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Ch.

1-4 Chemistry

9/8/2012 12:34:00 PM

Scientific Method  Hypothesis—a tentative explanation or prediction based on experimental observations  After formulating hypothesis, scientists conduct experiments to confirm or invalidate.  Quantitative and qualitative information is collected. o Quantitative—is numerical data, such as the temperature at which chemical substance melts or its mass. o Qualitative—consists of nonnumeric observations, such as the color of a substance or its physical appearance.  After numerous experiments by many scientists over an extended period of time a hypothesis may become a law—a concise verbal or mathematical statement of a behavior or a relation that seems always to be the same under the same conditions. o We base much of what we do in science on laws b/c they help us predict what may occur under a new set of circumstances. Once enough reproducible experiments have been conducted and experimental results have been generalized as a law or general rule, it may be possible to conceive a theory to explain the observation. A theory is a well-tested, unifying principle that explains a body of facts and the laws based on them. It is capable of suggesting new hypotheses that can be tested experimentally. o A theory is based on carefully determined and reproducible evidence. Experimental results should be reproducible. The results should be reported in the scientific literature in sufficient detail that they can be used or reproduced by others. Conclusions should be reasonable and unbiased Credit should be given where it is due.

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Green chemistry?!?! Matter—physical material that has mass and occupies space.  An easily observed property of mater is its state, whether a substance is a solid, liquid, or gas.

particles are arranged randomly rather than in regular patterns found in solids. and ions cannot be ―seen‖ in the same way that one views the macroscopic world. and gases.  In liquids. but is fluid. Collide with one another and with walls of container. molecules.Solids—rigid shape and fixed volume Liquids—fixed volume. particles are packed closely together. their KE. acts to overcome the forces of attraction b/w particles. All matter consists of tiny particles (atoms. Increasing temperature corresponds to faster and faster motions of atoms and molecules. If it could be separated. the particles in gas are far apart.  Melting point and boiling point Mixture—consists of two or more pure substances that can be separated by physical techniques. Particles vibrate back and forth. Liquids/gases are fluid b/c the particles are not confined to specific locations and can move past one another. Determined using samples of matter large enough to be seen. measured.  In solids.  Gases—fluid as well. liquids. but volume is determined by size of container.  Under normal conditions.   . but they are no less real. Submicroscopic or particulate—world of atoms and molecules Atoms. **The higher the temperature. it would be classified as a mixture. Molecules move extremely fast and aren’t constrained by neighbors. Pure substance—has a set of unique properties. takes on shape of its container and has no def shape of its own. usually in a regular array. and handled. Varies by changes in temp/pressure Kinetic molecular theory of mater—helps us interpret the properties of solids. but seldom do they squeeze past their neighbor. molecules.  Cannot be separated into 2 or more diff species by any physical technique at ordinary temperatures. the faster the particles move** The energy of motion of the particles. Macroscopic—observed by unaided human senses. or ions) that are in constant motion.

soft drink Substances like hydrogen and oxygen that are composed of only one type of atom are classified as elements.  . Extensive properties-depend on the amount of substance present.Heterogenous mixture—sand on the beach (solids&liquids). etc. density. Physical changes are changes in physical properties. Ex: color.  Homogenous mixture—uniform composition throughout. Density—ratio of the mass of an object to its volume. Two or more substances in the same phase. unseen texture of the material can be detected. The identity of a substance is preserved even though it may have changed its physical state or the size/shape of its pieces.  Some compounds are composed of ions. Ex: ice melting. the smallest discrete units that retain the composition and chemical characteristics of the compound. solubility. The substance present before and after the change are the same. Chemical compound—pure substance like sugar. Ex: air. Often called solutions. Intensive properties—do not depend on the amount. Other compounds—such as water and sugar—consist of molecules. which are electrically charged atoms or groups of atoms. Physical properties—can be observed and measured without changing the composition of a substance. state of matter. An atom is the smallest particle of an element that retains the characteristic chemical properties of that element. is composed of two or more different elements held together by chemical bonds. or H2O. molecules present both before and after the change are H2O molecules. Ex: mass/volume of an object.  A compound has distinctly different characteristics from its parent elements. Temperature—often affects the numerical values of its properties. melting/boiling point. Useful in identifying an object. salt. and it has a definite percentage composition (by mass) of its combining elements.

The joule is related to the units used for mechanical energy: 1 J = 1 kg * m2/s2 Precision of a measurement indicates how well several determinations of the same quantity agree. o Kinetic—associated with motion of atoms. the SI unit. Energy Basics  Classified as kinetic or potential. Law of Conservation of Energy—energy can neither be created nor destroyed. Motion of macrosopic objects such as a moving tennis ball (mechanical energy)  Movement of electrons in a conductor (electrical energy)  Compression and expansion of the spaces b/w molecules in the transmission of sound (acoustic) o Potential  Results from object’s position  Energy possessed by a ball held above the floor and by  water at the top of a water wheel (gravitational energy)  Energy stored in an extended spring  Energy stored in fuels (chemical)  Energy associated with the separation of 2 electrical charges (electrostatic energy) o Potential energy and kinetic can be interconverted.Chemical change—one or more substances (reactants) are transformed into one or more different substances (products).   . When expressing energy quantities. All matter has thermal energy. most use the joule (J). molecules. or ions at the submicroscopic level (thermal energy). Ex: H & O molecules create H2O. Accuracy is the agreement of a measurement with the accepted value of the quantity. The total energy of the universe is constant.

Atomic number = protons  We use relative masses with the standard today being Carbon. Different numbers of neutrons. Masses of fundamental atomic particles are often expressed in atomic mass units.Standard deviation of a series of measurements is equal to the square root of the sum of the squares of the deviations for each measurement from the average. the number of sig figs in the answer is determined by the quantity with the fewest sig figs When a number is rounded off. A gaseous sample of an element is introduced into the evacuated chamber of the    .   In multiplication or division. the last digits to be retained is increased by one only if the following digit is 5 or greater Atomic structure  All atoms of a given element have the same number of protons in the nucleus. A carbon atom has 6 protons and 6 neutrons and is assigned a value of 12. This carbon atom has a mass of exactly 12. is 1/12the the mass of an atom of carbon with 6 p and 6 n. % abundance . Significant figures are the digits in a measured quantity that were observed with the measuring device. the # of decimal places in the answer is equal to the number of decimal places in the number with the fewest digits after the decimal. divided by one less than the number of measurements. Rules:  When adding/subtracting. One AMU. Sum of the number of protons and neutrons for an atom is called its mass number = protons + electrons Atoms with the same atomic number but diff mass numbers are called isotopes.# of atoms of a given isotope X100% total atoms of all isotopes of that element  The masses of isotopes and their abundances are determined experimentally using a mass spectrometer.

Atomic weight = (% abundance isotope 1/100) (mass of isotope 1) + (same thing) The SI Base Unites Mass-Kg Length-meter Time—second Temperature—Kelvin Amount of substance—mole Electric current—ampere Luminous intensity—candela 273.  Group 1A—alkali metals  Group 2A—alkaline earth metals  Group 3A—metals. Br. spectrometer. are nonmetals that exist as diatomic molecules. The atomic weight of an element is always closer to the mass of the most abundant isotope or isotopes. and the atoms or molecules of the sample are converted to positively charged particles called ions. He. Ar. ―noble gases‖ Groups 1B-8B are transition elements   . Al(most abundant) B(metalloid)  Group 4A—nonmetals included with metalloids    Group 5A—has Nitrogen Group 6A—contains Oxygen ―Calcogens‖ Group 7A—Fl. Xe. Cl. Kr. known as ―halogens‖ Group 8A—gases. Ra.15K=0C The Milliliter and cubic centimeter are interchangeable  125mL=125Cm3 Elements are arranged so that those w/similar chemical and physical properties lie in vertical columns called groups or families. least reactive. I. most reactive of all elements and combine with alkali metals to form salts like NaCl. Ne.

showing how atoms are attached within a molecule Molecular model  Ball-and-stick model  Space-filling models—offer a better rep of relative sizes of atoms and their proximity to each other when in a molecule. Diamond.    Metals from Groups 1A-3A form + ions having a charge equal to the group number of the metal. Nonmetals often form ions having a negative charge equal to the group number of the element minus 8. or groups of atoms that bear a positive or negative electric charge Cation—positively charged ion Anion—negatively charged ion Monatomic Ions  Metals typically lose electrons to form monatomic cations. Graphite. atoms. Disadvantage: atoms can often be hidden from view Molecular Compounds—consist of discrete molecules at the particulate level Ionic Compounds—constitute another major class of compounds b/c they consist of ions. Lanthanides/actinides Allotropes—one aspect of chemistry of the nonmetals is that a particular element can often exist in several different and distinct forms Ex: Carbon. and nonmetals typically gain electrons to form monatomic anions. Polyatomic Ions . Transition metals also form cations. Buckyballs—buckministerfullerenes Ethanol Molecular Formula—C2H6O Condensed Formula—CH3CH2OH—indicates how certain atoms are grouped together Structural Formula—gives higher level of structural detail.

followed by the anion symbol Common Polyatomic Ions Naming Positive Ions (cations)  For a monatomic positive ion (a metal cation) the name is that of the metal plus the word ―cation‖  Some cases occur. especially in the transition series. and the collection has an electric charge. The symbol of the cation is given first. In these cases the charge of the ion is indicated by a Roman numeral in parentheses immediately following the ion’s name. . in which a metal can form more than one type of positive ion.   Made up of two or more atoms.

 Polyatomic negative ions are common. o The oxoanion having the greater number of oxygen atoms is given the suffix –ate. chloride. the attraction b/w ions having charges of 2+ and 2= is greater than that b/w ions having 1+ and 1= charges o As the distance b/w the ions becomes smaller o Ionic solid consists of millions upon millions of ions arranged in an extended 3-dimensional network called a crystal lattice. o ClO4-perchlorate ion o ClO3-chlorate ion o ClO2-chlorite ion o ClO-hypochlorite ion When a particle having a negative electric charge is brought near another particle having a positive electric charge. The anions of the Group 7A elements.  . Thus.o Ex: Co2+ --cobalt (II) cation and Co3+ --cobalt (III) cation Naming Negative Ions(anions)  A monatomic negative ion is named by adding –ide to the stem of the name of the nonmetal element from which the ion is derived. o Ions such as Li+ and F. o There is a repulsive force when two particles with the same charge—both positive or both negative—are brought together. and the distance b/w the nuclei of the two ions is d. are known as the fluoride. bromide. and the oxoanion having the smaller number of oxygen atoms has the suffix –ite. esp those containing oxygen (called oxoanions). o As the ion charges (n+ and n-) increase. and iodide ions and as a group are called halide ions. there is a force of attraction b/w them. Here a lithium ion is attracted to a fluoride ion. the halogens.are held together by an electrostatic force. These forces are called electrostatic forces and the force of attraction (or repulsion) b/w ions is given by Coulomb’s law.

force of attraction increases. force of attraction decreases o Ionic compounds have characteristic properties that can be understood in terms of the charges of the ions and their arrangement in the lattice o A mole is the amount of a substance that contains as many elementary entities. Empirical Formula Molecular formula Percent Composition Law of Conservation of Matter—matter can neither be created nor destroyed .o Forces of attraction b/w ions of opposite charge increase w/increasing ion charge and decrease with increasing distance (d). An element’s molar mass is the amount in grams numerically equal to its atomic weight. o 1 mole = 6.  Ion charge increases. distance increases.0221415 x 10^23) is the molar mass of that element.0221415 x 10^23—Avogadro’s number o The mass in grams of one mole of any element (6.

9/8/2012 12:34:00 PM .

9/8/2012 12:34:00 PM .