You are on page 1of 4

4/22/2013 2:27:00 PM Crystal Field Theory  Describes the strength of the metal-ligand bonds.

 Change in strength can lead to change in magnetic properties & color. The five d-orbitals: Dz2, dx2-y2 Dxy, dxz, dyz When ligands approach the metal ion, some experience more opposition from the d-orbital electrons than others based on geometric structure. Ligands approach from different directionsnot all d-orbitals interact directly  These interactions create a splitting.  EX: a molecule w/octahedral geometry: ligands approach the metal ion along the x, y, & z axes  The electrons in the dz2 & dx2-y2 orbitals experience greater repulsion. It requires more energy to put an e- in one of these orbitalscauses a splitting in the energy levels of the d-orbitals (crystal field splitting).  FOR OCTAHEDRAL: Energy of the dz2 and dx2-y2 increase b/c of greater interaction w/the ligands. Other orbitals decrease in energy and become more stable.

Electrons in orbitals  Aufbau principle—electrons filled from lower to higher energy orbitals. (dxy, dxz, and dyz)  Hund’s rule—electrons filled to have the highest # of unpaired electrons. If there is more than a d3 complex, the electron can fill a higher energy orbital or pair up. LOW SPIN: pairing of the electrons HIGH SPIN: most unpaired electrons Small crystal field splittinghigh spin (weak-field ligands) Large crystal field splitting low spin (strong field ligands)

strong field ligands OCTAHEDRAL COMPLEX: 6 ligands attached reason d-orbitals split b/c of the electrostatic interactions between the electrons of the ligand and the lobes of the d-orbital. .Oxidation state & strength of ligand determine splitting I<BR<CL<SCN<F<OH<ox2-<ONO-<H2O<SCN-<EDTA4-<NH3<en<NO2<CNMost square planar: low spin.

4/22/2013 2:27:00 PM .

4/22/2013 2:27:00 PM .