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VECTOR GROUP TEST....

Q. What is vector group? A. In three phase transformers we can connect the winding in different fashion.Based on the wingding connection, we will determine vector group.generally vector group is indicated on the Name Plate of transformer by the manufacturer.The vector group teaches us about the phase difference between the primary and secondary sides.The Determination of vector group of transformers is very important before connecting two or more transformers in parallel. If two transformers of different vector groups are connected in parallel then phase difference exist between the secondary of the transformers and large circulating current flows between the two transformers. PHASE DISPLACEMENTS BETWEEN WINDING'S (PRIMARY & SECONDARY)... Phase Displacement between HV and LV Windings: The vector for the high voltage winding is taken as the reference vector. Displacement of the vectors of other windings from the reference vector, with anticlockwise rotation, is represented by the use of clock hour figure. IS: 2026 (Part 1V)-1977 gives 26 sets of connections star-star, star-delta, and star zigzag, delta-delta, delta star, delta-zigzag, zigzag star, zigzag-delta. Displacement of the low voltage winding vector varies from zero to -330° in steps of -30°, depending on the method of connections. Hardly any power system adopts such a large variety of connections. Some of the commonly used connections with phase displacement of 0, -300, -180″and -330°(clock-hour setting 0, 1, 6 and 11). some of clock diagrams for vector group of transformers:

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Phase rotation is always anti-clockwise (International adopted). 6 = 180° and 12 = 0° or 360°. 1. 3 = 90°.Symbol for the high voltage winding comes first. The phasor representing the HV winding is taken as reference and set at 12 o’clock. each hour represents 30°. followed by the symbol of low voltage winding. .Thus 1 = 30°. star and delta and vectors of 132 and 11 kV windings having phase displacement of 0° and -330° with the reference (400 kV) vector will be represented As Yy0 – Yd11.Use the hour indicator as the indicating phase displacement angle. The digits (0. Because there are 12 hours on a clock. and a circle consists out of 360°. 2 = 60°. For example a 400/132/11 kV Transformer connected star. 11 etc) relate to the phase displacement between the HV and LV windings using a clock face notation.

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Phase Shift (Deg) Connection of winding of transformer 0 Yy0 Dd0 Dz0 30 lag Yd1 Dy1 Yz1 60 lag Dd2 Dz2 120 lag Dd4 Dz4 150 lag Yd5 Dy5 Yz5 180 lag Yy6 Dd6 Dz6 150 lead Yd7 Dy7 Yz7 120 lead Dd8 Dz8 60 lead Dd10 Dz10 30 lead Yd11 Dy11 Yz11 APPILICATION OF TRANSFORMER ACCORDING TO VECTOR GROUP: 1. YNd11 . Dyn11. YNd1. Dyn1.

Delta permits a circulating path for triple harmonics thus attenuates the same. Interconnection of phases in zigzag winding effects a reduction of third harmonic voltages and at the same time permits unbalanced loading. In either case.  It is possible to operate with one transformer removed in open delta or” V” connection meeting 58 percent of the balanced load. 2. If HV winding is star connected there will be saving in cost of insulation.   Most economical connection in HV power system to interconnect between two delta systems and to provide neutral for grounding both of them.   Star point facilitates mixed loading of three phase and single phase consumer connections. This connection produces oscillating neutral. Insulation cost is highly reduced.  Tertiary winding stabilizes the neutral conditions. Star-Star (Yy0 or Yy6) Mainly used for large system tie-up Transformer.  We can use Dyn1 at distribution system. only if    (a) the source side transformers is delta connected or (b) the source side is star connected with neutral connected back to the source neutral.   Large unbalance of load can be met without difficulty.  A delta-Star connection is used for step-up generating stations.  This connection may be used with either delta connected or star connected winding either for step-up or step-down transformers.  The amount of copper required from a zigzag winding in 15% more than a corresponding star or delta winding. when we are using Generator Transformer are YNd11.  Normally Dyn11 vector group using at distribution system. These triple harmonic currents cannot flow. Because Generating Transformer are YNd1 for neutralizing the load angle between 11 and 1.  Three phase units cannot have this facility.  A tertiary mesh connected winding may be required to stabilize the oscillating neutral due to third harmonics in three phase banks. unless there is a neutral wire. In This Transformers. Star-Zig-zag or Delta-Zig-zag (Yz or Dz)  These connections are employed where delta connections are weak. 4 . Common for distribution transformers. Mixed single phase loading is not possible due to the absence of neutral.  In some industries 6 pulse electric drives are using due to this 5thharmonics will generate if we use Dyn1 it will be suppress the 5th harmonics.  But delta connected HV winding is common in distribution network. However three phase core type transformers work satisfactorily. This is extensively used for earthing transformer. the zigzag winding produces the same angular displacement as a delta winding. load can be connected between line and neutral. for feeding motors and lighting loads from LV side.  Three phase shell type units have large triple harmonic phase voltage.  Triple harmonics are absent in the lines. 3. In star connected transformers. . The delta winding carry third harmonics and stabilizes star point potential. and at the same time provides a neutral for earthing purposes. Neutral wire can permit mixed loading. Delta – Delta (Dd 0 or Dd 6)  This is an economical connection for large low voltage transformers.

Finally. Grounding purpose Transformer: It should be Yz1 or Dz11. 2. Yz-5  For Distribution Transformer up to 250MVA for local distribution system. Furnace Transformer: Ynyn0. 3. PROCEDURE OF DOING TEST: 1. Oscillating neutral problem is absent in this connection.  The Neutral point can be loaded with rated Current. Dy11 . Derive the equations according to vector group given on name plate details. Unbalanced loading is also possible. It is also used in rectifiers. For a given total voltage per phase. third harmonic voltages are reduced. 6.  Unbalanced operation of the transformer with large zero sequence fundamental mmf content also does not affect its performance. 7. 4. Also.  This connection requires 15% more turns for the same voltage on the zigzag side and hence costs more. 5. Distribution Transformer: We can consider vector group of Dzn0 which reduce the 75% of harmonics in secondary side. It also allows unbalanced loading. In cases where delta connections are weak due to large number of turns and small cross sections. The zigzag connection is employed for LV winding. Power Transformer: Vector group is deepen on application for Example : Generating Transformer : Dyn1 . 5. the zigzag side requires 15% more turns as compared to normal phase connection. Ex. Step up Transformer: It should be Yd1 or Yd11. three phase cores themselves cost less than three single phase units due to compactness. they occupy more space. APPLICATIONS ACCORDING VECTOR GROUP: 1. Even with Yy type of poly phase connection without neutral connection the oscillating neutral does not occur with these cores. Hence a bank of three single phase transformers cost about 15% more than their 3-phase counterpart. then zigzag star connection is preferred. But the spare capacity cost will be less and single phase units are easier to transport. Zig.zag/ star (ZY1 or Zy11)  Zigzag connection is obtained by inter connection of phases. Due to zigzag connection (interconnection between phases). Step down Transformer: It should be Dy1 or Dy11. Yd5:  Mainly used for machine and main Transformer in large Power Station and Transmission Substation.  The Neutral point can be loaded with rated Current.4-wire system is possible on both sides.

We just confirming the the vector group given on name plate details is correct or not. apply only Rphase voltage to secondary winding do not connect the secondary Y.. Remove all electrical connections while doing test for better results. note down the voltages according to the above equations.. 3.2..depending upon vector group equations will change. 4.... Q.B phases to any circuit.The above equations must satisfy by that respective vector group.. Apply three phase primary winding of 415v. .What is the need of doing this test? A.