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Computer Modelling Group Ltd.

2008 Tutorial

Building, Running and Analyzing a
“Black Oil” Reservoir Simulation Model

Using

Builder
2008.10

&

IMEX
2008.10

TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF FIGURES..................................................................................................................................... 2
CREATING A “BLACK OIL” MODEL USING BUILDER 2008.10............................................................5
Starting CMG Launcher

5

Opening BUILDER 2008.10

5

Creating the Simulation Grid (structural data)

6

Assigning Porosity & Permeability to the Model

10

Creating PVT Data

11

Creating Relative Permeability Data

12

Creating Initial Conditions

14

INCORPORATING WELL TRAJECTORIES AND PERFORATIONS......................................................15
ADDING HISTORICAL PRODUCTION DATA TO THE MODEL.............................................................18
Creating Average Monthly Production / Injection Recurrent Well Data

19

Creating Field Production History (*.fhf) for History Match

19

Well Definition and Constraints

20

WRITE OUT RESTART INFORMATION TO A RESTART FILE.............................................................24
RUNNING THE IMEX DATASET............................................................................................................. 24
REVIEWING THE SIMULATION RESULTS USING RESULTS GRAPH AND RESULTS 3D.................25
USING THE HISTORICAL DATA RESTART FILE IN A PREDICTION RUN..........................................27
Adding an Aquifer

29

Analyzing the Data

31

Further Analysis

31

Extra Exercises

35

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LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE 1: NEW IMEX DATASET WITH CONTOUR MAP OPEN............................................................6
FIGURE 2: CONTOUR MAP WITH ORTHOGONAL CORNER POINT GRID..........................................7
FIGURE 3: GENERAL PROPERTY SPECIFICATION SPREADSHEET..................................................7
FIGURE 4: SPECIFYING A GEOLOGICAL MAP FOR A PROPERTY....................................................8
FIGURE 5: 3D VIEW OF RESERVOIR AFTER PROPERTY SPECIFICATION.......................................9
FIGURE 6: REMOVING THE CONTOUR MAP FROM THE DISPLAY....................................................9
FIGURE 7: PROPERTY SPECIFICATION SPREADSHEET WITH GRID TOP, THICKNESS &
POROSITY SPECIFIED........................................................................................................................... 10
FIGURE 8: COMPONENTS TAB IN THE TREE VIEW...........................................................................11
FIGURE 9: IMEX PVT TABLE WITH VALUES GENERATED USING THE QUICK BLACK OIL MODEL
................................................................................................................................................................. 12
FIGURE 10: PLOTS FOR ROCKTYPE 1...............................................................................................13
FIGURE 11: TRAJECTORY PROPERTIES WINDOW STEP 1 OF 3......................................................15
FIGURE 12: TRAJECTORY PROPERTIES WINDOW STEP 2 OF 3.....................................................16
FIGURE 13: TRAJECTORY PERFORATIONS WINDOW......................................................................16
FIGURE 14: TRAJECTORY PERFORATIONS WINDOW AFTER READ IN PERFORATION FILE......17
FIGURE 15: STEP #2 OF THE PRODUCTION DATA WIZARD............................................................18
FIGURE 16: AVERAGE PRODUCTION/INJECTION DATA PLOT........................................................19
FIGURE 17: WELL EVENTS WINDOW..................................................................................................20
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...30 FIGURE 27: AQUIFER PROPERTIES WINDOW..............................................33 FIGURE 31: CROSS SECTION VIEW (JK-2D) OF TRAJECTORY FOR W11............................................27 FIGURE 24: WELL EVENTS WINDOW WITH ALTER 0 CONSTRAINT...................................................34 REQUIRED FILES FIGURE 1: NEW IMEX DATASET WITH CONTOUR MAP OPEN......28 FIGURE 25: PLOT OF SIMULATION DATA VERSUS HISTORICAL DATA WITH FUTURE PREDICTION..31 FIGURE 29: RESERVOIR SHOWING HIGH OIL SATURATION...................22 FIGURE 20: ADDING PERFORATIONS TO WELL...........34 FIGURE 32: INCREASED PRODUCTION DUE TO HORIZONTAL WELL IN RESULTS GRAPH........30 FIGURE 28: PLOT OF PRESSURE DIFFERENCE DUE TO AQUIFER.......................................................................doc 29/01/2014 3 .......................................25 FIGURE 23: WELL EVENTS WINDOW WITH UPDATED BHP CONSTRAINT...................32 FIGURE 30: AREAL VIEW (IJ-2D) OF TRAJECTORY FOR W11.........................................................................23 FIGURE 21: SIMULATION LOG FILE (WHEN RUNS IMMEDIATELY)................................................................7 207322393....................................................................................................................................................................................24 FIGURE 22: PLOT OF SIMULATION DATA VERSUS HISTORICAL DATA...........................................................................................................21 FIGURE 19: WELL COMPLETION DATA(PERF) INTERFACE.....................................................................................6 FIGURE 2: CONTOUR MAP WITH ORTHOGONAL CORNER POINT GRID................................................. 29 FIGURE 26: SELECT AQUIFER LOCATION WINDOW.................................................................................FIGURE 18: WINDOW FOR COPYING/DELETING WELL EVENTS...............

.15 FIGURE 12: TRAJECTORY PROPERTIES WINDOW STEP 2 OF 3...............................16 FIGURE 14: TRAJECTORY PERFORATIONS WINDOW AFTER READ IN PERFORATION FILE...20 FIGURE 18: WINDOW FOR COPYING/DELETING WELL EVENTS.......................19 FIGURE 17: WELL EVENTS WINDOW........ 10 FIGURE 8: COMPONENTS TAB IN THE TREE VIEW............................23 207322393.......doc 29/01/2014 4 ..................................................................................22 FIGURE 20: ADDING PERFORATIONS TO WELL......................................................................FIGURE 3: GENERAL PROPERTY SPECIFICATION SPREADSHEET...........................................9 FIGURE 6: REMOVING THE CONTOUR MAP FROM THE DISPLAY.. 12 FIGURE 10: PLOTS FOR ROCKTYPE 1........................................................................11 FIGURE 9: IMEX PVT TABLE WITH VALUES GENERATED USING THE QUICK BLACK OIL MODEL .....................................................13 FIGURE 11: TRAJECTORY PROPERTIES WINDOW STEP 1 OF 3..................................................................................................................................................................................................................17 FIGURE 15: STEP #2 OF THE PRODUCTION DATA WIZARD..................................................................................................................................................................................7 FIGURE 4: SPECIFYING A GEOLOGICAL MAP FOR A PROPERTY..................................16 FIGURE 13: TRAJECTORY PERFORATIONS WINDOW............................................................................................................................................21 FIGURE 19: WELL COMPLETION DATA(PERF) INTERFACE...................................................................................................... THICKNESS & POROSITY SPECIFIED...............................18 FIGURE 16: AVERAGE PRODUCTION/INJECTION DATA PLOT..........8 FIGURE 5: 3D VIEW OF RESERVOIR AFTER PROPERTY SPECIFICATION......................................................................9 FIGURE 7: PROPERTY SPECIFICATION SPREADSHEET WITH GRID TOP............................................

..30 FIGURE 27: AQUIFER PROPERTIES WINDOW...... Browse for the directory where you stored the map files...................................34 Creating a “Black Oil” Model using Builder 2008.................... 5........33 FIGURE 31: CROSS SECTION VIEW (JK-2D) OF TRAJECTORY FOR W11................27 FIGURE 24: WELL EVENTS WINDOW WITH ALTER 0 CONSTRAINT...... 3.30 FIGURE 28: PLOT OF PRESSURE DIFFERENCE DUE TO AQUIFER....................................... Call the project Tutorial......................... Start the CMG Launcher by using the icon on your desktop................................................ 29 FIGURE 26: SELECT AQUIFER LOCATION WINDOW.......... then Add Project.......10 207322393...................10 Create a working directory somewhere on your disk and put the map files that accompany this tutorial in this directory............ Opening BUILDER 2008...............25 FIGURE 23: WELL EVENTS WINDOW WITH UPDATED BHP CONSTRAINT...........doc 29/01/2014 5 ......28 FIGURE 25: PLOT OF SIMULATION DATA VERSUS HISTORICAL DATA WITH FUTURE PREDICTION.................................FIGURE 21: SIMULATION LOG FILE (WHEN RUNS IMMEDIATELY)..........................34 FIGURE 32: INCREASED PRODUCTION DUE TO HORIZONTAL WELL IN RESULTS GRAPH..31 FIGURE 29: RESERVOIR SHOWING HIGH OIL SATURATION...................................... 2................................................. You should now have this directory displayed...................... 4................................................32 FIGURE 30: AREAL VIEW (IJ-2D) OF TRAJECTORY FOR W11........... or by going through the Start menu and selecting Programs/CMG/Launcher............................ Starting CMG Launcher 1............................................................. 6....... Click OK to exit back to the Launcher...................................24 FIGURE 22: PLOT OF SIMULATION DATA VERSUS HISTORICAL DATA....... Select menu item Projects........................................

Select the Top-of-Structure map file called “TO10FLT. 4. Open Builder 2008. 2. Click OK FIGURE 1: New IMEX Dataset with Contour Map Open 207322393.bna” by clicking on the Browse button and locating the file.Y coordinates in the files” box. Click OK twice.bna)” and m in “Units for X. Single Porosity • Starting date 1991-01-01 3.doc 29/01/2014 6 . Creating the Simulation Grid (structural data) 1. top left). then “Open Map File…”. 3. Choose: • IMEX Simulator. 2.1. Choose “Map Type – Atlas Boundary format (. Click on File (on the menu bar.10 by double clicking on the appropriate icon in the Launcher. SI Units.

Click on the Specify Property button (top middle of screen) to open the General Property Specification spreadsheet as shown below. 7. 15. Click on the arrow next to the “Reservoir” (on the left menu bar) and select “Create Grid”. 12. and the grid covers the whole map area. 8. Hold down Ctrl key and hold down left mouse button to rotate grid. Select Orthogonal Corner Point and specify a 25 (I-direction) x 35 (J-direction) x 4 (K-direction) grid. Change display control to Probe mode by clicking on this toolbar button on top tool bar.doc 29/01/2014 7 . 6. Click OK. FIGURE 2: Contour Map with Orthogonal Corner Point Grid 13. Enter 25*110 in the I direction box (meaning all 25 columns in the I-direction will be 110 meters in length).5. Maximize the screens for a better view by clicking on the window maximize button. Hold down Shift key and hold down left mouse button to move (pan) grid. 11. FIGURE 3: General Property Specification Spreadsheet 207322393. 10. 9. 14. Enter 35*125 in the J-direction box (meaning all 35 rows in the J-direction will be 125 meters in length). Align the grid with the fault so that a grid block boundary lies along it.

bna in the Values in file1 box. 21. 17. enter 0. 22. Repeat this action for Grid Thickness in layer1 box. layer 3 and layer 4 Grid Thickness cells to complete the specification of Grid Thickness source data for each of the 4 layers in the grid. Select the box for layer 1 under the property column labeled Grid Top. Click the Values in file1 button. Click OK to return to the spreadsheet type window. . Right click in this box and select the Geological Map option as the data source.25 in the times box (still on the property specification menu) in order to allocate 25% of the total thickness map to each of the 4 layers in the grid. FIGURE 4: Specifying a Geological Map for a Property 18. Also click OK to the pop-up window regarding clamping. Finally. then Browse and select the top-of-structure map file called TO10FLT. but this time select Thickflt. Click OK to the Block / Corner Value Calculation button will pop up click OK to populate the grid with top-ofstructure and grid thickness data (this operation is performed by BUILDER using the specified map data to interpolate grid cell values).bna (it should already be selected from previous actions).doc 29/01/2014 8 . copy the layer1. Grid Thickness cell contents and paste it into the layer 2. Also. Change the view from IJ-2D Areal to 3D View (in the upper left corner!!). 19.16. 20. You can use Ctrl-C and Ctrl-V keys to copy specifications for the first layer to the other 3 just as in a regular spreadsheet. 207322393.

FIGURE 6: Removing the Contour Map from the Display 207322393. To remove the contour map from the display. Select Properties from the displayed menu (bottom of list).FIGURE 5: 3D View of Reservoir after Property Specification 23. Maps from the tree view. Press OK. If a mouse has a scroll wheel. this can also be used to zoom in and out by scrolling the wheel forward (zoom out) or backward (zoom in) 24.doc 29/01/2014 9 . click the right mouse button while the cursor is anywhere in the display area. Click on the Rotate (3D View) button (from the toolbar) to rotate the display by holding down the left mouse button and using the cursor to move the model. Hold down the Ctrl key with the left mouse button and move the mouse toward the bottom of the screen to zoom in or move the mouse to the top of the screen to zoom out. and (finally) uncheck the Show Map Contours Lines and Fault boxes.

similar to step #19). Press the OK button. Units will be applied automatically.1). Use the same map for each layer.doc 29/01/2014 10 . 30. This window can also be accessed by clicking on the Calculate Property button at the top. Do the same with Permeability K and select EQUALSI. leave the value in the times box as 1. FIGURE 7: Property Specification Spreadsheet with Grid Top. This would be a good point to save the data set you are working on.e. you should now have the Green check mark for Reservoir section. 207322393. Click File then Save As. In the first box select * and then enter a value of 0. 31. Select Permeability I from the list on the panel and enter the following: Layer 1 50 Layer 2 250 Layer 3 500 Layer 4 100 27. 28. but select the map porosflt. Select Permeability J and right click in the Whole Grid box. Repeat the above process for Porosity (i. This time.bna. Save file as Tutorial. Double click on Rock Compressibility in the tree view menu and input 2E-5 in the rock compressibility(CPOR) box.1 in the second field (this applies a Kv/Kh ratio of 0. Thickness & Porosity Specified 26.Assigning Porosity & Permeability to the Model 25. 29. 20000 kPa in the reference pressure box (PRPOR) and click OK.dat. Press the OK button on the Block/Corner Value Calculation window. Select EQUALSI then OK.

4. Double click the MODEL keyword. 207322393. For this example. select the “Value Provided” option and enter a value of 6500 kPa. Double click on “PVT Region: 1” in the tree view and select the PVT Table tab to view the BLACKOIL PVT data. it is also possible to directly enter or edit values in the PVT Table. 5.doc 29/01/2014 11 . enter a value of 20000 kPa and leave the rest of the options at their default values and Click OK.Creating PVT Data 1. Enter 70 (deg °C implied) in the Reservoir Temperature box. select “Stock tank oil gravity (API)” as the type of gravity value you want to use and enter a value of 35 in data entry window. 3. and dragging the points to the desired location. Please note that the “IMEX PVT Regions” window has to be open while using your mouse to change the points on the plot. Generate Pressure data up to 35000 kPa. For Bubble Point Pressure. For the Oil Density option. Click the Components tab in the tree view. Change the Gas Density box to display Gas Gravity(Air=1) and type . These values can also be updated by using your mouse to select points on the plots associated with the PVT Region. However. the data shown in this table was generated using the information entered in the “Quick black oil model” window. FIGURE 8: Components Tab in the Tree View 2.65 in the data entry window. Check on Launch dialog to create a quick BLACKOIL model using correlations then click the “OK” button. In the Reference Pressure for Water properties box.

Click the Rock-Fluid button on the menu in the left handside. 2. Press the Tools button (on the “Relative Permeability Tables” tab) and select Generate Tables using Correlations. The Component section should have a green check mark now. Double click on Rock Fluid Types in the tree view. 3. Creating Relative Permeability Data 1.doc 29/01/2014 12 .FIGURE 9: IMEX PVT Table with Values Generated using the Quick Black Oil Model 6. 7. 207322393. A window will open. Close the PVT Table window. Click on the button and select New Rock Type.

5.8 KRWIRO 0. Save the file at this time.05 SGCRIT 0. The Rock Fluid section should have a green check mark. Press Apply and then OK.4 SORW 0.0 4.8 All Exponents 2. A graph containing the relative permeability curves will appear.doc 29/01/2014 13 .3 KRGCL 0.2 SORG 0.2 SGCON 0. SWCON 0.2 SWCRIT 0.4 SOIRG 0.3 KROGCG 0. Press OK again to get out of the Rock Types window. FIGURE 10: Plots for RockType 1 207322393.05 KROCW 0.Enter the following parameters for the analytical relative permeability curves generation.2 SOIRW 0.

You should now be back in the main Builder window with all tabs showing a green checkmark in the tree view. 2. Double click on Initial Conditions. then OK. Initial Conditions interface should look like: 6. except for the “Wells & Recurrent” tab. Click the Initial button on the tree view of Builder. Type the following values in the available fields: 27600 (kPa implied) in the Reference Pressure (REFPRES) box 3050 (m implied) in the Reference Depth (REFDEPTH) box 3080 (m implied) in the Water-Oil Contact (DWOC) box 1980 (m implied) in the Gas-Oil Contact (DGOC) box 6500 (kPa implied) in Constant Bubble Point Pressure (PB) box 5. At this point it is advisable to save the data again by selecting File from the top menu and Save. Click on Apply. 7. Oil.doc 29/01/2014 14 . 3. Leave the other boxes blank. Select Water. 4. Gas as the initial fluid in the reservoir to perform a Gravity-Capillary Equilibrium Calculation. 8.Creating Initial Conditions 1. 207322393.

Y and Z. 2. You need to choose Trajectory File Type and appropriate Units for it (3 Steps Wizard). 3. Choose Table Format and m for X. Open.wdb”.doc 29/01/2014 15 . 207322393.MD then browse for the file “TRAJ_Meter. 1. and check the box Clear all existing trajectories then press Next> (Step 2 of 3). Step 1 of 3” window will pop up. Go to the main Builder menu and select Well / Well Trajectories / Well Trajectories…. Make sure all wells are selected. and press Next >(Step 1 of 3) FIGURE 11: Trajectory Properties Window Step 1 of 3 4. The following window will open.Incorporating Well Trajectories and Perforations Once we have created the static model. we will now incorporate the trajectory and perforation information into the model. The “Import well trajectory wizard.

Click on Read File and choose File unit selection option as SI then browse PERFS_Meter.perf. Now go back to top menu and select Well. This completes the trajectories and Perforation of the wells in the model FIGURE 13: Trajectory Perforations Window 207322393. Press Apply and then OK.FIGURE 12: Trajectory Properties Window Step 2 of 3 5. 6. 7. Press Open. click on Trajectory Perforation Intervals… a window will open (Figure 13): 8. Click Finish to complete Step 3 of 3. 9. If this is done correctly. Well Trajectories. the window will be like Figure 14: 10. This screen will create a vertical trajectory for each well that exists in the main contour map.doc 29/01/2014 16 .

FIGURE 14: Trajectory Perforations Window after Read in Perforation File 207322393.doc 29/01/2014 17 .

STEP 3: If the delimiters look good and separate the columns correctly. In our case. click Next to go to STEP 4. Also. we will use General and choose a file in the tutorial directory named Production-history. Go to the main Builder menu and select Well / Import Production/Injection Data (this is the wizard to import production/injection data into the well & recurrent data for the simulator and it also defines the status of each well!!). 7 and 9 have no production history. 1.Adding Historical Production Data to the Model The last item we want to do is add historical rate data so that we can set up a history match run. STEP 1: First step of this wizard is to provide the type and name of the production file. STEP 2: Follow the instructions and highlight the first line containing the production data (top window) and well name (lower window) (as shown in the following figure). We will do this later. 2. 7 and 9. 207322393. choose Oil Produced. Other than that. FIGURE 15: Step #2 of the Production Data Wizard 4. the easiest action is to delete them from the model. Press Next. Since wells 5. Leave others as they pop up then click Next to go to the next step.doc 29/01/2014 18 . 3. For example. 6. [Use the Next/Back buttons on the panels to move forward/backward between each Step]. the program could not find any production data from well 5. close the Simulation Dates window that may pop up. Water Produced and Gas Produced for each column. click Finish. Press the Next button.prd. 5. STEP 4: Go to Columns 3 to 5 and in the identifier row. STEP 5: This is the place showing you which well’s production data has been picked up and which well is not.

207322393..doc 29/01/2014 19 . Go to the top menu again and select Well / Create Field History File… then provide a filename (or you can just use the default production-history. it can be done as described below. A menu will show up to allow you to change the average interval from this point on to monthly. FIGURE 16: Average Production/Injection Data Plot 3. Select “Reset all intervals to every month” and press the OK button. It is not needed for the tutorial as the data is already on monthly basis and we want to keep it every month 1. Creating Field Production History (*. yearly. Once again. On main Builder menu. bi-annually.Creating Average Monthly Production / Injection Recurrent Well Data If averaging of production-injection data needs to be done.fhf). Now.fhf) for History Match 1. 2. select Well / Average Production/Injection Data. Next thing we want to do is to create a field history file so that we can make a comparison between the simulation run and the actual field history file.. etc. Press OK. move your mouse and right click on the x-axis. 2. click Close on the Simulations Dates window that pops up.

select OPERATE. Go to Well 7. Press Apply. 9. Go to Constraints tab (say YES to apply changes if asked!!). To do that. A new window will show up as follows: FIGURE 17: Well Events Window 4. Now. right mouse click and select Properties. 2. For those wells that have no production history. and select INJECTOR MOBWEIGHT. Then select BHP bottom hole pressure.doc 29/01/2014 20 . Click on ID & Type. 6. check the Edit box for Type. 7. Press Apply. Check the “Autoapply” check box. injected fluid and SHUTIN (all of them!!!). CONT REPEAT. To do that. Then highlight the following Events (for Well 7) by clicking on them with your mouse and pressing down the Ctrl key to select multiple items: INJECTOR. 5. Press Apply. make sure you are looking at “Well 7” in the Name/Date list. MAX. constraints. Expand the Wells list by clicking on the +. we can copy all the above specifications to Well 9. Go to the Injected Fluid tab and choose Water as injection fluid.Well Definition and Constraints 1. and check the Constraint definition box. 207322393. we will delete Well 5 and change Wells 7 & 9 so that they are injectors. 8. Under select new (in the Constraint column of the table). Check the Status box and choose to SHUTIN the well at this time. 3. we can either delete them or define them as a producer or injector and shut-in the wells so that they will not affect the history match. select Delete and press Yes to the message that pops up. 25000 KPa. In this tutorial. Right mouse click on Well 5. Go to the Options tab. open the tree view and press the Wells & Recurrent tab.

and select Copy events using filter.10. Check the date 1991-01-01 and press the Search & Add button. Press the Tools button at the bottom of the screen.doc 29/01/2014 21 . This will open a new window. check on Well 9 and then go to the Select Dates tab. The window should look like this: FIGURE 18: Window for Copying/Deleting Well Events 207322393. In the Select Wells tab.

select Well / Well Completions (PERF)… Click on button and select Completion – Add New as shown below FIGURE 19: Well Completion Data(PERF) interface Select the Perforations tab and press the button.perf’ file. provided constraint information and defined the trajectory path. 13. If a message pops up requesting to change the well type for Well 9. Make sure that the View Type is set to IK-2D X-Sec (located in the upper left hand corner of the main Builder window). On main Builder menu. say Yes. 2 and 3 along the Well 7 trajectory in the main Builder window. 207322393.doc 29/01/2014 22 . Use your mouse to click in grid blocks 1. Change the Plane Slider to 15 (it may be 16 based on grid positioning) and zoom in to the section containing Well 7 so that you can see the trajectory for Well 7. Press when you are done. perforations need to be defined along the trajectory path. Press Apply and then OK to close the window.11.(Note: There is no perforation information for Well 7 in ‘PERFS_Meter. This will allow you to use your mouse to select the grid blocks where you want the well completions to be. 12. Your screen should look similar to figure 20 below. Press OK to close the Well Events window.) 14. Even though we defined Well 7 as an injector. Click OK and the same constraint information created for Well 7 will now be copied to Well 9.

This can be removed by deleting ALTER 0 at 1991-09-01 using Delete event using filter…. Please save the file one more time!!! 207322393.FIGURE 20: Adding perforations to well 15. all of the tabs in the tree view should have a green checkmark. The Dates under Wells & Recurrent tab may still have a yellow exclamation mark.doc 29/01/2014 23 . If everything is OK. 16. option in Well Events Window.

5. 2. First locate the file Tutorial_hm. You will be able to make prediction runs without having to rerun the historical data portion as a result of using the Restart Run feature. Click File in the main Builder menu and select Save As. 2. When finished.dat. Click OK to close the window. Check 0n Enable Restart Writing. We now have a completed dataset so we can exit Builder and drag and drop the Tutorial_hm. then drag and drop it onto the IMEX 2008. Press the button and select the first simulation date which is 1991-01-01. 6. Click on the I/O Control tab in the tree view. 3. Set the “Writing Frequency Option” to Every TIME or DATE Keywords. 7. 8. A new window will show up.dat in your launcher. the MS-DOS window will be terminated and shows a brief summary of results. Double click on Restart. 4. Press OK. If everything is OK.doc 29/01/2014 24 . a MS-DOS window will open up and show you the progress of the run. FIGURE 21: Simulation Log File (when runs immediately) 207322393. Running the IMEX Dataset 1. If there are no errors.dat file onto the IMEX icon to run it. Press the Run Immediately button.Write Out Restart information to a Restart File 1. Name this file Tutorial_hm.10 icon and release the mouse. you should be able to run the dataset using IMEX.

In order to view this plot for all the production wells you can use the Repeat origins button . In the Repeat Plots window.doc 29/01/2014 25 .Reviewing the Simulation Results using RESULTS GRAPH and RESULTS 3D We can now look at the simulation run and compare it with the historical data and see how the reservoir would perform. 2. 1. 9. Repeat the same procedure as above except this time. then click on Add Plot. Drag and drop Tutorial_hm. Select menu item File. right click on the Plot 1. 207322393. 3. Choose Well 3 for the Origin and then Click OK. To add new plot. You should now have a series of plots showing the historical data and simulator calculation for each of your production wells. plot the Water Rate SC & Gas Rate SC curves either in the same plot or separately. then Open Field History. Select curve parameter Oil Rate SC. 7.10 icon.fhf file we created in the Creating Field Production History section of the tutorial. Select the production-history. 5. as we want to compare the simulated data with the historical input data. You should now see a plot similar to: FIGURE 22: Plot of Simulation Data versus Historical Data 6. Select the file to display data from as Tutorial_hm. 4. 8.fhf.irf onto the Results Graph 2008.irf. Now repeat the same steps but this time select the file as production-history. select the All Producers option and OK to generate the plots. Click on the Add Curve icon .

and interactively discover the large range of features that are available to you for analyzing your data. You can now continue to investigate the results from these datasets in Results Graph and Results 3D.doc 29/01/2014 26 .10. Exit Graph and save the template file. 207322393.

12. Change the range of dates so that the From date is 1991-09-01 and the To date is 1993-01-01. The panel that is displayed should look similar to: FIGURE 23: Well Events Window with Updated BHP Constraint 207322393. 9. Check the Constraint definition box.dat back into Builder. Click “Record to restart from” (Note that a series of restart dates are now available). Double click on the Restart option. 3. Select the date to 1991-09-01. Change the date to 1991-09-01. then change OPERATE. 5. 13. Then click the button Add a range of dates. Browse to select Tutorial_hm. 11. double click. Check the box for Restart from previous simulation run (RESTART). In the “Record to restart from” field. If the Set stop box is checked on this date. 10. BHP. 8. Press Close.irf. 7. uncheck it. check the Auto-apply check box. Expand the Well items in the tree view and double click on Well 1. Click on the I/O Control tab in the tree view. 1. MIN to 15000 kPa 14. Click on the Wells & Recurrent section in the tree view again. 2.doc 29/01/2014 27 . select the date 1991/09/01 and then press OK to exit back to the main Builder window. and click on the Constraints tab. Click on the Well & Recurrent section in the tree view and expand the Dates. Load the dataset tutorial_hm. Press OK. 4. Click OK to the builder message that pops up.Using the Historical Data Restart File in a Prediction Run We want to predict the reservoir performance until 1/1/1993 if the producers are fixed to a minimum BHP of 15000 kPa. 6.

22. 21.dat file onto the IMEX icon to run it. The next task will be to copy the same constraint to all the other wells to do the forecast. Save the new file as Tutorial_pred. At this tab. Click the Tools button at the bottom of the screen and select Copy events using filter. then OK. then Open Field History. 207322393. Press the Clear List button. Press the Search & Add button. Highlight the Well 1 constraints Event for 1991-09-01 (in the Name/Date list).dat. All the wells except wells 7 & 9 will have a new constraint starting 1991-09-01.doc 29/01/2014 28 .15. Click OK and return to the main menu. you might see ALTER event equal to 0 on 1991-09-01. 16. This option creates new date for wells which are already shut in because of production history event. make sure to check on “Do you want to create new dates?”. check Producers and Select. 23. then on the “Select Dates” tab check on 199109-01. a new constraint will be created in the date 1991-09-01 for Well 1.irf onto the Results Graph icon. 24. We can now look at the simulation run and compare it with the historical data and see how the reservoir would continue to perform. FIGURE 24: Well Events Window with ALTER 0 Constraint 19. 18.” then repeat step 17 to fix it 20. On the “Well Event” window. We can now exit Builder and drag and drop the Tutorial_pred. On the “Select Wells” tab. This should be deleted from prediction data file (Figure 24). Right click on highlighted ALTER and select “Delete event using filter. Drag and drop Tutorial_pred. Select menu item File.. Click Apply. 17.

Select the Curve tab and increase the marker size from 4 to 8 and Click OK. 2. (Alternatively. 28. then Click OK.irf. and compare the simulation runs with and without an aquifer to see the difference it makes. 26. 1. 31. but this time select the file as production_history. Repeat the same procedure as above except this time plot the Water Cut variable. 27. as we want to compare the prediction run and the history match run. Select the file to display data from as Tutorial_pred. Click on the Add curve icon . you can just click on the Create/Edit Aquifers button from the top tool bar). Now repeat the same steps. Once in Builder go to the Reservoir and select Create/Edit Aquifers….fhf. and OK the panel.25. 3. 30.doc 29/01/2014 29 . 29. 207322393. Save the file and exit. Select the first listed type – Bottom aquifer. To increase the size of the historical data markers select menu item View.dat onto the Builder icon. Properties. Select the production-history. You should now see a plot similar to: FIGURE 25: Plot of Simulation Data versus Historical Data with Future Prediction 32.fhf file we created in the Creating Field Production History section of the tutorial. Select curve parameter Oil Rate SC. Drag and drop Tutorial_hm. Adding an Aquifer The next thing we want to do is add an aquifer.

You can now drag and drop Tutorial_hm_aq.dat onto the IMEX icon. 207322393. (To run simulation). FIGURE 27: Aquifer Properties Window 5. 7. Leave all other items blank.dat. OK to save the new file and exit Builder. Save As and change the file name to be saved to Tutorial_hm_aq.doc 29/01/2014 30 . OK to exit the panel to return to the model display area. 6. Select Modelling Method – Carter-Tracey (infinite).FIGURE 26: Select Aquifer Location Window 4. Go to File.

3tp (3D image) file referred to is a template that you can use to re-create the images that you have generated using the same or other input files. 2. As part of our reservoir plan we would like to put in a horizontal well on 1/1/1992 to access this ‘remaining’ oil. 7. We now have both simulation results loaded so that we can compare them. 11.irf. We now have a comparison plot that should look similar to: FIGURE 28: Plot of Pressure Difference Due to Aquifer 10. Click on the + icon to add a curve . 4. Click on OK to display the line. 5. 9.ses (line plot) or . 3. You can also enter the 3D display area from here and both types of display are linked together.irf file can be dragged and dropped onto the Results Graph icon. the . The file Tutorial_hm_aq.Analyzing the Data 1.irf in Results 3D it seems that there is quite a bit of oil left in the southern anticline at the end of this simulation. Open CMG Simulation Results from the menu bar and select Tutorial_hm. Select File. Repeat the above except select the filename as Tutorial_hm_aq. 6. Select Origin Type – Sector (Region). Parameter – Ave Pres HC POVO SCTR. 8. Results are very intuitive and most things can be accessed by the menus or by right mouse clicking on the display areas. especially in layer K = 2. When you exit Results 3D or Graph. 207322393. Further Analysis When you view the ternary plot for Tutorial_pred.doc 29/01/2014 31 .irf.

MIN. Enter the constraint OPERATE. and change the date to be 1991-12-01. select New… 4. 9. BHP bottom hole pressure. change Type to PRODUCER. 10. 2. The message should indicate that there are no valid perforations. Right click on this well and select Validate to display any error or warning messages. Click on the Wells & Recurrent tab.000. 3.dat into Builder. Click Ok to close the window. CONT REPEAT. There should be an exclamation mark next to this well indicating that there is a data problem. 10. Make sure you have the IJ-2D areal view showing so that we can easily locate the well we are about to add. Click the + sign next to W11 and double click on 1991-12-01 PERF. Well W11 should have appeared on the Well & Recurrent tree view.FIGURE 29: Reservoir Showing High Oil Saturation 1. Click OK to exit from the Create New Well panel. 6. 5. Load the dataset Tutorial_pred. 207322393. From the popup menu that appears. 7.doc 29/01/2014 32 . 8. then right click on Wells in the tree view. Name the new well W11. Select the Constraints tab and check the Constraint definition check box.

Using the knowledge gained from the previously displayed oil saturation plot from RESULTS 3D. Note. Once the area for the new horizontal has been selected. click once to add the first perforation. 13. Then click OK. You can also view it in JK cross section around plane 12. 14. Check the Perforate all intermediate blocks box. Click OK to exit. Well W11 should have appeared on your display. 15. Click the Begin button to Add perfs with the mouse.doc 29/01/2014 33 . and check the box to Set constant well length and leave the well length at the default of 1000m. and low well density. move the Well Completion Data (PERF) panel to the side so that the model grid can be viewed. 12.11. the exact grid block position may vary slightly from that displayed below: FIGURE 30: Areal View (IJ-2D) of Trajectory for W11 207322393. select an area in the model that has both high oil saturation. In the Well Completion Data (PERF) panel that appears. select the Perforations tab. then click on the tool button for Advanced options for perforating intermediate blocks between mouse clicks. Move the mouse to a position approximately near the end of the 1000m horizontal well and click a second time. Now.

and exit. We save the dataset as Tutorial_Pred1. Look at the oil saturation at the end of the simulation in Results 3D and the Field oil production rate in Results Graph.FIGURE 31: Cross Section View (JK-2D) of Trajectory for W11 16.dat. Also. oil left in the southern anticline decreased when viewed in Results 3D.doc 29/01/2014 34 . right mouse click and select "Delete".dat. This will remove this unwanted date. If there is also the simulation start date 1991-01-01 then select this date in the tree view. Left double click on well W11 to see that there is one date associated with it 1991-12-01. Note the increased production when the horizontal well opens. Note that the perforation will appear and disappear depending on the date you have displayed in Builder. FIGURE 32: Increased Production due to horizontal well in RESULTS GRAPH 207322393. “Well 11” is now fully defined. Now run in IMEX the dataset and compare it with tutorial_pred. 17.

207322393. STEPS: 1. Remember. GOOD LUCK !! Convert the HM file to stars. You should implement everything you have learned in order to get a history match and perform predictions to produce as much oil as you can at an economic rate. so you are only allow to drill a max of 3 wells including injectors and producers. In order to run your predictions. try to get as much oil out as possible. Volume Modifiers c. Change well constrains 5.doc 29/01/2014 35 . Drilling new wells b.Extra Exercises Who gets more oil???? Now we are going to apply what we have learned in this class. Aquifer b. Property modifications 2. inject gas d. After you get a "decent" history match you should create a restart file. in order to do that you might consider using: a. Get a History match until 1991-09-01. Inject water c. so you can start doing predictions 3. 4. but don't go crazy drilling wells.dat. so we can compare the results. the project has to be economic. Run your predictions up to 2005-09-01. consider: a. and save the file as Predict_your_name.