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WAGENER & SIMON WASI GMBH & CO.

KG EMIL-WAGENER-StRASSE D-42289 WUPPERtAL Tel: + 49 202 26 32 - 0 Fax: + 49 202 26 32 - 407 www.wasi.de info@wasi.de

Technical manual

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Content

Standardisation What are standards for? Standard statements Clarification example Standard types and manufacturers Changes of standardisation for fasteners Standard parts comparison table General standards for the manufacture and delivery of fasteners made of stainless materials Stainless steel encyclopaedia Stainless steel main groups Steel groups / Types of steel / Property classes Labelling stainless steel fasteners Material definitions and comparisons chemical compositions Classification of types of steel according to property classes and corrosion resistance classes Materials selection for atmospheric exposure

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Fastener properties Mechanical properties Yield strength loads for screws with shafts Minimum fracture torques for screws Pre-clamping strength / tightening torques for headless crews Tightening torques for hexagon socket set screws Physical properties Chemical screw locking FAQs

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Can stainless steel corrode? What does extraneous rust mean? What does stress corrosion cracking mean? What causes contact corrosion? What causes pitting and crevice corrosion? What does intercrystalline corrosion mean? Why can fasteners seize? Compatibility with other materials Overview of chemical resistance against aggressive media Classification of degrees of resistance

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Standardisation

What are standards for? Standards are a method for standardising and unifying requirements, that are placed on material and non-material goods and services. Standardisation promotes national and international goods and services exchange and reduces trade barriers because standardised products are inter-exchangeable. This requires that the basic properties of standardised parts are determined from a central location and applied by manufacturers and traders. What do DIN standards tell us? As every standard, DIN standards also bring stan­ dardisation and simplicity with them. In case of a request it is sufficient to enter "DIN 912, M8x40, A4-70" to define several characteristics. A comparison of product requirements by sales partners is not necessary as both can be sure that they are talking about exactly the same product. Screw standards define the following ­ characteristics: Head shape (e.g. hexagon, hexagon socket, countersunk head) Type of thread (e.g. metric thread M, tapping-screw thread ST) Diameter Thread length Thread pitches Information about the technical delivery conditions

dk = head diameter t = drive depth k = head height l = nominal length of the screw b = thread length for screws with partial threads d = thread diameter in mm s = width across flats This example shows which characteristics are given by the following designation: DIN 912, M 8 x 40, A4-70 DIN 912 M 8 X 40 A4 -70 P = hexagon socket head cap screw = metric thread = thread diameter (d) of the 8mm screw = nominal length (l) in mm = material class, stainless steel A4 = Property class 70 = the thread pitch is indicated with a number If this number is missing, a standard thread is shown (M 8 x 40) Only screws with a deviating coarse thread are indicated with a pitch, e.g. M8 x 1 x 40 identifies a screw with a fine thread.

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However. Details can be found in the following table "Standard parts comparison overview". Adopted standards = national German edition of an ISO standard adopted unchanged Standard conversions (DIN/ EN/ISO) for fasteners Standards are tested and changed at regular intervals. EN standards are only valid in the EU.Types of standards and issuers Standards change dynamically due to innovation. it is achieved to accept these international standards as EN standards without changes. European standards have to be integrated in national regulatory bodies and the national standards repealed.ISO 6 7 . Adopted mixed standards = national German edition of an EN standard adopted unchanged These are standards which state that the standard number identifies the same object in both DIN standard and EN standard. shorter product lifecycles and the increasing convergence of technical sectors create a multitude of challenges and demands on national. DIN 7 new EN ISO 2338. 19. 1435. Publisher: European Committee for Standardisation = European standard Unlike ISO standards. Adopted mixed standards = national German editions of an EN standard adopted unchanged from ISO. width across flats were changed analogously and simultaneously the nut heights (type 1 ISO 4032). 1436 new EN ISO 2341). but that the EN ISO regulation indicates that the ISO standard has been adopted as EN and is binding. European and international standardisation. It was basically determined that EN will no longer be listed with five part numbers.standard DIN . Certain dimensions may change in some cases. there was a change on the width across flats for hexagon head screws and hexagonal nuts (four dimensional ranges). individual EN standards will be created whose numbers deviate from the ISO standards. ISO standards are valid worldwide and serve to improve global trading. Customers and suppliers must agree upon these conversions together. ISO standard Thread M 10 Previous width across flats according to DIN in mm New width across flats according to DIN ISO 272 in mm 17 M 12 19 M 14 22 M 22 32 EN standard 16 18 21 34 DIN . in which existing ISO standards are adopted as EN standards unchanged with the ISO standard number. Identity of EN and ISO standards is to be created. 20 and 21 have been replaced by DIN EN ISO 3506. These are standards which state that the standard number identifies the same object in DIN standard. Agreements and differences in standards for all of the standard products in this catalogue are detailed there. globalization. 4.ISO . For hexagonal nuts. German standard DIN standards continue to be used in Germany for products and services that are not standardised to ISO EN or for which there is no demand for standardisation on an international level. It must be observed that the basic standards of DIN 267. bolts DIN 1434. 9. Standard DIN standard Information Publisher: German Institute for Standardisation = national. In October of 1994. parts 1.EN . This assumption is not obligatory for international standards. EN standard as well as ISO standard. If this is not achieved on European standard level. these will accordingly be designated as EN ISO. DIN . = international "ISO" (Greek for equal) standard. 11. 18. In the middle of 1993. increasingly faster development of markets and technical advancements. new EN-ISO standards for slotted-head and Philips screws containing dimensional changes were also adopted. The creation of new business areas.EN .g. 12. The conversion to DIN ISO and DIN EN is constantly advanced. Publisher: ISO (International Organization for Standardisation). 5. To achieve a homogeneous European market.standard The new release and unification for pins and bolts should be pointed out (e.

type A. with chamfer DIN 125 DIN EN ISO 7090 7090 Nominal sizes based on thread diameter (ISO) instead of hole diameter (DIN).Standard part comparison overview DIN / EN / ISO Figure Designation according to standards Taper pins. round end (to date according to DIN excl. round end) Almost interchangeable Slotted cheese head screws DIN 84 DIN EN ISO 1207 1207 New head heights for M1. interchangeable Slotted raised countersunk (oval) head wood screws DIN 95 No new standard intended Slotted round head wood screws DIN 96 No new standard intended Slotted countersunk (flat) head wood screws DIN 97 No new standard intended Washers. hardness classes changed No dimensional changes Spring lock washers with tang ends DIN 127 Standard repealed 8 9 . without chamfer DIN 125 DIN EN ISO 7089 7089 Nominal sizes based on thread diameter (ISO) instead of hole diameter (DIN).6.5 Slotted pan head screws DIN 85 DIN EN ISO 1580 1580 New head diameter for M3 and M5 Retaining washers with lug DIN 93 Standard repealed Cotter pins DIN 94 DIN EN ISO 1234 1234 No dimensional changes. type B. round end (to date according to DIN excl. round end) Remark Almost interchangeable Parallel pins tolerance zone M6 DIN 7 DIN EN ISO 2338 2338 Length l according to ISO incl. hardness classes changed No dimensional changes Washers. untempered Standard (formerly) DIN 1 DIN-EN DIN-EN-ISO DIN EN 22339 ISO 2339 Changes Length l according to ISO incl. M2 and M2.

Figure Designation according to standards Spring lock washers with square ends Standard (formerly) DIN 127 DIN-EN DIN-EN-ISO Standard repealed ISO Changes Remark Curved spring lock washers DIN 128 Standard repealed Waved spring lock washers DIN 128 Standard repealed Spring washers. pipe thread according to DIN 228. G5/8“ 10 11 . G¼“. type B. waived DIN 137 Standard repealed T-bolts with square neck DIN 186 No new standard intended American shape wing nuts DIN 315 AF No new standard intended German shape wing nuts DIN 315 DF No new standard intended American shape wing screws DIN 316 AF No new standard intended German shape wing screws DIN 316 DF No new standard intended Slotted capstan screws DIN 404 No new standard intended Slotted headless screws with chamfered end DIN 427 DIN EN ISO 2342 2342 Changed slot depths Almost interchangeable Pipe nuts. type B. Part 1 DIN 431 No new standard intended New width across flats according to ISO 272 at G1/8“. type A. curved DIN 137 Standard repealed Spring washers. G½“.

V-shape with square hole not applicable in ISO. M12. M12. for wooden constructions DIN 436 No new standard intended Changing hole size for M12 and M16 Almost interchangeable Hexagon nuts. V-shape = square hole DIN 440 No new standard intended Eye bolts DIN 444 No new standard intended Internal tab washer DIN 462 No new standard intended Tab washer with 2 tabs DIN 463 Standard repealed 12 13 . 8% gradient DIN 434 No new standard intended Changing hole size for M12 and M16 Almost interchangeable Square taper washer for I-sections.Figure Designation according to standards External tab washers Standard (formerly) DIN 432 DIN-EN DIN-EN-ISO Standard repealed ISO Changes Remark Washers for cheese head screws DIN 433 DIN EN ISO 7092 7092 Nominal sizes based on thread diameter (ISO) instead of hole diameter (DIN). square. with fine thread DIN 439 DIN EN ISO 8675 8675 New width across flats for M10. interchangeable Square taper washer for U-sections. M14 and M22 Almost interchangeable Washers for wooden constructions. hardness classes changed No dimensional changes. R shape = round hole DIN 440 DIN EN ISO 7094 7094 Nominal sizes based on thread diameter (ISO) instead of hole diameter (DIN). low form DIN 439 DIN EN ISO 4035 4035 New width across flats for M10. M14 and M22 Almost interchangeable Hexagon thin nuts. 14% gradient DIN 435 No new standard intended Changing hole size for M12 and M16 Almost interchangeable Washers. minimal dimensional changes Interchangeable Washers for wooden constructions.

M14 and M22 Almost interchangeable Hexagonal wooden screws DIN 571 No new standard intended 14 15 . M12. included as a replacement for DIN 465 Remark Slotted knurled thumb screws. M12. M14 and M22 Almost interchangeable Square nuts. flat shape DIN 562 No new standard intended New width across flats for M10. interchangeable Square nuts DIN 557 No new standard intended New width across flats for M10. high type DIN 465 Standard repealed Refer to DIN 464 Tall knurled nuts DIN 466 No new standard intended Flat knurled nuts DIN 467 No new standard intended Retaining rings for shafts DIN 471 No new standard intended Retaining rings for holes DIN 472 No new standard intended Slotted nuts DIN 546 No new standard intended Two hole nuts DIN 547 No new standard intended Slotted set screws with flat point DIN 551 DIN EN 24766 4766 No dimensional changes. interchangeable Slotted set screws with cone point DIN 553 DIN EN 27434 7434 No dimensional changes.Figure Designation according to standards Tall knurled thumb screws Standard (formerly) DIN 464 DIN-EN DIN-EN-ISO No new standard intended ISO Changes Design with slot.

flat shape DIN 653 No new standard intended Half round rivets DIN 660 No new standard intended Countersunk rivets DIN 661 No new standard intended Adjusting rings DIN 705 Standard repealed Locking screws with hexagon socket. interchangeable 16 17 .Figure Designation according to standards Eye bolts Standard (formerly) DIN 580 DIN-EN DIN-EN-ISO No new standard intended ISO Changes Remark Eye nuts DIN 582 No new standard intended Mushroom head square neck bolt DIN 603 DIN ISO 8677 DIN ISO 8677 was repealed again in 2002 Knurled thumb screws. interchangeable Hexagon socket set screws with flat point DIN 913 DIN EN ISO 4026 4026 No dimensional changes. exterior hexagonal. interchangeable Hexagon socket set screws with cone point DIN 914 DIN EN ISO 4027 4027 No dimensional changes. tapered thread DIN 906 Locking screws with collar. cylindrical thread DIN 910 Hexagon socket head cap screws DIN 912 DIN EN ISO 4762 4762 Fine thread cancelled No dimensional changes. cylindrical thread DIN 908 Locking screws with collar. hexagon socket.

25d DIN 939 18 19 . interchangeable Hexagon socket set screws with cup point DIN 916 DIN EN ISO 4029 4029 No dimensional changes. M12.M39 Slmost interchangeable Stud bolts.Figure Designation according to standards Hexagon socket set screws with half dog point Standard (formerly) DIN 915 DIN-EN DIN-EN-ISO DIN EN ISO 4028 ISO 4028 Changes Remark No dimensional changes. M14 and M22 Almost interchangeable Hexagon head screws with thread up to head DIN 933 DIN EN ISO 4017 4017 New width across flats for M10. screw-in end e ≈ 1. M12. M14 and M22 New nut heights for M5 . M14 and M22 Almost interchangeable Hexagon nuts DIN 934 DIN EN ISO 4032 4032 New width across flats for M10. screw-in end e ≈ 1d DIN 938 No new standard intended Stud bolts. interchangeable Hexagon cap nuts. low type DIN 917 No new standard intended New width across flats for M10. M12. M12. M14 and M22 Almost interchangeable Slotted pan head screws with large head DIN 921 No new standard intended Slotted pan head screws with shoulder DIN 923 No new standard intended Square weld nuts DIN 928 No new standard intended No new width across flats Hexagon weld nuts DIN 929 No new standard intended No new width across flats Hexagon head screws with shaft DIN 931 DIN EN ISO 4014 4014 New width across flats for M10.M39 Almost interchangeable Hexagon nuts with fine thread DIN 934 DIN EN ISO 8673 8673 New width across flats for M10. M12. M14 and M22 New nut heights for M5 .

M10 New head height for M3 . d45.d100 new thicknesses of d5. M12.M10 New head height for M3 . M12. d55. M12.M8 Almost interchangeable Cross recessed countersunk flat head screws DIN 965 DIN EN ISO 7046 7046 New head diameter for M3 . M14 and M22 new nut heights for M3 . M14 and M22 new nut heights for M6 . M14 and M22 Almost interchangeable Shim rings and support rings DIN 988 Washers for timber connectors DIN 1052 DIN 1052 Timber Structures is not a pure product standard. mechanical fasteners described in DIN 1052 part 2 Washers for clevis pins DIN 1440 DIN EN 28738 8738 New exterior diameter of d8 .M8 Remark Almost interchangeable Slotted raised countersunk head screws DIN 964 DIN EN ISO 2010 2010 New head diameter for M3 . flat shape DIN 985 DIN EN ISO 10511 10511 New width across flats for M10. M12. d100 Almost interchangeable 20 21 . tall shape DIN 982 DIN EN ISO 7040 7040 New width across flats for M10.M8 Almost interchangeable Cross recessed raised countersunk head screws DIN 966 DIN EN ISO 7047 7047 New head diameter for M3 .M36 Almost interchangeable Hexagon nuts with clamping part (nonmetallic).Figure Designation according to standards Slotted countersunk head screws Standard (formerly) DIN 963 DIN-EN DIN-EN-ISO DIN EN ISO 2009 ISO 2009 Changes New head diameter for M3 . M14 and M22 new nut heights for M5 .M36 Almost interchangeable Hexagon domed cap nuts with nonmetalic insert DIN 986 No new standard intended New width across flats for M10. d60.M8 Almost interchangeable Threaded rods DIN 975 Standard repealed Refer to DIN 976 Threaded bolts DIN 976 No new standard intended Replaces DIN 975 Hexagon nuts with clamping part (all metal) DIN 980 DIN EN ISO 7042 7042 New width across flats for M10.M36 Almost interchangeable Hexagon nuts with clamping part (nonmetallic).M10 New head height for M3 .d20 and d24 .M10 New head height for M3 .

round ends (according to DIN to date excl. full length taper grooved Standard (formerly) DIN 1471 DIN-EN DIN-EN-ISO DIN EN ISO 8744 ISO 8744 Changes Lengths according to ISO incl. round ends) Remark Half length taper grooved pins DIN 1472 DIN EN ISO 8745 8745 Lengths according to ISO incl. round ends (according to DIN to date excl. round ends (according to DIN to date excl. DIN to date only for shape A (with chamfer) Spring-type straight pins slotted DIN 1481 DIN EN ISO 8752 8752 Two chamfers for diameters equal to or smaller than 10mm (ISO). round ends (according to DIN to date excl. round ends) Half length reverse grooved pins DIN 1474 DIN EN ISO 8742 8742 Lengths according to ISO incl. round ends (according to DIN to date excl. M14 and M22 Almost interchangeable Slotted nuts DIN 1804 No new standard intended Disc springs DIN 2093 No new standard intended Nuts for waisted bolts DIN 2510 No new standard intended Hose clamps DIN 3017 No new standard intended U-bolt DIN 3570 No new standard intended 22 23 . to date≤ 6mm (DIN) Hexagon domed cap nuts. round ends) Full lenght parallel grooved pin with chamfer DIN 1473 DIN EN ISO 8740 8740 Lengths according to ISO incl.Figure Designation according to standards Grooved pins. M12. round ends) Grooved pins with round head DIN 1476 DIN EN ISO 8746 8746 New shape B (with introduction) for ISO. tird length centre grooved DIN 1475 DIN EN ISO 8743 8743 Lengths according to ISO incl. round ends) Grooved pins. high type DIN 1587 No new standard intended New width across flats for M10.

height = 1. M12. height = 1. M14 and M22 Almost interchangeable Hexagon nuts with collar. M14 and M22 Almost interchangeable Hexagon nuts. pan head DIN 7337 DIN EN ISO 15983 15983 Minimal changes for dimensions Shape B (countersunk head) DIN EN ISO 15984 24 25 . type A. type D DIN 6319 No new standard intended Hexagon nuts. M12.5d DIN 6330 No new standard intended New width across flats for M10. type C Standard (formerly) DIN 6319 DIN-EN DIN-EN-ISO No new standard intended ISO Changes Remark Conical washers. type B.Figure Designation according to standards Spherical washers. height = 3d DIN 6334 No official standard Simply published as a draft standard and later repealed Spring washers for screw connenctions DIN 6796 No new standard intended Toothed lock washers DIN 6797 Standard repealed Serrated lock washers DIN 6798 Standard repealed Retaining washers for shafts DIN 6799 No new standard intended Parallel keys.5d DIN 6331 No new standard intended New width across flats for M10. tall shape A DIN 6885 No new standard intended Hexagon socket head cap screws DIN 6912 No new standard intended Hexagon head screws with flange DIN 6921 DIN EN 1665 1665 Blind rivets.

3 Almost interchangeable 26 27 .2 .2 .ST6. interchangeable Cross recessed countersunk head self drilling screws DIN 7504 P DIN EN ISO 15482 15482 No dimensional changes. ST2. ST3. interchangeable Cross recessed pan head self drilling screws DIN 7504 N DIN EN ISO 15481 15481 No dimensional changes.2 .2 .Figure Designation according to standards Spiral pins.3 Almost interchangeable Slotted raised countersunk head tapping screws DIN 7973 DIN ISO 1483 1483 New head diameter and head height for ST2.3 Almost interchangeable Hexagonal self-tapping screws DIN 7976 DIN ISO 1479 1479 New head heights for ST2.3 Almost interchangeable Slotted countersunk flat head tapping screws DIN 7972 DIN ISO 1482 1482 New head diameter and head height for ST2.ST6.ST6.2 .3 New head heights for ST2.ST8 Almost interchangeable Spring lock washers for cheese head screws DIN 7980 Standard repealed Cross recessed pan head tapping screws DIN 7981 DIN ISO 7049 7049 New head diameter for ST2.5 and ST4.5 and ST4.2 . standard design Standard (formerly) DIN 7343 DIN-EN DIN-EN-ISO DIN EN ISO 28750 ISO 8750 Changes Minimal changes for dimensions and tolerances Remark Almost interchangeable Washers for screws with heavy clamping sleeves DIN 7349 No new standard intended Hexagon socket button head screws ISO 7380 Self drilling screws.2 .2 .9 and ST4.2 . hexagon head with collar DIN 7504 K DIN EN ISO 15480 15480 No dimensional changes.ST6.5 and ST4.2 . ST3. ST3. interchangeable Retaining nuts DIN 7967 Standard repealed Slotted pan head tapping screws DIN 7971 DIN ISO 1481 1481 New head diameter and head height for ST2.ST6.

M3.Figure Designation according to standards Cross recessed countersunk head tapping screws Standard (formerly) DIN 7982 DIN-EN DIN-EN-ISO DIN ISO 7050 ISO 7050 Changes Some head diameters and heights changed Remark Almost interchangeable Cross recessed raised countersunk head tapping screws DIN 7983 DIN ISO 7051 7051 Some head diameters and heights changed Almost interchangeable Hexagon socket thin head cap screw DIN 7984 No new standard intended Cross recessed raised pan head screws DIN 7985 DIN EN ISO 7045 7045 New head diameter for M3 and M5 New head heights for M2. interchangeable Weld pin DIN 32501 DIN EN ISO 13918 13918 Socket head cap screw. TX drive 28 14580 29 .5 . TX drive 14579 Socket head cap screw with low head.5 and M5 Almost interchangeable Washers for steel structures DIN 7989 No new standard intended Hexagon socket countersunk head screws DIN 7991 DIN EN ISO 10642 10642 New head diameters and head heights for M3 . hardness classes changed No dimensional changes.M16 and M20 Almost interchangeable Snap rings for shafts DIN 7993 No new standard intended Cross recessed raised countersunk head wood screws DIN 7995 No new standard intended Cross recessed round head wood screws DIN 7996 No new standard intended Cross recessed countersunk head wood screws DIN 7997 No new standard intended Washers. exterior diameter 3xd (nominal thread diameter) DIN 9021 ISO 7093 7093 Nominal sizes based on thread diameter (ISO) instead of hole diameter (DIN).

part 1 Nominal dimensions for standard threads. designs and dimension accuracy for product class F Mechanical fasteners.06 2001 .02 DIN EN ISO 898 . German edition EN ISO 3506-4:2009 Self drilling screws with tapping screw thread . German edition prEN ISO 898-2:2009 Mechanical properties of fasteners .11 1975 .11 2010 . nominal thread diameters from 1 to 68mm Metric ISO threads general purpose . German edition EN 4757:1994 Hexalobular socket for screws (ISO 10664: 2005).1 DIN 13 .09 1992 . dimensions (ISO 225:1983). German edition EN ISO 10666:1999 Fasteners . Screws and nuts.01 1979 . German version EN 27721:1991 Mechanical properties of fasteners made of carbon steel and alloyed steel . German edition EN ISO 3506-2:2009 Mechanical properties of fasteners made of stainless steels .05 1999 .12 DIN EN ISO 898 . technical delivery conditions. limit dimentions Thread runouts and thread undercuts . layout and testing of countersunk heads (ISO 7721: 1983). German version EN ISO 228-1:2003 Tapping screw threads (ISO 1478:1999).part 6: Nuts with defined test strengths . Width across flats for hexagon head screws and nuts Cross recesses for screws (ISO 4757: 1983).11 2010 .part 3: Grub screws and similar fasteners not under tension (ISO 3506-3:2009).1:2009).part 4: Tapping screws (ISO 3506-4:2009).2 1994 .51 Edition 1999 .02 1992 . German edition EN ISO 898-1:2009 Mechanical properties of fasteners made of carbon steel and alloyed steel . German edition EN 20273:1991 Countersunk head screws.part 1: Screws with defined property classes .workpiece edges of undefined shape .3 1996 .10 Title Width across flats for screws. tolerances. We summarised these in the following overview for you.fine thread (ISO/DIS 898 . Through holes for screws (ISO 273: 1979). German edition EN 10664:2005 DIN EN ISO 3506 .terms and drawing specifications DIN 76 .part 1 Dimensions.02 1999 .6 DIN EN ISO 3269 DIN EN ISO 3506 .6 DIN EN 20225 DIN EN 20273 DIN EN 27721 DIN EN ISO 898 .basic dimensions (ISO 724:1993 + Corr.part 51 Exterior threads with transitional tolerance field (previously threads for force fit).1 DIN EN ISO 1478 Drives Standard DIN 475 .general requirements for screws and nuts (ISO 8992:2005) Technical drawings .01 2003 .10 1994 .08 Title Mechanical fasteners.dimensions Threads and screw ends for wood screws Metric ISO threads general purpose .06 30 31 .04 2000 . German edition EN ISO 1478:1999 Standard DIN 267 . nuts and bolts (ISO 262:1998) Metric ISO threads for general use . German edition prEN ISO 898-6:1995 Mechanical fasteners .part 1: Screws (ISO 3506-1:2009).2 DIN 267 . limiting deviations.09 2000 .cylindrical interior thread and tapered exterior thread .11 1999 .02 2005 .Acceptance test (ISO 3269:2000).coarse thread and fine pitch thread (ISO 898 .08 1975 .General standards for the manufacture and delivery of fasteners made of stainless materials Mechanical materials.mechanical and functional properties (ISO 10666:1999). 1:2009) Pipe threads for fasteners not sealing in the thread .1 DIN 78 DIN 3858 DIN 7998 DIN ISO 261 DIN ISO 262 DIN ISO 724 DIN EN ISO 228 .part 2: Nuts with defined test strengths .screw extensions Whitworth pipe threads for pipe screw fittings .1 DIN EN ISO 3506 .1 DIN ISO 272 DIN EN ISO 4757 DIN EN ISO 10664 2004 .04 2010 . German edition EN ISO 3506-3:2009 Mechanical properties of fasteners made of stainless steels .02 1992 . German edition EN ISO 3269:2000 Mechanical properties of fasteners made of stainless steels .11 2005 . technical delivery conditions for fasteners and stainless steel materials are detailed in various general standards. German edition EN ISO 3506-1:2009 Mechanical properties of fasteners made of stainless steels .4 DIN EN ISO 10666 DIN ISO 8992 ISO 13715 2010 . fittings and mountings Mechanical fasteners.standard thread and fine thread (ISO/DIS 898 2:2009).02 2009 .10 2005 . design and dimension accuracy Mechanical fasteners.6:1994).08 Title Metric ISO threads general purpose .03 2005 .04 2010 . technical delivery conditions.part 2: Nuts (ISO 3506-2:2009).1 Edition 1984 . Thread Standard DIN 13 . German edition EN 20225: 1991 Mechanical fasteners.Overview (ISO 261:1998) Metric ISO threads general purpose .2 DIN EN ISO 3506 .02 2000 . tolerances and designation (ISO 228-1:2000).Selection series for screws.04 Edition 1984 .part 1 For metric ISO threads according to DIN 13-1 Thread ends .

German version EN 10088-2:2005 Stainless steels . German version EN 26157-1:1991 Fasteners.ISO .1 DIN ISO 2768 . German version EN 102635:2001 Steel wire and wire products . German edition EN ISO 6157-2:2004 DIN EN 10264 .Tolerances for general use (ISO 691:2005) Metric ISO threads general purpose .technical delivery specifications for drawn wire Stainless steels .2 DIN EN ISO 286 . product classes A. rods.12 1991 . medium tolerance class (ISO 965-2: 1998) Metric ISO threads general purpose . German version EN ISO 16048:2003 DIN EN 10263 . German version EN ISO 4759-3:2000 DIN ISO 965 .part 3: Technical delivery conditions for semi-finished products.1 DIN ISO 965 . German version EN ISO 4759-1:2000 Tolerances for fasteners .2 DIN EN 10088 . drawn wire.part 27: Steel screws with adhesive coating.Wrench and socket openings . rods and wire made of cold dipped and cold flow pressed steels . identical to ISO 2768-1:1989 General tolerances. surface defects.10 Title Fasteners. German version EN 10088-3:2005 Rolled wire.Part 2: Limit dimensions for exterior and interior threads for general use.02 Surface defects Standard DIN EN 26157 .Tolerances . German edition EN ISO 4042:1999 Passivation of fasteners made of stainless steels (ISO 16048:2003). tolerances for length and angle dimensions without individual tolerance inputs.Part 5: Limit dimensions for interior threads. German version EN ISO 286-1:2010 Geometrical product specifications (GPS) .part 3: Flat washers for screws and nuts.07 Tolerances Standard DIN ISO 691 DIN ISO 965 . adjusted to fire galvanised exterior thread with the highest dimensions of the tolerance field location h before applying the coating (ISO 9655:1998) General tolerances. B and C (ISO 4759-1:2000).01 2003 .steel wire for cable .1 1991 .part 2: Technical delivery conditions for sheet and belt from corrosion resistant steels for general use.1 DIN EN 26157 . German version EN ISO 286-2:2010 Tolerances for fasteners .Tolerances .3 Edition 2001 .09 Title Stainless steels .3 DIN EN ISO 6157 .11 1999 .12 2004 .06 1991 .09 2005 . bar rolled wire.06 Title Mechanical fasteners . profile and bright steel products made of corrosion resistant steels for general use. B and C (ISO 4759-3:2000).05 DIN ISO 2768 .Materials Standard DIN 17440 DIN EN 10088 .2 2010 .1 DIN EN 10088 .09 2009 .04 1999 .Part 1: Principles and fundamentals (ISO 965-1:1998) Metric ISO threads general purpose .tolerance system for lengths part 2: Table of degree of basic tolerances and limit deviations for drill holes and shafts (ISO 286-2:2010).04 2010 . identical to ISO 2768-2:1989 Geometrical product specifications (GPS) . German version EN 26157-3:1991 Fasteners .11 DIN EN ISO 286 . tolerances for shape and position without individual tolerance inputs.2 Edition 2007 .part 5: Technical delivery conditions for stainless steels.5 1999 .Galvanic coatings (ISO 4042:1999).5 2002 .surface defects .part 28: Steel screws with clamping coating.09 32 33 .part 1: Directory of stainless steels. German version prEN 10264-4:2008 Surfaces Standard DIN 267 .27 DIN 267 .Tolerances .part 1: Screws and nuts.Tolerances .2 Edition 1991 . dimensions and fit (ISO 286-1:2010).09 2005 . surface defects.part 4: Wire from stainless steel.tolerance system for lengths part 1: Essentials for tolerances. screws for general applications (ISO 6157-3:1998: 1988).09 2001 .1 DIN EN ISO 4759 .03 2005 .3 DIN ISO 965 .3 2001 .04 2000 .11 DIN EN ISO 4759 .part 2 Nuts (ISO 6157-2:1995). product classes A.ISO . technical delivery conditions Mechanical fasteners .28 DIN EN ISO 4042 DIN EN ISO 16048 Edition 2009 .11 2002 . German version EN 100881:2005 Stainless steels .11 Title Assembly tools for screws and nuts . technical delivery conditions Fasteners .Part 3: Limit deviations for construction thread (ISO 965-3:1998) Metric ISO threads general purpose .4 2008 . screws for general applications (ISO 6157-1:1998: 1988).

8D 50 70 80 50 C1 70 110 50 70 80 45 60 soft coldtwisted high soft strength quenched soft quenched and temand tempered pered C1 70 110 50 70 80 soft coldtwisted 50 70 80 50 45 60 Nuts with 0. According to ISO 16048 passivated screws and nuts can additionally be labeled with a "P" (for example: A4-80P) 34 35 . mechanical properties and corrosion resistance.martensitic structure. These alloys have one characteristic in common: due to the chrome in the alloy they do not require any additional surface protection. materials with 10.steels) Duplex stainless steels. This enables strength increases. Other elements can be added in the alloy.The WASI stainless steel encyclopedia Stainless steel main groups The term "stainless steel" is a collective term for more than 120 different types of stainless steels. This chrome component forms a colourless and transparent oxide layer on the surface that closes on its own with the assistance of oxygen contained in the air or water after surface damage. Stainless steel alloys are basically divided into four main groups according to their crystalline structure: Martensitic stainless steels According to their structure. A fine grained structure is needed for both ­ – the ferritic and austenitic steels to achieve good technological properties. The most important property of this steel group is the high corrosion resistance which improves with increasing alloying. The ratio to carbon must permit heat treatment. contain 18–25% chrome. The austenitic structure has a 15–26% chrome and 5–25% nickel content. Austenitic .80). They are recommended for many applications and are the most important group of stainless steels.8D 025 035 040 025 035 055 025 035 040 020 030 soft coldtwisted high soft strength quenched soft quenched and temand tempered pered soft coldtwisted *) *) Stainless steels with low carbon content (a maximum of 0.5–13.5 m≥ 0.2%. An alloying addition of 2–6% molybdenum increases corrosion and acid resistance. These elements prevent the formation of chromium carbides during welding.ferritic stainless steels (known as DUPLEX . named after their two structure components.03%) can additionally be labeled with the letter "L" (for example: A4L . Austenitic stainless steels (so-called chromium-nickel / chromium-nickel-molybdenum steels) The austenitic chromium-nickel steels offer a particularly cheap combination of workability. For many decades. austenitic steels cannot be hardened. Steel group / steel type / property class Steel group Austenitic Martensitic Ferritic Steel type A1 A2* A3 A4* A5 C1 C4 C3 F1 Property class Screws Property class Nuts m≥ 0.0% are assigned to this group. the so-called annealing. 4–7% nickel and up to 4% molybdenum with an austenitic. They cannot be hardened. A final heat treatment with solution annealing at temperatures between 1000° C und 1150° C and subsequent water or air cooling is done to prevent the formation of precipitates. The high strain capacity of austenitic steels guarantees good cold formability. particularly of chromium and molybdenum. This also includes so-called stabilised stainless steels that are alloyed with titanium or niobium.2–1.0% chrome and a carbon content of 0. a variety of different alloys were developed wich offers the best properties for most diverse applications. Ferritic stainless steels (so-called chromium steels) These materials contain chrome percentages between 12–18% and have a very low carbon content of less than 0. Unlike martensitic steels. Stainless steels are summarised in DIN 17440 and DIN EN ISO 3506.

Fig.: Excerpt from DIN EN ISO 3506-2 Nuts which do not fulfil the test strength due to their geometry or fine threads. indicating steel type is permitted exclusively on the rounded end of the nut. A label on only one contact surface is permitted and may only be placed as an indentation. If it is impossible to label this part of the screw. this should be placed on the screw head. Fig. if possible and desired.50 A2 . however not with a property class. Such screws may be labelled with the type of steel. Attaching a manufacturer's symbol is also recommended for screws that are not labelled with the strength class. The label is done on the non-threaded part and must contain the type of steel and the property class. Labelling other screws Other types of screws may.: Excerpt from DIN EN ISO 3506-1 Labelling stud bolts Stud bolts above a nominal diameter M6 must also be clearly labelled. As far as possible. Labelling nuts according to DIN EN ISO 3506-2 Nuts with a nominal thread diameter above 5mm are to be labelled clearly according to the designation system. Labelling is mandatory and must contain the type of steel and the strength class.Labeling of non-corroding screws and nuts according to ISO 3506 parts 1 and 2 – status as of April 2010 Manufacturer's symbol A manufacturer's symbol must be placed on all screws that are labelled with the strength class label during the manufacturing process. Countersunk head screws. button head screws and screws with flat cylinder heads do not fulfil the requirements of ISO 3506 for tensile and torsional strength due to their head geometries. A label can also be selectively placed on key surfaces. also be labelled . nuts must receive the manufacture’s marking along with the property class.however only on the head.50 A2 . Labelling of hexagonal and cylinder screws according to ISO 3506-1 Hexagonal screws and cylinder screws with hexagon socket above a nominal diameter of M5 are to be clearly labelled according to the details below. the lowest strength is based at a strength of 50 or 025. For nuts that are labelled with grooved and no property class is given. Additionally other labels are permitted as far as they do not lead to confusion.50 ø>5 XYZ A2 . where the shear area in the head is smaller in comparison to the tension crosssection in the thread.50 XYZ strength class Festigkeitsklasse Stahlsorte type of steel strength class Festigkeitsklasse Stahlsorte type of steel A2 A4 36 37 . Herstellerzeichen Manufacturer A2 . however not with the property class.50 XYZ XYZ Manufacturer Herstellerzeichen XYZ A2 . Manufacturer's symbol As far as technically possible. This marking is also recommended if the product class is not marked on the nut. may be labelled with the steel type.

70 Nb 10 x % C ≤ 1. was added to this later.4550 AISI 304 305 303 304 L 301 304 LN 310 L 321 347 (H) ASTM . 1.33-0. There is a material numbering system valid in all over Europe today.00-12. "A4" etc.0-10.26-0.15-0.08 ≤ 0.0-22.0 8.0 1.80 Cu 3.0 1.50 0.040 0.00 2.2 X14 CrMoS 17 X 90 CrMoV 18 X 39 CrMo 17.5 24.50 1.0 17.4541.10 URANUS 65/ SS25L URANUS S1/ ANTINITE ®trademark C% ≤ 0.11 N ≤ 0.4311 1.4306 1.0-9.0-16.4021 1.045 S≤% 0.1 X 105 Cr Mo 17 X 5 CrTi 17 X 5 CrNiCuNb 16.50 1. No.0 15.4301 1.0 12.08 Z 3 CN 18.0 1.17 0.70-1.040 0.03 ≤ 0.10 ≤ 0.0 9.030 0.15 Z 6 CNT 18.7 Chrome-nickel steels Designation X 5 CrNi 18. 1. "V4A" etc.0 16.015 ≤ 0.0 15.0 3.040 0.20 ≤ 0.4002 1.21 X 1 CrNisi 18.4112 1.0 12.015 0.11 N 0.04 Z 9 CNA 17.040 0. Nb 5 x C ≤ 0.43-0.040 0.0-13.0 18.0-19.08 ≤ 0.0-19.00-5.15-0.015 0.4034 1.7 X 2 CrNi 18.5 ≤ 1.08 Si ≤ % 1.00 2.015 0.0 16.5 16.4335 1.9 X 2CrNi 19.045 0.09 Z 8 CN 18.08 0.35 0.7 Mn ≤ % 1.25 0.0 1.45 Al 0.015 0.0 12.50 1.0 6.0 1.5 17.5-18.015 0.0-19.0 16.0 1.0-14.22 N ≤ 0.0-14.10 Az Z 1 CN 25.20 Z 1 CNS 17.015 0.4 X 7 CrNiAl 17.2 ≤ 0.0-18.16-0.015 0.00 2.00 1.4006 1. 10 Z CN 18.00 1.10 X 1 CrNi 25.015 0.07 ®trademark C% ≤ 0.4310 1.5 11.00 1.4016 1.0-19.11 N ≤ 0.4541 1.0-26.0-14.4306 although it shows the similar properties to 1.12-0.0 16.00 1.5 17.040 0.50 1.2 Ni % 8.09 Si ≤ % 1.045 0.0 1.4057 1.08-0.5-2.4568 AISI 410 S 405 416 410 430 420 420 S 420 -420 431 430 F 440 B 440 C 430 Ti 630 631 ASTM .030 0.00 2.12-0.50 1.0 17.95 0.3 0.85-0.015 0.07 ≤ 0.0-18.040 0.015 0.015 0.0 V% Other N ≤ 0.11 X 12 CrNi 17.00-12.4000 1.3 0.0 1.4542 1.040 0.50 1. Please note that a 1 : 1 realationship does not exist between AISI or UNS and the material numbers according to EN 10088.4303 1.12-0.35 0.5 8.08 0.0 1.0 1.10 X 5 CrNi 18.8 V% 0.10-0.35 0.5-14.50 1.00.0 1.15-0.10 X 6 CrNiNb 18.00 2.015 0.6 0.74.045 0.0-20.5-13.0 1.040 0.045 0.6 Ni % ≤ 0.0 1.0-14.07 ≤ 0.2-0.015 0.0 1.11 Ti (5 x % C)-0.040 0.0 14.025 0.0-19.4361 1.6 0.12 Other Al 0.05-0.7 0.8 ≤ 0.15 ≤ 0.0 0.0 12.50 1.UNS S 41008 S 40500 S 41600 S 41000 S 43000 S 42000 J 91201 J 91153 S 43100 S 43020 S 44003 S 44004/ S 44025 S 43036/ S 43900 S 17400 S 17700 AFNOR Z 8 C 12 Z 8 CA 12 Z 13 CF 13 Z 10 C 13 Z 8 C 17 Z 20 C 13 Z 15 C 13 Z 33 C 13 Z 44 C 14 Z 15 CN 16.0 0.Material .4301 and 1.5 20.8 ≤ 0.45 0.00 2.040 0.040 0.95-1.00 P ≤% 0.0-10. So for example.UNS S 30400 S 30300 S 30403 S 30100 S 304543 S 30600 S 32100 S 34700 AFNOR Z 6 CN 18.0 9.015 Cr % 17.4305 1.045 0.00 2.0 12.11 N ≤ 0.0-12.11 Cu ≤ 1.9-1.040 0.0 1.02 ≤ 0.8-1.5 16.0-18. these designations are not clear.040 S≤% 0. the material AISI 304L is the equivalent of material number 1.015 0.definitions and comparisons .15 X6 CrNiTi 18.10-0.5 1.0 17. No.025 0.4-0.015 Cr % 12.0 1.30 Ti 4x % (C+N)+0.4005 1.0-14.040 0.25 3. and are generally used.4122 1.0 1.0-17.5-17.5 17.15-0.0 Mo % ≤ 0.12 Z 10 CNF 18.00 1.0-19.10 Z 6 CNNb 18.4125 1.0 Mo % ≤ 0.0 12.045 0.015 0.0 Mn ≤ % 2. "V3A".5-11.10 M.015 0. Although these terms are today abbreviated to "A2".0-5.0-19.0 6.4510 1.010 0.15 ≤ 0.00 1.05 ≤ 0.00 2.50 17.7 PH 38 39 .07-0.12 X 10CrNi S 18.00 1.chemical compositions The term "V2A" dates back to the year 1912 and described a product from the "2 austenitic series of tests".5-7.35 0.4028 1.03 0.00 P ≤% 0. "A3".00 M.22 0.0 2.045 0. N ≤ 0. Chromium steels Designation X 6 Cr 13 X 6 CrAl 13 X 12 CrS13 X 12 Cr 13 X 6 Cr 17 X 20 Cr 13 X 15 Cr 13 X 30 Cr 13 X 46 Cr 13 X 19 CrNi 17.5-17.15 0.00 2.00.5 15.0-19.0 1.4104 1.00 1.09 Z 3 CN 18.010 0.0-14.045 0.17 0.015 0.040 0.0-17.0 11.08-0.75 1.015 0.01 Z 100 CD 17 Z 4 CT 17 Z 7 CNU 17.0-18.0 1.11 N ≤ 0.02 Z 13 CF 17 Z 90 CDV 18 Z 38 CD 16.0 10.4024 1.4 PH 17.0 15.06 ≤ 0.

7 1.00 2.0-25.5-13.00 Cu 0.0 24.030 24.12.4539 1.030 0.18 Z 5 NCDUT 20.00 22.0 Mn ≤ % 2.70-1.00 4.00 2.03 ≤ 0.00 2.50-7.50 N 0.22 N 0.00 2.0-21.27.2 X 2 CrNiMoN 17.015 0.13.5 Mo % 2.0 1.0-26.4404 1.5-18.00 3.045 0.22 Az Z 5 NCDUNb 20.11 N ≤ 0. 1.00 2.0 1.50 N ≤ 0.7 0.045 0.00-2.08 ≤ 0.00-2.0 16.4 X 6 CrNiMoTi 17.00 1. 11Az Z 3 CND 17.5-18.0 11.UNS S 31600 S 31603 S 31653 (S 31653) S 31609 S 31703 S 31726 AFNOR Z 7 CND 17.18 Z 2 NCDU 25.10-0.015 0.0 12.0-13.14.00 4.0 10.00 2.00-2.2 X 4 NiCrMoCuNb 20.015 0.0 2.020 0.5 24.0 0.27.05 ≤ 0.02 ≤ 0.0-23.5-18.00 2.00 2.00 2.5-18.5 V% Other N ≤ 0.5 16.16 Cu 1.030 0.015 0.18 X 5 NiCrMoCuN 25.4435 1.03 ≤ 0.0-26.0-21.045 0.5 24.13 X 1 CrNiMoN 25.50-1.00 Nb 10x % C ®trademark C% ≤ 0.5 6.20-2.015 0.0 10.5-18.5 16.11.25 Az Z 2 CND 25.5 16.02 ≤ 0.0-14.0 10.2 X 2 CrNiMo 17.15.5 16.16.015 0.0 1.00 2.4449 1.0 10.0-12.00-5.50 2.20.50 2.14.13.00-2.045 0.12.0 13.4582 316 Cb/Nb 318 C 31640 AISI 316 316 L 316 LN 316 LN (Mo+) 316 L (Mo+) 316 (Mo) 317 L 317 LN 317 904 L 316 Ti S31254 ( +-) N 08904 N 08028 S 31635 N 08310/ S31050 S 31050 ASTM .0-13.03 ≤ 0.25 X6 CrNiMoNb 17.50-3.015 0.12 M.4563 1.14.5 16.00-7.4429 1.0 26.15-0.07 ≤ 0.0 1.4436 1.12 Z 6 CNDNb 17.25.4438 1.0 30.5-18.4 X 2 CrNiMoN 17.0 2.4529 1.4466 1.80-2.70 Ti 10x % C ≤ 0.5-19.0 16.12.00 2.12-0.50-3.00 2. Cu 1.0-26.Chromium nickel molybdenum steels Designation X 5 CrNimo 17.015 0.4577 1.045 S≤% 0.03 ≤ 0.0-32.0-26.03 ≤ 0.015 0.00-5.00-2.0-19.03 Z 6 CND 18.0-16.0 0.00 2.02 Z 3 CND 18.0-26.5-18.50 2.2 X 5 NiCrMoCuTi 20.18.07 ≤ 0.030 0.50-3.50 2.0-21.03 Z 3 CND 19.13 (254SMO) 19. Cu 0.05 ≤ 0.50 2.0 1.5 17.5-18.02 ≤ 0.22 N ≤ 0.80-2.12 Z 5 CNDT 25.5 19.03 Si ≤ % 1.08 ≤ 0.0 19. Ti 7 x % C N 0.015 0.08-0.4465 1.00 Ni % 10.15.3 X 2 CrNiMo 18.2 X3 CrNiMoTi 25.030 0.010 0.03 Z 6 CNDT 17.12.11 N ≤ 0.045 0.0 19.045 0.16 N 0.2 Z 3 CND 17.50 2.04 ≤ 0.0 1.00 2.0 12.4505 1.0-21.22.5-13.22 40 41 .4580 1.12.045 0.12.4406 1.5 17.0-26.3 X 2 CrNiMo 18.7 0.11 N 0.0 1.20.030 0.0 10.13.12-0.00 0.25 HMo URANUS B6/2 RK 65 SANICRO 28 ≤ 0.045 0.5 0.00 P ≤% 0.11 Ti 5 x % C ≤ 0.00-2.30-2.015 Cr % 16.13.5 1.04 Z 3 CND 18.4506 1.030 0.2 X 1 CrNiMoN 25.5 24.025 0.12.0 21.4571 1.0 24.12-0.0 16.50.00 2.50 1.02 ≤ 0.60 Nb 10x% C ≤ 1.0-26.045 0.7 1.5 X 1 NiCrMoCu 31.0-28.00 2.0 1.11 N 0.20.5-13.00-4.4439 1.00 3.50 2.20.0 24.2 X 10 CrNiMoNb 18.045 0.010 0.010 0.00 2. Nb 8x % C Cu 1.0 16.05 Az Z 6 CND 17.50 2.5 X 5 CrNiMo 17.0 19.5-15.4401 1.00-2.045 0.11 N ≤ 0.045 0.00-2.25.04 Z 2 CND 25.5-18.5-18.00-2.12 Az Z 3 CND 18.00-2. N ≤ 0.00 2.010 0.2 X 2 Cr NiMoN 17.5-14.00 2. No.3 X 5 CrNiMo 17.6 X 1 NiCrMoCu 25.24 Z 6 CND Nb 17.0 1.02 ≤ 0.06 0.20 Z 1 NCDU 31.015 0.50 6.00-4.

4742 1.4821 1.00-5.50 4.5.00 1.0 10.00 2.015 0.50 1.0 1.50 V% Other Cu 0.4 1.00 30.50-6.5-5.0-34.04 URANUS 47N SS44 URANUS 45N/ SAF 22.0-26.5-6.07 Az Z 5 CND 27.4841 1.13 X 15 CrNiSi 25.UNS S 44200 S 44600 S 30215/ S30900 S 30908 S 31000/ S31400 S 31008 N 08330 N 08800 S 32109 S 30815 S 31609 S 30409 N 08810 N 08811 AFNOR Z 8 CA 7 Z 13 C 13 Z 12 CAS 18 Z 18 C 25 Z 12 CAS 25 Z 20 CNS 25.04-0.4713 1.4501 X 2 CrNiMoCuN 25.00 1.4749 1. No.0 1.80 2.20 X 2 CrNiMoCuWN 25.0 2.4919 1.5 1.4893 1.13 Z 15 CNS 25.0-12.10 0.00 1.040 0.0 Mn ≤ % 2.0 0.16 X 10 NiCrAlTi 32.040 0.7-1.0 0.50 0.0-26.0-14.0 Mo % 0.5 1.00 2.18.25 Mo % Ni % V% Other 42 43 .035 S≤% 0.50 4.10 0.045 0. No.UNS S 32304/ S 39230 S 31260/ S 39226 S 32900 S 31803/ S 39209 S 32760 S 32550/ S 32750 S 24565 AFNOR Z 3 CN 23.03 0.015 0.00 2.75 1.0 17.4 0.015 0.21 ®trademark SICROMAL 8 SICROMAL 9 SICROMAL 10 SICROMAL 11/4 C 54 SICROMAL 12 INCOLOY DS INCOLOY 800 (H/HT) 253 MA INCOLOY 00 H INCOLOY 800 HT C% 0.10-0.03-0.20 0.9 X 8 CrNiSiN 21.0 1.4 1.4845 1.040 0.5 3.0 20.0 1.00 P ≤% 0.05 ≤ 0.4462 AISI 329 (329 LN)/F 51 F 55 ASTM .21 M.08 0. 1.12 Z 15 CN 24.13 X 6 CrNi 18.21 Z 6 CNT 18.12 Z 6 CN 18.0 10.0-13.15 0.0 24.0 19. 1.10 0.20 0.50.5-2.045 0.12 0.5 3.0-19.00 2.3 23.0-22.0-19.4 X 3 CrNiMoN 27.15 N 0.5.20 X 8 NiCrAlTi 31.4410 1.0 19.60.12 0.50 1.12 Z 6 CND 17.00 4.015 0.15-0.0 30.045 0.0-14.DUPLEX / SUPERDUPLEX steels Designation X 2 CrNiN 23.0 1.7-1.0-32.11 Z 10 NC 32.010 0. N 0.4 X 2 CrNiMoN 25.10 0.0-26.50-6.6.4876 1.015 0.0-28.015 0.20 N 0.4833 1.50-5.0 21.0-22.4958 1.11 X 5 NiCrAlTi 31.015 0.045 0.0-22.015 0.015 0.10-0.0 0.4362 1.045 S≤% 0.030 0.00 2.11 X 6 CrNiMo 17.50 2.040 0.04-0.015 Cr % 22.8-1.040 0.50 0.0-34.0-29.12 X 6 CrNi 22.045 0.0 16.0-19.15 0.0-24.0 19.3 16.2 X 2 CrNiMoN 22.035 0.12 0.03 Si ≤ % 1.015 0.4959 AISI 442 446 327 302 B/ 309 309 (S) 310/314 310 (S) 330 321 H 316 H 304 H ASTM .4460 1.0 19.0-19.0-21.5 11.0-17.0 3.5 1.50-6.4 X 15 CrNiSi 20.0014.0 24.4565 Heat resistant steels 600° .03 1.0 N 0.04 Az Z 3 CND 25.20 Z 8 CN 25.015 0.00 1.60 Ni % 3.7.16 Z 10 NC 32.05 ZERON 100 URANUS 52N/ SAF 25.20 0.00 3.015 Cr % 6.0 12.0 33.4878 1.3 X 2 CrNiMnMoNbN 25.4-2.0-23.0 0.50-3.00 2.0 24.15-0.010 P ≤% 0.7 Mn ≤ % 1.7.05-0.20 X 12 CrNi 25.0-27.07 4565/DUPLEX + 6 Mo ≤ 0.10 0.0 1.00 2.4828 1.12 0.0018.00 2.0 22.0 17.03 ≤ 0.00 0.20 Z 20 NCS 33.0-22.00 1.4 0.5-1.0-37.00 0.4 1.015 0.015 0.50 2.030 0.035 0.20 0.22 C% ≤ 0.00 2.00 2.10-0.0-26.5.00 1.0-21.0 15.4724 1.5 6.21 X 12 NiCrSi 35.30-2.0-24.0 19.0-12.05-0.4 1.05-0.7-1.0 26.015 0.0-8.00 1.10 Si ≤ % 0.30-0.4762 1.0 0.02.001 0.04 Z 17 CNS 20.5-2.015 0.05 Az Z 3 CND 22.20 X 12 CrNiTi 18.4948 1.0 21.08 0.0 12.5-3.0 9. Nb ≤ 0.015 0.040 0.04-0.1200° C Designation X 10 CrAl 7 X 10 CrSiAl 13 X 10 CrAl 18 X 18 CrN 28 X 10 CrAlSi 24 X 20 CrNiSi 25.3 M.0-22.5 30.10-0.4507 1.040 0.07 Az ®trademark URANUS 35N/ SAF 23.07 0.03 0.015 25.00 1.05 Az Z 3 CNDU 25.4864 1.0 23.00 17.0 25.035 0.0-23.0 19.035 0.

4663 2.10 1.4858 N 06059 N 06455 N 10665 N 06985 N 06075 N 07080 N 07090 N13021 N 06690 N 08020 N 06617 N 06002 N 07718 N 07750 N 06600 N 10276 N 06601 N 06625 N 08825 NC 20 T NC 20 TA NC 20 KTA NCKD 20 ATV NC 30 Fe NC 22 KDA NC 22 FeD NC 19 FeNb NC 15 Fe 7 TA NC 15 Fe NiMo 16 Cr 15 NC 23 Fe NC 22 DNb NC 21 FeDU ALLOY 59 HASTELLOY C4 HASTELLOY B2 HASTELLOY G HASTELLOY G3 NIMONIC 75 NIMONIC 80A NIMONIC 90 ALLOY 602 CA NIMONIC 105 ALLOY 690 CARPENTER 20 Cb 3 INCONEL 617 HASTELLOY X INCONEL 718 INCONEL X .00 1.50 0.4603 AISI ASTM .015 0.50 0.4819 2.04 0.0-23.0 14.4969 2.35 0.0 20.0-26.08-0.4851 2.2 LC .00 1.015 0.025 0.08 0.30 50.50 1.4602 2.0 20.005 Cr % Mo % Ni % 99.00 0.0-6.4778 2.35 1.0 63.15 1.50 1.4816 2.13 0.0-17.4634 2.0 0.750 UMCO 50 INCONEL 600 8 HASTELLOY C 276 INCONEL 601 INCONEL 625 INCOLOY 825 0.00 0.00 1.10 0.5 Rest 12.00 1.025 0.0-24.00 1.10 0.0-8.02 0.4360 2.50 2.025 0.5 0.5-14.5 P ≤% S≤% 0.10 0.010 0.501.00 1.0-21.4669 2.0 Rest Rest Rest Rest Bal Rest 58.80 Mn ≤ % 0.00 1.0 44.35 V% Other - - 44 45 .4375 2.4610 2.015 0.01 0.08 0.0-3.4603 2.0 14.5 6.5 0.01 0.025 0.015 0.0 58.0-55.015 28.015 21.0-17.0 19.17 0.0 15.4660 2.2 LC .50 1.0-22.15 0.0-38.0 2.015 0.08 0.50 1.0 14-15.4633 2.0-31.0 24.0-16.00 1.0 20.0 32.03 Si ≤ % 0.010 0.25 0.0 63. 2.2 99.0 Bal Rest M.5 2.50 0.015 0.045 0. No.015 0.50 0.08 0.50 0.05 0.1 0.0-10.0 19.015 0.00 0.025 0.00 1.20 0.00 0.4066 2.35 2.0 70.5 16 0.50 1.50 1.25 0.015 22.5 18.0-30.0-25.5-23.0-46.0 27.0 14.0 38.UNS N 02200 N 02201 N 04400 N 05500 N 06022 N 06030 AFNOR Ni 99.0 8.0-10.0-21.4619 2.05-0.0-21.250 17.08 0.05-0.0-24.0-63.0 Rest 0.0-31.Nickel + nickel alloys Designation Ni 99.4632/ 2.015 0.5-3.00 0.015 0.07 0.0-17.0-18.50 0.020 4.030 0.015 0.03-0.5 8.00 0.0-23.020 0.35 0.010 0.15-0.4630/ 2.12-0.5-5.4068 2.0 72.Ni 99 Nu 30 Nu 30 AT ®trademark NICKEL 200 NICKEL 201 MONEL 400 NICKEL K500 HASTELLOY C22 HASTELLOY G30 C% 0.05-0.0 18.015 0.50 0.4951 2.02 0.0-21.4952 2.0 18.0-21.00 1.2 0.50 0.05 1.15 0.0 4.10 0.10 0.4605 2.015 0.4665/ 2.4617 2.00 0.5 21.4856 2.015 0.4668 2.00 1.01 0.25 0.25 0.02 0.00 1.02 0.02 0.0 4.0 11.4642 2.0 2.4631/ 2.50 0.7 27.80-3.4618 2.Ni 99 NiCu 30 Fe NiCu 30 Al NiCr 21 Mo 14 W NiCr 30 FeMo NiCr 30 FeMo NiCr 23 Mo 16 Al NiCr 23 Mo 16 Al NiMo 16 Cr 16 Ti NiMo 28 NiCr 22 Mo 6 Cu NiCr 22 Mo 7 Cu NiCr 20 Ti NiCr 20 TiAl NiCr 20 Co 18 Ti NiCr 25 FeAl NiCo 20 Cr 15 Mo Al Ti NiCr 29 Fe NiCr 20 CuMo NiCr 23 Co 12 Mo NiCr 22 Fe 18 Mo NiCr 19 NbMo NiCr 15 Fe 7 TiAl CoCr 28 NiCr 15 Fe NiMo 16 Cr 15 W NiCr 23 Fe NiCr 22 Mo 9 Nb NiCr 21 Mo 2.50 0.0 15.0 Rest 58.00 0.

2. 3. No.250 0.130 0.7164/ 3.06 0.08 0.250 0.100 0.7025 3.08 0.01 0.350 0.4 Ni % Rest Rest Rest Rest Rest Rest Rest 3.50 30.200 S≤% 0.5 V% Other 46 47 .UNS C 70600 C 71500 AFNOR CuNi 10 Fe 1 Mn CuNi 30 Fe 1 Fe ®trademark CUPRONICKEL 90/10 CUPRONICKEL 70/30 0.03 0.7035 3.7165 Ti II Pb Ti Pb 3.08 Si ≤ % 0.7065 3.120 0.05 Mn ≤ % 0.4 Cr % Mo % 0.08 0.250 0.200 0.06 0.7055 3.08 0.05 0.08 0.4 0.0882 AISI ASTM .UNS R 50250 R 50400 R 50550 R 52400 R 52250 AFNOR T 35 T 40 T 50 T 60 TA 6 V ®trademark GRADE I (1) GRADE II (2) GRADE III (3) GRADE IV (4) GRADE V (5) GRADE VII (7) GRADE XI (11) C% 0.4 0.4 0. No.02 0.7235 3.05 0.Copper nickel materials Designation CuNi 10 Fe CuNi 30 Fe M.5-4.02 0.7225 AISI ASTM .0 C% Si ≤ % Mn ≤ % P ≤% S≤% Cr % Mo % Ni % V% Other Titanium materials Designation M.0872 2.01 0.05 0.350 0.05 0.120 0.01 P ≤% 0.200 0.350 0.01 0.01 0.4 0.10 0.200 0.

W - SH1 SH2 5< pH ≤ 9 3< pH ≤ 9 x x 14 X2CrNiMN22-5-3 1. H. P. H. D. P. Ba. H. D. D. W B. Ba. Ba. S D. S D. S B. S III / medium contamination due to redoxactive materials (e. D. S Ba. D. S - x 1) according to DIN EN 10088-1:2005-09 2) A = Austenite. road tunnels Country. S B. P D. D. S D. H2O2) pH value at the surface SR0 SR1 SR2 SH0 B. H S Ba. D = wire. S. contact with concrete) neutral slightly acidic (e. H. S B. W B. S - II / moderate SC1 medium x SC2 SC3 high very high low medium high alkaline (e. F = Ferrite.4016 1. H.4301 1. S B. D. Ba. 48 49 .P. S - S S - I / low B. annual average U of humidity Exposure SF0 SF1 SF2 SF3 Chloride content of the atmosphere. W B. H. 2009 “Products. S > 0.3-6 from April 20th. S Ba. W D. S D. covered outside. S D. S B. D. Ba. H.4578 1. S Ba. fasteners and components made of stainless steels“ Materials selection for atmospheric exposure Corrosion resistances classes 5) 6) Impact Humidity. D. CI2. if a pitting corrosion of 100 µ is tolerated (no optical requirements) 4) Constructions are designated as non-accessible if their condition cannot be inspected or can only be inspected under difficult conditions and can only be reconstructed with huge efforts after a fire. Ba. a reduction of the CRC is possible. D. distance M from sea. Ba D. S Ba. B. W D.4003 1.4307 1. W H. city Industry swimming pools. S B. W B. W D. 0. D. P. D. P. S. HOCI. Ba. H.1km industrial area 10km ≤ M > 1 km.4318 1. D.1km ≤ S > 0. M> 10km. W - D.7 1) With regular cleaning of accessible constructions or direct cleaning. 4) B = sheet.4539 1. H. W B. Ba. S - D. contact with wood) acidic ( acid contamination) inside exterior. W D. P. S. D. Structure 2) Property classes 3) and product forms 4) S 235 S 275 S 355 S 460 S 690 X2CrNi12 X6Cr17 X5CrNi18-10 X2CrNi18-9 X3CrNiCu18-9-4 X6CrNiTi18-10 X2CrNiN18-7 X5CrNiMo17-12-2 X2CrNiMo17-12-2 X3CrNiCuMo17-11-3-2 X6CrNiMoTi17-12-2 X2CrNHiMoN17-13-5 X2CrNiN23-4 1. Ba. B. P. For possible concentrations of materials on surfaces. Ba. H. Ba. SO2. D. D. Ba.01km swimming pools.4439 1. D. D. FA = Ferrite-Austenite (Duplex) 3) The property classes following the relevant lowest property class are achieved by work hardening using cold forming. S - D. D. S Ba. the CRC must be selected from a higher level. road tunnels 9 < pH x x x1) x2) x Corrosion resistances class I x x x x II III IV Classification of types of steel according to property classes and corrosion resistance classes Steel type 1) Running no. the corrosions impact can be significantly reduced so that a reduction of the CRC is possible. Ba B. S.g. There is hazard for non-precious metals with possible contact corrosion 6) required corrosion resistance classes see 3.4462 FA - - - SH3 Location of components D. H. S - SL2 SL3 17 18 1. W H. D. S = bars.4401 1. P. 2) With regular cleaning of accessible constructions. S. 3) By limiting the lifetime to 20 years. P.4547 A A - B. H. W = rolled wire 5) only the bare metallic surfaces are valid. H.Excerpts from the building inspection approval Z-30. S B.4565 A A B.4567 1. S H. distance S from busy streets with use of road salt SC0 dry seldom humid frequently humid permanently humid low Criteria and examples U < 60% 60% ≤ U < 80% 80% ≤ U < 95% 95% < U Country. P = profiles.g.4571 1. H. S. H. S Ba. B. corrosion impact is significantly reduced so that the CRC can be minimised. Ba. Ba. P. open to rain exterior. D. ambient air has access x1) x2) B.4362 F AF A A A A A A A A A A FA B. Ba. D. Ba. No. P. S Ba. S. city. S. D. H. D.01km M ≤ 1km S ≤ 0. S. S. H. H. Ba. S Ba. D. H = hollow profiles. D. H.g. S B. P. H. S D. W P. Ba. H. S. S Ba. drawn. Ba.P.P.4529 1. D. P. D.4541 1. S D. S B. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Designation M. no access 4). D. H. S D. W D. S. S.4404 1. Ba = belt and the ensuing completed sheets. D. S B. S. H. H. S D. D. H. P. Ba. D. S SL1 IV / strong SL0 pH ≤ 3 heated and non-heated interior spaces open air constructions covered constructions ventilated facades x x3) x3) x 15 16 X1NiCrMoCu25-20-5 X2CrNiMnMoNbN25-18-5-4 X1NiCrMoCuN25-20-7 X1CrNiMoCuN20-18-7 1. P. Ba. Ba. S.

03 8.25 M 12x1.2 92.6 1.5 M 14x1.6 M2 M 2.6 to M16 threads (standard threads) (Excerpt from DIN EN ISO 3506-1) Thread 50 M 1.8 7. For standard metric threads Thread M 1.2.15 0. MPa 210 450 600 Fracture elongation Ab min. MPa 500 700 800 Austenitic A1.2% yield strength Rp0.8 15 37 74 130 330 The minimum fracture torque for fasteners made of martensitic and ferritic steels must be agreed upon between manufacturer and user.2 0.96 1.24 0.07 3.48 0.8 2982 4221 7686 12180 17703 24150 32970 40320 51450 63630 74130 96390 117810 145740 171570 204960 Strength 70 571.9 1.Fastener properties Mechanical properties of fasteners . A2.6 58 84.5 1525.25 M 12x1.6 d 0.5 M 18x1.5 M 24x2 M 27x2 M 30x2 M 33x2 M 36x3 M 39x3 Yield strength load for A2 and A4 in N Stress area 64. 51 . A3.3 23 46 80 210 Breaking torque.1 36. Yield strength loads for screws with shafts Reduced hardening capability created a higher yield strength for chromium nickel steels exclusively by strain hardening during cold forming e.5 M 22x1. A4 and A5 50 70 80 a The tensile strength is calculate in relation to the strain cross-section (see DIN ISO 3506-1) b The ultimate elongation is determined according to 7. for screws made of austenitic steel with M1.5 2263. The yield strength load of the following tables was calculated for you.39 5.4 on the relevant screw length and not on turned samples d is the nominal diameter.3 115 157 192 245 303 353 459 561 694 817 976 Strength 50 266.austenitic steel types Excerpt from DIN EN ISO 3506-1:2010 For fine metric threads Yield strength load for A2 and A4 in N Screws Thread 0.5 M3 M4 M5 M6 M8 M 10 M 12 M 14 M 16 M 18 M 20 M 22 M 24 M 27 M 30 M 33 M 36 M 39 50 Stress area 1.7 711. thread rolling.78 14. based on DIN EN ISO 3506.1 2.3 8.g.5 M3 M4 M5 M6 M8 M 10 M 12 M 16 0.8 4. MF min.3 0.4 d 0.9 1056.3 d M 10x1 M 10x1.5 M 16x1.1 88.6 M2 M 2. FT min.3 1843.5 61.1 125 167 216 272 333 384 496 621 761 865 1030 Strength 50 13545 12852 19341 18501 26250 35070 45360 57120 69930 80640 104160 130410 159810 181650 216300 Strength 70 29025 27540 41445 39645 56250 75150 97200 122400 149850 172800 223200 279450 342450 389250 463500 Strength 80 38700 36720 55260 52860 75000 100200 129600 163200 199800 230400 297600 372600 456600 519000 618000 Steel group Steel type Property class Tensile strength Rma min.5 3951 6390 9045 16470 26100 37935 51750 70650 86400 110250 136350 158850 206550 252450 312300 367650 439200 Strength 80 762 1242 2034 3018 5268 8520 12060 21960 34800 50580 69000 94200 115200 147000 181800 211800 275400 336600 416400 490200 585600 Minimum fracture torque.7 434. mm 0.8 13 32 65 110 290 80 0.5 931. Nm Property class 70 0.2a min.6 3.4 0.5 9.2 20.27 2.7 5.5 M 20x1.

57 0.7 7 6.2 0.5 45.3 2.75 0.2 23.4 3 2.7 42.9 14 22.4 8.58 0.44 1 0.3 10 12 15 24 30 30 47.9 15.3 0.37 0.3 0.4 36 30.5 13.7 59.2 0.55 1.39 0.3 0.1 M30 0.64 0.1 M8 0.3 20 32 40 39 63 79 68 109 136 109 175 217 168 272 340 Guidelines for tightening torques of fasteners with hexagon sockets and hexalobular sockets for A2-70/A4-70 Thread M3 M4 M5 M6 M8 M 10 M 12 M 16 M 20 M 24 1 4 5 12 24 40 110 170 DIN 6912 DIN 7984 0.9 1.2 3.5 1.2 0.1 6.55 1.8 1.3 0.6 10.7 61.1 M 2.6 1.34 0.25 1.5 3.2 0.4 4.6 9.2 0.7 67.1 1.9 8.3 0.6 1.43 0.3 0.1 M5 0.4 1.3 60.08 0.8 7.5 8 20 33 55 75 200 DIN 7380 0.2 16.97 1.4 24.66 1.5 37.2 0.27 0.19 1.72 0.3 6.1 M16 0.3 0.4 12. 0.3 0.8 52.3 0.46 0.9 58.1 0.1 M4 0.62 0.1 9.07 1.6 7.2 0.5 4.2 5.09 0.35 0.9 46.6 3.1 M36 0.1 M33 0.8 4.5 80 0.73 0.6 9.3 50 0.1 0.2 2.8 4.2 0.7 4.17 0.23 1.1 M 12 0.9 4.6 24 38 47 38 61 76 58 95 119 70 0.6 5.1 11.05 0.23 0.3 50 33.2 0.2 0.35 3.6 2.86 1.3 97.06 0.3 0.85 2.3 0.1 M 20 0.3 28.7 20.5 6.2 0.3 0.1 31.2 0.8 7.1 M3 0.6 0.25 0.15 0.5 0.5 42.3 39.3 1.2 0.15 0.6 37 31.7 7.22 0.6 3.3 1.2 0.2 0.42 0.2 70.2 2.2 2.5 1.5 1 2.1 M10 0.2 28.2 17.3 0.74 0.2 Tightening torque MA (Nm) Property class 50 0.2 0.5 0.8 56.1 M6 0.86 0.4 13.7 2.1 1.3 18.5 2 1.45 0.89 0.8 3.35 0.3 0.6 3.2 0.3 77.7 19.46 0.3 70 0.3 14.9 21.6 15.8 27.2 0.3 0.1 M 22 0.4 7.2 27.3 0.4 5.7 8.9 24.9 6 5.1 M 27 0. The data do not consider safety and assume knowledge of the construction criteria.33 0.2 4.3 51 82 102 82 131 163 126 204 255 80 0.6 1.4 3.5 73.3 5.6 9.3 0.1 2.3 0.2 0.2 0.21 0.9 3.1 M14 0.4 11.2 0.22 0.7 21 41.1 M2 0.8 49.18 0.4 2.5 5 10 22 45 70 110 52 53 .8 80.3 0.5 2.2 0.2 0.5 5 7 21 30 66 120 235 DIN 7991 0.3 0.6 85.5 1 2 4 6 15 20 DIN 913-DIN 916 0.3 121 106 91 143 125 107 70 71 62 53 91 79 68 113 99 85 131 115 98 80 94 82 10 121 106 90 151 132 114 175 153 131 Tightening torque MA (Nm) Property class 50 82 131 164 115 187 234 157 257 323 198 322 403 292 498 601 397 648 831 536 880 1108 690 1130 1420 70 176 282 352 247 401 501 337 551 692 426 690 863 80 235 376 469 330 534 669 450 735 923 568 920 1151 Preload force FM (kN) Property class Thread M 1.7 59 51 43.11 0.4 14.5 13.84 1.6 µges.1 0.2 13.2 53.8 17.42 0.16 0.6 5.Prestressing forces / tightening torques (standard metric thread) for headless screws of property classes 50 / 70 / 80 for a 90% use of the elongation limit Rp0.7 2.85 0.59 0.1 2.1 M 24 0.35 1. Preload force FM (kN) Property class Thread M18 µges.5 0.8 31 27 23 42. 0.2.

60 0. Chemical thread locks as a pre-layer are recommended for a reliable process.4541 1.0 10-6/K 11. Their electrical resistance is higher than non-alloyed steels due to the alloy content. The first two till three thread pitches should be free of coating material to facilitate screwing in. can be used on different materials and surfaces. Cold forming can lead to a structural change in austenitic steels so that limited magnetisability is subsequently present. so that magnetisability even in cold formed condition can largely be prevented with higher nickel contents.5 17.5 16.Adhesive coating Microencapsulated adhesives: During screw-in. but can prevent a complete falling apart of the screw connection. M.75 0. Chemical thread locks can provide an additional sealing function.5 300 °C 14.6 17. The axial play between screw and nut thread is filled by the coating and this creates additional increase surface pressing to the opposite. austenitic steels show an extensively non-magnetisable behaviour in solution annealed state.4401 1.Physical properties The physical properties of some selected steel types are presented in the following table for comparison.73 0.0 W/m*K 25 15 15 15 15 15 15 Ω*mm2/m 0. Consider the higher thermal expansion and the lower thermal conductivity of austenitic steels. DIN 267 part 28 .0 16.sealing) These products are offered either as liquid glue layers (with anaerobic hardening) or as pre-layers. 1.5 17. Captive screw locks cannot prevent partial loosening of the screw.0 16.4 16. The latter has the advantage that the layer must not be put on manually during assembly.73 0. An important differentiating characteristic between ferritic/martensitic chromium steels and chromium nickel steels is their magnetisability. Different hardening times must be observed depending on the product (effectiveness of the glue locking).5 17.75 0. Thermal conductivity at 20 °C Specific thermal capacity at 20 °C J/kg*K 430 500 500 500 500 500 500 Electrical resistance at 20 °C" magnetisable Chemical screw lock (gluing .4301 1.5 13. microcapsules are destroyed by pressure and/or shearing. Please note that the coating is placed "all around" and that additional requirements are defined.0 16. Different temperature resistances of products must be observed. depending on the product. the glue hardens (adhesive bonding) and the desired locking effect occurs. Thread locking may be done as interior coating (nuts) as well as exterior coating (bolts). The desired locking effect takes place. The nickel content influences the magnetisability of austenitic stainless steel significantly.4404 1.4305 1.0 16.4571 1. but process-reliably onto the fasteners before delivery. This is also possible for bulk goods. Contact with the hardener results in a chemical reaction (polymerisation). No. A clamping effect is created during screw-in. These can be divided into a glued and clamped thread lock: DIN 267 part 27 . At the same time the coating.75 0. uncoated thread edges.80 yes no 1) no 1) no 1) no 1) no 1) yes 1) Small ferrite and/or martensite content resulting from cold forming increases the magnetisability 54 55 . Glue contained in the capsules is released. In Steel type Modulus of elasticity at 20 °C Thermal expansion between 20 °C and 100°C 400 °C comparison to magnetisable chromium steels.4122 Designation X8CrNiS 18-9 X5CrNi 18-10 X6CrNiTi18-10 X5CrNiMo17-12-2 X2CrNiMo17-12-2 X6CrNiMoTi17-12-2 X35CrMo17 kN/mm² 220 200 200 200 200 200 200 10-6/K 10.clamping .Lock coating Clamping thread lock media: A polyamide layer is placed on a thread section.

As they expand. The high effectiveness expressed with factor 30 is completely meaningful only for highly-alloyed steels with an increased molybdenum content. higher temperatures and increasing the electrochemical potential of the steel.g. on a bare metallic surface. contact corrosion does not neccessarily appear. Frequently the cause is rather related to internal stresses that are introduced during processing such as. Stainless steels can be subject to wear surface corrosion and different forms of local corrosion. during welding. grinding agent residue and the like are to be thoroughly removed. as in the pitting and crevice corrosion with increasing temperature and chloride concentration. foreign metal wear. by increasing the molybdenum and particularly the nickel content. What causes pitting and crevice corrosion? Pitting and crevice corrosion is in practice mostly caused by contact with chloride ions. Extraneous rust is a purely visual problem and can be easily remedied with a fleece or an eraser. Even ferritic. What does "intercrystalline" corrosion mean? Intercrystalline corrosion is an attack along the socalled grain boundaries. the danger of corrosion damage is less.3 x % Mo The influence of the alloying element nitrogen is however more complex than this relationship expresses. Non-metallic impurities. Increasing the chrome content and adding other alloying elements such as molybdenum (Mo) increases the resistance for significantly more aggressive implementation conditions. even if the steel without mechanical wear is sufficiently resistant to the medium. Crevice corrosion occurs under considerably lower corrosion loads than pitting corrosion and should be prevented as much as possible in chlorine containing media by design measures. The smoothest possible surface can be an advantage that further impedes the adherence of deposits that could lead to crevice corrosion. This is a chrome rich metal oxide or metal oxide hydrate layer that separates the metal from the aggressive medium. on pipe scrap marks. Stainless steels generally have a high free corrosions potential and are thus hardly subject to an increased contact corrosion hazard. In correlation with humidity/condensate and environmental influences. The high corrosion resistance of stainless steels is due to their ability to form a so-called passive layer on the surface. so-called extraneous rust layer can occur. Passivation is only effective for solute metal content of alloying elements. above all sulphide precipitates. Additional influencing factors are the crevice geometry and the type of crevice formation materials. Stainless steels excel in their particular resistance against chemically aggressive. grinding or cold forming. other determining factors have influence. resistance can be significantly increased. The decisive alloying element for the capability of passive layer creation is chrome. but instead creates an equilibrium between its composition and in its arrangement with the ambient medium over time. This appearance of stress corrosion cracking can be triggered by more than externally applied operation limited tensile stresses. during which the grains themselves are not or hardly removed. This depends on the electrochemical behaviour of both metals. Wear surface corrosion is to be expected primarily in case of contact with acids and strong bases. The cause of intercrystalline corrosion for stainless steels are precipitates from chromium rich carbides at the grain boundaries that create chrome depletion in the boundary areas. or if the existing passive layer is broken or completely destroyed chemically. whereby the passive layer is completely broken through.‎ Needle-like crevices form. What does stress corrosion cracking mean? Media with compenents with specific effects. aqueous media. corrosion damage may occur. The passive layer of a stainless steel is not something that cannot be changed. 56 57 . The danger of chloride-induced stress corrosion cracking increases. It happens significantly more often that contact corrosion occurs for other metals with lower free corrosions potential when connected with a stainless steel. pitted areas with different shapes occur. mostly different forms of local corrosion are more important. However. In terms of material. The reduction of vibration strength depends on the attacking media and the number of axes of the occurring changing loads. discolouration and scaling after welding. Extraneous rust happens wtih non-separated storage and processing of "black" and "white" steel. The more rarely occurring halides bromide and iodine can also be triggers. extraneous rust. The conductivity of the medium and the surface behaviour of the participating metals are also important.g in flanges. The metal with the lower free corrosion potential can be polarised at least to higher potentials and thus be more susceptible to attacks.3 x % Mo + 30 x % N or W = % CR + 3. Even for large differences between the free corrosion potentials of the involved metals. If a medium cannot create a sufficient passive layer. under seals.FAQs Can stainless steel corrode? Basic pre-requisite for the creation of optimum corrosion resistance is a completely clean metallic surface. Crevice corrosion occurs in crevices where fluidic exchange with the environment is limited. However. High pitting and crevice corrosion resistance is achieved only with seamless surface properties e. Pitting corrosion is introduced by the interaction between halogenide ions and the passive layer. How does vibration corrosion happen? The vibration strength of all stainless steels is more or less lowered by additional chemical attacks. The corresponding corrosion resistance for this reason shows an augmentations-free matrix that is not depleted by the precipitation or the formation of intermetallic phases such as chrome or molybdenum. screw heads or also under incrustation. In practice however. Such crevices are construction or operation related and occur e. When does contact corrosion occur? The possibility of contact corrosion exists when two metals with different free corrosions potentials are electrically connected to each other in a corrosive medium.CrNiMo are particularly threatened by chlorine induced stress corrosion cracking at temperatures above 50 °C. For homogeneous alloying element distribution the pitting and crevice corrosion resistance of a stainless steel can be approximately estimated by the sum "W": W = % Cr +3. The danger of pitting corrosion increased with increasing concentrations of halogenide ions. Austenitic steels of the types 18/10 . Attack of the grain boundaries can occur to an extent that individual grains of material are removed from the grain matrix causing the structure to lose its integrity. What does extraneous rust mean? Extraneous rust is understood to be the accumulation of iron oxide particles (rust) that can move to their rust-free surfaces in case of contact (wear) with nonstainless steels (even in bare versions). For this reason. support pitting and crevice corrosion if they are on surfaces. ferritic-austenitic and stainless steels are comparatively less sensitive. but it can be caused by tool wear. They generally have a mass fraction of the element chrome (Cr) of at least 12% and a mass fraction of the element carbon (C) of at most 1. The corrosion mechanism is much the same as pitting corrosion. can lead to a corrosive attack with crack-formation of stainless steels under simultaneous tensile stress influences. contact between a "non-precious" metal with a small surface and a "precious" metal with a larger surface is to be avoided. a new passive layer is generally formed independently. After mechanical damage of the metal surface. in particular chloride ions. If the "less precious" metal has a much larger surface than the "precious" metal and the corrosive medium has a high conductivity.CrNi and 18/10/2 .2%.

Determining the danger of a material combination exactly requires corrosion experiments according to DIN 50 919. all all 2% 10 % all Sodium carbonate 58 59 . contact corrosion is an "accelerated corrosion" of a metallic area that can be traced to a corrosion element. If detrimental surface conditions (large cathode / small anode) are present in a well conducting corrosive medium then contact corrosion can lead to corrosion damage. To prevent jamming. the basic theory of the electrochemical series and also practical electrochemical series is unsuitable for estimating the danger of materials for conductive contact with each other in practice. The accelerated corroding metallic area is the anode of the corrosion element hereby. or loss of mass of the "less precious" partner in this combination depends on the size of the element current flowing ("potential difference current") and the degree of the internal corrosion for the mixing potential existing in the metal combination. one can lower the carbon content of a stainless steel to below 0. rediffusion of chrome from inside the grain can remove the chrome depletion in the grain boundary areas. For the evaluation of the corrosion danger of the non-precious partner in a material combination.235 all all all 20 boiling all all all all 20 all all 20 boiling 20 Degree of resistance A2 A A A A C A A A A A A A-L A A D-L A A B B C A A A A B B A A A A A B A A A A A A A A-L A A B A A4 A A A A B A A A A A A A A A D-L A A B B C A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A-L A A A A Developer (photogr.) Acetic acid Fatty acid 10% technical Fruit juices Tannic acid Glycerin Industrial air Potassium permanganate Whitewash Carbon dioxide Copper acetate Copper nitrate Copper sulfate Magnesium sulphate Seawater Methyl alcohol Lactic acid all Conc.The zones of low chromium content are not resistant enough to most aggressive media and can quickly go into solution. Surface wear. The corrosion current density (element current) and therefore the contact corrosion attack can change in the order of several magnitudes for the same potential difference depending on the characteristics of the anodic and cathodic half current density curves.g. The chromium carbide precipitates require a specific carbon content and occur in temperature ranges between 500° C and 800° C. Why did the screw and nut get "jammed"? The source of seizing with the nut is often screwing at too high speed. To prevent a chromium carbide precipitate. If chromium carbides have occurred. turning speed of 25 rpm is recommended when using a power screwdriver. the size of the electrode surfaces in contact with the medium. Thus. According to DIN 50 900 part 1.03% or bind the available carbon using so-called stabilising elements such as titanium (Ti) or niobium (Nb) that have a greater affinity for carbon than chrome. consisting of the pairing of a metal/metal or metal/electron-conductive body with different free corrosion potentials. Electrically conductive connections of these materials with each other and the presence of a conductive medium cause a corrosion reaction that may lead to damage due to contact corrosion. A max. but rather the characteristic of the half current density curves of both materials in the aggressive media. such as e. The element current is a complex factor that depends on the geometrical arrangement. This can occur by using a power screwdriver with torque and speed that are too high during screwing. the resting potentials and the polarisation resistances of the partners as well as the electrolyte resistance of the medium. For unstabilised ferritic steels. For this.g. there is often a need to combine stainless steels with different metallic materials in one component. during heat treatment or welding processes. Decisive is whether the anodic or cathodic reactions are impeded or not by e. Compatibility with other materials In practical use. these can be dissolved again by exposure to solution annealing above 1050° C. The corrosion occuring during contact corrosion is often equal or unequal surface wear. cover layers created. the height of the potential difference (potential difference) between the connected materials is not responsible. an existing susceptibility to intercrystalline corrosion can be removed by annealing between 800° C . lubrication layers such as Gleitmo are used to reduce or eliminate friction. Overview of chemical resistance of A2 and A4 Aggressive media (substance) Acetone Ethyl ether Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) Formic acid Ammonia Petrol of all types Benzoic acid Benzene Beer Cyanide Blood Binder solution Chlorine: Dry gas Humid gas Chloroform Chromic acid Concentration all all 10% all all all 10% pure 50% pure Temperature in °C all all 20 20 boiling 50 all all all all 20 20 98 20 all all 20 boiling 20 boiling 20 20 boiling 150 180 200 .885° C.

crevice and stress corrosion cracking Substance loss in g/m2h < 0.1 0.500 900 hot 20 and hot 20 boiling 20 boiling 20 20 boiling boiling all Degree of resistance A2 A B B A A A A A B C D A B A A C B D B D A A A A A B B C B-L D-L B B B C B B C C D A B D A A A A A C A A C C A A4 A B B A A A A A A C C A A A A B A C A D A A A A A B C C B-L D-L A B A C A B B C D A B C A A A A A B A A A B A Classification of degrees of resistance in different groups Resistance A B C D L Evaluation resistant to surface corrosion little attack poor resistance not resistance Danger of pitting.5 % 1% 2.Aggressive media (substance) Sodium hydroxide Concentration 25 % 50% Temperature in °C 20 boiling boiling all all all all 20 boiling boiling all boiling boiling 20 boiling 20 boiling 20 boiling to 50 all 20 all 20 boiling 20 boiling 20 boiling to 70 boiling to 70 boiling 20 70 20 70 all 20 100 .10 > 10 Sodium nitrate Sodium perchlorate Sodium sulphate Fruit Oils (mineral and plant) Oxalic acid 10% cold saturated 10 % 50 % Petroleum Phenol Phosphoric acid pure 10% 45% 80% Conc.1.1 . Mercury Mercury nitrate Salicylic acid Nitric acid to 40% 50% 99% Hydrochloric acid Sulfuric acid 0.0 1.5 % 5% 10 % 60 % Sulfurous acid Sulfur dioxide Tar Wine Tartaric acid Aqueous solution 10 % Lemon juice Citric acid 10 %-50% 25 % 50 % - Sugar solution 60 61 .0 .

Steuer-Nr. BLZ 330 400 01. IBAN: DE 85 33 05 0000 0000 85 69 06 Commerzbank Wuppertal. Konto 4 487 880 Zoll-Nummer WASI/TIN: DE4583426 Complement: Wagener & Simon Beteiligungs-GmbH AG Wuppertal: HRA 14011. 76001/10800 General Manager: Werner Rau Dirk Kiele-Dunsche Wagener & Simon WASI GmbH & Co.0 Fax + 49 (0) 202 .de 62 . + 49 (0) 202 .26 32 . KG Emil-Wagener-Straße 42289 Wuppertal Tel.407 info@wasi.26 32 .de www. Company forename. HRB 4417 USt-IdNr.wasi. DE 146280140. family name Street Postcode/town country DIN material dimension item description quantity DIN Werkstoff Abmessung Artikel-Bezeichnung Menge Stadtsparkasse Wuppertal.Notes inquiry / order Fax: +49 (0)202 26 32-407 Customer no. BLZ 330 500 00 Konto 856 906 Swift-Code: WUPS DE33.