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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO CHEMISTRY Q1: Define Chemistry als !

efine the "ran#hes f #hemistry$ Ans: Chemistry:%The branch of science which deals with the composition and properties of matter, changes in matter and the laws or principles which govern these changes is called Chemistry. The five branches of chemistry are as follows: 1: Or&ani# #hemistry:-Organic chemistry is the study of carbon containing substances and the synthesis of such material. many consumer products are organic in nature. ': In r&ani# #hemistry: Inorganic chemistry is the chemistry of element and their compounds except those of carbon-hydrogen compounds and their derivatives. (: Physi#al #hemistry: hysical chemistry is the branch of chemistry which deals with the forces and principles involved in the combination of atoms and molecules. ): Analyti#al #hemistry: !nalytical chemistry is the study of method and techni"ues used to determined the #ind and "uantity of various component in a given substance. *: +i #hemistry: $iochemistry is the chemistry of living organisms such as plants and animals. Q': Define mass$ !ns : %ass:-The "uantity of matter contained in a body is called its mass. its &I unit is '#ilogram( and its symbol is 'm(. Q(: Define , l-me$ !ns : )olume:- &pace occupied by a body is #nown as volume. its &I unit is 'm*+ and its symbol is 'v(. Q): Define !ensity$ Ans: Density:%It is define as ratio between mass and volume. mass per unit volume is #nown as density.

mathematically: d-m v Its &I unit is #g.m*. density of solid and li"uid usually expressed in g.cm* and that of gases as g.dm*. Q*: Define tem.erat-re$ Ans: Tem.erat-re:% Temperature is a measure of the intensity of heat. it is thus a measure of the degree of hotness and coldness in a body. Q/: Define s.e#ifi# &ra,ity$ Ans: S.e#ifi# &ra,ity:% The specific gravity of a substance is the ratio of its mass to the mass of an e"ual volume of water at a specified temperature. &pecific gravity - mass of substance mass of an e"ual volume of water specific gravity of a substance ia a ratio between two same "uantities and then fore has no unit. Q0: Define element$ !ns: /lement:- !n element is defined as a substance in which all the atoms are chemically identical having same atomic number. for example: iron: silver: gold: copper: oxygen: hydrogen: etc. 01: 2efine compound3 !ns: Compound:- ! compound is pure substances which consist of two or more element chemically combined in a fixed proportion by mass. compound can be bro#en down by chemical method. for example: water456O78 salt49aCl7. Q1: Define mi2t-re$ !ns: %ixture:-! mixture contains two or more element which can easily be separated by physical method. the component doesn:t lose its chemical properties. for example: soil8 roc#8 etc Q13: Define ,alen#y$ !ns: )alency:-The chemical combining capacity of an atom or an element with another element is called valency.

Q11: Define at m$ !ns: !tom:-It is the smallest particle of an element. it does not exist freely into nature. it is the unit of an element involved in a chemical reaction. Q1': Define m le#-le$ !ns: %olecule:- It is the combination of two or more atom. it can exist freely in the nature. Q1(: Define m le$ !ns: %ole:-The weight of an atom or a molecule expressed in grams is #nown as one mole. Q1): Define at mi# mass$ !ns: !tomic mass:-The atomic mass of an element is the average relative mass of the isotopes of that element referred to the atomic mass of carbon which is ta#en as ,6.;;;; amu. Q1*: Define m le#-lar mass$ !ns: %olecular mass:- The molecular mass of an element when it exists in the form of molecular or of a compound is the average mass of the molecular as compound to one atom of ,6C<. Q1/: Define &ram at mi# mass$ !ns: =ram atomic mass:- The weight of an atom expressed in gram is called gram atomic mass. it is also called gram atom. Q10: Define &ram m le#-lar mass$ !ns: =ram molecular mass:- The weight of molecule expressed in gram is called gram molecular mass .it is also called gram molecule. Q14: Define A, &a!r 5s n-m"er 6n7$ !ns: !vogadro:s number:-The number of particles contained in a mole is e"ual to <.;6*>,; power 6* is #nown as !vogadro number. Q11: Define l 8 f # nstant # m. siti n 8ith e2am.les$

!ns: ?ow of constant composition:- roust formulate the low of constant composition in ,@AA as that every pure sample of a particular chemical compound contain the same element combined in the same fixed proportion. it is also called the low of definite proportions. examples: ,, 5e obtained several samples of copper carbonate from different sources and also prepared it through different methods in his laboratory. he found whatever source of method of preparation was used, it always had the same proportion of copper, carbon and oxygen by mass. 6, 5e also mixed ten grams of lead with different amount of sulphur to ma#e the grey solid lead sulphide. he always found that the lead sulphide had the same fixed percentage of lead and sulphur. Q'3: Define heter &ene -s mi2t-re$ !ns: 5eterogeneous mixture: the mixture which do not have uniform composition throughout their mass, are called heterogeneous mixture. Q'1: Define h m &en -s mi2t-re$ !ns: 5omogenous mixture: mixtures having uniform composition are called homogenous mixture. Q'': Differentiate "et8een # m. -n! an! mi2t-re$ !ns: Compound %ixture,:it is a pure substance. ,:it is an impure substance. 6:it cannot be separated by physical methods. 6:it can be separated into its components by simple physical methods. *:element forming compound lose their original properties-s. *:substance ma#ing up the mixture do not lose their original properties. B:its composition is fixed. B:its composition is not fixed. C:the melting point and boiling point of compound are sharp and characteristic of each compound. C:the melting point and boiling point of a mixture are not sharp.

CHAPTER '% CHEMICA9 REACTION AND CHEMICA9 EQUATION Q1: State la8 f # nser,ati n f mass 6matter7$ :i,e e2am.les; !ns.: 2uring any process, mass is neither created nor destroyed this law was put forward by a Drench chemist, lavoiser in ,@1C. This law states that: %atter is neither created nor destroyed during a chemical reaction. 2uring a chemical reaction, the total mass of the product is e"ual to the total mass of the reactants. /xample no ,: Ehen a piece of iron is left in moist air its surface gradually turns brown, the obFect gets rusted and gains mass. BDeG*O66De6O* The increase in mass is Fust the mass of oxygen. /xample no 6 Ehen coal burns it leaves behind ash. The ash is lighter than coal. $ut the mass of coal will be e"ual to that of ash and the liberated carbon dioxide. CGO6CO6 Q': state e2 thermi# an! en! thermi# rea#ti n 8ith e2am.les$ !ns: exothermic reaction:-Heaction in which heat energy is evolved is #nown as exothermic reaction in such reaction the system become warmer and neat potential energy of substances decreases. The enthalpy of product is less than the enthalpy of reactants. /xamples:Ehen unsla#ed calcium oxide is added to water. the water becomes warm with formation of &la#ed time . in this reaction heat energy is released. /ndothermic reaction:-Heaction in which heat energy is absorbed is #nown as endothermic reaction . in such reaction enthalpy of reactants is lower than those of product. &ince energy Is absorbed during reaction the temperature of reaction decreases. 4example are7

5eat is absorbed in the decomposition of calcium carbonate. In this reaction heating must be continuous to decompose calcium carbonate. Q(: <hat are !ifferent ty.es f rea#ti n$ :i,e #hemi#al rea#ti n f ea#h ty.e$ !ns: Chemical reaction are of following types: ,: &imple decomposition :-In this reaction a single compound is decomposed into two or more simple substance. 6: &ynthesis:-In this reaction two or more substance combine to from a single compound it is also #nown as addition reaction. *: 2isplacement:-In this reaction an atom or radical displaced by another in a compound. &uch reaction depend upon the electropositive or electronegative nature of an atom or radical to displaced another. B: 2ouble decomposition . displacement :-In this reaction the two reactants decomposed to form two new substances by exchanging their radicals. C: 9eutraliIation:-In this reaction , the hydrogen ion of an acid neutraliIed by the hydroxide ion of a base to from salt and water. <: 5ydrolysis:-In this reaction the salt of either wea# acid and base dissolve in water to from acid and base. Q):E2.lain 9a8s f Chemi#al C m"inati ns 8ith e2am.le; !ns: ?aws of Chemical Combinations There are four laws of chemical combinations these laws explained the general feature of chemical change. These laws are: ,. ?aw of Conservation of %ass 6. ?aw of 2efinite roportions *. ?aw of %ultiple roportions B. ?aw Heciprocal roportions !ntoine ?avoiser has reFected the worn out ideas about the changes that ta#e place during a chemical reaction. 5e made careful "uantitative measurements in chemical reactions and established that mass is neither created nor nor destroyed in a chemical change. ?aw of Conservation of %ass &tatement

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It is presented by ?avoiser. It is defined as: '%ass is neither created nor destroyed during a chemical reaction but it only changes from one form to another form.( In a chemical reaction, reactants are converted to products. $ut the total mass of the reactants and products remains the same. The following experiment easily proves law of conservation of mass. ractical )erification 4?andolt /xperiment7 =erman chemist 5. ?andolt, studied about fifteen different chemical reactions with a great s#ill, to test the validity of the law of conservation of mass. Dor this, he too# 5.shaped tube and filled the two limbs ! and $, with silver nitrate 4!g9O*7 in limb ! and 5ydrochloric !cid 45Cl7 in limb $. The tube was sealed so that material could not escape outside. The tube was weighed initially in a vertical position so that the solution should not intermix with each other. The reactant were mixed by inverting and sha#ing the tube. The tube was weighed after mixing 4on the formation of white precipitate of !gCl7. 5e observed that weight remains same. 5Cl G !g9O* JJJ-K !gCl G 9a9O* ?aw of 2efinite roportions &tatement It is presented by roust. It is defined as: 'Ehen different elements combine to give a pure compound, the ratio between the masses of these elements will always remain the same.( roust proved experimentally that compound obtained from difference source will always contain same elements combined together in fixed proportions. /xample

Eater can be obtained from different sources such as river, ocean, well, canal, tube well, rain or by the chemical combination of hydrogen and oxygen. If different samples of water are analyIed, it will have two elements, hydrogen and oxygen and the ratio between their mass is ,:1. ?aw of %ultiple roportions &tatement This law is defined as: 'Ehen two elements combine to give more than one compounds, the different masses of one element, which will combine with the fixed mass of other element, will be in simple whole number ratio.( Two different elements can combine to form more than one compound. They can do so by combining in different ratios to give different compounds. /xample 5ydrogen and oxygen combine with one another to form water 456O7 and hydrogen peroxide 456O67. In water and hydrogen oxide 6 g of hydrogen combine with ,<g and *6g of oxygen respectively. !ccording to law of multiple proportions, the different masses of oxygen 4,<g and *6g7 which have reacted with fixed mass 46g7 of hydrogen will have a simple ratio between each other i.e. ,<:*6 or ,:6. It means that hydrogen peroxide contains double the number of oxygen atoms than water. This law proves this point of 2alton:s !tomic Theory that atoms do not brea# in a chemical reaction. ?aw of Heciprocal roportions &tatement This law is defined as: 'Ehen two element !, $ combine separately, with the mixed mass of the third element /, the ratio in which these elements combine with / is either the same or simple multiple of the ratio in which ! and $ combine with each other.( /xample

5ydrogen and 9itrogen separately combine to form ammonia 495*7 and dinitrogen oxide 496O7, in these compounds, fixed mass of nitrogen is ,Bg and combines with 1 g of oxygen and * g of hydrogen. The ratio between the mass of oxygen and hydrogen is 1:*. 5ydrogen and oxygen also combine with one another to form water 456O7. The ratio between hydrogen and oxygen in water is ,<:6. These ratios are not same. ?et us observe whether these ratios are simple multiple to each other or not following mathematical operation is carried out. 1:* ::,<:6 1.* : ,<.6 or 1.* x 6.,< or ,.* -K ,:*

CHAPTER (% <ATER AND SO9UTION Q17 Define s l-"ility 8hat are the fa#t rs 8hi#h #an affe#t s l-"ility$ !ns: &olubility:-'The solubility of a solute in a solvent at a particular temperature is the number of grams of solute necessary of saturate ,;;g of the solvent at that temperature.( Dactore of solubility ,7Temperature:-it is often observed solubility of many solute the solution generally increases in temperature for example, the solubility of potassium mitrate increases with temperatures the solubility of some solute decreases with the increase in temperature such solute generally heat when dissolved in water for example, calcium oxide is less soluble in hot water than in the cold state. gases are also more soluble in cold solvent than in hot solvent.

67 ressure:-&olubility of gases increases with the increase in pressure . carbon di oxide in filled in soda water bottles pressure. *7 9ature of the solute and the solvent:-The solubility of polar compound is more in polar solvent and that of non-polar solvent in non-polar solvent. 067 2efine molarity3 !ns: %olarity:-%olarity is a measure of the concentration of solution. it is denoted by '%(.(it is define as the number of moles of solute dissolved per liter of solution4not solvent7(. %- number of mole of solute volume of solvent in dm*4?7 Q(7 <hat are ele#tr lysis an! n n%ele#tr lysis als &i,e e2am.le f str n& an! 8ea= ele#tr lysis$ !ns: /lectrolysis: The substance which allow electricity to pass through their solution and are chemical decompose are called 'electrolysis.( example: acid,base,salt 9on-electrolysis:-( These substances which do not dissociate into ions when dissolved in water and do not induct electricity are #nown as non-electrolysis.( example:sugar,solution,benIene. &trong electrolysis:-Those electrolysis which are highly dissociated and can conduct large current are #nown as 'strong electrolysis(. example: 5Cl, 9aO5 Eea# electrolysis:Those electrolysis which are poorly dissociated and can conduct poor current are #nown as( wea# electrolysis(. example: acetic acid, mercuric chloride Q)7Define ele#tr lysis$ e2.lain the .r sis f ele#tr lysis f # ..er #hl ri!e s l-ti n$ !ns: /lectrolysis: The movement of ion of an electrolyte and their deposition as neutral species at the electrodes under the influence of electric current is #nown as 'electrolysis(. The electrolysis of a"ueous copper chloride: Ehen a"ueous copper chloride is electrolyIed between carbon electrodes copper is deposited at the cathode4negative electrode7 L chlorine is given at the anode4positive electrode7. !"ueous copper chloride contain copper ion and chloride ion. The copper ion behind positively charged move towards the cathode and the chloride ion behind negatively move towards the anode. The copper ion ta#e up electrons from the cathode and deposit copper on it.

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Heaction at cathode: CuGG4a"7G6e-Cu4s7 Heaction at anode: 6Cl-4a"7Cl6 G 6eQ*7 Define sat-rate!> -nsat-rate! an! s-.er sat-rate!$ !ns: &aturated: ! saturated solution is the solution which contains maximum amount of solute that it can dissolve at a particular temperature. Mnsaturated: !n unsaturated solution is one which contains less amount of solute that it can held at a particular temperature. &uper saturated: ! super solution is one which contains more solute that it can theorically be held by the solvent at a particular temperature Q/7 <hat ! y - mean "y har! 8ater an! s ft 8ater$ !ns: &oft water:-Eater which produces lather with soap easily and do not produce insoluble curdy precipitate is called soft water. 5ard water:-Eater which produces insoluble curdy precipitate with soap and lather is not easily formed is called hard water.

CHAPTER *% THE PERIODIC TA+9E Q1: <rite ! 8n the &eneral #hara#teristi# &r -. f IA> ?IIA an! ?IIIA$ !ns:=roup I!4!?N!?I %/T!?7: The al#ali metals lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium and francium are light metal. They are very reactive and chemically are strongly electropositively.!s the group is descending there is a gradual decrease in ioniIation potential with an increase in the siIe of the atom. They contain one electron in their outer most shell and form ionic bonds by loss of valence electron. Compound of these metal were obtained from wood ashes. =roup )II!45!?O=/9 D!%I?O7:-Dluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine constitute a group or family of element called the halogen, a term which means 'salt forms(. The halogen are very active non-metal and are very much a li#e in their chemical properties. /ach of the halogen has seven valence electron. 5alogen are highly electronegative element and their electro negatively decrease down the group.Dlourine and chlorine are gases at ordinary temperature bromine is a li"uid and iodine is a solid. all the halogen exit as diatomic molecule. =roup )III!49O$?/ =!&/&7:-The element of group )III! are called 'noble gases( or 'inert gases( or 'Iero gases( element. They are monatomic and low boiling gases. &ince the outermost shell of these element are complete therefore these element are mostly

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chemically unreactive.!ll the noble gases except radon are normally present in the atmosphere. They are mostly obtained from air by li"uefaction process. Q'7 <hat are transiti n element 8rite f -r .r .erties f them$ !ns: Transition element: /lement of group I$, II$, through )II$ are #nown as transition element. They include the element scandium, yttrium, thanum and actinium and the two rare-earth series of element the lanthanide and actinide series. properties: 4,7 These element have incomplete inner electron shell. 467 !ll transition element are metal. 4*7 The bond between the atom are very strong and they have melting points. 4B7 These compound are formed by coordinate covalent bond. Q(7Define an! e2.lain Men!eley,5s Peri ! Ta"le an! Peri !i# 9a8 als !is#-ss the Defe#ts in Men!eley,5s Peri !i# Ta"le !ns: %endeleyv:s eriod Table and eriodic ?aw Hussian Chemist, %endeleyv:s 4,1<7 who was wor#ing separately from ?other %ayer published a table of elements. !ccording to %endeleyv:s when the element were arranged in order of their increasing atomic masses, the elements with similar properties were repeated after regular interval and were placed one above the other. ! table obtained in this manner is called eriodic Table. %endeleyv:s stated this periodicity in the form of eriodic ?aw. Important Deatures of %endeleyv:s eriodic Table The important features of %endeleyv:s eriodic table are: eriods and =roups The horiIontal rows which run from left to right in eriodic Table are called eriods and they are twelve in number. The vertical rows which run from top to bottom in periodic table are called groups and they are eight in number. )acant &paces

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%endeleyv:s left many vacant spaces for the still un#nown elements. Dor example, next to Calcium 4B;7 should be Titanium 4B17 but it resembled silicon 4617 instead of !luminum 46@7. 5e left vacant space for element with atomic mass BB. 2iscovery of 9ew /lement %endeleyv:s discovered new elements and also guessed their atomic mass and properties. !tomic %ass Correction %endeleyv:s corrected the atomic masses of certain elements on basis of their properties and provided proper place to them in the periodic table. 2efects in %endeleyv:s eriodic Table The %endeleyv:s eriod Table has following defects: Irregular osition of &ome /lements !ccording to %endeleyv:s eriodic ?aw otassium 4*A7 should be placed before !rgon 4B;7 but he placed !rgon 4B;7 before otassium 4*A7 which goes against his law. osition of Isotopes %endeleyv:s periodic table gives no indication about the position of isotopes. &tructure of !tom %endeleyv:s eriodic table gives no idea about structure of atoms. osition of ?anthanides and !ctinides ?anthanides and !ctinides have not been given proper place in eriodic Table. Coinage and !l#ali %etals !l#ali metals and coinage metals with different properties are placed in the same group. This defect has been replaced by placing them into two sub groups. Q)7Define the f ll 8in& 8ith its -nit>fa#t rs>ten!s r ,ariati n in &r -.s an! .eri !s;

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!tomic Hadius 2efinition One half of the distance between the nucleus of two identical atoms when these are in close contact with each other is called !tomic Hadius. Mnit It is measured in angstrom unit !. Trend in eriod The atomic radii decreases from left to right within a period in the periodic table. This is because nuclear charge increases with the increase of atomic number. $ut the number of shells remains same within a period. Trend in =roup !tomic radius increases from top to bottom in a group. This is because, although nuclear charge increases from top to bottom but at the same time on new shell is also added for each successive element down the group. IoniIation /nergy 4I./7 or IoniIation otential 4I. 7 2efinition The minimum energy needed to remove an electron from an isolated, gaseous atom in its ground state is called IoniIation /nergy. Mnit It is expressed in electron volts or #ilo-Foules per mole. , ev - A<.BA#F Dactors !ffecting IoniIation /nergy The ioniIation energy of elements depends upon the following factors: ,. /ffect of 9uclear Charge on I./

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The greater the nuclear charge the higher is the ioniIation energy. 6. /ffect of !tomic &iIe The larger the siIe of atom the lower is the ioniIation energy. Trend of I./ in eriod IoniIation energy increases from left to right in a period due to increase in nuclear change and decrease in atomic siIe. Trend of I./ in =roup I./ decreases from top to bottom in a group due to increase in atomic siIe. /lectro negativity 2efinition The tendency of each atom in a covalent molecule to attract a shared pair of electrons towards itself is #nown as its electro negativity. Dactors !ffecting /lectro negativity /lectro negativity depends upon the following factors: !tomic siIe !tomic 9umber /lectron !ffinity IoniIation /nergy Trend or )ariation in the eriod /lectro negativity increases from left to right within a period due to increase in nuclear charge and decrease in atomic siIe. Trend or )ariation in the =roup /lectro negativity values decreases from top to bottom within a group due to increase in atomic siIe. /lectron !ffinity 2efinition The energy change that occurs when an electron is gained by an atom in the gaseous state is #nown as /lectron !ffinity.

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/lectron !ffinity for the addition of first electron is negative i.e. energy is released but for further addition of electrons it is positive because energy has to be added to over come repulsion between negative ion and electron. Mnit It is measured in NP.mol or in e.v per atom. Dactors !ffecting /lectron !ffinity !tomic &iIe 9uclear Charge Tend or )ariation of /lectron !ffinity in =roup 2own the group in the periodic table, electron affinity decreases because the addition of a new shell to each atom decreases its force of attraction. Trend or )ariation of /lectron !ffinity in eriod In a period, the electron affinity increases from left to right because the incoming successive atoms have higher nuclear charge and attract electron more towards itself. CHAPTER /% ATOMIC STRUCTURE Q17 Des#ri"e the . st-lates f Dalt n at mi# the ry$ <hat are the !ra8 "a#=s in this the ry$ !ns:2alton atomic theory:-The fundamental postulates of 2alton atomic theory are stated below: ,7 %atter is composed of extremely tiny invisible particles called atom. 67 !tom can neither be created or destroyed. *7 !tom of a particular element are identical in siIe shape mass and all other properties L differ from atom of other element in these properties. B7 Chemical combination ta#es place between small whole number of atom. !ccording to the latest research on the structure of atom Lmatter neutral particle following defeat are observed in 2alton atomic model. 2rawbac#s of dalton atomic theory:,7 !tom consist of charged particle called proton and electron L neutral particle called neutron.

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67 The atom of the same element may differ in their atomic mass and such atom of an element are called isotopes. *7 The ratio between atom of various element in many molecules of the organic compound is not simple. B7 %atter can be converted into energy by /instein e"uation /-mc6 Q'7 H 8 8as ele#tr n !is# ,ere!$ !es#ri"e in !etail the e2.eriment .erf rme! f r the !is# ,ery f ele#tr n$ !ns: 2iscovery of electron:-/lectron is the smallest particle of atom. the most convising evidence for the existence of electron came from the experiment performed by croo#er, faraday, and PP Thomson. ! high voltage electric current was pass through gases at a very low pressure4,mm of hg7 in a dis charge tube. Ehen high voltage is applied across the two metallic electrode sealed in a discharge tube the rays begin ti originate from cathode which are called cathode ray. These rays travel in straight line towards the anode. If an electric field is applied , these rays bend towards the positive pole which show their negative nature. roperties of cathode rays:,7 Cathode rays travel in straight line away from the cathode. 67 Cathode rays are negatively charged as they bend towards the positive pole of the magnetic field. *7 The rays upon stri#ing glass or certain other material cause these material to glow. B7 The charge to mass ratio 4e.m7 of those particle was found e"ual to that of electron. e.m - ,.@< > ,; power1 coulomb per gram C7 The mass of each negative particle was found e"ual to ,.,1*@ of the lightest hydrogen atom. On the basic of those properties it was concluded that cathode rays are negatively charged particle called electron. Q(7 Dis#-ss " hrs at mi# m !el @!es#ri"e its si&nifi#an#e in at mi# str-#t-re$ !ns: $ohrs atomic model:- 9eil bohr proposed a new model for the structure of the atom in ,A,*.The salient features of this model are that. ,7 /lectron revolve around the nucleus in fixed circular paths which he called orbit or energy level. 67 !s long as an electron revolve in a particular energy level it does not emit or absorb energy. *7 Ehen an electron absorb energy it moves to a higher energy level further away from the nucleus. Ehen it lose energy it return to lower energy level closer to the nucleus L the energy is emitted as light. B7 The electron loses a definite "uantity of energy called "uantum of energy when it Fump down from an orbit of higher energy level to a lower energy level. The energy is emitted in the form of radiation. The fre"uency of the energy emitted is directly proportional to the difference in energy between the two level. C7 The angular momentum 4mvr7of an electron in any orbit is integral multiple of h.6x mvr - nh.6x

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Q)7 Name the f-n!amental .arti#le f an at m 8rite the #hara#teristi# f ea#h .arti#le$ !ns: fundamental particles of atom:- fundamental particle of an atom are: ,7/lectron:,: It is a negatively charged particle. 6: Its mass is e"ual to A.,,>,; power-*, #g *: The charge on electron is unit negatively or ,.<;66>,;power -,A coulomb B: /lectron are present around the nucleus of an atom. 67 roton: ,: It is a positively charged particle. 6: Its mass is e"ual to ,.<@6<>,; power-6@ #g *: The charge on proton is e"ual to that of electron. B: roton are present in the nucleus of an atom. *7 9eutron: ,: 9eutron has no charge. 6: Its mass is e"ual to ,.<@BA6>,; power-6@ #g *: It is ,1B6 times beaver than an electron. B: 9eutron are also present in the nucleus of an atom. Q*7 Des#ri"e the R-therf r! E2.eriment an! Dis# ,ery f N-#le-s $<hat are the !ra8 "a#=s R-therf r! M !el$ Hutherford /xperiment and 2iscovery of 9ucleus ?ord Hutherford 4,A,,7 and his cowor#ers performed an experiment. They bombarded a very thin, gold fail with !lpha particles from a radioactive source. They observed that most of the particles passed straight through the foil undeflected. $ut a few particles were deflected at different angles. One out of B;;; !lpha particles was deflected at an angle greater than ,C;. 42iagram7 Conclusion

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Dollowing conclusions were drawn from the Hutherford:s !lpha articles scattering experiment. ,. The fact that maFority of the particles went through the foil undeflected shows that most of the space occupied by an atom is empty. 6. The deflection of a few particles over a wide angle of ,C; degrees shows that these particles stri#e with heavy body having positive charge. *. The heavy positively charged central part of the atom is called nucleus. B. 9early all of the mass of atom is concentrated in the nucleus. C. The siIe of the nucleus is very small as compared with the siIe of atom. 2efects of Hutherford %odel Hutherford model of an atom resembles our solar system. It has following defects: ,. !ccording to classical electromagnetic theory, electron being charged body will emit energy continuously. Thus the orbit of the revolving electron becomes smaller and smaller until it would fall into the nucleus and atomic structure would collapse. 6. If revolving electron emits energy continuously then there should be a continuous spectrum but a line spectrum is obtained. 42iagram7 Q/7Define the f ll 8in&: At mi# N-m"er The number of protons present in the nucleus of an atom is called atomic number or proton number. It is denoted by I. The proton in the nucleus of an atom is e"ual to number of electrons revolving around its nucleus. %ass 9umber

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The total number of the protons and neutrons present in the nucleus of an atom is called mass number. The protons and neutrons together are called nucleon. 5ence it is also #nown as nucleon number. It is denoted by !. the number of neutrons present in the nucleus of an atom is represented by 9. %ass 9umber - 9o of rotons G 9o of neutrons !-QG9 Isotopes The atoms of same elements which have same atomic number but different mass number are called Isotopes. The number of protons present in the nucleus of an atom remains the same but number of neutrons may differ. Isotopes of 2ifferent /lements Is t .es f Hy!r &en Hy!r &en has three is t .es: ,. Ordinary 5ydrogen or rotium, 5. 6. 5eavy 5ydrogen or 2euterium, 2. *. Hadioactive 5ydrogen or Tritium, T. rotium Ordinary naturally occurring hydrogen contains the largest percentage of protium. It is denoted by symbol 5. It has one proton in its nucleus and one electron revolve around the nucleus. 9umber of rotons - , 9umber of /lectrons - , 9umber of 9eutrons - ; !tomic 9umber - , %ass 9umber - , 2euterium

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2euterium is called heavy hydrogen. The percentage of deuterium in naturally occurring hydrogen is about ;.;;,CR. It has one proton and one neutron in its nucleus. It has one electron revolving around its nucleus. It is denoted by symbol 2. 9umber of roton - , 9umber of /lectron - , 9umber of 9eutrons - , !tomic 9umber - , %ass 9umber - 6 Tritium Hadioactive hydrogen is called tritium. It is denoted by symbol T. The number of tritium isotope is one in ten millions. It has one proton and 6 neutrons in its nucleus. It has one electron revolving around its nucleus. 9umber of roton - , 9umber of /lectron - , 9umber of 9eutron - 6 !tomic 9umber - , %ass 9umber - * CHAPTER 0% CHEMICA9 +ONDIN: Q17 E2.lain i ni# " n! an! # ,alent " -n! 8ith any ne e2am.le$ !ns: Ionic bond:- It is a bond formed by the complete transfer of electrons from one atom to the other atom. the atom which lose electron ac"uire positive charge and the one which again which ac"uire negative charge. for example , Consider the formation of 9aCl:- In formation of 9aC? molecules one electron is transferred from an atom to C? atom their by the octet of each atom is completed. Covalent bond :-It is the bond formed by the mutal sharing of electron between the tow bonded atoms. example. Dormation of molecule:-Considered two hydrogen atoms. each has one electron in its outer most shell. thus the two atoms contribute there two electron to form a shared pair electron. the pair of shared electron is #nown as covalent bond. it is donated by 5-5. Q'7 Des#ri"e the ty.es f # ,alent " n!$ !ns: Types of covalent bonds

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&ingle covalent bond:-! covalent bond formed by the mutual sharing of one electron pair is called a covalent and is denoted by single short straight line. Dor example in 5-Cl, 5-5 etc 2ouble covalent bond:-! covalent bond formed by sharing of two electron pair is denoted by two short line. for example in O6, C6 etc Triple covalent bond:-! three electron pair bond is called a triple covalent bond and is donated by three short line. In nitrogen there is a triple covalent bond. Q(7 Differentiate "et8een i ni# an! # ,alent " n!$ Ans: I ni# " n! C ,alent " n!1: It is f rme! "y the # m.lete transfer f ele#tr n; 1: It is f rme! "y the m-t-al sharin& f ele#tr n; 6: In this bond one atom ac"uire negative charge. 6: 9o charges are developed on the two bonded atoms. *: Ionic bond are strong. *: Covalent bond are wea#. Q)7 Differentiate "et8een i ni# an! # ,alent # m. -n!$ !ns: Ionic compound Covalent compound,: Ionic compound do not contain molecules. ,: Covalent compound contain molecules. 6: Ionic compound are mostly inorganic compound. 6: Covalent compound are mostly organic compound. *: They are usually soluble in water. *:They are usually insoluble in water. B: They can conduct electricity. B: They cannot conduct electricity. C: They are non volatile in nature. C: They are volatile in nature. Q*7 <hat is #hemi#al " n! $ !ns: Chemical bond: The attractive force which bonds atoms together is called chemical bond. Dormation of chemical bond: Ehen element react to from a compound, the chemical bond are formed between atom. all chemical bond between atoms are formed by utiliIing the electron of outer most shell generally the atoms combine with are another in there way. ,7 $y using electron. 67$y gaining the electron.

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*7$y sharing the electron. Ehen the compound undergoes chemical reaction the bond b.w the atoms are rearranged. CHAPTER 4 HYDRO:EN AND THE ACTI?E META9 Q:17 H 8 hy!r &en is .re.are! # mmer#ially an! &i,e its .r .erties$ !ns7 Commercial hydrogen is relatively less pure and can be prepared by following methods. ,7 assing steam over red hot co#e:- $y passing steam over red hot co#e we get. CG56OCOG56 carbon monoxide can be separate from the gaseous mixture by li"uefying at a temperature of -6;;c. 67 $y the electrolysis of water:- The purest but expensive hydrogen is obtained by the electrolysis of water in the presence of little acid. 656O656GO6 *7 $y thermal decomposition:- 5ydrogen is prepared by thermal decomposition of natural gas. C5BCG656 B7 ure and relatively in expensive hydrogen is prepared by passing steam aver red hot ion. *DeGB56O De*OBGB56 C7 $y heating a mixture of natural gas steam the presence of a suitable catalyst nic#el. C5BG56O*56GCO roperties of hydrogen: a7 hysical properties:,7 5ydrogen has got three isotopic forms #nown as protium ,deuterium and tritium. 67 !t room temperature hydrogen is a colorless, tasteless and odorless gas. *7 %olecular hydrogen is the lightest of all gases. b7 Chemical properties:,7 Heducing agent: 5ydrogen is a very reducing agent it can reduce metallic oxides to metal easily ,e.g. CuOG56CuG56O 67Heaction with non metal: 5ydrogen react with non metal li#e oxygen and nitrogen on heating. 656GO6656O

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*7 Heaction with halogen: 5ydrogen immediately react with halogen to give halides. 56GCl665Cl Q:'7 H 8 al-min-m is e2tra#te! fr m its re; &i,e its .hysi#al an! #hemi#al .r .erties$ !ns7 reparation:- It is prepared industrially by a process called the hall beroult process. purification of ore:- naturally occurring bauxite contain impurities li#e silica and oxides of iron. the first step is obtained aluminum therefore involves the purification of the mineral. the natural bauxite is reacted with a hot concentrated solution of sodium hydroxide and form soluble sodium aluminates .the impurities remain undissolved and ore removed by filtration. aluminum hydroxide is then precipitate from the solution and is heated to regenerate pure aluminum oxide.. electrolysis of aluminum:- the pure aluminum oxide obtained by the above process is dissolved in a molten mixture of cryolite and calcium fluoride at AC;c. this molten mixture is electrolyIed in a specially designed cell with carbon anode. the final result can be represented by the following simplified electrode reaction. !l6O*6!lG*O aluminum is liberated at the cathode and oxygen is liberated at the anode however the atomic oxygen released at the carbon anode reacts with anode itself to produce carbon dioxide gas. thus the carbon anodes constantly consumed during the process and they must be replaced at suitable intervals. HO /HTI/& OD !?M%I9IM%:5O&IC!? HO /HTI/& :,7!luminum has a silvery white lustrous shine. 67It is a good reflector of heat and light. *7It is a good conductor of heat and electricity. B7It has a melting point <<C C5/%IC!? HO /HTI/& :!CTIO9 OD !IH :-2ry has no action .but in most air when aluminum powder is strongly heated it forms aluminum oxide. !CTIO9 OD E!T/H :-Cold water has no effect on pure aluminum. but aluminum powder decompose water at ,;;C liberating and forms. H/!CTIO9 EIT5 !?N!?I& :-!luminum react vigorously with strong al#alis eg to form aluminates along with hydrogen . Q(7 <hat are is t .es$ !es#ri"e the is t .es f hy!r &en$ !ns7 Isotopes are atom of same element with same atomic number but different mass number. Isotopes of hydrogen: There are three isotopes of hydrogen i.e.

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,7 rotium or ordinary hydrogen 672euterium *7Tritium ,7 rotium4ordinary hydrogen7:- It most fre"uently occur in nature. it is represented by ,5,. it has one electron in the nucleus and one electron in the # shell. it occur to AA.A1R. 67 2euterium4heavy hydrogen7:- It occur to very little extent. ordinary hydrogen contain about , part of deuterium in @;;; part of it. it is represented by ,56 or 2. it has one electron and one neutron in the nucleus and one electron revolves in the # shell. it is usually present in the form of 26O 4heavy water7 in ordinary water is small amount. *7 Tritium:- It is the heaviest isotopes of hydrogen and very varely occur in nature. it is represented by ,5* or T . it has one proton and two neutron in the nucleus and one electron revolve in the # shell. it has radio active form of hydrogen. Q)7 H 8 is s !i-m hy!r 2i!e man-fa#t-re! ele#tr lyti#ally; :i,e its im. rtant a..li#ati n; !7 sodium hydroxide commonly #nown as caustic soda is commonly manufactured by the electrolysis of solution sodium chloride which is commonly #nown as brine. in this electrolytic process nelson cell is used. in this cell anode consist of graphite rod and a u shaped perforated steel cathode used. brine is added in the u tube which on electrolysis gives chloride anode and sodium at cathode sodium react with water to form sodium hydroxide4caustic soda7. application of sodium hydroxide: ,7It is an important laboratory reagent. 67 It is used in paper industry. *7 It is used in the refining of petroleum and oils. CHAPTER 1 A IRON> COPPER> BINE AND 9EAD Q17 H 8 is ir n man-fa#t-re "y "last f-rna#e3 !7extraction of iron: iron metal is gradually extracted from its oxide ores by reducing them with carbon in the from of coal and co#e. the charge, consisting of roasted ores, co#e and limestone is fed into the top of the furnace. a preheated blast of air at about ,C;;c is blown into the furnace under pressure near to the bottom. the blast oxidiIes the co#e to carbon dioxide. the reaction is highly exothermic considerable heats librated which raises the temperature about ,A;;c in this region as the carbon dioxide passes upwards it react with more co#e to form carbon monoxide.

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the formation of carbon monoxide is an endothermic process and the temperature in this region falls to about ,,;;c .the carbon monoxide thus produced serves as the main reducing agent in the upper region of the furnace. the li"uid iron runs downward to the bottom of the furnace and is with drawn through a tap hole. the lime stone which was added to the charged is #nown as flux. it decomposes to form CaO and carbon dioxide.CaO react with the gangue4mostly silica and some alumina7to form their respective salts. they are #nown as slag. the slag floats as the molten iron and is run off which molten iron is seen into sand moulds where it cools down to solid bloc#s called pig iron. Q'7 8hat is r-stin&$ when an iron is exposed to air and moisture its surface is gradually corroded and converted into a brown mass. this brown mass is #nown as rust. Q(7h 8 is r-stin& # ntr lle! "y the #ath !i# .r te#ti n an! ele#tr .latin&$ ans7cathodic protection:-to protect theironobFect from corrosion by this method the obFect is connected to a bloc# of metal such as gene or aluminum which is comparatively more reaction than iron when corrosion starts an electrochemical reaction ta#es place and only the more reaction prevented from rusting. electroplating:-electroplating is used to cover iron obFect chromium, nic#el or other less easily corroded metals. this process used to prevent decorative as well as protective coatings. alloying:-rusting is often prevented by converting the iron into an alloy such as stainless steel. painting:- paint is generally used for coating large obFect such as ship, bridges and soon. grease and oil:- grease and oil is used for coating the moving parts of machinery. Q)7 h 8 # ..er is e2tra#te!$ ans7extraction of copper:- the extraction of copper from its ore involved concentration roasting,melting,reducing and electrical refining. ,7 concentration:-the ore is concentrated by a process #nown as froth floation.in froth floation the mixture of the mineral and impurities are mixed with water and oil. pure oil or creosote oil are usually used. air is blown into the mixture and the oil forms a froth which floats to the surface. the ore particles tend to get coated with oil and are carried to the surface with it. the froth along with the mineral particles is s#im men off from the top to get the concentrated.

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67 roasting:- the concentrated ore is roasted in a furnace. part of the sulphur is converted to sulphur dioxide and other impurities such as arsenic which are burnt off. *7 smelting:-in the smelting process the roasted ore is mixed with sand and heated strongly until it melts. the remaining impurities react with the silica to form a slag of molten silicates. this is removed from the top of the molten mass which remain is called matte and consist of mixture of Cu&6 and De&. B7 reduction:-reduction of the matte is carried out in a converter where air is blown through. the molten material and molten material and molten copper is obtained. more sand is added as a flux to remove the iron in the form of an iron silicate slag. C7 refining:- blistered copper is refined by electrolysis. blistered copper, in the anode and a plate of pure copper is made cathode. a solution of copper sulphate act as the electrolyte. the impure copper dissolves at the anode and is deposited in the form of pure copper at the cathode. Q*7 8rite ( #hemi#al .r .erties f # ..er$ ,7 copper react with oxygen, sulphur and halogens under suitable condition to from the corresponding compound. 67 it react with acid which contain oxygen, such as dilute nitric acid and concerned sulphuric acid. *7 copper displace less reaction metal, such as silver another precious metals li#e give and iron. http:..educational.p#.6;,*.;6.Ath-class-chemistry-important-solved-short-notes-for-exam-6;,*.

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