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Delta Modulation (Haykin 3.

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Previously we considered a two step process to sampling and quantization of an input analog signal g(t). In order to avoid aliasing noise, g(t) had to be sampled at twice the one sided bandwidth. These analog samples were then converted to digital format by a multi-bit ADC quantizer. Suppose instead we oversample the signal (ie higher rate than nyquist requirements and implemented a quantization/encoding scheme that successive samples only change by +/∆.
input signal m(t) quantized signal mq(t)

0

1

2

3

4

t/T s

This form of quantization is called “Delta Modulation”. Notation m[n] = m(nTs ) where Ts is the sampling interval. The error in the nth sample m[n] is
e[ n] = m[ n] − m q [ n − 1]

where mq[n] is the quantized version of m[n]. See the diagram below:
m (n) m (t)

m (n-1 )
m q( n )

m q( n -1 )

(n-1 )

n

t /T s

delta_mod.doc

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Hence we get a set of recursive equations: e[ n] = m[ n] − m q [ n − 1] m q [ n] = m q [ n − 1] + ∆sign (e[n]) The binary sequence to be transmitted is sign (e[n]) + 1 2 In the receiver. to reconstruct the quantized version of m(t) we have mq [n] = ∆ ∑ sign(e[n]) = ∑ eq [i ] i =1 i =1 n n where eq [i] = ∆sign (e[i ]) Block diagram of DM transmitter + m(t) 1/Ts + −∆ (sign(eq(n))+1)/2 e(n) ∆ eq(n) encoder baseband transmitted signal + delay one time step mq(n-1) mq(n) delta_mod.doc 2 .

As described in the first lab.Block diagram of the DM receiver received baseband signal eq(n decoder 1/Ts mq(n) + LPF estimate of m(t) delay one time step mq(n-1) Receiver essentially implements  n ˆ (t ) = LPF {m q (n)} = LPF ∑ eq (i ) m   i =1 where ˆ (t ) m implies the “estimate” or “approximation” of m(t) The receiver uses the data to generate eq[n] as input information to estimate m(t). there are two types of noise • Granularity noise • Slew rate limitation delta_mod.doc 3 .

m(t) slope overload granularity noise mq(t) maximum slope t Slope overload distortion eliminated if dm(t ) ∆ ≤ dt Ts SNR . Suppose m(t) is a sinusoidal signal of peak amplitude A.The delta modulation will have a granularity or quantization of ∆.doc 4 . The maximum SNR achievable of the DM is approximately SNR = 10 log( A2 ) 2σ 2 delta_mod. To a good approximation the resulting noise can be construed as additive noise that is statistically independent of the input signal. This granularity noise has a variance of approximately ∆2 σ = 3 2 Note that the variance is four times that of the normal quantization noise described in class as the DM either steps up or down by ∆ and therefore the average granularity is 2∆ instead of ∆.

Bit error Received And decoded DM signal t m(t) estimate of m(t)) t delta_mod. Eventually large offset in the receivers approximation of m(t) will result.doc 5 . m(t) t DM signal Hence the DM receiver essentially integrate the decoded DM signal to estimate m(t). For example consider m(t) as a triangle wave at the maximum slew rate. Bit errors that occur in the link will have an accumulative effect.Delta Sigma Modulation Delta modulation can be construed as transmitting the derivative of the input analog signal m(t).

Then we don’t have to integrate in the receiver to recover m(t) and therefore there will be no accumulated offset errors.doc 6 .Instead of transmitting m(t) we transmit the integral of m(t). The discrete implementation of the integrator is m(n) + m'(n) delay one time step m(n-1) Using this in the overall delta sigma modulator of before m'(n) m(n) + e(n) ∆ −∆ eq(n + + encoder delay one time step m(n-1) + mq'(n-1) delay one time step mq'(n) To simplify this block diagram consider the following feedback loop equivalence G(z) + - + H(z) G(z) + - + G(z)H(z) delta_mod.

doc 7 .Now note the orientation of the blocks in the flow diagram + delay one time step mq'(n-1) mq'(n) is equivalent to mq'(n-1) G(z) + delay one time step delay one time step mq'(n) Note we have labeled the accumulator in the dashed box G(z). Hence the block diagram of the delta sigma reduces to delta_mod.

+ m(n) e(n) + - G(z) ∆ −∆ eq(n) encoder m(n-1) G(z) delay one time step mq'(n-1) mq'(n) Which finally reduces to + m(n) - e(n) + G(z) ∆ −∆ eq(n) encoder delay one time step mq'(n-1) mq'(n) In the receiver we use a LPF to smooth out the granularity noise and eliminate the high frequency content. delta_mod. Observation of Granularity Noise To simplify the explanation of granularity noise consider the delta sigma in the continuous time domain instead of the discrete domain.doc 8 . Below we have replaced the discrete integrator with a continuous time one.

) Making this approximation the circuit model becomes n(t) x(t) + - + 1/S + y(t) Now note the following transfer functions in the Laplace domain: 1 Y (s) 1 = s = Low pass function 1 1+ s X ( s) 1+ s delta_mod.doc 9 .x(t) + - + 1/S y(t) To a very rough approximation we can represent the threshold detector as follows n(t) u(t) v(t) u(t) + v(t) where n(t) is white noise that is independent of the input signal x(t) and the output signal y(t). (Generally this approximation is valid if the input signal u(t) looks sufficiently like a bandlimited gaussian random process.

find the minimum ∆ that still avoids slope overload. the higher the output SNR. Example Consider an input signal into a DM of m(t ) = A tanh( Bt ) Given the sampling interval T.doc 10 .Y (s) = N ( s) 1 1 1+ s = s1 1+ s High pass function low pass PSD of input signal PSD of granularity noise f The lower the bandwidth of the input signal. To avoid slope overload we require ∆ dm(t ) ≥ max Ts dt dm(t ) AB 2 AB = AB sec h 2 ( Bt ) = = 2 dt cosh ( Bt ) exp( Bt ) + exp(− Bt ) Consequently max and dm(t ) 2 AB = = AB 2 dt delta_mod.

∆ ≥ Ts AB Example Repeat the previous example but with the input signal as a modulating signal as m(t ) = A cos(2πft ) The slope of m(t) is given as dm(t ) = − A2πf sin(2πft ) dt such that dm(t ) ≤ A2πf dt Hence A2πf ≤ ∆ Ts Now consider that the DM modulator is used for speech with a bandwidth of 3. To test the DM a 1 kHz tone will be used. The sampling rate is f smp = 10 • 2 • 3.1 • 68 = 1.08V = Ts 2πf 2π • 1 Example SNR of a DM delta_mod.doc 11 .1. What is the maximum amplitude of the test tone if ∆=0.4kHz = 68kHz From the previous part the maximum tone amplitude is given as A≤ ∆ 0.4 kHz that samples at 10x Nyquist rate.

The input signal has a very small slope such that the quantization noise does not change much over the sampling interval.doc 12 . 0 T 2T 3T 4T t It is reasonable to assume that the quantization noise in each sampling epoch has a uniform PDF as shown in the diagram below: 1/2∆ -∆ 0 ∆ x delta_mod.In this example the average quantization noise of a DM modulator will be determined for a low pass signal. 1. To simplify this process two approximations will be made. Based on this we can represent the quantization noise as in the following diagram. The PSD of the incoming signal is uniform from –W to W. The quantization noise is difficult to characterize exactly as it depends on the input signal. 2. The quantization noise is uncorrelated from one sampling epoch to the next. Next consider the autocorrelation function of the quantization noise. It will be assumed that the slope of the incoming signal is such that slope overload does not occur.

Consequently R x (τ ) = 0 for τ >T Due to the uniform level of x(t) within a sampling interval we must have the following autocorrelation function as sketched below. Two facts are known regarding this autocorrelation function. the PSD of the quantization noise is then T∆2 Sx ( f ) = sin c 2 ( fT ) 3 Now it is given that the input signal bandwidth W is much smaller than 1/T such that the in band quantization noise is given approximately as T∆2 2W σ ≈ 2WS x (0) = 3 2 delta_mod. For details of this solution see Haykin Chapter 1 in the Telegraphers signal example. The first is that R x (0) = x 2 ∆2 = 3 The second fact is that samples of x(t) separated by T or more have to be completely uncorrelated based on the assumptions made initially. Rx(τ) ∆2/3 -Τ 0 Τ τ Based on this autocorrelation function.In this case the power of the granularity noise in each sample is given be 2 ∫x ∆ −∆ 1 1 x3 ∆ ∆2 dx = = 2∆ 2∆ 3 − ∆ 3 Now consider the autocorrelation function of the quantization noise x(t) based on the previous sketch.doc 13 .

Sx(f) signal band -W 0 W f delta_mod.doc 14 .