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Photosynthesis: converts light energy from the Sun to potential energy stored in the chemical bonds of glucose.

o Lecture notes: You find Antennae Pigments in these photosystems.Pigments absorb light of certain wavelengths (reflects light that is not absorbed) Chlorophyll a: most common photosynthetic pigment in plants Chloroplast: organelle specializing in photosynthesis and is located in the mesophyll tissue (in the interior of leaves) IMAGE OF CHLOROPLAST: Chloroplast contain a double membrane. there are photosystems. If you look at a top down view of a THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. carotene o Reaction center: made up of chlorophyll a molecules  P700: PSI  P680: PSII o Primary electron Acceptor: one of the molecules embedded in the membrane There are 2 stages in Photosynthesis:  Light Dependent Reactions(requires sunlight)  Light Independent Reactions(still occurs in light) .  Photosystems are groups of pigment molecules found in the thylakoid membrane that absorb light photons of a particular wavelength. b .  Antennae pigments: chlorophyll a.

5. causes it to have more potential energy until e. 6.drops down  releases energy 3. The energy is finally transferred to PSII’s RXN center’s chlorophyll a molecules. The H+ ions are released into the thylakoid space. Since this electron leaves the P680 chlorophyll a molecules(Rxn center). Antennae pigments absorb the photon of light & an electron in the pigment molecule becomes excited to a higher level. it is replaced when an enzyme splits a H2O molecule into 2 electrons. Resonance energy: The potential energy of the excited electron in one antennae pigment is released and it excites electrons in an adjacent molecule.Light Dependent Reactions:  Occurs in the inner membrane of thylakoids  Converts light energy into potential energy in the chemical bonds of NADPH + ATP Thylakoid Membranes have 2 main photosystems:  Photosystem II (PS680): PSII’s rxn center’s chlorophyll a absorbs energy of wavelength 680 nm  Photosystem I (PS700): absorbs energy of 700 nm 1. This transferred energy excites an electron in this pair of chlorophyll a molecules to a higher energy state. and the Oxygen is released into the air. This excited electron is physically transferred from the excited P680 to the primary acceptor molecule. This continues to occur in several nearby pigment molecules.) Noncyclic Electron Flow (involves PSI & PSII) Steps: 1. Light w/wavelength of 680 nm(PSII) strikes a leaf 2. . and an Oxygen atom. 2 H+ ions. basically “funnels light energy to the reaction center” 4. These electrons help replace the one lost in P680.

11. The photo excited electrons are passed in a second electron transport chain except this chain does not create a proton gradient and thus does not produce ATP. 8. This contributes to the concentration gradient used in chemiosmosis. they release energy used for proton(H+) pumping into the thylakoid space.  As these electrons are being passed through. so the cyclic pathway runs independently in PSI ONLY:  PSI passes the electrons down the electron transport chain. . the noncyclic pathway backs up. CYCLIC ELECTRON FLOW(PSI)  When too much NADPH is accumulated(not being used). light energy activates antennae pigments in P700 system. This flow of electrons continues until NADP+NADPH. they are passed (cycled) back to PSI’s rxn center. The electrons are passed from PSII’s primary electron acceptor to PSI’s reaction center via an electron transport chain. The photo excited electron then goes to PSI’s primary electron acceptor 10. o The passing of electrons down the electron transport chain provides the energy needed for transporting H+ into the thylakoid compartment/creating an H+ gradient for chemiosmosis o Cyclic pathway lets the thylakoid continue making ATP even though NADPH is not involved or formed. NADP+ receives the electrons and is reduced to NADPH with the addition of an H+ proton from the stroma.7. 9. This excites an electron of the P700 pair of chlorophyll a molecules. but instead of finally passing them to NADP+. Meanwhile.

CO2 + RuBP (Ribulose Biphosphate) ------ 6 unstable Carbon molecules .  H+ exit the thylakoid compartment through ATP synthase (H+’s flow through ATP synthase provides energy for ADP + P ATP (occurs in the stroma) Light Dependent RXNS IMAGE 2ND PART is Light INDEPENDENT RXNS:  occurs in stroma  powered by ATP & NADPH from light rxns CALVIN CYCLE: o CO2 from the air is converted into glucose (5 carbon molecule) RUBP Carboxylase (enzyme that adds CO2) 1.

Another type is called CAM (Crassulacean Acid Metabolism) Photosynthesis  Plants living in dry environments aka cacti  Open stomata at night so they don’t have to open it during the day . The 2 3-Carbon PGA go through chemical steps that require the addition of energy from ATP & NADPH. The 6 unstable carbon molecules immediately split into 2 3-carbon PGA(phosphogylcerate) 3. C3 Photosynthesis is the normal process described above.2. 2 of the 3-Carbon PGALs(Glyceraldehyde phosphates) combine to form 1 glucose (C6H12O6) 5.  PGAL(glyceraldehyde phosphates) 4. inorganic phosphate. and NADP+ to the light reactions. the remaining 3-Carbon PGAL(Glyceraldehyde phosphates) combine to regenerate the 6 5-Carbon RuBP  The Calvin Cycle reactions return ADP.

Light energyglucoseATP provides energy for work  Glucose links photosynthesis to cellular respiration Cellular Respiration: Cellular respiration converts potential energy in glucose to potential energy in ATP. There is no net gain of ATP from fermentation.  Net gain: 2ATP/glucose  This reaction continues until it reaches an equilibrium. The malate is stored in a vacuole. which is the ultimate source of energy used to do "biological work". which then goes through the Calvin cycle to produce sugar.At night. Breaking down glucose to release potential energy:  Begins w/process of glycolysis  Followed by either o Fermentation (in anaerobic environments)  Alcoholic  Lactic acid o Citric Acid Cycle (Krebs Cycle) + electron transport (aerobic environment) Glycolysis: Glucose + 2ATP  2 Pyruvate + 4ATP + H+  Occurs in the cytosol  Requires input of 2ATP molecules but process releases 4 ATP molecules. It converts back to CO2. During the daytime. o Pyruvate and H+ have to be removed before it starts building up and that will cause glycolysis to slow down until it eventually stopsno more ATP released if glycolysis stops The goal of fermentation is to remove pyruvate/H+ products so that glycolysis can continue. the malate pumps out of the vacuole into the stroma. which helps maintain the concentration gradient. they keep stomata open and let in CO2. The CO2 converts to malate. .

o 1 Acetyl CoA  1 ATP molecule produced o 1 Pyruvate  1 ATP o glucose  2 ATP  each glucose is broken down to 2 pyruvates Kreb’s cycle aka citric acid cycle occurs in the matrix of the mitochondria Electron transport follows the citric acid cycle . and it allows pyruvate to be broken down to release more energy and produce more ATP. Water is non-toxic. o Lots of potential energy stored in pyruvate & organisms are unable to use that energy Lactic Acid Fermentation: Pyruvate + H+  lactate  Lactate becomes ultimate Hydrogen acceptor Aerobic Environment: GlycolysisKreb’s cycleelectron transport chain Water is the ultimate Hydrogen acceptor when oxygen is present.Alcoholic Fermentation: Pyruvate + H+  acetylaldehyde (ethanol) + CO2  Ethanol becomes ultimate “hydrogen acceptor”  End products of glycolysis removed   Bad: alcohol is poisonous to cells. the Pyruvate is used to help remove H+ from the cell. Pyruvate contains 3 Carbon atoms and it links the Citric Acid Cycle to Glycolysis Pyruvate  CO2(released to environment) + Acetyl CoA  Acetyl CoA reacts with oxaloacetate to produce citrate. Glycolysis: in cytosol NADH + Pyruvate move to mitochondria  Pyruvate is broken down in 2 steps inside mitochondria.

Active transport of the H+ creates a concentration gradient. which powers chemiosmosis produces 26-28 ATP Anaerobic vs. o Plants can’t do lactic acid fermentation b/c they are never energy stressed! o Plants do PHOTOSYNTHESIS + AEROBIC RESPIRATION. Aerobic  Any organism that can only do anaerobic respiration is forced to be single-celled/very simple. however. Electron moves down electron transport chain from molecule to molecule. o Ex: work out too hardO2 used faster than body can supply to cells. This causes our body to become momentarily anaerobic. single-celled organisms can not do aerobic respiration. This releases energy that is used to actively transport H+ across the membrane. .  Multicellular organisms are capable of lactic acid fermentation.