Copyright c 2009 SAIEE, Innes House, Johannesburg

H. S. Park1*, J. W. Kang1, T. I. Jang1, C. K. Jung1 and S. O. Han2 1 KEPCO, 65 Moonji-ro Yusung-gu Daejeon, S. Korea 2 ChungNam Nat’l Univ, 220 Gung-dong Yusung-gu Daejeon, S. Korea *Email: <> Abstract: Recently, it is becoming difficult to secure a transmission line route when a new transmission line is constructed due to social environment and resident complaints. As cities expand and new cities are constructed, because of load concentration in downtown areas, the necessity of high-capacity underground power transmission has been increasing. North America, Europe and Japan had carried out research projects for 2nd generation gas insulated transmission lines (GIL) which is more environmentally friendly and economical compared to previous GILs, and the new GILs have being applied to real power systems from early 2000s. In South Korea, GIL is being considered as a possible solution for replacing 345kV high-capacity overhead transmission lines with underground transmission ones, so KEPCO is planning to develop and apply a new GIL of rating 362kV to underground transmission lines instead of overhead transmission lines. In the process of planning of GIL introduction to real power system, it became necessary to carry out deep analysis on overvoltage and mutual effect between GIL and overhead transmission lines before real installation. Therefore, this paper deals with overvoltage analysis by lightning surges and insulation coordination methods according to installation of GIL with EMTP modelling and simulation. 1. INTRODUCTION Research needs to be carried out on overvoltage caused by surges that can occur when replacing overhead lines with GIL. On the other hand, when there is a surge in GIL and overhead line, as caused by difference of characteristic impedance, higher overvoltage can occur in the connecting section between GIL and overhead line. Therefore, it is necessary to adapt lightning arrester that can limit overvoltage from a lightning surge properly in overhead line or GIL itself. [1] In this paper reviews the overvoltage recommended in CIGRE GIL Brochure, when a lightning strike hits an overhead line close to GIL, review and analysis using EMTP. Its result will be adapted to field application of GIL system. 2. CONSIDERATION OF LIGHTNING MODELING FOR GIL SYSTEM

GIL(Gas Insulated Transmission Line) is applying with activity at power plant and substation where the accessibility should be secured in spite of more than 4000[A] high capacity transmission lines, and place where underground cable system, power plant and substation are required. Due to electrical characteristics similar to overhead transmission lines it is possible to integrate overhead transmission lines such as long distance power transmission and reclosing. Also, because of the large sectional area of electric power transmission conductors, when compare with overhead line and cable, GIL have the lowest electric loss. Because of very low electrostatic capacity they don’t need compensation for reactive power. The life of insulation gas is almost semi-permanent having nonaging characteristics. The metal enclosure cuts off the leakage of magnetic field and inside damage, it can protect the safety and environment of workers. [3] Because of the advantages mentioned above, GIL systems have been in operation from the 1970s as highcapacity electric power transmission system in Europe, Japan, USA. From the early 2000s second generation GIL systems were established and operated that use new GIL design technique, improved field automatic welding technology and SF6 insulation gas by 20% low. Recently in Korea, research and development in field application of high-capacity GIL of 345kV was carried out. In Korea, because GIL system is going to be applied to overhead transmission line, a system review should be carried out before field application.
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2.1. Lightning strike When studying overvoltage in GIL the main focus has to be the lightning impulse voltage. This is because they give the highest stresses, which need to be known for dimensioning and testing. For each GIL application different voltage stresses can be expected due to a lot of parameters involved, a listing of the main parameters gathered under three topics as follows[2]: l Lightning strike ○ Location of the lightning strike(near, remote, tower) ○ Lightning current amplitude and steepness of front and tail l Surrounding of GIL ○ Connection to overhead-lines, cables, GIS
Paper G-33

Above all. in case of modelling using pipe type. So it is desirable to simulate GIL system using single core cable type. 1.2. GIL system is modelled using not enclosing pipe type but single core cable type which is the existing modelling method for underground transmission cables. max diameter 520mm ○ Power frequency withstand voltage: 450kV rms ○ Lightning impulse withstand voltage: 1175kV. one is shielding failure that lightning surge is flowed in a phase Paper G-33 Insulation strength . there is no suitable module to model GIL system in ATPDraw. Therefore. Innes House. and use 4 parameters steel tower model. IEC60694 ○ Bending radius 400M below: use bending unit ○ Enclosure : 362kV. Temperature Structure Figure 2: 345kV lightning arrester V-I characteristic curve Direct lightning and Back Flashover: This paper describes a simulation of direct lightning and back flashover for GIL system between overhead transmission lines by EMTP. 2 Transmission line: In order to precisely simulate. rising of GIL: refer to IEC61640. of enclosure(tunnel): below 70℃ ○ Max temp. of enclosure(outside): below 80℃ ○ Temp. 250/2500us.3. peak value Pg. When modelling GIL system using single core cable type. and source impedance is matched to actual power system using PSS/E data which is single line fault and short circuit fault of bus at both side substations. 2. Suggestion for GIL Modelling Method In case of EMTP well-known as transient analysis program for power system. there is no mutual interaction between each phase. tower geometry) GIL Surge impedance Length Connection to surge arresters Characteristic of surge arresters Connection at both sides height and 2.2/50us peak value ○ Switching impulse withstand voltage: 950kV.ISBN 978-0-620-44584-9 Proceedings of the 16th International Symposium on High Voltage Engineering Copyright c 2009 SAIEE. EMTP modelling for field application of GIL Specification for 362kV GIL developed in Korea Table 1: Specification of 362kV GIL Contents Rated Voltage Rating Current Main Specification ○ Nominal voltage : 345kv 60Hz ○ Rated voltage : 362kv 60Hz ○ Continuous rating : 4000A ○ Short time rating : 63kA. There is difference structurally with three phase discrete type GIL because only single phase and three phase integration GIS modelling are available for pipe type. Johannesburg ○ ○ ○ ○ l ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Surge impedance’s Grounding resistance’s Shielding wire system Geometry(line length. 1. conductor and enclosure of GIL matches core and sheath of cable. l Overhead transmission line ○ Total length : 35.6times) ○ Max temp. direct lightning can be separated by two type. there are a lot of occasions that use single-phase distributed constant line. As a result of these two types modelling.7 sec (max peak value: 2.865[km] ○ Transmission line(power wire): ACSR 480 ㎟ 2circuit 4 bundle ○ Overhead ground wire: ACSR 97 ㎟ 2circuit l Tower model ○ When modelling transmission towers. the entire section of 345kV transmission line including GIL system needs to be modelled. Top D1 D2 D3 D4 h3 h4 (H4) H1 H2 H3 h2 h1 (H0) R1 L1 Upper Arm L2 Middle Arm L3 Lower Arm L4 Footing Resistance R2 R3 R4 Figure 1: 4-parameters steel tower model Lightning arrester: This simulation is for 345kV class lightning arrester. ○ The advantage of this model that voltage between arcing horns is matched with measuring value in field.

T/L T/L Figure 4: GIL system between transmission lines Figure 4 shows GIL system between transmission lines for EMTP simulations. Direct lightning (Shield failure) Shield failure is traditional direct lightning type that lightning directly hits. 120. 50[kA]. 120. Paper G-33 . from 150[kA] lightning surge GIL system did exceed BIL. the other is that transmission tower directly.2/50[㎲] ○ Lightning position: ‘phase A’ conductor l Direct lightning ○ Amplitude of lightning: 100. Table 2: Lightning overvoltage when direct lightning (shield failure) Overvoltage [kV] IDL [kA] Lightning point O/H Line B’ A’ Measuring points GIL system A B C D E F 20 665 671 30 735 743 50 815 827 846 846 847 847 848 849 898 899 902 905 906 911 1008 1003 1001 1008 1014 1003 Figure 3: Back flashover modelling by using TACS in EMTP ATPDraw 3.ISBN 978-0-620-44584-9 Proceedings of the 16th International Symposium on High Voltage Engineering Copyright c 2009 SAIEE. Innes House. 2/70[㎲] ○ Lightning position: overhead ground wire l Back flashover(arcing horn modelling) ○ Back flashover is modelled using function of TACS as method that modelled short-circuiting arcing horn at the same time attacking with lightning. 150[kA] current amplitude.1. in the case of direct lightning at the cable head tower.4e-6[sec]. ○ Amplitude of lightning: 100. 150[kA]. 10. overhead transmission line didn’t exceed BIL (Basic Impulse Insulation Level) 1. keeping regular intervals between each peak value is judged that the reflected wave and lightning surge are superposed because of occurring reflection from GIL opposite end. 150[kA]. 30. Pg. Time intervals between each peak value are 0. [1] lightning strikes l Direct lightning(Shield Failure) ○ Amplitude of lightning: 20.5m. 3 When lightning strikes ground wire by 100. almost lightning current show a tendency to return to the earth because cable head tower has low footing GIL system resistance(about 1 [Ω]). Direct Lightning (Ground wire) The other type of direct lightning is lightning strikes the ground wire or transmission tower. ○ 2/70[㎲] Lightning position: cable head tower 50[kA] lightning strikes ‘phase A’ conductor. it can be damage the phase conductor. However in case of GIL system. Johannesburg conductor. But if the amplitude of lightning current is higher.0e8 [m/s]). in all GIL section except for sixth section overvoltage propagation wave was superposed with reflection wave. 3. peak value of each measuring point is closed to BIL. Basically GIL system is that enclosures are grounded and jointed at the both ends. GIL system did not exceed BIL.050kV for 345kV transmission system. 30. Generally. As you see in figure 5. As results of simulation. 1. Therefore. SIMULATION AND ANALYSIS Figure 5: Lightning overvoltage for GIL system when direct lightning (shield failure) 3. 20. As in figure 4. if calculating at propagation velocity (3. even though lightning strikes are 120 [kA]. 120. overvoltage at the end of GIL system is much closed to BIL. This resembles 120m of GIL one section very closely. the distance of each peak value is 121. in this simulation.2. that can be confirmed by calculating time intervals between peak to peak. However.

IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery. there was no overvoltage exceeding BIL. Back flashover (arching horn modelling) This section simulated occasions when lightning influence to phase conductor due to occurring flashover between arcing horns by 100. Table 4: Lightning overvoltage when back flashover is occurred Overvoltage [kV] O/H Line B A 100 722 833 [kA] Figure 6: Overvoltage of GIL system due to reflection wave at the end of GIL l Back flashover(arcing horn modelling) There was no overvoltage exceeding BIL. But keeping regular intervals between each peak values is judged that the reflected wave and lightning surge are superposed because of occurring reflection from GIL opposite end. ELECTRA Pg. G. 5. l Direct lightning(Shield Failure) When 50kA lightning strikes at phase conductor.Koch. amplitude and so on should be simulated exactly considered. “Insulation Co-ordination for Gas-Insulated Transmission Lines(GIL)”. January 2001 [3] H. Though we described only lightning surge in this paper. but in the case of current amplitude 150[kA]. No. H. CONCLUSION As you see in above. 2002 [2] O. there was no overvoltage exceeding 345kV BIL. overvoltage that approximate to BIL by 1. GIL system can be exceeded BIL. detailed conditions such as transmission tower structure. overvoltage propagation wave was superposed with reflection wave. In all cases. in order to apply and safety operate GIL system.016[kV] in instance of ‘phase A’ conductor of cable head tower due to effect of back flashover. “ Gas Insulated [1] CIGRE IBF Lightning point Measuring points GIL system A B C D E F 781 775 772 772 785 795 861 855 852 852 899 844 956 948 945 945 998 885 Transmission Lines”. we simulated and analysis about lightning surge for Korea 345kV GIL system between overhead transmission lines by EMTP.Volcker. 211. 120. “ Gas-Insulated Transmission Line (GIL) : An Overview". Innes House. Vol 16. if back flashover by over 150[kA] lightning current amplitude occurred. Johannesburg Table 3: Lightning overvoltage when direct lightning to overhead ground wire IDL [kA] Overvoltage [kV] 100 496 729 120 482 748 150 490 777 Lightning point O/H Line B’ A’ Measuring points GIL system A B C D E 431 569 648 581 739 779 709 860 809 F 896 976 1036 783 970 994 1094 1241 1213 Figure 8: Lightning overvoltage of GIL system when back flashover is occurred on cable head tower 4. 150[kA] current amplitude. regional lightning density. as according to recommendation of CIGRE Brochure. that can be confirmed by calculating time intervals between peak to peak.Schoeffner. 4 Paper G-33 120 743 915 150 805 1016 .ISBN 978-0-620-44584-9 Proceedings of the 16th International Symposium on High Voltage Engineering Copyright c 2009 SAIEE.Koch. l Direct lightning(Ground wire hit) There was overvoltage in GIL system when amplitude of lightning current is over 120[kA]. No 1. REFERENCES Brochure 218. Figure 7: Peak overvoltage of GIL when direct lightning strikes to ground wire 3. In all GIL section excluding sixth section. December 2003.3.