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A generic layout for a changing room should accommodate the following requirements.

• • An area at the entrance to store outside or low risk clothing. Lockers should have sloping tops. A barrier to divide low and high risk floors. This is a physical barrier such as a smal wall (approximately 60cm high), that allows floors to be cleaned on either side of the barrier without contamination by splashing etc. between the two. Open lockers at the barrier to store low risk footwear. A stand on which captive, high risk footwear is displayed/dried. Boot baths and boo washers are not recommended as a means of decontaminating footwear between low high risk areas as they are not an effective means of microbial control. The use of bootwashers in high risk should only be used to help control the risk of operatives slipping (if the floors are particularly slippery) by controlling food debris build-up ii soles of the boots. An area designed with suitable drainage for bootwashing operations. Research has shown (Taylor et a l , 2000) that manual cleaning (preferably during the cleaning shi and industrial washing machines are satisfactory bootwashing methods Hand wash basins to service a single, hand wash. Handwash basins should have automatic or knee/foot operated water supplies, water supplied at a suitable tempen (that encourages hand washing) and a waste extraction system piped directly to dra: has been shown that hand wash basins positioned at the entrance to high risk, whicl the original high risk design concept to allow visual monitoring of hand wash compliance, gives rise to substantial aerosols of staphylococcal strains that can potentially contaminate the product. Suitable hand drying equipment, e.g. paper towel dispensers or hot air dryers and. 1 paper towels, suitable towel disposal containers. Access for clean factory clothing and storage of soiled clothing. For larger operati this may be via an adjoining laundry room with interconnecting hatches. Alcoholic hand rub dispensers immediately inside the high risk production area.

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Air The air is a potential source of pathogens and air intake into the high risk area, and le from it, has to be controlled. Air can enter high risk via a purpose built air handling ! or can enter into the area from external uncontrolled sources (e.g. low risk productior packing, outside). For high risk areas, the goal of the air handling system is to suppl; suitably filtered fresh air, at the correct temperature and humidity, at a slight overpre? prevent the ingress of external air sources. Air quality standards for the food industry were first reviewed by Brown (1996) and the design of the air handling system should now consider the following issues:• Filtration of air is a complex matter and requires a thorough understanding of filter types and installations. For high care applications, a series of filters is required to provide air to the desired standard and is usually made up of a G4/F5 panel or pocket filter followed by an F7-9 rigid cell filter. For some high risk operations an H10 or HI 1 final filter may be desirable. • The pressure differential between low and high risk should be between 5-15 Pascals or be 1.5m/sec or greater through openings. The desired pressure differential will increase as both the number and size of openings and also the temperature differentials between low and high risk increases. As a general rule, openings into high risk areas should be as small and as few as possible. Generally 5-25 air changes per hour are sufficient to remove the heat load imposed by the processing environment (processes and people) and provide operatives with fresh air, though

This is typically achieved with airsocks. Safety and Welfare) Regulations (Anon. however.3m s"1. floor scrubbers and automats etc. a cleaning area for manual or automatic cleaning (e. ladles) or other non -fixed equipment (e.) should remain in high risk and be colour coded to differentiate between high and low risk equipment if necessary. a document entitled Guidance on achieving reasonable working temperatures and conditions during production of chilled foods (Brown. employers should be able to demonstrate that they have taken appropriate measures to ensure the thermal comfort of employees. An outside wall also allows external bulk storage of cleaning chemicals that can be directly dosed through the wall into the ring main system. • Similarly. 2000). • Air handling systems sho uld be installed such that they can be easily serviced and cleaned. stirrers. increase the rate of equipment and environment drying after cleaning operations and provide operative comfort. positioned directly over the product lines • Joint UK government sponsored work at CCFRA and the Silsoe Research Institute has investigated the measurement of both air flows and airborne microbiological levels in actual food factories. in a direction that does not compromise product safety.).g. • A separate wash room area should be created in which all within -production wet cleai operations can be undertaken. With respect to drafts. the system may need to be designed to dump air directly to waste during cleaning operations and to recirculate ambient or heated air after cleaning operations to increase environmental drying. • As well as recirculating temperature controlled air. Special provision should be made for the storage of such equipment when not in use. room temperatures of 10°C or less are sought to control environmental microbial growth and product shelf life and to ensure compliance with the Food Safety (Temperature Control) Regulations 1995 (Anon. Where such lower temperatures are adopted. These areas should as segregated as possible. depositors or hoppers) used for the processing of the product should remain in high risk and be cleaned and disinfected in a separate wash room area. any equipment. cleaning chemicals should be stored in a purpose built area. . • Cleaning chemicals should preferably be piped into high risk via a ring main (which should be separate from the low risk ring main). The room should preferably be sited on an outside wall that facilitates air extraction and air make-up. is normally taken to e at least 16°C or at least 13°C where much of the work involves serious physical effort. bins etc) should be minimised but where these are unavoidable they should remain within high risk and be cleaned and disinfected in a separate wash room area. 2000) states that employers will first need to consider alternative ways of controlling product temperatures rather than simply adopting lower workroom temperatures. The guidance document (Brown.g. If this is not possible. in the supporting Approved Code of Practice (Anon 1992b). 1995) as well as those imposed by their retail customers. This has allowed the design of air handling systems that provide directional air that moves particles away from the source of contamination (washrooms. any utensils (e. The Workplace (Health. Utensils Wherever possible. in very wet operations. • The requirements for positive pressure in high care processing areas are less stringent and ceiling mounted chillers together with additional air make-up may be acceptable. used routinely within high risk should remain in high risk. including hand tools (brushes. traywash) as appropriate. This may mean that requirements are made for the provision of storage areas or areas in which utensils can be maintained or cleaned. hatches. whilst higher humidities maintain product quality but may give rise to drying and condensation problems that increase the opportunity for microbial survival and growth. 2001). The room should have its own drainage system that. To help solve this conflict.g. may include barrier drains at the entrance and exit to prevent water spread from the area. a high risk area with large hatches/doors that are frequently opened. 1999) has been produced. people etc. • All cleaning equipment. squeegees. up to 40 air changes per hour may be required. and a holding/drying area where equipment can be stored prior to use. from which computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models have been developed to predict air and particle (including microorganism) movements (Anon. utensils and tools etc. The wash area should consist of a holding area for equipment etc. Typical examples include:• The requirement for ingredient or product transfer containers (trays. 1992a) require that the "temperature in all workplaces inside buildings shall be reasonable".3 (Rev) Workroom temperatures in places where food is handled (Anon. shovels etc) and larger equipment (pressure washers. which extends the information provided in HSE Food Sheet No. doors. • Relative humidity should be typically 60-70% to restrict microbial growth in the environment. the maximum air speed close to workers to minimise discomfort through 'wind-chill' should be 0. • In the UK. If the alternative measures are not practical then it may be justified for hygiene reasons for workrooms to be maintained at temperatures lower than 16°C (or 13°C). which. In many areas of the chilled food industry. Low humidities can cause drying of the product with associated weight and quality loss. awaiting cleaning.

g. Gloveboxes offer the potential to fully enclose product with the ability to operate to aseptic conditions. specific engineering rooms may need to be constructed. that can be disinfected on-line by gaseous chemicals (e. e. generated from personnel. Economically. high CO2. UK Government sponsored project has examined the use of systems designed to fully or partially enclose products further processed in high risk areas. in high risk.5 Barrier 4: Product enclosure The high risk air handling system provides control of airborne contamination external to high risk. the more ingredients to be added.. should be stored in high risk. low O2 or very high O2 concentrations). 4. but that are too large to pass through the low/high risk barrier. A joint CCFRA/Silsoe/Leatherhead Food Research Association. the less flexible gloveboxes become. it is also very expensive to cool the whole of the high risk area down to simply maintain low product temperatures. together with the nece ssary hand tools to undertake the service. it is possible to design an air handling system ihat minimises the spread of contamination generated within high risk directly over product. ozone) or UV light. production and cleaning activities. blade sharpening for meat slicers.g. stepladders for changing the air distribution socks. but provides only partial control of aerosols. pre-disinfected gloveboxes give the potential for a temperature controlled environment with a modified atmosphere if required I e.g. the faster the production line or the shorter the product run. Operating on a batch basis.• The most commonly used equipment service items and spares etc.g. e. is packed within the box and involves little manual manipulation. For certain operations. The more complicated the product manipulation. At best. • Provision should be made in high risk for the storage of utensils that are used on an irregular basis. . They work best if the product is delivered to them in a pasteurised condition.