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ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No.

4/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics


CONTENTS

• SOME ASPECTS REGARDING THE GLOBAL WARMING
Carmen Otilia RUSĂNESCU, Marin RUSĂNESCU


7 - 11
• SONIC EFFECTS OF UNCONVENTIONAL HEAT INSTALLATIONS
Carmen BAL, Nicolaie BAL, Mihail Hărdău, Carmen Ioana IUHOS

12 – 17
• DATA AQUISITION SYSTEM FOR STATIC AND DYNAMIC TESTING OF
PNEUMATIC AXES
Radu RADOI, Iulian DUTU, Gabriela MATACHE
18 – 22
• PUBLIC RELATIONS & DEVELOPMENT COMMUNICATION IN THE ROMANIAN
NATIONAL AND REGIONAL CONTEXT
Radu J ECU


23 – 31
• THE ISSUE REGARDING THE FISCAL ENVIRONMENTAL INSTRUMENTS IN
ROMANIA
Oana DAVID


32 – 36
• ELECTROHYDRAULIC PROPORTIONAL SERVO VALVES –
ELECTROHYDRAULIC SERVO DISTRIBUTORS
Victor BALASOIU, Ilare BORDEASU

37 – 51
• RESEARCH REGARDING THE WEAR OF ECOLOGICAL STEELS OBTAINED
THROUGH THE CARBURIZING OF IRON METAL POWDERS
Olimpia GHERMEC, Cristian GHERMEC, Iulian STEFAN
52 – 57
• STUDY ON GREENHOUSE
Lorena LUPASCU

58 – 64
• NUMERICAL STUDY ON THE FLUID MOTION INDUCED BY A ROTATING DISK
INSIDE A VESSEL
Adrian CIOCANEA

65 – 69
• HYDRO-PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS FOR ACTUATION OF SPECIFIC EQUIPMENT,
INTEGRATED IN PLANTS OF ENERGY PRODUCTION FROM VEGETAL WASTE
Corneliu CRISTESCU, Catalin DUMITRESCU, Genoveva VRANCEANU,
Liliana DUMITRESCU

72 - 78
• CLICKS COUNTING METHODS FOR A SCOPE KNOB
Andrei DRUMEA, Robert DOBRE

79 - 84
• THE EFFICIENCY OF STREET CAR POLLUTION REDUCTION EQUIPMENTS
Ioan LEPADATU, Adrian CIOCANEA

85 - 90
• SOLAR INSTALLATION FOR HOT WATER FOR A FAMILY HOME
Adriana Gruia, Carmen Otilia Rusănescu, Marin Rusănescu


91 - 95



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ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 4/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics

MANAGER OF PUBLICATION
- PhD. Eng.Petrin DRUMEA - Manager - Hydraulics and Pneumatics Research Institute in Bucharest,
Romania
CHIEF EDITOR
- PhD.Eng. Gabriela MATACHE - Hydraulics and Pneumatics Research Institute in Bucharest, Romania
EXECUTIVE EDITORS
- Valentin MIROIU - Hydraulics and Pneumatics Research Institute in Bucharest, Romania
- Ana-Maria POPESCU - Hydraulics and Pneumatics Research Institute in Bucharest, Romania
SPECIALIZED REVIEWERS
- PhD. Eng. Heinrich THEISSEN – Scientific Director of Institute for Fluid Power Drives and Controls IFAS,
Aachen - Germany
- Prof. PhD. Eng. Henryk CHROSTOWSKI – Wroclaw University of Technology, Poland
- Prof. PhD. Eng. Pavel MACH – Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic
- Prof. PhD. Eng.Alexandru MARIN – POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest, Romania
- Assoc.Prof. PhD. Eng. Constantin RANEA – POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest, Romania
- Lecturer PhD.Eng. Andrei DRUMEA – POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest, Romania
- PhD.Eng. Ion PIRNA - General Manager - National Institute Of Research - Development for Machines and
Installations Designed to Agriculture and Food Industry – INMA, Bucharest- Romania
- PhD.Eng. Gabriela MATACHE - Hydraulics & Pneumatics Research Institute in Bucharest, Romania
- Lecturer PhD.Eng. Lucian MARCU - Technical University of Cluj Napoca, ROMANIA
- PhD.Eng.Corneliu CRISTESCU - Hydraulics & Pneumatics Research Institute in Bucharest, Romania
- Prof.PhD.Eng. Dan OPRUTA - Technical University of Cluj Napoca, ROMANIA

Published by:
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Address: 14 Cuţitul de Argint, district 4, Bucharest, cod 040557, ROMANIA
Phone: +40 21 336 39 90; +40 21 336 39 91 ; Fax:+40 21 337 30 40 ; E-mail: ihp@fluidas.ro
Web: www.ihp.ro

with support of:
National Professional Association of Hydrauli cs and Pneumatics in Romani a - FLUIDAS
E-mail: fluidas@fluidas.ro
Web: www.fluidas.ro

HIDRAULICA Magazine is indexed in the international databases:



HIDRAULICA Magazine is indexed in the Romanian Editorial Platform:



ISSN 1453 – 7303; ISSN – L 1453 – 7303
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ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 4/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics


SOME ASPECTS REGARDING THE GLOBAL WARMING
Rusănescu Carmen Otilia
1
, Rusănescu Marin
2
1
Polytechnic University of Bucharest, Faculty of Biotechnical Engineering
2
Valplast Industry Bucharest Romania

Abstract: In this paper we present theoretical notions concerning the global warming. Analysis of
temperature variation recorded by the weather station AWS / EV in 2009-2010

Keywords: Variation temperature, global warming

1. Introduction
Industrial, agricultural, urban tourism in general human presence in the landscape,
generating the damage from pollution and atmosphere, soil destruction and considerable
tracts of urban and intra-urban destruction, disturbance of public tranquility.
The highest percentage of the electricity consumed by mankind is produced by burning
fossil fuels. This results in the emission of CO
2
that is released into the atmosphere. He
contributes to enhancing the greenhouse effect and global warming. Also, power plants
emitting sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and smoke. Their result is intensifying the greenhouse
effect and global warming and its consequences: 10F terrestrial surface warming in the
twentieth century, melting ice sheets and glaciers snow left following the withdrawal, raising
water levels and ocean temperatures, increased precipitation medium and high altitude areas
of the northern hemisphere, a higher frequency of hurricanes, tornadoes and storms etc.
Technical and scientific revolution taking place at a pace more or less rapid, in all
countries, both in the industrialized and the developing ones, increasing number of people,
put before mankind technical and fundamental economic problems : growth of industrial
production, agricultural production, the need for intensive sources of mineral raw materials,
fuels and energy. These increases must take place under maximum protection of the
environment [1].
The environment is an essential element of human existence is the result of interference
of natural elements - earth, air, water, climate, biosphere - with elements created by human
activity.
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ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 4/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics


Figure 1 Trend in global average surface temperature [2]

The figure shows the combined land-surface air and sea surface temperatures (degrees
Centigrade) 1861 to 1998, relative to the average temperature between 1961 and 1990.
The mean global surface temperature has increased by about 0.3 to 0.6°C since the late 19th
century and by about 0.2 to 0.3°C over the last 40 years, which is the period with most
reliable data. Recent years have been among the warmest since 1860 - the period for which
instrumental records are available.
Warming is evident in both sea surface and land-based surface air temperatures.
Urbanization in general and desertification could have contributed only a small fraction of the
overall global warming, although urbanization may have been an important influence in some
regions. Indirect indicators such as borehole temperatures and glacier shrinkage provide
independent support for the observed warming. It should also be noted that the warming has
not been globally uniform. The recent warming has been greatest between 40°N and 70°N
latitude, though some areas such as the North Atlantic Ocean have cooled in the recent
decades.
The heating is due to human activity, in particular by releasing carbon dioxide into the
atmosphere by the burning of fossil fuels.
Global warming has profound effects in various fields. It causes or will cause rising sea levels,
extreme weather, melting glaciers, the extinction of many species and changes on human
health. Against global warming goes a sustained battle, whose central issue is the ratification
by governments of the Kyoto Protocol to reduce emissions of pollutants that affect the rate of
heating.









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ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 4/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics




Figure 2 Global average surface temperature trend [3]

2. Materials and methods
Atmospheric temperature was monitored with Weather Station: AWS / EV.
The air temperature is one of the most important meteorological parameters.
Sensor temperature and relative humidity% RH sensor (TTEPRH-N) .
There are protections against reverse polarity and atmospheric discharges.
The sensor connector: 7-pole female
Measuring a temperature of from -30 to +60
0
C
Response time <10 s.
This is an analog sensor, the output signal according to the change of variation in the
resistance [4, 8].


3. Results and discussion
Based on meteorological records by the weather station we performed statistical analysis, the
results of the statistical analysis are presented in Figures 3, 4, 5. Other authors have
performed their work, statistical analyzes on different materials [5,6,7,9,10]. Note that the
trend is global warming in all months analyzed comparatively. In 2010 there were higher
values in all months from 2009 looked at both lows station and maximum values recorded by
the weather station.








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ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 4/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics

Valorile minime, maxime ale temperaturilor anului 2009
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
i
a
n
.
0
9
f
e
b
.
0
9
m
a
r
.
0
9
a
p
r
.
0
9
m
a
i
.
0
9
i
u
n
.
0
9
i
u
l
.
0
9
a
u
g
.
0
9
s
e
p
.
0
9
o
c
t
.
0
9
n
o
v
2
0
0
9
d
e
c
.
0
9
Luni l e anul ui 2009
V
a
l
o
r
i

t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
a
,

[
0
C
]
mean min. max. Std. deviation

Figure 3 Variation of minimum temperatures, highs station in 2009


Valorile minime, maxime ale temperaturilor anului 2010
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
i
a
n
.
1
0
f
e
b
.
1
0
m
a
r
.
1
0
a
p
r
.
1
0
m
a
i
.
1
0
i
u
n
.
1
0
i
u
l
.
1
0
a
u
g
.
1
0
s
e
p
.
1
0
o
c
t
.
1
0
n
o
v
.
1
0
d
e
c
.
1
0
Luni l e anul ui 2010
V
a
l
o
r
i

t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
a
,

[
0
C
]
mean min. max. Std. deviation


Figure 4 Variation of minimum temperatures, highs station in 2010

Analiza statistica a temperaturilor in anii 2009,2010
16,6
-10,7
37,8
8,8
13,1
-19,2
37,3
10,6
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
Mean Minimum Maximum Std. deviation
Ani i
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
i
,

[
0
C
]
anul 2010 anul 2009

Figure 5 Statistical analysis of temperature values in the years 2009, 2010


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ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 4/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics

Conclusions
In this paper is studied global warming as documentation and literature were analyzed
atmospheric temperature values monitored by the weather station of the Faculty of
Biotechnical Systems Engineering Bucharest.
It was observed that the trend is slight increase in atmospheric temperature values.

References
1. Rusănescu Carmen Otilia, Rusănescu Marin - Elemente de dinamica poluării,
Editura Cartea Studenţească, Bucureşti 2007
2. http://www.grida.no/publications/vg/climate/page/3070.aspx
3. http://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%8Enc%C4%83lzirea_global%C4%83
4. Rusănescu Carmen Otilia, Meteorologie si climatologie Indrumar de laborator,
Editura Matrix Rom, Bucureşti , 2013
5. Ghermec, O., Ghermec, C., Popescu, T., (2009), A new technology to obtain
ecological steel, Proc.5
th
Int. Conf. on Environmental Engineering and
Management, ICEEM/05, 15-19 September, Tulcea, Romania, Environmental
Engineering and Management J ournal, vol. 8, no. 5, 1141 – 1144.
6. Ghermec, O., Ghermec, C., Didu, M. – Recycling of waste from the grinding
operations, Proc.5
th
Int. Conf. on Environmental Engineering and Management,
ICEEM/05, 15-19 September, Tulcea, Romania, Environmental Engineering and
Management J ournal, vol. 8, no. 6, 1491-1493.
7. Bucse I.G, Ciobanu M, Ghermec O, Studies regarding the structural characteristics
of sintered alloyed steels with nanometric master alloys, J ournal of Optoelectronics
and Advanced Materials, 15 (7-8), 673-678,2013
8. Carmen Otilia Rusănescu, Gigel Paraschiv, Gheorghe Voicu, Marin Rusănescu
Comparative Analysis of Atmospheric Temperature Values, Relative Humidity In
2009 And 2010 In West Side Of Bucharest City, Bulletin UASVM Agriculture,
68(2)/2011, Print ISSN 1843-5246; Electronic ISSN 1843-5386, pag. 130-138.
9. Trotea M, Stefan I, Ghermec O, Nicolicescu C, Savu S, Researches regarding the
elaboration of barium hexaferrite from microwave heating, Solid State Phenomena
188, 369-375, 2012
10. Ghermec C, Ghermec O., Trotea M, Research regarding the influence of the
compaction pressure of the iron powder on the processes that take place when
elaborating steels obtained through the carburizing – sintering proceeding, Material
Science Forum 672, 113-116, 2011

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ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 4/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics


SONIC EFFECTS OF UNCONVENTIONAL HEAT INSTALLATIONS
Prof.dr. eng. Carmen BAL
1
, prof. dr. eng.Nicolaie BAL
2
, Prof. dr. eng. Mihail Hărdău
3
, eng.
Carmen Ioana IUHOS
4

1
Technical University of Cluj Napoca, carmen.bal@dppd.utcluj.ro;
2,3
Technical University of Cluj Napoca, nicubal@yahoo.com.
4
S.C. BROKER SA; bic_tkd@yahoo.com.

ABSTRACT: The aim of this thesis is one of the problems fundamental mechanical engineering is
to transmit the energy (present in various forms) from a distance, where at any point it can be
converted into mechanical work useful.
Methods of vehicular of energy by liquids, currently applied, are generally based on transmitting
continuous pressure-flow, so that they produced at one end of the line, and can be taken over to
the other, the liquid is regarded as incompressible.
Energy in the new system shall also be transmitted from one point to another, at a distance which
can be considerable, with the printing of periodic variations in the compression that produce
vibrations longitudinal columns in solid, liquid or gaseous. The Energy transmitted through periodic
these vibrations of pressure and volume in the longitudinal direction can be characterized as
transmission of power through sonic cues required.
The science of which it is based application elastic properties of matter to energy transmission
bearing the name of the scientists or sonicity sonic. Hydraulic Sonicity is different from in the sense
that the latter, in practical applications considered fluids as being virtually incompressible.
For the transmission of power by mechanical waves, it is necessary to achieve means by which
vibration in the line of transmission can be received by, and be converted to use.
In this work we make the friction effect in the parallel unconventional sonic system, were the sonic
flow are influence by the friction. This effect makes the growing of the temperature in the sonic
resistance, same the caloric effect of the alternative current. This paper is the base of departure for
the future research about the caloric effects of the sonicity theory in the practice.

KEYWORDS: sonic pressure, sonic flow, sonic capacity, friction resistance, condenser..
I. GENERAL NOTION

The sonic actions permit the best combination of facilities offered by the processing of electrical
signals (reduces energy) with sonically actions of great power and efficiency, which give the
possibility of eliminating the biggest parts of a classical hydraulic system (hydraulic reservoir, flow-
adjustment valve), leading to an action which combines the opportunities offered by the processing
of the signals of low energy and the compact sonic actions, with high efficiency, with reduces
volume, it is very economic (Gogu Constantinescu, 1985). Here it has to be mentioned the fact
that, this theory is a particular case of power transmission through movement.
In conventional hydraulic transmission fluid (oil for example) makes a one-way movement between
energy converters (pump and hydraulic motor) during power transmission (operation). Harmonic
flow in hydraulic transmission fluid performs a periodic motion alternative (sinusoidal) between
energy converters.
By analogy with electricity, this pump will be called "hydraulic generator". Harmonic flow hydraulic
transmissions can be divided into two groups (all by analogy with electric motors): synchronous
and asynchronous transmission.


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ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 4/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics


II. THE PARAMETER USED TO THE INSTALLATION OF SYSTEM HARMONIC FLOWS

Parts of hydraulic systems with alternative flow show in figure 1 are: generator (pump) (G), motor
(M) and the pipe works (c) that directs flow to the engine power.
If “v” is the speed with the wave circulate of long of the pipe and “f” the circular frequent to the
crack, than the long wave is given by the relation, e.q 1:
f
v
= λ (1)
The sonic flow can be experimented by form, e.q 2:
) ( sin
0
max
ϕ ω + = t Q Q
a i
(2)
where: Q
i
– represent the instantaneous flow;
Q
a max
– the maximum sonic

flow or amplitude flow;
ω – angular frequency.
The sonic pressure can be writing similar with the sonic flow in the pipe when are presuming one
alternative flow, the instantaneous pressure are, e.q. 3:
( )
0
sin
max
ϕ ω + + = t p p p
a m i
(3)
where:
- p
m
– represent the medium
pressure in the pipe;
- p
a max
– maxim (amplitude) of the
sonic pressure.
The sonic displacement δ
s
are defined
which the relation e.q 3:

=
2
1
t
t
i s
dt Q δ (4)
Represent the capacity of displacement in
the time period t
2
– t
1
.
The inertia is the propriety when depend the mass movements, so one liquid spout is “l” length,
have hydraulics inertia, e.q 4:
S g
l
L


=
γ
(5)
when: γ = is a specific gravity of the liquid;
S – interior section of the pipe;
g – gravitational acceleration.
The sonic capacity or the coefficient of the sonic capacity, C
s
is defined by the relation, e.q 5:
i
s
s
s
p
C
δ
= (6)
in generally, the growing of the sonic displacement is proportionally which the growing of the
pressure, the proportionality constant is the sonic capacity C
s
.
The perditance represented all loss of liquid in the little interstice or other loss of flow result from
the pressure. The flow that is lost down of the pressure is proportionally by the defenses of
pressure. Noted by C
p
the coefficient of the perditance, can be experimented by form, e.q 6:
i
s p i
p C Q ⋅ = (7)
are defined which the relation, e.q 7:
E
Sl
C
p
= (8)




G-generator (pump), c-pipes, M-motor, Q
ii

instantaneous flow for phases i
Fig.1. The harmonic hydraulic system
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ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 4/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics


III. THE EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH

Research focused on obtaining experimental heat effect as a result of heat transmission remote
vibration (sonic waves in liquids). These studies were conducted on the stand presented in figure
1, starting at different frequencies of the engine that drives the piston sonic generator. For each
frequency measurements were performed for various static pressure in the system (0.25, 0.5) Pa.

Stand in Figure 1, is large capacitor mounted in parallel with the resistance of friction [2].
After processing the files with experimental data from three sensors mounted in the system
resulting histograms represented the primary form in Figure 2. This illustrates the pressures
developments in general and two capacitors. You can also view the generator speed (position
viewed by curve generator). Evolution of pressure curves reveal a phase shift between pressure
from the pressure generator and capacitors [2].

Fig. 2 Evolution mounting pressure over time for small capacitor in parallel
M
A B C
A B C
A B C
e
12
1
2 3 4
5 6
7 8
9
10 11
13
14
15


Fig.1 Block diagram of unconventional installation
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ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 4/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics


The graphs in Figures 3 and 4 were built for a static pressure of 0,25E+05 Pa and starting speed n
=680 rpm. Pressure sensor has reached generator producing a 75E+05 Pa pressure drop in the
friction resistance of 20E+05 Pa.
Temperature reached after about 1 minute and a half working at 75° C continued to rise further to
stabilize [3]. The results noted with graphics: ΔG - sonic pump pressure variation on the sensor 5;
n = 680 rpm p
s
= 0,25E+05 Pa

Fig. 3 Diagram of pressures and temperature variation with time in static
pressure of 0,25E+05 Pa

p
s
= 0,25E+05 P

Fig. 4 Diagram of pressures and temperature variation of speed according to
the static pressure of 0,25E+05 Pa

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ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 4/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics



ΔS1 - pressure variation obtained from pressure sensor 8;
ΔS2 - pressure variation obtained from pressure sensor 10;
T - temperature.
The graphs in Figures 5 and 6 were built for a static pressure of 0,5E+05 Pa and n =1000
rpm power. Temperature reached after about one minute and a half working at 70ºC continued to
rise further to stabilize. Pressure sensor to rise around de 95E+05 Pa and at the large cylinder at a
pressure of 37E+05 Pa, the pressure drop on the resistance of friction is equal to 20E+05 Pa .




n = 1000 rpm p
s
= 0,5E+05 Pa

Fig.5 Diagram of pressures and temperature variation with time in static pressure of
0,5E+05 Pa

p
s
= 0,5E+05 Pa

Fig. 6 Diagram of pressures and temperature variation of speed accordig
to the static pressure of 0,5E+05 Pa
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ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 4/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics


IV. CONCLUSION

The analysis of diagrams for assembly in parallel in Figure 1 the following conclusions can be
drawn [3]:
- the link in parallel after about a minute stabilized speed;
- pressure drop across the resistance friction is around 20E 05 Pa to that calculated which
is 25,86 ∙10
-5
Pa. Deviation between the two pressure was 22% deviation acceptable given the
complexity of phenomena that occur across the system;
- after pressure stabilization is found that the speed remains constant;
- static pressure in the system does not influence significantly the pressure drop;
- based on the measurements it can be concluded that the optimal speed for a friction
resistance with a diameter of 3 mm and length 1 m is comprised between 600 and 1000 rpm, as
confirmed by the calculation
- the two capacitors sonic, in parallel linked via a pipe with a small diameter acting as
“capillary type hydraulic resistance”, which aims to transform the sonic waves produced by friction
fluid environment with walls, into heat.

V. REFERENCES
1. Abrudean, M., 1998, Teoria sistemelor şi reglare automată, Editura Mediamira, Cluj-Napoca,.
2. Constantinesco, G., 1918, Theory of Sonics: A Treatise on Transmission of Power by
Vibrations, The Admiralty, London,
3. Constantinescu, G., 1985, Teoria sonicităţii, Editura Academiei R.S.R., Bucureşti ,
4. Carmen Bal, (2007), The caloric effect in the circuits by harmonic flow, Cluj Napoca, Ed. ALMA
MATER, ISBN 978-973-7898-75-3.
5. Carmen Bal, (2006), Research and contributions about the drive systems with the harmonic
flow, the doctoral thesis Technical University of Cluj Napoca.
6. Pop I. Ioan, Marcu Lucian, Carmen Bal ş.a., (2007), Sonicity applications. Experimenthal
results. Iaşi, Ed. Performantica, ISBN 978-973-730-391-2.
7. Pop, I., Khader, M., Marcu, I. L, s.a, 1999, Modern hydraulics. Pneumatics, Editura U.T.Pres,
Cluj-Napoca,
8. Pop, I., Marcu, I. L., s.a, 2004, Acţionări hidraulice moderne. Pneumatică, Editura U.T.Pres,
Cluj-Napoca,.
9. Pop, I., Marcu, I. L., 2004., Personalităţi în ştiinţă şi tehnică - Gogu Constantinescu, Editura
AGIR, Bucureşti,
10. Pop, I., 2006, Tratat de teoria sonicităţii, Editura Perfomantica, Iasi.







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ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 4/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics


DATA AQUISITION SYSTEM FOR STATIC AND DYNAMIC TESTING
OF PNEUMATIC AXES

PhD.Eng. Radu RADOI
1
, PhD.Eng.Iulian DUTU
2
, PhD.Eng.Gabriela MATACHE
3

1
Hydraulics and Pneumatics Research Institute, Bucharest, Romania, radoi.ihp@fluidas.ro
2
Hydraulics and Pneumatics Research Institute, Bucharest, Romania, dutu.ihp@fluidas.ro
3
Hydraulics and Pneumatics Research Institute, Bucharest, Romania, fluidas@fluidas.ro

Abstract: Data acquisition and virtual instrumentation entered the field of industrial applications
many years ago, gaining more and more field over classical measurement and control systems.
The authors propose a simple data acquisition system designed for static and dynamic laboratory
tests on pneumatic axes. One noticeable advantage of the data acquisition system is its flexibility,
allowing the users to easily reconfigure and adapt it to some changes in pneumatic axes’
configuration. This article comes as a continuation of the one published in the previous number of
the magazine regarding the dynamic testing of pneumatic axes.

Keywords: data acquisition, static, dynamic, pneumatic, testing
1. Introduction
Static and dynamic performances of pneumatic system have increased more and more during
time, challenging engineers to develop new control strategies that use pneumatic axes in a more
energy efficient way. Basically, there can be used microcontroller/microprocessor electronic
modules, PLCs, standardized dedicated measurement and control modules or, much more flexible,
data acquisition and control systems. Main functioning principles of the pneumatic axes remain the
same, but their control need have changed.
The article proposes a simple configuration for a data acquisition system (DAQ system), used in
static and dynamic testing of pneumatic axes. The DAQ system was used in the study of a
pneumatic suspension system, as given in Figure 2, with a high significance for the automotive
field because its structure exemplifies the idea that is used when designing a control system for
ground clearance of trucks or utility vehicles depending on their load.


2. Experimental Stand
The schematic of the experimental stand that was constructed in the Pneumatic Laboratory of the
Hydraulics and Pneumatics Research Institute (INOE 2000 – IHP) is given in Figure 1. This system
comprises the data acquisition structure that the authors propose, this being described below.
In Figure 2 there can be observed a pneumatic actuator that is used in pneumatic spring
configuration, this being mounted on each wheel of the vehicle. The stroke transducer (9) of the
pneumatic cylinder’s rod (7) is giving a signal for the control loop that manages the supply with
compressed air depending on the load. In this case, the pressure in the pneumatic actuator will
increase or decrease according to load variation. The purpose is to maintain at a constant value
the ground clearance of the vehicle.
In Figure 1, there is given the characteristic diagram of the pneumatic spring realized with the
pneumatic actuator (9), at two values of working pressures.


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Figure 1 - Characteristic diagram of the pneumatic spring.




Figure 2 – Schematic of the system, including data acquisition.

In Figure 2, we have the following:

1 – Air compressor; 9 – Stroke transducer;
2 – Safety valve; 10 – Force transducer;
3 – Pressure transducer; 11 – USB data acquisition board;
4 – Throttle valve; 12 – PC and data acquisition software;
5 – 2/2 pneumatic directional valves; 13 – Compressed air source;
6 – Electronic signal adapter; 14 – Air filter;
7 – Pneumatic cylinder; 15 – Pressure regulator with manometer;
8 – Pneumatic cylinder acting as load; 16 – Flow transducer.
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The experimentation of the system that the authors propose is made using the schematic given in
Figure 2, in which a pneumatic actuator (8) is driving with 400kgf the pneumatic cylinder (7), acting
as a vertical pneumatic suspension. After starting the data acquisition software, the current load
value is increased with 100kgf more. In this case, there can be observed that the system starts
pumping air in order to keep the pneumatic cylinder in the prescribed position.
Ten seconds after starting data acquisition, the supplemental load of 100kgf it is being decreased,
observing an increase in the stroke of the pneumatic cylinder. The system will bring the pneumatic
actuator in the prescribed position in almost 2 seconds from eliminating the excess pressure using
the pneumatic directional valve (5.1). The evolution of the pneumatic cylinder stroke during the
experiments is given in Figure 4.
The flow variation that enters and exits the pneumatic actuator of the pneumatic suspension
system is given in Figure 5, and the pressure variation in Figure 6. When the load increases, then
the pressure increases also from 4,3bar to 5,4 bar. When the supplementary load decreases, the
pressure is stabilizing again to 4,3bar. As a convention, in the diagram given in Figure 5, it is
considered that the air that enters the actuator has a negative sign while the one that exists has a
positive sign.
When the load was increased, the air flow evacuated from the actuator had a peak value of
375l/min. When the supplementary load was eliminated, the pressure in the actuator being too high
for the nominal load, caused the actuator to extend conducting to an instantaneous flow of air of -
437l/min. After this sequence the air flow has a value of almost 60 l/min until the actuator regains
the prescribed position.

3. Data Acquisition System
The authors propose a simple data acquisition structure, in a classical configuration of
simultaneous parameters acquiring. The system comprises not only the data acquisition board, PC
and software but the transducers, their measurement amplifiers, electronic power source and
voltage stabilizer.
Starting from the functional schematic of the pneumatic system and analyzing the measurement
and control needs there was developed a data acquisition software using the LabView environment
– practically is a virtual instrument.
The front panel of the virtual instrument used for data acquisition and control is given in Figure 3
(before experimenting).
Main functions that the virtual instrument must assure are:
- acquisition of parameter values
- data conditioning and processing;
- data storage;
- graphical interface through buttons, sliders, indicators etc., with the user;
- graphical display of parameters’ variation;
- closed loop control of the “ground clearance of the vehicle”, simulated in laboratory
conditions;
- ON/OFF control of the pneumatic directional valves;
- ON/OFF control of the electric motor of the air compressor;
- START/STOP data acquisition.
The data acquisition board (14) in Figure 2 it was a National Instruments board, with USB
connection: USB 6218. The board has the following technical parameters:
- 16-bit resolution;
- 2 x 16-bit analog outputs;
- sampling rate of 260kS/s;
- input voltage range: -10…10V;
- 8 TTL input channels;
- 8 TTL output channels;
- 4095 samples on-board memory;
- digital trigger.

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Figure 3 – Data acquisition and control virtual instrument.

4. Practical results
The experimental stand was assembled in laboratory conditions according to the schematic given
in Figure 2. After setting up and interconnecting the mechanical, electronic and data acquisition
structures there were run a series of experimentations that conducted to the diagrams presented
below.

Figure 4 – Stroke diagram of the pneumatic actuator (9).
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Figure 5 – Air flow variation diagram in the pneumatic actuator (9).



Figure 6 – Air pressure variation diagram in the pneumatic actuator (9).

5. Conclusions
Sometimes, dynamic behavior of a pneumatic driving system cannot be anticipated and
must be studied thoroughly as early as in the design phase, otherwise there can occur time and
money losses in case the proposed solution does not function properly. Thus, when designing a
pneumatic driving system for a specific application, it is advisable to make a preliminary analysis
through computer simulation and experimentations of a functional model, as presented above.

REFERENCES
[1] E. Murad, C. Dumitrescu, G. Haraga, L. Dumitrescu, „A new model of pneumatic transducer used in the
drying stage of the ceramic products obtaining”, Revista: HIDRAULICA, no. 1 / 2013, pg. 65 – 69, ISSN
1453 – 7303.
[2] M. Blejan, I. Enache, A. Drumea, Numerical Control System based on standard hardware and software
platform, 5th International Symposium for Design and Technology in Electronic Modules, September
1999, Bucharest, Romania, pp. 131-136.
[3] Avram, M., Acţionări hidraulice şi pneumatice, partea a II-a, Editura PRINTECH, Bucureşti, 2000.
[4] Avram, M., Acţionări hidraulice şi pneumatice, Partea I, Editura PRINTECH, Bucureşti, 1999.
[5] http://www.festo.com
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PUBLIC RELATIONS & DEVELOPMENT COMMUNICATION IN THE
ROMANIAN NATIONAL AND REGIONAL CONTEXT


RADU JECU
1
1
INCDMRR, Technological Information Centre for Mineral Resources CENTIREM
70, CaroI I Blvd. 020917 Bucharest, Romania


Abstract: The paper aims to highlight the role of public relations and communication in order to
increase the capability of innovation & development. The crisis revealed that communication
between research, development and / or innovation organizations and business world, between
scientists and society is very important in the promotion of results of research, development and
innovation activities as well as their consequences in the community and private life. The concept
of “Development communication” is presented and its specific adaptation in the regional context
too. The paper presents the society’s benefits provided by public relations & communication and
their role played in the improvement of the efficiency of the national / regional development &
innovation projects, of the technological transfer and innovation activities and of public information
as well.

1. Introduction

In the Western countries, the late eighteenth century industrial revolution has correlated progress
with economic development and the nineteenth century scientism promoted science as the engine
of human progress. Accordingly, up to the middle of the past century, the scientism empowered all
the scientific explanations, solutions and accomplishments with an absolute authority beyond any
doubt or questioning.
Even if some factors have changed, since the Second World War the concept of development has
often been conceived in strictly economic terms. It was thought to follow an evolutionary process
that commenced from basic commodity suppliers, through capital accumulation to industrialization,
in turn leading to urbanization and “modernization”. Development paradigms of modernization and
industrialization have often resulted in the destruction of indigenous peoples’ political, economic,
social, cultural, education, health, spiritual and knowledge systems as well as extraction of their
natural resources. Specific examples of disconnect between dominant development paradigms
and local societies include:
• local societies have often been regarded as “backward, primitive and uncivilized”, where their
“development” is understood to be their assimilation into the so-called “civilized world.”
• local cultures and values are seen to be contradictory to the values of the market economy,
such as the accumulation of profit, hyper consumption and competitiveness. Indigenous
peoples are seen as “obstacles” to progress because their lands and territories are rich in
resources and indigenous peoples are not willing to freely dispose of them.
The pursuit of economic growth at all costs is destructive for all humanity and the planet. The focus
on GDP as a main measure of progress has distorted the true meaning of progress and wellbeing.
For example, damage to ecosystems, irreversible loss in biological diversity and the erosion of
cultural and linguistic diversity and indigenous traditional knowledge, are not factored into the
balance sheet. Such ecological, cultural, social and spiritual indicators, which provide more
comprehensive measurements of national and global situations, are seldom used. [1]
These conditions we may recognize in the Balkan region too. After the Second World War, most of
the Balkan countries have been integrated within the Communist area. The scientism and
positivism have been kept integrated within the totalitarian atheistic regime ideology. The
“primitive” societies had to be integrated in the international Communist system officially
considered to be the most progressive in the world. Science was used to back up the political
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directives. The only viable truths and solutions, permanently perfectible, might be obtained using
the scientific research. The central leadership considered the economic development as a
fundamental imperative, within the industrialization represented an essential objective. Local
cultures and values were seen to be contradictory to the values of the planned economy. The
engineering sciences development was favoured to the detriment of humanities. The economy and
society as assembly took over unconditionally the results delivered by the research-design entities.
The communication was unilateral because the totalitarian regime didn’t predict any feed-back on
the behalf of the economic units (state-owned), local authorities, even less a public reaction.
National promotion of the results aimed to present the justification and efficiency of the political
decisions that determined them. On international scale the participation at different events and
meetings was extremely limited, being parts of propagandistic efforts of the political system,
sustaining the Communist vision superiority against the Capitalist one.
In the rest of the world, the changes of the world political configuration and soon, the mass-media
diversification have generated a communicational explosion. Concurrently, some undesired effects
of the technical-scientific revolution such as the problems in nuclear energy use, pollution etc.,
besides the increase of funds allocated to the research activity, had forced the scientific community
to present its achievements, opinions, demands and options more frequent ad extra. The
communication and its means had to diversify depending on the message, aims and addressees,
first the population and local authorities.
The globalizing process in progress and the requirements of the sustainable development have
attracted more and more interest for the scientific knowledge and for the innovation from the
economic and business environment. Innovations can be in the form of new products or services,
or cost-reducing process improvements, or innovative business models and methods. The benefits
of innovation occur in all aspects of the profit / loss statement: innovators drive additional sales
volume, achieve price premiums and reduce costs through process improvements. In addition to
the financial benefits, innovation goes hand-in-hand with sustainable development initiatives, as
both require progressive leadership and an appetite for change, combined with a tolerance of
experimentation and some risk.
These evolutions have also featured the necessity of communication fluidization, on one hand,
between specialists with different professional background and on the other hand, between those
first ones and unqualified people, encouraging the appearance of a new interdisciplinary
specialization generically denominated science communicators.

2. The Romanian Situation

2.1. Recent Historical Context

The events occurred in the late 80s of the last century have caused radical transformations
in Communist Balkan states as well. The transition towards the market economy, the economic
situation and the political options imprinted the development coordination and funding. The new
context dictated to science community the communication necessity on both of national and
international plan because:
• people without scientific knowledge have nowadays the possibility of influencing the research &
development activities. The offer/results as well as the demand/requirements must be
presented, sustained and argued in front of politicians, economic agents and business
investors, central and local authorities, mass-media and – sometimes - the local communities
or the entire population. Therefore, it became necessary for them to get easily and correctly the
messages of the scientific community.
• world-wide, scientists communicate between them more fluently, within the same field of
activity as well as between the different research areas, due to the continuous evolution of
interdisciplinary researches, being obliged to get up to date permanently with the development
of communication means.
The lack of ability to present the results and the own problems of the research &
development organizations damaged their public image as well as their field of activity, hindering
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the communication efficiency and thus, favouring under-funding tendencies and minimizing the role
played by sciences in Romanian society and economy.
Moreover the Romanian mass-media (with very few exceptions) don’t have qualified science
journalists in order to present professional inquiries, reports and interviews in the field.
The latest developments showed off implicitly or explicitly necessity of the science communicators’
presence in the area of research services in Romania, in mass-media respectively

2.2 Regional Policy. National Romanian Aspects

Once the introduction of communism, in 1950, the territory of Romania was reorganized from the
administrative point of view. The 58 counties have been replaced with 28 regions. In 1968 it was
returned to traditional form of organization, this time comprising 39 counties and, separately,
municipality Bucharest. At the same time, totalitarian regime has imposed “democratic centralism”
principle according to which local institutions are located (in any problem) under central institutions
and working after their orders. Therefore, regional development was directed by the central
authorities, the local ones being only performers.
The issue came into focus after 1989. In 1995, the strategy for Romania's accession to the
European Union highlighted the importance of the regional policies The Green Paper. Regional
Development Policy in Romania, Government of Romania and the European Commission was
elaborated in 1997 and The Law 151 on regional development in Romania was adopted in 1998.
So there were established the 8 development regions. The most competitive regions are in central
and western country, with higher development level even between the two world wars. They are
also physically closer to the markets in Western Europe, quickly assimilating European spirit
(tolerance, decentralization, competition, etc against a more expressive ethnic diversity compared
to other regions).
Regional development is a new concept (1999) that aims at stimulating and diversifying economic
activities, stimulating investments in the private sector, contributing to decreasing unemployment
and, last but not least, a concept that would lead to an improvement in the living standards. In
order to apply the regional development strategy, eight development regions were set up,
spreading throughout the whole territory of Romania. Each development region comprises several
counties. Development regions are not territorial-administrative entities, do not have legal
personality, being the result of an agreement between the county and the local boards.
Regional development policy is an ensemble of measures planned and promoted by the local and
central public administration authorities, having as partners different actors (private, public,
volunteers) in order to ensure a dynamic and lasting economic growth, through the effective use of
the local and regional potential, in order to improve living conditions. The main areas regarded by
the regional policies are: development of enterprises, the labour market, attracting investments,
development of the SMEs sector, improvement of infrastructure, the quality of the environment,
rural development, health, education, culture.
The main objectives of the regional development policies are as follows:
• to reduce the existing regional disparities, especially by stimulating the well-balanced
development and the revitalization of the disadvantaged areas (lagging behind in
development) and by preventing the emergence of new imbalances;
• to prepare the institutional framework in order to comply with the integration criteria into the EU
structures and to ensure access to the financial assistance instruments (the Structural Funds
and the Cohesion Fund of the EU);
• to correlate the governmental sector development policies and activities at the level of regions
by stimulating the inter-regional, internal and international, cross-border cooperation which
contributes to the economic development and is in accordance with the legal provisions and
with the international agreements to which Romania is a party;
The principles that the elaboration and the application of the development policies are based on:
• decentralization of the decision making process, from the central/governmental level to the
level of regional communities;
• partnership among all those involved in the area of regional development;
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• planning – utilization process of resources (through programs and projects) in view of attaining
the established objectives;
• co-financing – the financial contribution of the different actors involved in the accomplishment
of the regional development programs and projects [2]

2.3. Regional Policy. Trans-national Aspects

As a result of enlargement of the European Union, there has been a substantial widening of
regional disparities within the Union. The Cohesion policy therefore focuses on promoting a
balanced and sustainable development of the territory of the Union, by involving regional and local
actors as well as social partners particularly, in areas where greater proximity is essential:
investment in innovation, the knowledge economy, the new information and communication
technologies, employment, human capital, entrepreneurship, support for Small to Medium
Enterprises and access to risk capital financing.
The following countries stated Cohesion Policy as one of their priorities for 2014 - 2020 (50% are
Balkan countries) [3]:
• Croatia
• Czech Republic
• Estonia
• Lithuania
• Romania
• Slovenia
In Romania, The Ministry of Regional Development and Public Administration (MRDPA)
provides financial and technical management of regional development programs and projects,
cross-border and transnational cooperation, administrative capacity development, urban
rehabilitation, including urban transport, European spatial planning, of those financed by the
European Regional Development Fund, under the Regional Operational Program, by the European
Social Fund, under the Operational Program Administrative Capacity Development, of programs
and projects financed under the European Territorial Cooperation objective, by the ERDF, of the
European Neighborhood and Partnership Instrument – the cross-border cooperation component,
as well as other European financing instruments specific to its areas of activity, in accordance with
the legislation in force, financed by PHARE funds, in the extended decentralized system.
The important place of innovation in the regional development (Figure 1) led to the situation
that many cross-border cooperation development projects are run by innovation entities –
members of The National Technology Transfer & Innovation Network or RDI organizations.


Figure 1 [4]
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3. Innovation in the Romanian context

In the Romanian economic context and under the actual global conditions but also on perspective,
the getting out of crisis demands a more fluent and accessible communication between the
scientific community, the economic and business environments and the society.
In full accordance with the current orientations of world and European research, development &
innovation policies, Romania’s Government recognizes the strategic importance of the scientific
research and technological development domains for obtaining and maintaining a sustainable
competitive advantage for our country, at both european and global level. In this respect, one of
the strategic objectives for the policies in the field of research, technological development and
innovation is a more close correlation of research & development activities with the industrial policy
of Romania and the reinforcement of long term connections between the research & development
sector and the economic environment, achieved by the development of mechanisms that ensure
technology transfer to economy and encouraging the participation of the private sector in research,
development and innovation activities.
The infrastructure development at was promoted at national scale in the fields of services for
innovation and technology transfer by implementing the program „INFRATECH” (2004 – 2008),
launched and coordinated by the Direction for Innovation & Infrastructures of the former National
Authority for Scientific Research, approved by the Government Decision 128 / 2004. The projects
were aiming to settle technology and business incubators, technology transfer centres, technology
information centres, science & technology parks, technology & business incubators as well as
offices matching the industry demand with the technological research supply. While the
Government Decision 406 / 2003 provides the legal basis for methodology that enforces the
assessment, evaluation and operation of the innovation and technology transfer institutions, the
Government Ordinance 14 / 2002 (approved by the Law 50 / 2003) enforces the existence of
science & technology parks.
The National Technology Transfer & Innovation Network is an initiative of the former National
Authority for Scientific Research as a result of the application of the program „INFRATECH”. The
providers of services in the area of innovation and technology transfer are grouped in the
specialized network containing 54 accredited entities: 14 technology transfer centres, 20
technology information centres, 16 technology & business incubators and 4 science & technology
parks. All these 54 entities are operating under the Government Decision 406 / 2003. Besides,
there are more science & technology parks under development, set-up on the basis of Government
Ordinance 14 / 2002 approved by Law 50 / 2003. The National Technology Transfer & Innovation
Network is evenly covering the national area with important nodes in Bucharest, Craiova, Arad,
Cluj-Napoca, Deva, Iaşi, Râmnicu-Vâlcea, Timisoara, Tulcea, Brasov and Sf. Gheorghe.
The National Technology Transfer & Innovation Network is a national reference point for the
principal stakeholders in the transfer of knowledge and technology in order to:
• support the socioeconomic development, stimulating the innovation and the technological
transfer, attracting investments in order to turn to advantage the research, development &
innovation activities and the human resources in the field;
• increase the visibility of the research, development & innovation units and the exploitation of
the research, development & innovation results;
• improve the competitiveness of the small & medium enterprises and their innovation processes
through the development of supply services for transfer of knowledge and technology;
• promote a market for the research, development & innovation results in all sectors of the
Romanian economy;
• promote the national exchange of information, expertise, methodologies and best practice;
• stimulate partnerships and networking.
The beneficiaries of The National Technology Transfer & Innovation Network are economic agents,
research, development & innovation units and innovative small & medium enterprises.
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The entities of the National Technology Transfer & Innovation Network Romanian also are
members of the Romanian Association for Technology Transfer and Innovation – ARoTT – a
professional, non-governmental and non-profit organization of the technological transfer and
innovation profile units. Its first purpose is promoting and protecting business environment of the
technological transfer entities and innovative business from Romania in order to improve the
activity of the members.
Besides the activities concerning scientific research and technological development, international
research, development & innovation collaboration and development of institutions, human
resources and infrastructures, the area of responsibilities of the former National Authority for
Scientific Research included several activities that are further achieved by the entities of The
National Technology Transfer & Innovation Network: innovation and technology transfer; diffusion
and dissemination of research, development & innovation results; public promotion and awareness
of research, development & innovation activities.
As far as you can notice, among these objectives there are science communication activities which
can help to:
• increase the visibility of the research, development & innovation units;
• increase the capitalization of the research, development & innovation results;
• improve the relationships between the research, development & innovation organizations,
economic agents and society,
in correlation with the attendance and/or organizing of exhibitions and dissemination actions, both
internally and internationally.
In our country, the authorities for scientific research has initiated different events on national and
regional scale in order to improve visibility of the results of the Romanian research, to multiply the
contacts between the entities involved in the technological transfer and innovation activities -
Romanian and foreign organizations.
Yearly, during the International Technical Fair from Bucharest, The Romanian Research Salon and
The International Salon of Inventions, Research and New Technologies INVENTIKA have been
organized ever since 2007.
The National Technology Transfer & Innovation Network entities attend to these events by:
• specific presentations;
• presentations concerning the organizations that include them;
• accomplishment of: technological brokerage events, symposia, round tables, workshops,
partnerships enhancing etc.
The technological brokerage events organized by IPA CIFATT Craiova and the workshops titled
„Social-economical interferences on the edge of innovation” accomplished by CIT IRECSON
Bucharest have become known and awaited. For some years, technological brokerage sessions
became trans-national due to the organizers’ efforts to promote the trans-boundary, inter-regional
and European collaborations. The seminaries became turning points for the debating of problems
of the entities involved in technological transfer and innovation on national scale, for their
professional development.
On national regional scale, yearly, the Regional Research Salons are held in order to promote the
local specific connections and they are included by wider actions favoring the meeting between the
technological transfer and innovation entities, the stakeholders of the regional economic &
business media, the local authorities and the scientific community.
Another event (since 2003) – with international attendance - is the annual Open Forum for
Innovation and Technological Transfer, as an instrument meant to link the actors on the research,
development & innovation scene, the offer and the demand, the strategies and the ministerial
policy to the concrete needs of the small & medium enterprises, meanwhile trying to facilitate
contacts to foreign partners, of the European Union in particular. The Open Forum combines both
a virtual internet platform and a real space for communication and interaction (conferences and
events).
Also the state authorities for scientific research organized Romanian research, development &
innovation results promotion activities especially in the European Union. Every time, in the last few
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years, Romania was one of the first three countries rewarded as far as the receiving prizes were
concerned. Romania has also been internationally appreciated and the participants’ number and
their consistency has constantly been increasing.
The contribution of the science communicators to the success of these events may consist in:
• the appropriate promotion of the image of the research, development & innovation
organizations and their activities to the interested parts’ demands;
• the improvement of the presentation means of the research, development & innovation
activities results in order to enhance partnerships and new connections;
• the communication, knowledge and technologies transfer enhancement in order to inform the
economic agents and society on the research, development & innovation activities.
Also science communicators’ activity feedback may be an extremely important source of
information for both research, development & innovation units and the technological transfer and
innovation entities aiming for a more consistent, accurate and rapid correlation of their activities
with the immediate and actual problems of the economy and society. Therefore the entities of The
National Technology Transfer & Innovation Network provide the optimal conditions for science
communicators activity in the benefit of the scientific community, economy and society.

4. Development Communication

Communication sciences were firmly imposed in the area of humanities, providing a field of
research whose reserves seem inexhaustible. Evidence is, in this respect, the impressive number
of subordinate works in this field and hence the growing number of researchers who approach it
from different perspectives. The emergence and expansion of this autonomous field merely
followed the trends of modern society, where communication has become one of the key concepts.
Besides this and in immediate connection with the same weight may be included concepts like:
identity, image, relationship, mediation or significance.
Mentioned trends have generated interest not only to scientists on the area in question. Another
consequence, equally important, is the profession of communicator (PR specialist, PR manager,
science communicator or image counselor). Today, in the developed countries, it is well
understood that creation and promotion of the own identity, interest, both to promote the own
performances critical conditions the professional success of an individual or the economic success
of an organization.
In recent decades, a new communication branch has emerged: development communication.
Development communication has been defined in several ways by economic development experts,
sociologists and communication experts. The terminology development communication originated
in Asia, the definitions given by the communication experts of this region gained currency.
Definitions differ depending on the definers view of development. Nora Quebral (1975) defined
development communication as the art and science of human communication applied to the
speedy transformation of a country from poverty to a dynamic state of economic growth and makes
possible greater economic and social equality and the larger fulfilment of human potential. Quebral
describes the genesis of the term Development Communication and its parameters which grew out
of the field of agricultural communication. The term was coined to include under it apart from
agricultural development, areas of national development such as population, nutrition, health
education housing and employment etc. Development communication was considered an
appropriate term to describe the scope, direction and structure of the discipline. [5]
Three main ideas which define the philosophy of development communication and make it different
from general communication are: Development communication is purposive communication, it is
value-laden; and it is pragmatic. In the development context, a tacit positive value is attached to
what one communicates about, which shall motivate the people for social change. Development
communication is goal-oriented. The ultimate goal of development communication is a higher
quality of life for the people of a society by social and political change. We should not view the goal
of development communication purely in economic terms, but also in terms of social, political,
cultural, and moral values that make a person’s life whole, and that enable a person to attain his or
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her full potential. The goal of development communication in a specific society will be influenced by
the ends and values of that society.
In the development context, a tacit positive value is attached to what one communicates about,
which shall motivate the people for social change. Development communication is goal-oriented.
The ultimate goal of development communication is a higher quality of life for the people of a
society by social and political change. We should not view the goal of development communication
purely in economic terms, but also in terms of social, political, cultural, and moral values that make
a person’s life whole, and that enable a person to attain his or her full potential. The goal of
development communication in a specific society will be influenced by the ends and values of that
society.
Development communication has to deal with two types of audience: i) the communicators
comprising development bureaucracy, media practitioners and professionals, and ii) the people i.e.
the audience who can be informed or uninformed; educated or semi-literate or literate.
Wilbur Schramm (1964) was the first to recognize that communication could play an important role
in the national development of the third world counties. He believed that mass media could better
the lives of people by supplementing the information resources and exposing people for learning
opportunities. Schramm’s conceptualization of the interaction between mass communication and
development became the focus of many development programs. He was occupied with the
practical problems of using mass communication to promote economic growth and social
development in third world countries. He conceptualized a relationship between development
communication and economic growth, which has been the main guiding paradigm for development
programs. He suggested that as economic activity spreads, knowledge must be gathered more
broadly, information shared widely and transferred swiftly. For this the developing nations must be
prepared to support enormous increase in the day-to-day communication within the system.
The specific concept of development communication identifies information, education and
communication (identified by the acronym IEC) about development plans. Development theorists
and practitioners realized that merely disseminating information about development plans would
not result in development as UNESCO termed it, nations needed communication (IEC) for
development within the cultural matrix. Later it was realized that the original formula of information,
education and communication for development programs was itself insufficient to achieve the
desired results. In addition, people need motivation to accept development. Development
motivation and Development Awareness are essential aspects of development communication
(Narula Uma, 1994).
The aims of the EU regional policy:
• help each region achieve its full potential
• improve competitiveness and employment by investing at regional level in areas of high growth
potential, with an added value for the EU as a whole
• bring living standards in the countries that have joined the EU since 2004 up to the EU average
as quickly as possible.
Regional inequalities can be due to many factors, including:
• longstanding handicaps imposed by geographic remoteness or sparse population
• more recent social and economic change
• the legacy of formerly centrally-planned economic systems
• combinations of these and other things.
The impact of these disadvantages is frequently evident in:
• social deprivation
• poor-quality schools
• higher levels of unemployment
• inadequate infrastructure.
Relating to these considerations, we can see the similarity with the Asian situation that determined
the apparition of development communication.
Regional policy is about investing in people. The idea is for regional policy to dovetail with the EU’s
agenda to promote growth and jobs by:
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• making countries and regions more attractive for investments by improving accessibility,
providing quality services (such as high-speed internet) and preserving environmental potential
• encouraging innovation, entrepreneurship and the knowledge economy, pushing regions to
capitalize on their strengths and make a more effective and better combined use of European
national and regional public funds, developing 'smart specialisation' strategies for growth
• creating more and better jobs by attracting more people into employment, reversing the ‘brain-
drain’, improving workers’ adaptability and increasing investment in human capital.



5. Conclusions

Even if the terminology & study of development communication were originated in Asia, these can
be extended and customized for the Balkan region in European Union today. The EU may be one
of the richest parts of the world, but there are large differences both between countries and inside
individual countries. However, the dynamic effects of EU membership, coupled with a vigorous and
targeted investment policy, can bring results.

References

1.http://www.un.org/en/events/indigenousday/pdf/Development%20with%20Culture%20and%20Id
entity%20formattedenglish.pdf
2. http://www.mdrt.ro/en/dezvoltare-regionala/politica-de-dezvoltare-regionala
3.http://www.ecdpm.org/Web_ECDPM/Web/Content/Download.nsf/0/B25963797017D49CC12579
E40062AC52/$FILE/BN%2037%20.pdf pag 7
4. http://europa.eu/pol/reg/index_en.htm
5. Rajesh Kumar, Development Communication: A Purposive Communication with Social
Conscience - An Indian Perspective
http://www.caluniv.ac.in/Global%20mdia%20journal/Winter%20Issue%20December%20%202011
%20Articles/AR-3%20Kumar.pdf


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THE ISSUE REGARDING THE FISCAL ENVIRONMENTAL INSTRUMENTS IN
ROMANIA

Lecturer PhD.Ec. Oana DAVID
1

1
University Politehnica of Bucharest, davidgioana@yahoo.com


ABSTRACT: The paper aims to approach the field concerning the fiscal environmental instruments.
For this it starts with their general presentation, in the end showing what have been achieved in this
field in Romania. In our country, despite the fact that have passed over 20 years from the moment
when it was changed the political system and more than this, we have been an UE member from
2007, these fiscal environmental instruments are scarce and therefore we may consider important the
existing ones.
KEYWORDS: economy, ecology, environmental licence, environmental tax, susteinable development

1. Introduction
Economy, the art of administering properly a household, according to its etymology, is the science of
allocating rare resources. Ecology, discourse upon logic and by extension upon the natural
environment is the science of protecting rare natural resources. The etymologic closeness is more
than a mere words game: the common interest for goods available in limited amounts should bring
near the two approaches. In fact it is noticed that numerous environmental issues are expressed in an
economic language. The expressing of the issue in economic terms is one thing and the application of
the approach made by the economists focused on the environmental issues is another.
The definition of the susteinable development is qualitative and there are numerous acceptions. In all
cases the economists admit the necessity of taking into account the natural capital, beside commercial
products. But the exigencies regarding the preservation of this natural capital may vary according to
the conception of susteinable development we use, the economists proposing means for eliminating
ireversibility.
Fiscal instruments such as environmental taxes and licenses may be a remedy. For defining them it is
necessary to find a compromise, always imperfect, between the necessity for simplicity, global
coherence and fineness of instigation. On another hand, their distributive effect leads to the
appereance of an hostile attitude between the economic agents.
Each economic or non economic instrument implies both costs and benefits. For building up a policy
of susteinable development, the political deciders must offer all types of instruments available,
economic and non economic, being aware of their costs and benefits.

2. Content paper
The placement of the environment in the free market system may generate favourable results, raising
the issue concerning the necessity of defining certain property rights upon the environmental factors,
by governmental acts, removing these factors from the area of common property – state property –
and leaving them free, exposed to the market mechanisms.
A first allocation of these pollution rights would be their distribution among those persons who may be
disadvantaged by the environmental damages and then to ask the economic entities who are willing to
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run an activity which may have negative impact upon the environment to buy or rent these rights from
the initial owners.
Due to the fact that the number of those who produce environmental damages is significantly lower
than of the ones who are affected, it may be suggested that the pollution property rights to be granted
initially to them. Practically this solution is not feasible either.
The benefit resulting from the improvement of environment quality represents the sum of the damages
borne by certain persons and generated by the same polluter and consists in the attainment of certain
favourable effects expected as a result of allocating the environmental resources – air, water, soil - to
the market.
The governmental authorities may simply set certain prices and fees upon the use of the resourcers
generating external costs. May be required payments, prices or taxes from all those who want to
discharge pollutants in water or in the air, drill the land or build in zones with special sightseeings, fly
with jets making big noise, use in towns cars generating smoke. In such cases the externality costs
would be somehow internalized.
On the market the price fixing mechanism is based on forces represented by offer and demand, which
mean the cumulative effect of a multitude of individual decisions.
In what regards the environment, the prices structure is fixed by a single decision of the governmental
authorities. Because of this reason the effect of the system will depend on the way in which is carried
on this duty.
In principle the government should fix the price for certain activities with distructive effects on the
quality of the environmental factors, using as a calculation basis the size of the external costs implied
by these activities.
The taxes or prices based on the external costs would approximate, in certain circumstances
considered as ideal, the prices generated on a concurential market of the resources.
The optimal theoretical price which must be attributed to an activity with negative impact upon the
environment is the price at which an increase in the costs implied by the cut of the damaging effects
becomes equal with the decrease of the resulting damages.
If it is fixed a lower tax the level corresponding to the pollution control could not be the optimum one,
cause an additional monetary unit spent on control woul reduce damages more than the initial
monetary unit.
On another hand, if it is fixed a higher price or tax, the costs of the additional control will exceed
benefits.
If it may be found an optimum level of the price for each distructive activity affecting the environment,
the result will be rational from the economic point of view both for the society and for the individuals.
The market will integrate the individual activities of production and consumption within the offer and
demand which could take into account the costs as well as the productivity of the various uses of the
environment.
In practice it is seldom possible to measure extremely accurately the externality costs, using them as a
basis for prices.It is not known entirely the extent of the damages resulting from some activities. They
are frequently spread and manifest themselves in small amounts which generate an impact
measurable only after accumulations resulting after long time. In addition, certain kinds of damages
cannot be easily expressed in monetary terms.
A usable system for fixing prices begins starts from the frequently met concept of environmental
standards. Some of the important advantages of the prices-taxes in the theoretical model lead to this
alternative. The purpose of this approach is to achieve a specific pre established level of the
environment’ s quality. This tzpe of standards maz be established for a certain zone/region by a
combination of analytical procedures and political processes.
The environmental standards, especially those elaborated for the quality of air and water, are
component parts of the environment s protection and preservation programs from many countries of
the world.
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It may be made a focused study upon the adoption of a unitary tax for a given region. In this way it
may be fixed a certain tax for water pollution which to be the same for all sources of pollution in a
certain hydrographic basin or in a certain zone of control of the water quality. This is not the only
possible configuration of the tax. The taxes on biodegradable substances may be variable depending
on the source localization.
Theoretically there is a price for behavior with negative impact upon the environment which shall be
found in the establishing of any standard regarding its quality. The individual sources of pollution will
answer to this kind of payment in the same way in which they would behave towards the ideal,
theoretic type of tax.
This type o tax will not result from an optimum market balance but from mere coincidence. The price
paid by the polluter may be higher or lower than the externality costs created implied by the
discharges of pollutants. The tax will act in the meaning of determiningh a quality level of the
environment which corresponds to a political option as well.
The pollutres for whom the control is relatively expensive will eliminate a lower percentage from their
discharges than those for whom the control is less expensive. For example, a tax of a certain level
may determine the polluter A who has high control costs to eliminate 70% from its pollutant discharges
while the source B with lower costs might reduce its discharges with up to 90%. The use of taxes
makes possible the differentiation between the costs of control for the sources of pollution, reaching
the lowest level possible for the overall costs of control. The differential approach of the taxes will lead
to a lower level of the overall cost than if it would be imposed to reach the same environment quality
level, demanding both to the enterprise A and B to diminish their discharges at the same level, for
example 85%.
This comparison is very important because the approaches by means of reglementation for the control
of the air and water resources pollution requires uniform standards for effluents, related to different
categories of pollutters. This will lead to higher overall costs of control for each category, than it would
result as an effect of the application of a tax system.
In Romania in 2013 was established the environmental stamp for cars which represents an income for
the budget of he Environmental Fund, being used by the Administration of the Environmental Fund at
financing programs and projects for the protection of the environment.
The environmental stamp must be paid once,at the registration of a vehicle, when it is obtained the
property right for that. In the case when it is changed the owner of the vehicle, this tax must be paid if
the first owner did not do it or he was given back the pollution tax for autovehicles or the tax for
polluting emissions generated by vehicles.
The financial competent body calculates the value of the environmental stamp, on the base of the
documents from which it results the property right for the vehicle and the calculation elements for the
environmental stamp, submitted by the tax payer who intends to make the registration or the
transcription of the property right for the owned vehicle.
The environmental stamp it is paid by the owner of the vehicle in an account opened at the units of the
State Treasury, belonging toe the Administration of the Environmental Fund and the proof of this
payment will be presented at the car regisration or the transcription of the property right for the vehicle.
The certificates for the gas emissions with greenhouse effect represent „pollution rights” from which
are benefiting for free over 220 companies from Romania. Each year the companies which activate in
the fields of energy, oil products refinement, cement, metallurgy or glass receive a certain number of
certificates of this kind for free.
These certificates are given taking into account the pollution degree of each company. If the company
pollutes more, must buy more certificaes, if it pollutes less, may sell its surplus and finance with the
money obtained, its investments for modernizing its activity.
The certificates for gas emissions with greenhouse effect, also called CO
2
certificates or carbon
certificates are financial instruments used in the European Union in the purpose o prevention or
control of the pollutant emissions. A certificate is equal with a tone of CO
2
emissions. These
certificates started to be used after it was signed the Protocole from Kyoto by 183 states from the
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world, Romania being one of these. The protocole entered into effect from 16th of February 2005,
though it was initially agreed to be from December 1997. Romania received for 2008-2012 350
millions of such financial instruments.
The brokers from the capital market may buy such certificates directly from the state institutions in the
bids organized by the Unique European Stock Market for selling them in accordance with the
regulations of the National Comission of Transferable Securities.
At Europea level most of the countries may sell these certificates only by bids organized by theStock
Market Europea Energy Exchange from Germany and the brokers from Romania who want to
participate at the bids must receive a special authorization from the National Comission of
Transferable Securities.
The brokers will participate directly in their own name having the possibility to buy the certificates and
then resell them on a secodary market ad they would also have the right of auction for their clients.
According to a regulation established by the National Comission of Transferable Securities he
brokerage compaies wo want to purchase in their own name environmental certificates, must have an
initial capital of minimum 730.000.euros.
The brokerage houses which wat to buy certificates for heir clients need a capial of at leastt the
equivalent in national currency of 125.000 euros.
In J uly 2013 the Eropean deputies approved a plan of delay for the comercialization of the new
environmental certificates, for rising their price. The result will be an increase of the investments in
green technologies as an alternative at he payment of the certificates. After vote the price of these
certificates rose.
The green certificate is a title which attests the production of electric energy from renewable sources.
The green certificate may be transacted apart from the amount of electric energy which it represents,
on an organized market represening the support scheme of promotiion for the production of energy
from renewable sources.
The Romanian state supports the investors in green energy-renewable energy by means of the green
certificates and by ensuring the legal framework for their comercialization. At present each MWh of
green energy produced from renewable sources is rewarded with a number of green certificates.
These green certificates are bought by the suppliers of electric energy as well as by the producers of
electric energy for the energy afferent to the own final consumption, other than the own technologic
consumption or that afferent to the supply of the consumers connected by direct lines to the power
plant. The companies of profile are bound to have a certain amount of renewable energy in that
supplied to consumers.
The renewable sources of energy mean non fossil energy sources: solar, aeolian, aero thermal,
geothermal, hydrothermal, hydraulic in power plants with a power of up to 10 MW, biomass gas
resulting from the fermentation of wasttes and muds from the sewage water and biogas installations .
The green certificates are found on all the bills of energy issued after 30.11.2012 calculated for the
energy consumed starting from 26.07.2012.

3. Conclusions
Such a way of approach of the issue regarding the distribution of the rights of pollutiom or of property
upon the potential of the environmental facors is difficult to achieve in pracice. It is hard to suppose
that like it is done in he case of common economic products, would be possible to identify European
entrepreneurs which to buy property rights for air portions in a city from the Far East for instance or in
any other part of the world.
Tthe costs afferent to the creaion and maintenance of the mechanisms for such markets would be
huge and probabily much bigger than the value of transactions with he properta rights in circulation.
It would be extremely difficult for the numerous population from that area who would like to benefit of
clean air, to buy a sufficient number of property rights for being able to achieve a significant
improvement of the air quality In this way we go back to the issue regarding the costs of transactions.
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As a result, the global damage may be high in relation with the costs for reduction, but a person s
damage or even a group of persons damage is probably small comparing it with the costs related to
the diminishing of that damage. That is why it does not exist anywhere in the world a real case in
which a small community or a certain person to pay to the polluters the money for reducing or stopping
the discharges of pollutat substances.
But such schemes complicate situations and in practice migh generate a series of administrative
problems whose costs for resolution would exceed the advantages of applying the taxes.
A approach of the tax centered on the environment quality will keep certain characteristics specific to
the approach of the tax, based on the finding of the damages caused to the enviroment.
Cause of the fact that the price is the same for all those who discharge a certain pollutant in a certain
area, they will operate with the same level of the marginal cost, which is the additional cost necessary
for producing a supplemental unit from a certain product. This does not mean that it would be reached
the same level of control for all polluters. The marginal costs for a certain interval among the limits of
control vary usually substantially from a type fo source to another.
Other benefits which derive from the application of a system of taxes offer to a person or a company
involved in activities with negative impact upon the environment, a prompt economic stimulent for the
control of such effects. The activity itself creates an obligation which cannot be avoided by delaying
payments or by the evasion from adopting control measures. That respective source of polluion may
reduce these obligations, legally, only by making several steps towards the diminishing of the amount
of pollutants discharged.
There is no delay to depend on the completion of the actions of activity reinforcement before the
existence of an economic stimulent which to reduce pollution. In addition the adoption of these taxes
leaves in the polluter s responsibility the issue of the techniques of control and of the manufacturing
technologies.
This represents an improvement in the approach of a system of regulation which is in a way oriented
towards measures of treatment and purge of he discharged pollutants, an option which is often more
expensive than the alternative consisting in the application of clean technologies.

REFERENCES
[1] S. Diaconu, „Ecologic balance and susteinable economic development”, Editura Feroviară,
Bucureşti, 2003;
[1] F. Bran, „Environmental issues. Possiblities of regulation”, Editura Tribuna Economică, Bucureşti,
2001;
[1] I.W.H. Parry, R.C.III Williams, L.H. Goulder, “When Can Carbon Abatement Policies Increase
Welfare? The Fundamental Role of Distorted Factor Markets”, J ournal of Environmental
Economics and Management, No.37, pg. 80, 1999;
[2] Emergency Ordinance of the Government nr.9/2013 regarding the environmental stamp for
autovehicles, Monitorul Oficial nr.119/04.03.2013;
[3] www.cez.ro;
[4] http://europa.eu/index_ro.htm.



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ELECTROHYDRAULIC PROPORTIONAL SERVO VALVES –
ELECTROHYDRAULIC SERVO DISTRIBUTORS

Victor BALASOIU
1
, Ilare BORDEASU
2


1
„Polytechnic“ University of Timisoara, Mihai Viteazul No.1, 300222, Timisoara, Romania, E-mail:
balasoiu89@yahoo.com
2.
„Polytechnic“ University of Timisoara, Mihai Viteazul No.1, 300222, Timisoara, Romania, E-mail:
ilarica59@gmail.com


ABSTRACT: Electrohydraulic servo (SVEH) as interface elements in hydraulic machines are
actually operated proportional hydraulic distributors, which are used in automatic control systems
using full response elements placed in the operated mechanism. Electrohydraulic servovalve is at
the interface between control electric type and Hydraulic actuation. The output (flow, pressure) is
adjusted according to the size of the control signal (current, voltage), with a related reaction
(mechanical, hydraulic, electrical) [1], [27], [28]
Servo valves have a quick reply, low mass per unit power output, reliability and a wide frequency
band. Analysis and synthesis SVEH requires the use of methods from the theory automatic
systems, generally resorting to an analysis linearized around the operating point.

KEYWORDS: Electro hydraulic servo valves, floor nozzle flap, drawer floor distributor, servovalve
electrohydraulic floor, reaction mechanical, electrical and special reactions, feature static and
dynamic position control, speed and pressure.
1. Introduction. Distributors and electrohydraulic proportional servo valves

Electrohydraulic control equipment containing devices and systems which ensure control hydraulic
parameters such as pressure or flow, with electric controls electric - electronic. Type hydraulic
components are proportional flow control devices or pressure by a law of proportionality between
the size of the input electric type (current) and output size type hydrostatic (flow or pressure).
Derived from classical construction equipment distribution and pressure control or flow control
element have the electromechanical converter [1], [3], [8], [9], [11], [13], [25], [27], [28].
Electromechani cal hydraulics proportional to convert an electrical signal, typically a current, at a
flow rate or a pressure proportional to the input signal. By proper control of hydraulic parameters,
ensure a controlled variation of the physical parameters of the mechanical system, such as speed,
acceleration, speed, position, force, torque, etc. Two large groups of electrohydraulic control
devices appeared in the last half century have revolutionized the automation domain
automatization hydraulic proportional hydraulics and electrohydraulic proportional servo valves.
Electrohydraulic Proportional distributor is an electrohydraulic amplifier that provides a link
between current proportional and flow control adjustment. In practice, there is a formal distinction
between distribution electrohydraulic proportional and servo valves, depending on the dynamic
behavior because these amps steady state fulfilling the same function. Significant differences
between the two groups appear only in relation to response time and static precision.


2. El ectrohydraul i c proporti onal servo val ves (SVEH) – cl assi fi cati on

Electrohydraulic servovalve is a circuit element that converts electrical input signal (current or
voltage) to a hydraulic output signal (pressure or flow), while achieving a power amplifier.
Electrohydraulic servovalve is a body control and a flow proportional control or hydraulic pressure
through an electrical control signal. Electrohydraulic servo valves in the same system combines the
advantages of electron order - power (convenience and speed signal processing) with the
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hydraulics (small gauge per unit of power and can continue to adjust the set value).
Constitute the interface between the electrical equipment and the hydraulic actuator. A conversion
signal (electrical flow and / or pressure) and an amplifier (0.030 to 0.200 W, the power of up to 200
kW). As such, electrohydraulic servovalve is a power modulator for the relationship between power
control and power command is very high (at 10.
4
- ... 5.10
5
), thus the function of power amplifier.
Servo valves as part of automatic hydraulic interface converts the electrical signal into a low power
motion hydraulics, which acts to control flow and servo valves called the "flow" or control pressure
actuating unit acted servo in this case is called the "pressure". In other words, it can be said that a
servovalve increases the amount of input energy consumption corresponding to the output size
obtaining a controlled and regulated by the size of the entry (Fig.1) [1], [9], [11], [29].


Controlled power 22.5 mW Output control 50 – 100kW
Fig. 1 Structural diagram of an electrohydraulic servo valves
Servo valves, as equipment control electro, performed, besides selecting hydraulic circuits and
droselization their strict proportional the size of current control. The emergence servovalve
appearance was required by industrial development whose complexity and performance of aircraft
hydraulic systems, machine tools, military equipment and automated production lines, led to the
design and manufacture of special products that combine electronics, precision mechanics and
hydraulics. Electrohydraulic servovalve combines fast and accurate processing of data by
electronic means of transmission power amplified by hydraulic methods.
As such, the modern trend of the development of hydraulic servo and proportional dispensers
integrated electronics is the construction. Specifying and selecting servovalve is important for the
system designer. Servovalve determine the dynamic response speed and accuracy of the system,
as servovalve configuration and determine system requirements. Servo responded quickly, low
mass per unit power output, reliability and a broadband power. However, servovalve is
characterized by instability of the working fluid temperature change or the environment and the
need to filter the working fluid. At the same time, it requires high precision in the fabrication of
execution, a perfect seal between the moving and immovable, and operation is accompanied by
high energy losses, specific adjustment resistors. Ever since the advent servo (around the 50 s),
they were constantly improved in terms of construction, leading to relatively simple solutions, but
high performance [1], [12], [13].
Servovalve essentially constitutes an adjustment to the size of the output (flow or pressure) is
adjusted according to the value of the control signal (current, voltage), with a touch response
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(mechanical, hydraulic, electrical). SVEH are elements with superior static and dynamic
characteristics, and performance characteristics of which are presented in [1], [3], as follows:
-power amplifier 10
6
and frequency up to 200 Hz work;
- electro-mechanical converter, in most cases, polarized type torque motor, the motor is used in
rare cases electrodynamic transducers pneumatic - mechanical, piezo-electric torque motor, etc;
- first stage hydraulic amplifier is in most cases the nozzle-valve type, but there are special
distributor drawer longitudinal tube amplifier - jet, etc;
- the degree of coverage of the control edges of the second stage hydraulic amplifier is in mostly
zero;
- reaction tray position of the second stage will be like: barometric, hydraulic, mechanical,
electrical, constant reaction pressure, reaction pressure transient or special effects feed back;
- for flow control, pressure control, control flow and pressure:
- very high fineness of the filter (1...5 µm);
- with one, two, or three hydraulic amplification stages.
In Fig. 2 presents a general classification (overall architecture) of electrohydraulic servo, removing
into evidence a general classification, the number of floors, type of reaction and control structure
floor. Role of hydraulic floor getting progressively proportionality flow or pressure with control
current size. I adopted the following solutions:
- floor with spool distributor;
- floor nozzle – damper flap;
- floor oscillating jet;
- floor with jet deflection.


Fig. 2 The general architecture of electro hydraulic servo

The last three design solutions operate at flow rates of 1.5 – 2 l / min for the control pressure of 7
Mpa. In turn, distributors spool valve is classified into:
- spool valve;
- drawer plan;
- drawer conical (conical valve);
- drawer ball (ball valve).
Depending on the number of hydraulic floors, they are as follows:
- servo valves with hydraulic floor (body control motor direct-floor distributor);
- servo valves with two floors: one floor and a hydraulic floor of principle distribution;
- servo valves with three or more floors: each floor is piloting floor to the next floor.
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Since, pilot spool is provided by the pressure difference at the ends of the tray to ensure a stable
position of the device it is necessary to introduce a reaction, so achieving a position adjustment of
the drawer. The reaction may be: barometers, mechanical and electrical. The line on the controlled
power and performance is shown in Fig. 3 [1], [3], [7], [13].

2.1. Electrohydraulic servo valves with hydraulic amplifier block
are intended to regulate low flow (Q ≤ 20l/min) and consist of engine torque and amplifier nozzle –
clamshell fluidic amplifier, jet fixed or mobile jet with deflector or distributor who supplies drawer
execution element. EHSV are characterized as having outstanding distinct dynamic performance
[Fig.4] [1], [9], [11], [13], [29],.
Direct drive drawers distribution was made possible by progress in permanent magnet technology
electromechanical converters, high energy (rare earth magnets). By using these materials was
possible to make small converters and high output torque. Typically, a servovalve with such a
converter, operation forces have values from 1-50 daN, especially in the case of jamming
tendencies of the tray.

Fig.3. Performance feature – power control unit.

An electromechanical converter for direct
conversion done a couple current value is a
function of command. This can be done by
using a spring element integral with the spool,
or by providing a closed loop flow control.
Choosing a solution or the other depends on
the particular system. In most applications
using a brushless motor, the angular
displacement of the output shaft [±20 º] and
confined to a lever operated cam to make
linear movement required.
Improving performance and reducing power
servovalve dynamic electromechanical
converter can be obtained by minimizing the
moving masses and Colombian friction.





a) functional diagram – operating principle b) symbolic representation
Fig.4. Pressure valve, floor nozzle – damper [1], [3], [13], [14], [15], [16], [20], [27]

The reduction in friction is provided by radial forces balance and the use of special spring does not
introduce any radial component.
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For very low flow rates (Q <2 l / min) hydraulic drawer can be replaced by a nozzle - valve, single
or differential. Nozzle - valve system ensures small response time due to small parts in motion is
frictionless, but the yield is lower due to flow through the nozzles drained 4 is final. Servo valves
with direct conversion are less sensitive to fluid contamination or small deviations and deviations of
input electricity because electric power control values are much higher. Gate servovalve plan
consists of drawers opening that connect distribution.
SVEH torque motor and nozzle - valve resistance (fig. 4) is a combination of half bridge B - B and
control flow rates (Q < 1 l / min) , acting as pressure SVEH that carried out the A and B pressure
difference ∆ proportional with current BC ± ∆ p =pA ± pB) =f (∆iC ) (fig.4. a, b). These servo
valves are typically used for command and control proportional dispensers, adjustment shelves
and servo valves proportional pressure.
Engine electric motor of torque forces acting against the flow up to a certain value, the tray is in
turn returned to the central position at a certain pressure drop , even at maximum input signal.
Consequently, the window area is reduced and the flow distribution decreases, this effect has a
positive influence on the dynamics. Stroke is less servovalve is faster and there is a reduction in
the amplitude due to the limited dynamic function of the pressure drop ΔP
The electrohydraulic systems used in aviation there is a new electrohydraulic servovalve model
with direct electrical conversion , which is made up of two identical electromechanical converters.
The rotor of such a converter is made up of four alloy magnets samarium - cobalt. At such a
servovalve frequency band can be up to 100 Hz, the limit being the size of the angle of rotation of
electromechanical converter.
In Fig. 5 shows a sectional view of a servovalve controlled by an electromagnet directly
proportional to the force and electromechanical transformer. For the position control using an
inductive transducer LVDT and pressure control of Integrated pressure transducer. Dispenser
coupled to the axis of joint control with proportional solenoid valve connecting force between holes
progressive working spool [16], [17], [18], [19], [20], [21], [22], [26], [27], [29].





Nozzle


fixed nozzle
set zero adjustment, integrated electronic

External pilotage Drainage External Steering position
sensors
Fig. 5 Electrohydraulic servo valves two floors piloted ordering system with nozzle - valve
with integrated electronics and inductive position transducer (after MOOG)
[1], [13], [18], [19], [21], [22]

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Reduced engine power hysteresis and linearity improvement between the control and spool
displacement is achieved through the servo - control integrated servovalve spool position.
For the direct control servo valves , solenoid control system works in wet , thus reducing the friction
forces that could impair performance servovalve. Leakage laminar rolling drawer area levels are
removed through the drainage system of servovalve. The electronic circuit consists of an
integrated circuit in conjunction with a converter μP to direct and control DSP control parameters,
displacement and pressure. An analog interface - allows digital finally servovalve communication
with the electronic management of the servovalve.



b) decentralized electronic control electrohydraulic servovalve
Fig .6. Electrohydraulic servovalve floor with jet cell (command - piloted s) (by MOOG )
In Fig. 6 presents an electrohydraulic servovalve with drawer and electrical response, the
microcontroller and other components incorporated to monitor and control the servovalve flow.
Servovalve spool control system is via nozzle - valves amplifier (Fig. 5) or inkjet phone [1], [3], [13],
[20], [21], [22], [29].

2.2. ELECTROHYDRAULIC SERVO FLOOR (GUIDED) were imposed in controlling the condition
of higher flow rates, which are presented SVEH storey single stage control for moving the main
spool. Main spool displacement achieved by creating a pressure difference at the ends of his need
automatic position adjustment reaction pressure, reaction force - displacement reaction
displacement mechanical, hydraulic jet, jet power and special constructions.
Piloting or preorder main hydraulic spool can be achieved by: drawer hydraulic piloting jet - flap
system (fig. 5) and mobile nozzle. Piloting servo slide is rarely used because of disadvantages:
higher response time and higher power of command, determined by moving the tray table, and
loss of flow, where the drawer is negative coverage.
The nozzle - valve (Fig.4 and 5). The pilot stage, were imposed mainly due to its low inertia, its
mobile element (valve) is very easy. The nozzle - valve embodiments can run - functional single
and double nozzle. Nozzle system - wide plain nozzle contains a single final nozzle that allows
execution order items in one sense, because it is associated with a single hydraulic motor rooms.
The nozzle - dual range (Fig.5) allows command execution element in both directions of travel.
Bold servo valves with nozzle phone use exclusively in the preorder stage servo amplifier with two
floors , the main disadvantage of loss due to relatively high energy. Mobile nozzle system is less
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sensitive to oil contamination due to final nozzle diameter and larger gap X0 as the nozzle valve
system. In addition, the system is free of very high precision requirements of a nozzle system -
wide double nozzle.
Servo valves with mechanical balancing. The simplest version is the reaction SVEH so-called
pressure. Balancing the main drawer is secured by force -induced deflection of compression
springs (Fig. 7). Using compression springs drawer balance lead to shortcomings like: flow rates
and high pressures are required rigid arches sometimes impossible constructive: it requires special
precision springs, elastic constants for ensuring identity: compression coil springs inserted radial
components that increase friction in the drawer.
For example, in Fig. 7 a is the whole floor control - reaction pressure spool to achieve SC
Electrotimiş Timisoara static and dynamic characteristics of the experimentally obtained
experimental static and dynamic characteristics (Fig. 7 , b , c ) [1], [2], [3], [4], [5] reveals the
following : microgeometry control assembly has an influence quantity and quality of static and
dynamic characteristics of SVEH by changing parameters characteristic, linearity, resolution,
hysteresis, symmetry and zero current, is frequency response - 3dB response time. Use of swivel
disc coil spring support (fig.7.a) or some special springs that does not introduce radial components,
reduces radial components, reducing friction forces.


a) Feedback electrohydraulic pressure servo valves SVEH -2T (manufacturing SC Electrotimiş -
1986 to 1990). 1. SV 00 engine torque 2. Hydraulic potentiometer ( nozzle - clamshell ) 3. Control
distributor 4. Whole drawer – distributor


b ) Static characteristic Qn = f ( p, Δic ) for
servovalve SVEH 2T - Electrotimiş

c ) Feature servovalve frequency SVEH 2T -
Electrotimiş
Fig.7 Electrohydraulic servovalve reaction barometric SVEH 2T -SC Electrotimiş (1986-1990)
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Servo val ves with hydraulic balancing. Hydraulic balancing drawer can be obtained in two ways
[1], [9], [11]:
- by creating a hydraulic system tracking the drawer and wide format;
- by changing the value of hydraulic resistance circuit arranged resistors associated with
hydraulic pilot and integral with hydraulic drawer so went with it.
Servovalve in Fig. 8 is a hydraulic follow-up. Features of these servo valves is placing the final
nozzle 8 Df, in the absence of hydraulic spool centering springs. As a result, the position depends
exclusively drawer flow forces the blade and hydraulic drawer. Hydraulic 4 drawers zero coverage
will handle the zero position, the position where its strangulation slots are closed and the final
nozzles and hence Df hydraulic drawer are symmetrical in relation to three of the engine torque
range (1, 2). For the zero position, the two pilot pressure are equal, respectively: PP1 =PP2 =
0.5.P0.
Rotating the blade 3 occurs disrupting the pilot pressures PP1 and PP2 as a result of its
displacement in relation to the final eight nozzles arranged in the hydraulic spool 4. The
emergence of a differential pressure differential pressure piloting appearance Pp =PP1 - PP2,
which will move to the hydraulic compartment will be restored when the initial distance between the
blade and the final nozzles (nozzles palette symmetrical to the final). Return to the equality of the
two pressures, the time to be restored to the initial distance between the blade and the nozzle end.
Hydraulic dispenser aims largest movement direction and blade direction.

Fig.8. Servo valves with hydraulic balancing - Functional scheme
1. Torque motor; 2. Support flap; 3.tab 4. Drawer; 5. Control room drawer
6. Linear hydraulic motor; 7. Fixed nozzle; 8. Adjustable nozzle; 9. Control circuit

In Fig. 9 show a servovalve with tracking system (hydraulic balancing) Pegasus type. Rotating the
blade 7 of the pilot pressure imbalance occurs as a result of its displacement in relation to the two
end nozzles 9 arranged within the main tray 8. Main tray 8 will move to will be restored when the
initial distance between the nozzles and blades. High accuracy positioning is ensured by achieving
a very high amplifications system nozzle - wide. [1], [3], [9], [11]
Electrohydraulic servo valves with special reactions [1], [11], [13], [29]. Within this group are
summarized in whose structure falls servo internal or external reactions received from controlled
hydraulic motor , from which it provides balance drawer , achieving performance improvement
while stationary and / or dynamic servovalve and hydraulic motor.
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The most common ones are SVEH mechanical- hydraulic reaction force, the structure of which are
internal reactions on which drawer provides balance , achieving improved performance both static
as well as dynamic ones.
If mechanical servo force feedback, in addition to compulsory pilot, they contain a hydraulic
amplifier block, spool type. Here centering springs Figure 10) are replaced by a spring reaction (1)
tapered, willing to continue palette (5) (fig. 10). Engine electric torque (3) - EMC provides
polarization final nozzle relative to the blade (2). The reaction is collected from the compartment (7)
by means of the spring (1) whose spherical end is guided without play in a circular groove of the
drawer. Reaction to position the drawer is felt in response to engine torque force as drawer
movement relative to the position of the leaf spring deforms zero reaction, leading to the
emergence of a resistant torque, torque balance involved 8 sintered filter provides filtration
fineness
δ
<10 mm, protecting the pilot circuit and especially preliminary nozzles 9 very small
diameter. The eccentric 10 zeroing the servovalve, the change in the relative position of the
intermediate sleeve 6 and 7 hydraulic drawer.

Fig.10. Electrohydraulic servo valve action force (after Orsta - Rexroth)
1. Elastic rod; 2. Final nozzles; 3. Control coils; 4. Reinforcement;
5. Throttle; 6. Bush drawer; 7. Spool; 8. Filter; 9. Preliminary nozzle; 10. Zero adjustment bolt

A detailed structure is shown in Fig. 11 position reaction is converted into reaction force as
drawer movement relative to the zero position spring deforms reaction , introducing a resistant
torque that balances torque.
The filter sinter (8) (Fig. 10) has a filter fineness of 5 ... 10
µ
m, protecting the pilot circuit and
especially preliminary nozzles. The eccentric 10 (fig. 10) SVEH zeroing on change of relative
position of the sleeve 6 and 7 drawer.
A detailed structure is shown in Fig. 11. Position reaction is converted into reaction force as drawer
movement relative to the zero position spring deforms reaction, introducing a resistant torque that
balances torque.
For servo valve with electrical position feedback (Fig. 12) link reaction is carried out through a
transducer position (4, 5), type differential transformer whose rod is rigidly connected to the spool
(6). Feedback signal obtained from the sensor is transmitted electronic equipment that controls the
operation confirmed the main spool position. It is also used as transducers and generators Hall.
Figure 12 shows a two-story industrial servovalve and electrical position feedback. First floor
nozzle - flap is separated from the main distribution floor by a device located in SVEH body. Flight
and drainage are built in version control and external drain. They are characterized by high working
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Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics

pressures (p
n
=15.0 ... 21 MPa ) and high static and dynamic performance. In general electrical
response of servo valves allow higher performance and static (linearity, resolution and hysteresis).
The electronic control circuit can be separate from or integral construction, and this servovalve, to
improve static and dynamic performance can be obtained by placing electrical and mechanical
response of the position.

Fig.11 Servo valves with mechanical feedback functional two-story, functional principle
1. Torque motor; 2. Elastic tube ;3. valve; 4. Nozzle (adjustable nozzle);
5. Elastic rod; 6. Dispenser drawer; 7. Fixed nozzles


Fig.12 Two-stage servovalve with electrical amplification reaction 4WS2EE 16 ... 20 mm
(after Rexroth) [1], [13], [14], [15], [20], [23], [26], [27].
1. Torque motor; 2; Nozzle final; 3. Bush - drawer; 4. Inductive displacement transducer;
5. Rod displacement sensor; 6 drawer distributor; 7. flap ; 8. floor nozzle - damper;
9, 10. Hydraulic control rooms

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For the amplification with higher power (flow up to 3000 l/min) is used SVEH with three -stage
amplifier, which control the position of the tray end is electrically and setting the position of the
intermediate tray by the reaction force - displacement (Fig. 12 , Bosch- Rexroth). Superior natural
setting was imposed because the two-story classical servo can not meet the challenges of control
of flow rates. Hydraulic flow amplification floors having limited unsuitable for obtaining some
dynamic features reasonable. This have won three floors using servo valves.
For such servo valves piloted with three floors, the first two levels are kept normal preamp valve
and jet nozzle - floor cell and force that stage I and stage II, and the main gear. Pilot - stage III - is
a distributor of drawer whose electrical response possess a connection, enabled by a displacement
sensor and an electronic amplifier integrated into the servovalve.
Three floors servovalve controlling a flow rate of 1000 l / min at a pressure of 7 MPa and a control
response time of the order of 14 ms . Floor distributor is serviced electrical distributor in place and
piloted by a servovalve with two floors. Following a control voltage to the input stage differential
pressure ensures principal drawer heads, providing flow control servovalve crossing.
Finally tray position is measured by inductive transducer so that the signal at the output of the
power will be proportional to the "is" of the tray. This signal, processed electrical signal will be
compared with "shall", the error is canceled electronically by the engine control torque. This type of
reaction involves general composition servo controller an electronic module type that can provide
internal loop closure. Floor final force can be considered as a linear element execution, driven by a
servovalve (pilot) and controlled with a position transmitter. Final electronic amplifier compares the
electrical signal input signal from the displacement transducer, the difference being the correction
for electromechanical converter (engine torque) (fig.12). The introduction of electric reaction force
floor position increases both performance static and dynamic ones, but it also increases the
product price (fig.12, poz.4; 5.) [1], [3], [13], [15], [16], [17], [20], [26], [27].
Position reaction can be determined mainly drawer or drawer intermediate floor control and main
tray A modern solution is the reaction through a magnetoelectric transducer (6) in the gaps two
polarized magnetic circuits. Magnetoelectric transducer is integrated by a preamplifier so that the
voltage supplied to the high-level output.
In the hydraulic servo used in aviation routinely using electrohydraulic servo valves to control the
injector tube (nozzle phone, spout mobil) such first servo valves have been the family of Air -
Equipment, type 30465 is presented in [1] . Servovalve Air Equipment 30465 is a servovalve flow,
4-way and two-story hydraulics. The range control stage is in equilibrium under the action of the
pressure forces occurring in the flow of fluid through the holes, Q
2
and Q

2
the elastic force acting
on the blades is opposed to couple electrical current that occurs due to torque through the motor
windings .
Spool position is a function of the size of the control current engine torque. Finally, it is worth
mentioning that the flow is directly based on pressure drop and geometrical parameters ∆p
servovalve put out by KS coefficient form :

Q = K
S
. (1)

Where ∆p varies with changes in supply pressure and load on the engine.
A building used a lot is the servovalve pneumohydraulic whose basic principle is similar to the
electrohydraulic servo. Here, however, electromechanical converter (engine torque) is replaced by
a pneumatic driver. Achieving the required control pressure is achieved by special pneumatic
equipment.
Permanently reaction pressure and hydraulic balance (negative reaction pressure) main
drawer, collected directly from the hydraulic motor rooms, apply hydraulic spool ends ( fig. 13). It is
noted that such a servovalve ensure maintenance of a constant differential pressure of the load.
The position of the differential spool ends (4, 5) is a function of the differential pressure directly to
the engine load PL =pA - pB ∆ affixed to the end of the circular areas of the tray, and a differential
pressure of the pilot, p =PP1 - PP2 ∆ - ensured the movement of the throttle 3 engine torque 1-2,
and applied areas of drawer ring S0 4. The position of the drawer, so the hydraulic flow to the
engine, depending on the instantaneous value of the pressure p ∆ which moves to the right side of
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the spool 4. The limits are determined by adjusting only the saturation of the hydraulic spool
(parabola dotted line to achieve maximum flow through the servovalve supplied to the load
conditions [1], [9], [11], [13].
But the drawer movement occurs in the sense of decreasing opening slots contraction is the
drawer, so reducing the flow of hydraulic motor supplied 6. The effect is a reduction in the pressure
increase from the engine, or in the presence of the oscillatory disturbance, mitigation. Servovalve
in response to pressure and spring constant of the cross (Fig. 15) is a servovalve to control
simultaneous flow and pressure. Constant reaction pressure improves the dynamic stability,
especially in terms of inertia damping. Flow is determined both by the current control and
differential pressure load and servovalve is servovalve flow and pressure.
Constant load pressure to a control amount required is achieved by negative feedback of the load
pressure on the spool. Constant reaction pressure improves the dynamic stability, especially in
terms of inertia damping.



Fig. 13. Permanent jet servovalve
pressure. functional diagram
1. Torque motor; 2. Mobile reinforcement;
3. Range; 4. Spool; 5. Extension rod; 6.
Linear motor; 7. Fixed nozzle; 8.
Adjustable nozzle; 9. Control circuit

Fig. 14. Permanent jet servovalve pressure and
centering springs. functional diagram

1. Torque motor; 2. Mobile reinforcement; 3.
Range; 4. Spool; 5. Extension rod; 6. Linear
motor; 7. Fixed nozzle; 8. Adjustable nozzle;
9. Control circuit

Specific modern servo pressure transient response drawer is that the reaction pressure received
from the hydraulic motor only operates in phase with and affixed to the tray main hydraulic motor or
torque range.
Spring centering servo valves and pressure transient response in steady work as a centering
spring servovalve, which gives a great stiffness and transient work as a permanent jet servovalve
pressure , ensuring good stabilization inertial loads .
If the servovalve centering spring and bypass network, operating selectively based on the
frequency, is determined by the presence in the structure of a filter servovalve " high pass"
produced by mechanical and hydraulic elements, made from the damping piston, the center of two
compression springs and a hydraulic filter resistor Rh, connected parallel.
The reaction is carried out at pressure spool only transient. Differential pressure load variations are
alleviated by amending flow to the engine. Increasing the differential pressure of the load moves up
the damping piston, which has the effect of increasing the reaction pressure P from the left end of
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the tray, followed by moving to the right of the tray hydraulics. Resulting decrease the engine
output, and therefore the change of differential pressure in the opposite direction of the load.
If the servovalve spring centering network and the external leakage derivative, the reaction of
the two pressures P3 and P4 of the hydraulic motor room is taken up by means of two symmetrical
damping piston. Alongside each cylinder damping are placed on the input and output filtering
hydraulic resistors 13. 4, the hydraulic servovalve tray is in equilibrium under the action of the
differential pilot pressure Pp =PP1 - PP2 determined by the position of the blade 3 side of the
differential pressure Pr =Pr1, Pr2, and the force induced deformation of the centering spring of the
tray .
The pilot pressure is applied to the annular section of the Sd, and the reaction pressure is applied
to the areas of the tray Ss tail end 4. In the parking position of the reaction pressure are the same.
In phase characterized by variations in load pressure, the pressure differential becomes zero Pr
reaction and movement drawer flow generated by the difference leads to attenuation of the initial
disturbance. External leakage network has the disadvantage of complexity and size of a larger
energy loss with the presence of the resistors located to the outside. For transient -response
servovalve pressure range, transient pressure response of the hydraulic motor is applied to the
blade by means of the reaction piston 10 and a conical spring which is continuous range.
In order to obtain the servovalve in response to flow, it is ensured by means of a hydraulic
resistance evidenced by a sharp-edged valve seating cone and whose rod is connected directly to
the floor of the control range. Stationary feature race x1 - QM flow of the valve cone is linear if
failure to maintain a constant pressure. These valves are arranged on the branches linear feature
that connects servovalve circuit to the hydraulic motor. Of their tapered mushroom cams are
connected with valve servovalve torque of the engine by means of leaf springs (fig.15) [1], [11],
[13].
Using a stepper motor instead of the couple ensure servovalve can be controlled by discrete
signals, obtained from a digital computer solution applied especially automatic controls of planes.
A technical solution for digital servovalve shown in Fig. 15 is composed of the spool (1), the ends
of which are cross springs (2) and (3) the filter element (4) two preliminary nozzle (5) and (6) and
two end nozzles (7) and (8) , which is located in front plate (10), jointly with the stepper motor shaft
(11). Disc (10) may have different configurations thus ensuring differential pressure spool ends (1)
[1], [9], [13],




Fig.15 Technical solution for digital servovalve
1. Dispenser drawer; 2, 3. Centering spring; 4. Fine filter; 5, 6. Fixed nozzle;
7, 8. Adjustable nozzle; 10. Flap- disc; 11. Torque motor
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.
In Figure 15 the lateral surface of the disc is smooth, but eccentric to the axis of rotation, and as a
result, the rotation in one direction or the other causes change the distances between it and the
nozzles. In fig.15.b, the disc has a series of notches of varying depth. They are arranged around
the periphery of the disc, so that every step of the motor, one slotted nozzles will be right and
produce a differential pressure heads compartment (1). The disc (10) is brought into position spring
centering median, (2 and 3), (Fig. 15).
At the digital servo, stepper motor can be made up to 1000 steps/second, thus the time constant
low response presence of a separate element, which measures the position of the rotary disk (10).
Servo stepper motor are integrated into digital electronics, for which developed lately. However, it
is difficult to say whether analog servo will be removed in the future. You will see a hybrid solution
with digital input signals, and the reverse link (feedback). It is necessary to remove the " Accidental
steps" to the engine.
The structure is the supply pressure of zero, in which case the spool is moved to the right.
A modern building is servovalve three amplification stages, which integrated electronic connection
is made between components servovalve.
The current aviation use two-story jet servo valves electric type Messier 25 565 through external
electronic link is confirmed electronically internal control servovalve. Currently serving aircraft
actuators.

3. CONCLUSIONS
Electrohydraulic servo valves (EHSV) as interface elements in hydraulic machines are actually
operated proportional hydraulic distributors, which are used in automatic control systems using full
response elements placed in the operated mechanism. Electrohydraulic servovalve is at the
interface between control electric type and Hydraulic actuation [1], [3], [11], [9], [13]. The output
(flow, pressure) is adjusted according to the size of the control signal (current, voltage), with a
related reaction (mechanical, hydraulic, electrical). Electrohydraulic servo system solves the
requirements of high-tech machines being used in military equipment, aviation, etc.
To control blood flow through the flow section dispenser drawer-body, it is necessary that at every
point of the race, so the whole race, the resultant forces drive the drawer (hydrodynamic forces,
frictional forces, viscous friction forces lateral forces of inertia, the elastic force and weight of
mobile equipment to be in equilibrium with the operating force given by the size of the input torque
of the electric motor, the control current proportional to the intensity. therefore, the function of
continuously variable control of the electric current, establishing a continuously variable function of
proportional flow and pressure at the outlet of SVEH. Servo valves have a quick, low mass per unit
power output, reliability and a wide frequency band. Analysis and synthesis SVEH requires the use
of methods from the theory automatic systems, generally resorting to an analysis linearized around
the operating point [1], [2], [3], [5], [11], [12], [13].
An electrohydraulic servo valve (EHSV) is an electrically operated valve that controls how hydraulic
fluid is ported to an actuator. Servo valves and servo-proportional valves are operated by
transforming a changing analogue or digital input signal into a smooth set of movements in a
hydraulic cylinder [1], [3], [25]. Servo valves can provide precise control of position, velocity,
pressure and force with good post movement damping characteristics. An electric command
signal (flow rate set point) is applied to the integrated position controller which drives the pilot stage
[1], [25]. Proportional hydraulics occurred for economic reasons due to expansion hydraulic
automation in all technical areas, both military and especially civilian, industrial applications that do
not require a special dynamic. Future follow-up automatic hydraulic self is the systems to be used
in electrohydraulic servo valves with direct conversion as electrically Feedback pezinta opportunity
to optimize amplification loop flow control or pressure.
Hydraulics are proportional distribution provide continuous electrical circuit elements. That flow
direction and adjust control parameters, flow and pressure.
This paper summarizes the main types of electro hydraulic servo valves used mainly in
proportional hydraulic equipment.

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REFERENCES
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[2] Bălăşoiu, V.,- Cercetari teoretice si experimentale asupra sistemelor electrohidraulice tip servovalva-
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[3] Bălăşoiu V., - Echipamente hidraulice de actionare, fundamente teoretice, echipamente si sisteme,
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[4] Bălăşoiu V., Popoviciu M., Bordeasu Il.,- Experimental research upon static and dynamic behaviour of
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th
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[5] Bălăşoiu V., Popoviciu M., Bordeasu Il.,-Theoretical simulation of static and dynamic behavior of
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th
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Hydrodinamics, Timisoara, 0ct. 2004
[6] Backe W.,-Servohydaraulik., Umdruck zur vorlesung, Institut fur hydraulische und Pneumatische Antriebe
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[7] Backe W.,-Servohydaraulik, Umdruck zur Vorlesung, Institut fur hydraulische und Pneumatische antriebe
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[8] Cristian I., - Actionarea hidraulica a robotilor industriali. Servosisteme electrohidraulice, Universitatea
“Transilvania” din Brasov, 1999,
[9] Cristian I., - Servosisteme electrohidraulice analogice, Editura Universitatii Transilvania, Brasov, 2003,
[10] Cristian I., - Cercetari privind sinteza si analiza prin simulare numerica a unui servosistem
electrohidraulic de stabilizare a fortei de avans la strunjirea longitudinala, Teza de doctorat, Universitatea
"Transilvania" din Brasov, 1998,
[11] Cristian I.,-Servosisteme electrohidraulice incrementale, Editura Universitatii Transilvania, Brasov, 2003,
[12] Merritt Herbert E., - Hydraulic Control Systems, J ohn Wiley and Sons New York,, Inc. Edition 1967
[13] Vasiliu N., Vasiliu D., - Actionari hidraulice si pneumatice, Vol. 1, Editura Tehnica, Bucuresti, 2005.
[14] *** - Industrial Servoventile, Der Hydraulik, Band V, MANNESMANN REXROTH, Lohr am Main,
1981.
[15] *** - Hydraulik Komponent., MANNESMANN REXROTH, Lohr am Main, 1989.
[16] *** Components for Hydraulic Proportional and Servo Systems, Electronics, and Accessories,
Manesmann Rexroth, 1984
[17] Schmitt A., - Hydraulik Trainer, G.L.REXROTH, Gmbh, Lohr am Main, 1986,
[18] *** - www.moog.com/literature-search/industrial-group-literature-library/manuals-1/
[19] ***- Practical considerations when laying out electro-hydraulic control systems, MOOG, Australia,
Technical Reports, 2001
[20] *** - www.boschrexroth.de; www.boschrexroth.com, Rexroth Bosch Group, Industrial Hydraulics, Control
and Closed loop technology, Industrial Hydraulics, Electric Drives and Control, Service Automation, etc
[21] *** - Moog product information, www.moog.com;
[22] *** - www.moog.de, MOOG. Components Group
[23] *** - www.ifas.rwth-aachen.de – IFAS Institut fur Fluidtechnischen Antriebe und Steurerungen, RWTH,
Aachen University, 2006
[24] *** - www.servovalve.com,
[25] *** http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Electrohydraulic_servo_valve, Electrohydraulic servo valve, From
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, 2013,
[26] *** http://www.boschrexroth.com/en/xc/
[27]***http://www.boschrexroth.com/en/xc/products/product_groups/industrial_hydraulics/proportional_servo_
valves/index
[28] *** www.google.ro/search?q=servovalve+electrohydraulic&tbm=isch&tbo=
u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=I1NNUtfhIoie9QTi5oCoDQ&ved=0CE4QsAQ&biw=911&bih=398&dpr=1
[29] Ionescu Ion., Mares Cristinel., - Servovalve electrohidraulice , conceptie, baze fizice, fabricatie ,
incercari, tendinte, Editura Lux Libris, Brasov 1996.

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ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 4/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics


RESEARCH REGARDING THE WEAR OF ECOLOGICAL STEELS
OBTAINED THROUGH THE CARBURIZING OF IRON METAL POWDERS

Ph. D. Eng. Olimpia GHERMEC
1
, Ph. D. Eng. Cristian GHERMEC
1
, Ph. D. Eng. Iulian STEFAN
1

1)
University of Craiova, Faculty of Mechanics, Department of Engineering and Management of the
Technological Systems, Drobeta Turnu Severin, Romania, olimpia_ghermec@yahoo.com

Abstract: The use of moving components is a condition for the good functioning of machines and
also for their life cycle. Through proceedings that are specific to powder metallurgy, there can be
obtained materials that are resistant to wear. This paper presents the results of wear testing of the
parts obtained through the carburizing – sintering proceeding.

Key words: carburizing – sintering, ecological steel, wear

1. Introduction
The research in the field of powder metallurgy is very current through their very special results.
Thus, an important area is that of obtaining parts that are resistant to wear. A series of research
made in the laboratories of the Department of Engineering and Management of the Technological
Systems, Drobeta Turnu - Severin, have as objective the obtaining of steels starting from the iron
powder which is enriched with carbon coming from the decomposing of methane gas, proceeding
which is called 'carburizing of iron metal powders'. Carburizing is accompanied by sintering –
phase which is compulsory in powder metallurgy and which leads to the expansion of the contact
between the surfaces of the powders particles, the chemical homogenization between the powder
and the carbon in gas phase and the densification of the material. The parameters of the
carburizing – sintering proceeding are:
- heating in still medium (argon) until the carburizing temperature;
- carburizing took place at the temperature of 850 ºC in methane gas medium, with a flow of 2.5
l/hour, for 6 hours;
- after carburizing the methan gas alimentation was interrupted and the still atmosphere with argon
was once again created for sintering;
- heating in argon at the sintering temperature of 1150 ºC for 30 minutes;
- cooling of the carburizing – sintering box in protective argon medium for 120 minutes; gthe
cooling took place by opening the cover of the oven.
The total time of carburizing – sintering was of 900 minutes.
The parts that underwent carburizing were obtaining by pressing the iron powder at 400,
respectively 600 MPa [2].
The carburizing of metallic iron powders through the contribution of carbon coming from the
decomposing of methane gas at the same time with the sintering proceeding has become
enviromental friendly by reducing the emissions of polluting gases, the reduction in the degree of
water pollution and the reduction in the quantity of waste. These aspects are very important when
analyzing the environmental performance of this technology. Also important is the behavior at wear
which is dirrectly connected with the life cycle of the parts manufactured through this technique
which is specific to powder metallurgy and also with the emissions of metallic powders in the
atmospheric medium [1].

2. Materials and methods
In the Research Laboratory for Tribology it was studied the wear in time of the samples
compactized at 400, respectively 600 MPa. The main characteristics of the parts which underwent
this test are density and the friction coefficient.
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ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 4/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics

From the point of view of density, the parts used had an average density of 7.12 g/cm
3
, in
the case of the ones pressed at 400 MPa and for the ones pressed at 600 MPa the density was of
7.08 g/cm
3
. The difference of density is due to the amount of carbon which was more diffused in
the parts compactized at 400 MPa in comparison with the ones compactized at 600 MPa.
The friction coefficient was determined with the aid of a modern tribometer made by CSM
Instruments – Switzerland, type TRN 01 – 02541 (fig.1).











Fig.1. The device for wear testing of
parallelepiped parts








The variations of the friction coefficient are shown in fig.2 and fig.3.




Fig.2. The variation of the friction coefficient for the samples compactized at 400 MPa

The friction coefficient was stabilized at the final value of μ = 0.67 (fig.2). According to the data
from specialty literature for values of the dry friction coefficient, the friction coefficient determined
by the tribometer corresponds to a steel – on – steel friction couple.
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ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 4/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics




Fig. 3. The variation of the friction coefficient for the samples compactized at 600 MPa


Throughout the analysis, the friction coefficient evolved between 0.225 and 0.828, stabilizing itself
at the value of μ = 0.77 which is also in the domain of steel – on – steel friction couples (fig.3).
The mass wear, an expression of resistance to wear in time, was determined using a steel – on –
steel friction couple type cylinder on plan (fig. 4). The cylinder is made of 41MoC11 steel heated
and rectified, having a hardness of 62 HRC and is fixed on a engine lathe type SNA 125x300 on
which the device can also be found, fitted on the cross – slide rest of the lathe, in which the sample
to be analyzed is rooted. The lathe was imprinted with a rotation movement of 1500 rot/min. Thus,
a dry friction took place.





Fig. 4. Device to determine mass wear
1 – sample; 2 – rooting support; 3 – steel cylinder; 4 – pressing force
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3. Results and discussions
The sample was weighted using a balance with precision of three decimal places, initially and then
at intervals of two, respectively five minutes. The mass difference between weighing is the result of
the wear of the sample.
The forces with which we worked are of 25.5 N and of 39 N. There were two series of results:
a) The variation of the mass wear of the sample under the action of the force F =25.5 N (table
1 and table 2)

Table 1. The variation of the wear of the sample under the action of the force F =25.5 N for the
parts compactized at 400 MPa


Table 2. The variation of the wear of the sample under the action of the force F =25.5 N for the
parts compactized at 600 MPa


The graphic reprezentation of the evolution in time of mass wear is shown in fig.5:



Fig. 5. The variation of the mass wear under the action of the force of 25.5 N

Compacting
pressure
400 MPa
Time,min

Mass,g
0 2 4 6 8 10 15 20
45,830 45,828 45,826 45,824 45,823 45,823 45,823 45,822
Difference,mg 0 2 4 6 7 7 7 8
Compacting
pressure
600MPa
Time,min

Mass,g
0 2 4 6 8 10 15 20
43,170 43,167 43,165 43,163 43,161 43,160 43,160 43,159
Difference,mg 0 3 5 7 9 10 10 11
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ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 4/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics

b) The variation of the wear of the sampple under the action of the force F =39 N
1) For the compacting pressure of 400 MPa (table 3)
Table 3. The variation of the wear of the sample under the action of the force F =39 N for the parts
compactized at 400 MPa
Time, min 0 2 4 6 8 10 15 20
Mass, g 46,590 46,580 46,575 46,570 46,565 46,560 46,559 46,551
Difference, mg 0 10 15 20 25 30 31 39


2) For the compacting pressure of 600 MPa (table 4)

Table 4. The variation of the wear of the sample under the action of the force F=25.5 N for the
parts compactized at 600 MPa
Time, min 0 2 4 6 8 10 15 20
Mass, g 31,800 31,790 31,784 31,778 31,772 31,766 31,766 31,756
Difference, mg 0 10 16 22 28 34 34 44


The graphic reprezentation of the variation in time of mass wear is presented in figure 6.



Fig. 6. The variation of the mass wear in time under the action of the force of 39 N.

The graphic interpretation confirms the fact that carburized and sintered samples through the
proceeding of carburizing at the same time with sintering are resistant to wear in time. The mass
losses at the samples compactized at 400 MPa are lower than in the case of those compactized at
600 MPa and this is why the former are considered to be of better use in practice.
The research regarding the reduction of wear for these steels have as aims either the introduction
of alloying elements or finding lubricants adapted to the steel – on – steel fricton couple in which
the parts are used. Other authors have studied in their papers mathematic relations on alloyed and
micro alloyed steels [3, 4].

4. Conclusions
The loss of mass in time, due to dry friction, under the action of a constant pressing force, grows at
the same time with the time of maintaining the sample under the action of the force, being recorded
a minimum mass difference of 39 mg in the case of the samples compactized at 400 MPa with the
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content of 1.6% C, carburized for 6 hours, sintered at 1150
o
C. This mass difference grows at the
value of 44 mg for the sintered steel with 1% C compactized at 600 MPa, carburized and sintered
in the same conditions.
There can be seen a good behavior at mass wear in time of the samples compactized at 400 MPa,
carburized and sintered in comparison with the samples compactized at 600 MPa and carburized
and sintered in the same conditions.

5. References
[1] O. Ghermec, C. Ghermec, T. Popescu, “A new technology to obtain ecological steel”, Proc. 5
th

Int. Conf. on Environmental Engineering and Management, ICEEM/05, 15-19, September 2009,
Tulcea, Romania, Environmental Engineering and Management J ournal, ISSN: 1582-9596, vol. 8,
no. 5, pp. 1141 – 1144.
[2] M. Mangra, T. Popescu, C. Ghermec, G. Deliu, “Sintered carbon steel and its obtaining
proceeding through carbon diffusion”, Patent CBI A 2007/00337 OSIM Bucharest.
[3] C. O. Rusănescu, M. Rusănescu, T. Iordănescu, F. V. Anghelina, “Mathematical relation ships
between alloying elements and technological deformability indexes”, J ournal of optoelectronics and
advanced materials , Vol. 15, No. 7-8, J uly - August 2013, pp. 718 – 723.
[4] C. O. Rusănescu, M. Rusănescu, F. V. Anghelina, “Study of the hot deformability of micro
alloyed steels using torsion tests”, J ournal of optoelectronics and advanced materials, Vol. 15, No.
7-8, J uly - August 2013, pp. 724 – 729; ISSN: PRINT: 1454 – 4164; ON-LINE: 1841 – 7132.

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ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 4/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics


STUDY ON GREENHOUSE
prof.eng. LUPASCU Lorena
1
1
Liceul teoretic Beceni, Buzau llupascu94@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT: In this paper we present theoretical notions concerning the greenhouse effect and solar
radiation intensity analysis using weather station AWS/EV.

KEYWORDS: greenhouse intensity of solar radiation.


1. Introduction
In the atmosphere there are natural concentrations of greenhouse gases such as water
vapor, carbon gases, methane and nitrous oxides. Short wave length rays, visible light called
the sun can cross these gases, warming the atmosphere, the oceans, the planet's surface
and living organisms. Heat energy is scattered into space in the form of infrared, ie how long.
The latter are absorbed in part by greenhouse gases, to reflect again the surface of the Earth.
Because of this natural phenomenon called "greenhouse effect" average temperature at the
Earth's surface is maintained at 15 °C. It's what we call a normal climate.
Human activity in the atmosphere is due to throw large amounts of greenhouse gases,
especially carbon dioxide gas, nitrogen oxides, methane and chlorofluorocarbons (CFC).
Scientific and technical revolution, increasing number of people, put before mankind technical
and fundamental economic problems: increased industrial production, agricultural production,
the need for intensive sources of mineral raw materials, fuels and energy. These increases
must take place under maximum protection of the environment [1].
The main substances contributing to pollution atmosphere are: oxides of sulfur and nitrogen,
chlorofluorocarbon-carbons, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide, they are only part of
billions of tons of pollutants that generates each year the development of industry, and
terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems affects the time in which the pollutants enter in the water.
Greenhouse concept was first proposed by Fourier in 1827. A simplified representation of the
greenhouse effect is shown in Figure 1, and a simple explanation of it consists of the
following: short-wave solar radiation can pass through the clear atmosphere almost
unchanged, while the terrestrial long-wave radiation emitted by the Earth's surface is partially
absorbed and re-emitted in outer space by a number of atmosphere gases in low
concentrations [8]. Through this process the incident energy net land area in the lower
atmosphere is supplemented thereby contributing to increasing temperature
.
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ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 4/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics


Figure 1. Formation of the greenhouse effect, [ 3].

Table 1 Factors responsible for the occurrence of the greenhouse effect, [4] .
Gas Contribution Sources
Carbon dioxide (CO
2
) 50 % Fuel combustion and wholesale destruction of forests
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) 20 % Air conditioners, refrigerators, aerosols
Methane (CH
4
) 16 % Sprouting seeds, marshes, bogs
Ozone (O
3
) 8 % Air pollution
Nitrogen dioxide (N
2
O) 6 % Combustion of fuel and fertilizers


2. Materials and methods

Global solar radiation intensity G horizontally and atmospheric temperatures, was monitored
weather station: AWS / EV Biotechnical Faculty of Engineering, Geco MICROS SIAP program
version 2.3.2 software automatically records the following parameters: air temperature, wind
direction and speed, atmospheric humidity, solar radiation, rainfall.
The weather station is wireless transmission range up to 300 m and the set of sensors
integrated pillar of 1.77m and tripod for [2, 5]. Solar radiation sensor is manufactured in
accordance with international specifications WMO (World Meteorological Organization).
It consists of a transducer which is heated in proportion to the incident solar radiation,
absorbed by a special layer of black paint of the measuring surface of the heat. Double layer
shielding of special optical glass to optimize the characteristics of the measurement under
different environmental conditions.
This transducer is included in the family of smart sensors, as it is equipped with a
microprocessor that performs multiple functions: checking the operation right, data
preprocessing, A / D conversion to electrical signals, etc..
These features will ensure excellent accuracy and high reliability of data.
The protection is made of aluminum alloy corrosion, shield UV-resistant plastic material with a
low thermal capacity.
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ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 4/2013)
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Internal circuits are protected from atmospheric discharges and polarity reversal. This is an
analog sensor output signal between 0 and 2 VDC.
Privacy Framework is a aluminum alloy corrosion, UV resistant plastic with low thermal
capacity. Internal circuits are protected from atmospheric changes and polarity inversion. This
is an analog sensor output signal having a range from 0 V to 2V.
Measurement from 0-1300 W/m
2
.
Sensitivity of 1.5 mV / W / m
2

Accuracy +/ - 10 W / m
2

Resolution +/ - 0.5 W/m
2
.
Linearity: +/ - 1%
Operating Temperature -30 to 60
0
C
Output signal: 0 V (0 W/m
2
) at 2 V (1300 W/m
2
)
Sensor connector 4 pin female
Mounting: with support (mast), the position is important because it must be pointed south.

3. Results and discussion

Based on recorded global radiation intensity, we calculate the direct and diffuse components
of solar radiation. Based on 24 hour weather station record of 24 in 2012, we assumed diffuse
radiation intensity equal to one fifth of global radiation intensity and the intensity of direct
radiation is the difference between global and diffuses [6].
According to equation (1),
D - is the intensity of scattered radiation;
G - global or total radiation intensity
B - Direct radiation intensity
D G B
G
D − = = ,
5
(1)
We analyzed global radiation in J une 2009 and J une 2010, and the results are shown in
Figures 2 to 7. It is noted that the values of global radiation recorded by the weather station in
J une 2010 are slightly higher than those recorded in J une 2009..
Radiatia globala iunie 2009 si iunie 2010
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
2
:
0
0
2
i
u
n
i
2
2
:
0
0
2
0
:
0
0
1
8
:
0
0
1
6
:
0
0
1
4
:
0
0
1
2
:
0
0
1
0
:
0
0
8
:
0
0
6
:
0
0
4
:
0
0
2
:
0
0
2
4
:
0
0
2
2
:
0
0
2
0
:
0
0
1
8
:
0
0
1
6
:
0
0
1
4
:
0
0
1
2
:
0
0
1
0
:
0
0
8
:
0
0
6
:
0
0
Data si ora
R
a
d
i
a
t
i
a

g
l
o
b
a
l
,

G

[
W
/
m
2
]
J un-09 Station 1 Solar Radiation (VD) W/m2 J un-10 Station 1 Solar Radiation (VD) W/m2

Figure 2 Global radiation in J une 2009-2010

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ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 4/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics

Based on global radiation recorded by station we calculated two other direct and diffuse
components (Figures 5, 6, 7).


Radiatia globala iulie 2009 si iulie 2010
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
2
:
0
0
1
2
:
0
0
2
2
:
0
0
8
:
0
0
1
8
:
0
0
4
:
0
0
1
4
:
0
0
2
4
:
0
0
1
0
:
0
0
2
0
:
0
0
6
:
0
0
1
6
:
0
0
2
:
0
0
1
2
:
0
0
2
2
:
0
0
8
:
0
0
1
8
:
0
0
4
:
0
0
1
4
:
0
0
2
4
:
0
0
1
0
:
0
0
2
0
:
0
0
Data si ora
R
a
d
i
a
t
i
a

g
l
o
b
a
l
a

i
u
l
i
e

2
0
0
9
,
2
0
1
0

[
W
/
m
2
]
J ul-09 Station 1 Solar Radiation (VD) W/m2 J ul-10 Station 1 Solar Radiation (VD) W/m2

Figure 3 Global radiation J uly 2009 and J uly 2010
Radiatia globala august 2009,2010 [W/m2]
0
200
400
600
800
1000
2
:
0
0
2
4
:
0
0
2
2
:
0
0
2
0
:
0
0
1
8
:
0
0
1
6
:
0
0
1
4
:
0
0
1
2
:
0
0
1
0
:
0
0
8
:
0
0
6
:
0
0
4
:
0
0
2
:
0
0
2
4
:
0
0
2
2
:
0
0
2
0
:
0
0
1
8
:
0
0
1
6
:
0
0
1
4
:
0
0
1
2
:
0
0
1
0
:
0
0
8
:
0
0
6
:
0
0
Data si ora
R
a
d
i
a
t
i
a

g
l
o
b
a
l
a

[
W
/
m
2
]
Aug-09 Station 1 Solar Radiation (VD) W/m2 Aug-10 Station 1 Solar Radiation (VD) W/m2

Figure 4 Gobal radiation august 2009, 2010
Radiatia globala, directa, difuza august 2009
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1
:
0
0
2
3
:
0
0
2
1
:
0
0
1
9
:
0
0
1
7
:
0
0
1
5
:
0
0
1
3
:
0
0
1
1
:
0
0
9
:
0
0
7
:
0
0
5
:
0
0
3
:
0
0
1
:
0
0
2
3
:
0
0
2
1
:
0
0
1
9
:
0
0
1
7
:
0
0
1
5
:
0
0
1
3
:
0
0
1
1
:
0
0
9
:
0
0
7
:
0
0
5
:
0
0
Data si ora
R
a
d
i
a
t
i
a
,

[
W
/
m
2
]
Radiatia globala august 2009 W/m2 Radiatia difuza august 2009
Radiatia directa august 2009

Figure 5 Global radiation, direct, diffuse August 2009

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Radiatia globala, directa, difuza august 2010
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1
:
0
0
2
3
:
0
0
2
1
:
0
0
1
9
:
0
0
1
7
:
0
0
1
5
:
0
0
1
3
:
0
0
1
1
:
0
0
9
:
0
0
7
:
0
0
5
:
0
0
3
:
0
0
1
:
0
0
2
3
:
0
0
2
1
:
0
0
1
9
:
0
0
1
7
:
0
0
1
5
:
0
0
1
3
:
0
0
1
1
:
0
0
9
:
0
0
7
:
0
0
5
:
0
0
Data si ora
R
a
d
i
a
t
i
a

[
W
/
m
2
]
Radiatia globala august 2010 W/m2 Radiatia difuza august 2010
Radiatia directa august 2010

Figure 6 Global radiation, direct, diffuse August 2009


Valorile minime si maxime ale radiatiei globale in anul 2009 si 2010
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
m
a
r
t
i
e
a
p
r
i
l
i
e
m
a
i

i
u
n
i
e

i
u
l
i
e

a
u
g
u
s
t
s
e
p
t
e
m
b
r
i
e
o
c
t
o
m
b
r
i
e
n
o
i
e
m
b
r
i
e
d
e
c
e
m
b
r
i
e
Lunile
R
a
d
i
a
t
i
a

g
l
o
b
a
l
a
,

[
W
/
m
2
min 2009 max 2009 min 2010 max2010

Fig. 7 Minimum and maximum values of global radiation in 2009 and 2010

Were performed and measurements of temperature and was observed that the temperatures
were slightly rising atmospheric [7].


Conclusions

The greenhouse effect has produced average annual world temperature increases from
14
0
C in 1880; 15
0
C in 1980, forecast for 2050 is at least 170, more than 20
0
C.
In Romania have been emitted to the atmosphere only in 1989, 72 million tonnes of CO
2
, 41
million tons powders, 1.3 million tons of SO
2
, NO
x
0.45 million tons.
Severe measures are needed in all areas (industry, transport, agriculture, appliances)
backed by legislation in line with international environmental provisions to reduce emissions.
Gaseous shell represented the earth's atmosphere is one of the keys to life on earth. Among
the components of air, oxygen is vital plant and animal respiration, the phenomenon of
62

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 4/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics

oxidation being the main source of energy for life processes. Carbon dioxide from the air
occurs in chlorophyll assimilation and atmospheric nitrogen is one link in the nitrogen cycle
in nature.
"Bad ozone" form in the lower layers of the atmosphere and lead to photochemical pollution
type. When it exceeds certain limits, damaging life on earth.
When it exceeds certain limits, damaging life on earth. Substances that underlie the formation
of tropospheric ozone are nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds. Tropospheric
Ozone reacts with plant and animal tissues and reaches even cause greenhouse effect.
City Hall measurements performed for ozone pollution, finding concentrations exceeding the
maximum permissible especially during lunch. Very tall buildings in cities and especially
downtown blocks proper ventilation and air circulation.
Also, the narrow avenues which acts as real canyons, and other toxic gases accumulate for
living organisms, particularly those from traffic.
The greenhouse effect is usually considered responsible for global warming and extreme
weather all current. Given the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and future
emission estimates were made predictions about climate change to take place. Expect an
increase in soil temperature by 1-3° C at the end of the 21st century for increasing the
concentration of CO
2
at 600 parts per million (increase considered significant when
considering that between today and the average temperature during the last glaciation there a
difference of 4-5 degrees.
He questioned whether global warming a little break and the answer was probably not. It is
known that a small increase in CO
2
is beneficial to plants because they help photosynthesis.
Such crops would grow and they and probably would contribute to the food supply of the
world's growing population.
Would also large acreage to higher latitudes and milder temperatures in the winter season
would increase the life of the plant, decreasing stress imposed ecosystems.
Regarding concerns about rising sea levels as a response to warming would lead to more
evaporation and precipitation over land and that temperatures would remain below 0 ° at the
poles, which would keep frozen ice caps, so eventually the ocean would decrease.
Your oldest and well known is the opposite of that, on the contrary, the ocean will increase,
leading to flooding and coastal erosion, extinction of many species of fish and birds. Impact
on forests, water and agriculture will be negative, soil loses moisture and increasing storm
frequency. Is expected to desertification
Although the scientific community agrees that the concentration of greenhouse gases in the
atmosphere has increased significantly since the Industrial Revolution (performed direct
measurements of 1958 onwards and indirectly by analysis of prehistoric air trapped in
glaciers) dispute over global warming cannot be easily solved in lack of meteorological data
on rainfall periods. The world has become territory of beating of different camps, some
frightening, others completely silent, followers of climate cooling, and others that say slow
warming gives us enough time to decide what to do (30).
Solving this problem is not simple.
The greenhouse effect is necessary, it maintains Earth warm enough to be habitable.
Greenhouse gases absorb and retain some of the solar heat, preventing its loss by radiation
back into space and keeping warm the planet's surface.
The sun warms the earth directly to the average temperature of -18 ° C and the greenhouse
gases it up to 15
o
C.
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ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 4/2013)
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Earth receives a lot of direct heat radiation from the visible and infrared spectrum, absorbing
70% of it. The rest goes back into space through reflection.
The rest of the spectrum (UV, X-ray, gamma and radio) provides less than 0.1% of the total
energy received by the Earth. UV radiation reaching the ground rarely being stopped by
stratospheric ozone.

REFERENCES
[1] Andreea S. – Electrosam, Efectul de sera, Anul 3, numarul 4, Ianuarie 2009
[2] Carmen - Otilia Rusănescu, Ileana Nicoleta Popescu, Marin Rusanescu, Ladislau David -
Analysis of variation in relative humidity in autumn 2009, Revista International J ournal of
Energy and Environment, Issue 4, Volume 4, 2010, pp. 113-121, ISSN: 1109-9577
[3] Rev.Tehnica Instalaţiilor nr. 5/2003
[4][http://opengis.unibuc.ro/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=585:ciclul-global-
al-carbonului-i-efectul-de-ser&catid=38:articole];
[5]Carte tehnica statia meteo
[6] Rusănescu Carmen Otilia, Rusănescu Marin, Stoica Dorel - ANALYSIS SOLAR
RADIATION Revista Hidraulica, nr. 3 /2013, ISSN 1453-7303]
[7] Carmen Otilia RUSĂNESCU, Gigel PARASCHIV, Gheorghe VOICU, Marin RUSĂNESCU
Comparative Analysis of Atmospheric Temperature Values, Relative Humidity In 2009 And
2010 In West Side Of Bucharest City, Bulletin UASVM Agriculture, 68(2)/2011, Print ISSN
1843-5246; Electronic ISSN 1843-5386, pag. 130-138]
[8].Cristian Oprea – Solar radiation, Theoretical and practical aspects Bucharest 2005
64

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 4/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics

NUMERICAL STUDY ON THE FLUID MOTION INDUCED BY A ROTATING
DISK INSIDE A VESSEL
Assoc. Prof. Adrian CIOCANEA
1

1
University Politehnica Bucharest, adrian.ciocanea@upb.ro

Abstract: The paper presents a numerical study concerning the evolution of viscous friction
coefficient and friction moment coefficient at low Reynolds numbers for the case of a rotating disk
inside a vessel. The study is useful in the field of turbomachinery, magneto-hydrodynamic flows,
mixing processes, hydraulic drives etc. The flow and velocity patterns at low Reynolds numbers
provides conclusions concerning the disk radius where maximum shear stress arises and the
influence of the vessel walls on overall vortex motion.
Keywords: (shear stress, viscous friction coefficient, friction moment coefficient, rotating disk)
1. Introduction
The flow induced by rotating disks is a classical problem due to large number of applications
associated to the phenomenon. Regarding turbomachinery field, flow induced by rotating disks in
Tesla turbines was studied [1] in order to obtain torque and power output. Also, multiple-disk Tesla
type fan was studied [2] for assessing the performance of such turbomachinery working with low
viscosity fluid. Effects of viscosity of fluids on centrifugal pump performance [3] were
experimentally driven in order to assess the rapid increase in the disc friction losses. For MHD
applications, recent research was developed in order to obtain exact solutions for the flow of a
viscous hydromagnetic fluid due to the rotation of an infinite disk [4] or for assessing the heat
transfer in a steady MHD laminar flow for the same disk motion [5]. Also various applications were
proposed as mixing two-layer stratified fluid by a rotating disk [6], disk-driven vortical flow in a
cubical container [7] etc. Some relevant studies are related to calculation of fluid friction for the
case of a rotational rough disk in a rough vessel [8], study on the flow and heat transfer over a
rotating disk with surface roughness [9], numeric solution for Navier-Stokes equations for unsteady
viscous flow over a rotating stretchable disk with deceleration [10].
The present paper is proposing a numerical solution for the motion of a viscous fluid due to a
rotating disk inside a vessel. The results are similar with the experimental ones obtained in the
same conditions [11].
2. Mathematical model

According to literature the friction moment acting on a rotating body placed in a viscous
environment is depending on several variables, M =f (R
2
, ω, ρ, ν) and the consumed power is:
P
0
= Mω = c
f
ρR
2
5
ω
3
(W). (1)
where: M is the friction momentum of the disk and c
f
is the friction coefficient depending on
Reynolds number Re
ω
=R
2
2
ω /ν , relative width (s/R
2
) between the vassel base s and disk radius
R
2
and relative roughness ∆/R
2
(∆ is absolute roughness). If one consider the disk is rotating in
infinit fluid volume relative width is neglected. The disk rotation is inducing centripetal fluid motion
in the axial region and centrifugal motion at the periphery of the disk; near the surface of the disk
the boudary layer has the thickness δ. From the theory of laminar boudary layer one can obtain the
friction coefficient formula for Re ≤ 30 (Müller):
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ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 4/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics

ω
Re
1
3
64
f0
c =
(2)
For smooth hydraulic disks (for wich the value of absolute roughness ∆ is below the value of the
thikness of the boundary layer δ) and for infinit fluid volume condition at 30≤Re
ω
≤3x10
5
one can use
Cochran formula:

ω
Re
3,87
f0
c =
(3)
For limits of Reynolds number 3x10
5
≤ Re
ω
≤10
6
Kármán formula is available (turbulent):
5
ω
Re
0,146
f0
c = , (4)
and for Re
ω
≥10
6
:
( )
2,58
ω
lgRe
0,982
f0
c =
(5)
If the case of rotating disk in closed volume when secondary current occur relative width (s/R
2
) is
relevant and the availabe formulas are:
Re
1
2
R
s

f
c = (Re ≤ 10
4
);
Re
2,67
f
c =
(10
4
≤ Re≤3x10
5
) ;
5
Re
0,0622
f
c = (Re≥3x10
5
) (6)
It is demonstrated that rotating moment is smaller when finite volume condition is considered then
infinite volume case for Re ≥ 10
4
due to secondary flows in the vessel and in the boundary layer.
In order to obtain the fluid velocity distribution, Navier-Stokes equations was written in cilindrical
coordinates. Using a numerical integration method developed in [12] one can obtain algebric
relations for stream lines Ψ
0
and velocity lines w
0
:
( )
( ) | |
×
− + − ⋅ ⋅

+ +


+ − ⋅ + ∑
=
10
Ψ
12
Ψ
4
Ψ
2
Ψ 8
12
K Re
2
K 4
r 24
Re
3
w
1
w
2
K
4
1
i
w
0
w

( ) ( ) | |
( ) | |
2
K 4
10
Ψ
12
Ψ
4
Ψ
2
Ψ 8
12
K Re
0
w
3
w
1
w
10
Ψ
12
Ψ
4
Ψ
2
Ψ 8
4
w
2
w
9
Ψ
11
Ψ
3
Ψ
1
Ψ 8
+
− + − ⋅ ⋅

⋅ −
− ⋅ − + − ⋅ − − ⋅ − + ⋅ ×
)
`
¹
|
|
.
|

\
|
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
, (7)



66

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 4/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics




( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) + − ⋅ + − ⋅ ⋅ + + ⋅ − + ⋅ ⋅ +
(
¸
(

¸

(
¸
(

¸

9
Ψ
11
Ψ
4
1
3
Ψ
1
Ψ 2
3
K
3
Ψ
1
Ψ 4
11
Ψ
9
Ψ
4
1
2
K
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) + − − − + + ⋅ + −
⋅ − ⋅ + − ⋅ ⋅

+
(
¸
(

¸

¹
´
¦
(
¸
(

¸

11
Ψ
7
Ψ
6
Ψ
9
Ψ
8
Ψ
5
Ψ
2
1
1
Ψ
3
Ψ 2
10
Ψ
12
Ψ
4
1
4
Ψ
2
Ψ 2
r 3
Re


( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) + − − − + + ⋅ + − ⋅ ⋅ − ⋅ + − ⋅ +
(
¸
(

¸

(
¸
(

¸

12
Ψ
8
Ψ
7
Ψ
10
Ψ
6
Ψ
5
Ψ
2
1
2
Ψ
4
Ψ 2
11
Ψ
9
Ψ
4
1
1
Ψ
3
Ψ 2
(8)
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ⋅ − ⋅ + − ⋅ + − ⋅ + − ⋅
⋅ − − + ⋅ + − − + ⋅ ⋅ +
(
¸
(

¸

(
¸
(

¸

¹
´
¦
(
¸
(

¸

12
Ψ
10
Ψ
4
1
2
Ψ
4
Ψ 2
9
Ψ
11
Ψ
4
1
3
Ψ
1
Ψ 2
15
Ψ
13
Ψ
16
Ψ
14
Ψ
48
1
8
Ψ
6
Ψ
7
Ψ
5
Ψ
3
1
K


( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) + + ⋅ − + ⋅ + + ⋅ − + ⋅
)
`
¹
(
¸
(

¸

12
Ψ
10
Ψ
6
1
4
Ψ
2
Ψ
3
8
11
Ψ
9
Ψ
4
1
3
Ψ
1
Ψ 4
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) | |
2
K
2
15
20
12
Ψ
10
Ψ
2
Ψ
4
Ψ 8
24
25
r
K Re
0
Ψ
2
w
4
w
o
w
2
K
4
r 3
10
Ψ
12
Ψ
4
1
4
Ψ
2
Ψ 2
9
Ψ
11
Ψ
4
1
3
Ψ
1
Ψ 2
2
K
⋅ −
− + − ⋅ ⋅ ⋅

⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ +
+ − ⋅ + − ⋅ ⋅ − ⋅ + − ⋅ ⋅ +
)
`
¹
|
|
.
|

\
|
(
¸
(

¸

(
¸
(

¸

where:
( ) ( ) Z R, V V , V , V V
Z θ R
 
=
,
Z
Ψ
R
1
V
R


⋅ =
,
R
Ψ
R
1
V
z


⋅ − = , z=Z/D
c
, r=R/D
c
,
z
Ψ
r
1
U
V
v
R
r


⋅ = =
,
r
Ψ
r
1
U
V
v
z
z


⋅ = =
,
U
V
w
θ
=
,
2
c
D U
Ψ
ψ

=
,
ν
D U
Re
c

= , 1
c
D
δZ
c
D
δR
χ 〈 = = (relative grid step),
r
χ
K =
.
The boundary condition on the disk surface and shaft are the same – equal velocity – and zero
values on the vessel walls. As for the stream line function Ψ
0
the values are zero on the
boundaries because of the closed domaine.


( ) | |
( ) | |
¹
´
¦
+ − − − + + + − ⋅ ⋅ + ∑ − ∑ ⋅ − ∑ ⋅ ×
×
− + − ⋅ ⋅ ⋅

+ ⋅ −
=
11
Ψ
7
Ψ
6
Ψ
9
Ψ
8
Ψ
5
Ψ
4
Ψ
3
Ψ 4 K
12
9
i
Ψ
8
5
i
Ψ 2
4
1
i
Ψ 8
12
Ψ
10
Ψ
2
Ψ
4
Ψ 8
24
25
r
K Re
2
K
2
15
20
0
Ψ

1

67

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 4/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics

3. Results
The numerical solutions for low Reynolds numbers (Re
1
=100 and Re
2
=148) was obtained for
rotating velocities of the disk of n
1
=146 rot/min and n
2
=190 rot/min using an oil viscosity of
ν= 0,00037[m
2
/s]. In figure nr. 1 are presented the stream lines for Re
1
=100 and Re
2
=148

a. b.
Fig. 1 Stream lines for a. Re
1
= 100 and b. Re
2
= 148
In figure nr.1 one can observe that as increasing the Reynolds number the vortex motion (two
nucleus for Re
1
and one nucleus for Re
2
) is moving for the margins of the disk. The effect is due to
increasing the shear stress on the disk surface as an consequence of centrifugal forces in the fluid
flow. In figure 2 is presented the velocity lines according to Re
2
=190 and the friction c
f
and
momentum c
M
coefficients for six different Reynolds numbers.



b.
Fig 2 a. Velocity lines; b. Friction and momentum coefficients

The momentum coefficient was obtained by integration the shear stress on the moving surfaces of
disk and shaft. The theoretical results were compared with experimental measurements made on a
0
0,1
0,2
0,3
0,4
0,5
0,6
0,7
0,8
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160
Re
Cm
Cf
Cm
Cf
68

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 4/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics

closed installation (D
c
=100 mm, H =100 mm, shaft diameter d = 10 mm). One found good
concordance between theoretical and experimental data.


Conclusions
A numerical study was performed in order to obtain viscous friction coefficient and friction moment
coefficient at low Reynolds numbers for the case of a rotating disk inside a vessel. The results are
in a good conformity with experimental data obtained in similar conditions. By simulating the flow
for various Reynolds numbers between 50 and 300, it was observed a modification of the number
and position on vortices due to the increase of centrifugal forces and reverse flow as a wall effect.
Using velocity values in the integration domain it was derived the evolution of friction and moment
coefficients by integration the shear stress on the moving surfaces.
REFERENCES
[1] Guha, A., Sengupta, S., “The fluid dynamics of the rotating flow in a Tesla disc turbine”, European J ournal
of Mechanics - B/Fluids, Volume 37, J anuary–February 2013, Pages 112-123
[2] Engin, T., Özdemir, M., Çeşmeci,, S., “Design, testing and two-dimensional flow modeling of a multiple-
disk fan”, Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, Volume 33, Issue 8, November 2009, Pages 1180-
1187
[3] Wen-Guang Li, “Effects of viscosity of fluids on centrifugal pump performance and flow pattern in the
impeller”, International J ournal of Heat and Fluid Flow, Volume 21, Issue 2, April 2000, Pages 207-212
[4] Turkyilmazoglu, M., “Exact solutions for the incompressible viscous magnetohydrodynamic fluid of a
rotating-disk flow with Hall current”, International J ournal of Non-Linear Mechanics, Volume 46, Issue
8, October 2011, Pages 1042-1048
[5] Turkyilmazoglu, M., “MHD fluid flow and heat transfer due to a stretching rotating disk“, International
J ournal of Thermal Sciences, Volume 51, J anuary 2012, Pages 195-201
[6] Boyer, D.,L., Davies, P., A., Guo, Y., “Mixing a two-layer stratified by a rotating disk”, Fluid Dynamics
Research, Volume 21, Issue 5, November 1997, Pages 381-401
[7] Chiang, T., P., Sheu, W.H., Tsai, S.F., “Disk driven vortical flow structure in a cubical container”,
Computers & Fluids, Volume 28, Issue 1, January 1999, Pages 41-61
[8] Watabe, K., “On fluid friction of rotational rough disc in a rough vessel”, Wear, Volume 2, Issue 1, August
1958, Page 75-80
[9] Yoon, M., S., Hyun, J ., M., Park, J .,S., “Flow and heat transfer over a rotating disk with surface
roughness”, International J ournal of Heat and Fluid Flow, Volume 28, Issue 2, April 2007, Pages 262-26
[10] Fang, T., Tao, H., “Unsteady viscous flow over a rotating stretchable disk with deceleration”,
Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation, Volume 17, Issue 12, December
2012, pp. 5064-5072
[11] Ciocanea, A., Florea, M., Baran, Gh., Baran, N., “Experimental research regarding viscous friction on
rotating disks”, Revista romana de chimie, 2007, vol. 58,12, pp1291-1294
[12] Dumitrescu D. und Cazacu M. D., Theoretische und experimentelle Betrachtungen uber die Stromung
Zaher Flussigkeiten um eine Platte bei kleinen und mittleren Reynoldszahlen. Zamm, 50, 1970.










69

eu
International Salon of Hydraulics & Pneumatics - HERVEX
ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 4/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics

HYDRO-PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS FOR ACTUATION OF SPECIFIC
EQUIPMENT INTEGRATED IN PLANTS OF ENERGY PRODUCTION
FROM VEGETAL WASTE
PhD. Eng. Corneliu CRISTESCU
1
, PhD. Eng. Catalin DUMITRESCU
1
,
Dipl. eng. Genoveva VRANCEANU
1
, Dipl. eng. Liliana DUMITRESCU
1

1
Hydraulics and Pneumatics Research Institute INOE 2000-IHP, Bucharest, cristescu.ihp@fluidas.ro

Abstract: One of the ecological modalities of finding new energy resources is the use of vegetal
waste as fuel. From the agricultural and forest activities are resulting various secondary products,
such as: straw, maize stalks, sunflower stalks, grape cords, wood wastes etc. These vegetal
wastes are usually burnt on fields, in order to clear space for allowing performing the further
agricultural and forest activities. In this respect, the article presents a number of specific hydro-
pneumatic equipments, integrated in installations for obtaining energy from plant wastes,
developed in the framework of various research programmes, at the Institute INOE 2000-IHP.
Keywords: vegetal waste, renewable energy, green energy, fluid power, hydro-pneumatic
equipments
1. Introduction
Until recently, the Earth's renewable natural resources were sufficient for the needs of humanity.
Currently, due to population explosion and unprecedented development of all industries, the
necessary raw materials, and especially energy, for production of material goods has grown much,
and classical energy (fossil fuels), some close to exhaustion, will not be sufficient, this leading even
to ecological and social imbalances.
Economic development can not be separated from the consequences of human activity on the
environment. Effects of consumption and resource use on the environment are increasing. An
issue of critical importance is that of the level and pace of economic and social development.
Currently, about a third of the resources are transformed into waste and harmful emissions, and
already put acutely the problem of achieving energy from waste through recovery operations, that
is the recovery of energy from wastes, primarily from vegetale waste plant.
That is why one of the main concerns of the nowadays research, at the Institute INOE 2000-IHP, is
to find the solutions for using efficiently the vegetal wastes in economy, which are commonly burnt
or spread on the land.
A lot of land cultivated with plants or woods remains uncleared of the plants stalks and wood
wastes, every year, being necessary extra consumption of energy for fulfilling this action and
preparing land for a new agricultural or forest cycle.
The obtaining of energetic products (pellets, briquettes etc) from vegetale wastes, to be used as
fuel, may become of interest if it is proven its economic efficiency. Taking into account the fact that
by burning these vegetal wastes huge wooden surfaces are saved, it may be taken into
consideration the granting of subsidies for supporting this activity. It is more profitable to use as
fuel vegetal wastes for impeding the huge deforestations, than to invest more money in replanting
woods.
2. Hydro-pneumatic equipments investigated and tested at INOE 2000-IHP
At the Institute INOE 2000-IHP have been investigated and tested numerous tools and
machineries used within facilities for production of mass / plant biomass and energy products
needed in plants for energy production from vegetal wastes.
Some of them will be presented below, putting emphasis on the constructive solution adopted and,
especially, on their drive ways and hydro pneumatic actuation diagrams.
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2.1. The equipment for chopping-shredding vegetal wood wastes
The equipment for chopping-shredding wood is used for chopping / processing wood waste
resulting from trimming trees in yards, alleys and parks, in order to obtain plant biomass necessary
to obtain energy or compost, used as agricultural fertilizer.
Residual wood material, type twigs, branches, bark, etc., is shredded and ground for direct use as
a fuel, or after compaction in various forms: briquettes, pellets etc.
This equipment is intended for Public Domain administrations and for average producers of
compost from vegetal materials, such as SMEs working in the field, but also for individual farmers
and foresters and private households, who have wood waste resulting from trimming trees in
yards, alleys and parks.
The equipment for chopping-shredding wood, Figures 1 and 2, consists of a frame, on which the
work mechanisms are mounted and which is placed on a chassis carried on a bridge with two
wheels, equipped with a hitch for towing by a tractor.


Fig. 1 Equipment for chopping-shredding (left view)

Fig. 2 Equipment for chopping-shredding (right view)


The work mechanisms of equipment are the following:
• the mechanism for advance of wood;
• the mechanism for chopping-shredding wood material;
• the mechanism for outlet of the shredded product.

Technological characteristics of the equipment
The equipment processes the following thicknesses of wood:
• softwood (willow, poplar, lime) 5 – 60 mm;
• hardwood (beech, acacia, ash) 5 – 40 mm:
• theoretical productivity 2 – 5 m
3
/h.

Mechanical-hydraulic drive diagram
Hydraulic drive system is based on the hydraulic diagram shown in Figure 3, and it consists mainly
of a gear pump mounted on the heat engine shaft, and through a manual hydraulic distributor is
operated the hydraulic motor driving the advance / supply mechanism. The other mechanisms are
driven via a belt drive, also from the engine shaft.

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Fig. 3 The mechanical-hydraulic drive diagram of the equipment for shredding

2.2. Equipment for preparation of the vegetal biomass
The equipment for preparation of compost is used in the preparation of composts and biomass
from degradable vegetal materials, necessary to fertilize farmland and forestry, in order for
greening agricultural and forestry production and, respectively, for biogas obtaining.
The equipment for preparation of compost is intended for average producers of compost and
biomass from vegetal materials, such as SMEs working in the field, but also for individual
manufacturers and private households, who own a tractor of power 40-100 hp.
Through the use of this equipment, the energy value of the ground increases, and also there is
used the energy from the vegetal fractions embedded in the mixture.

Parts of the equipment
The equipment for preparation of compost / vegetal biomass, Figures 4 and 5, consists of the
following main parts:
• welded frame;
• mechanism for compost preparation- overturning;
• rolling mechanism;
• towing mechanism;
• hydraulic drive installation

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Hydraulic diagram for equipment drive
Hydraulic drive system is based on hydraulic diagram shown in Figure 6. Hydraulic drive of the
equipment is made using the hydrostatic energy from the tractor pump and its manual hydraulic
distributor, for controlling the drum rotating mechanism, through two slow rotational speed and
large torque hydraulic motors and, respectively, for driving the lifting-lowering mechanisms, by
means of two linear hydraulic motors (hydraulic cylinders).

Fig. 6 Hydraulic diagram for driving the compost preparation equipment


2.3. Equipment for obtaining corn briquettes
The production of maize briquettes to be used as fuel may become of interest if it is proven its
economic efficiency. At INOE 2000-IHP experimental tests have been performed in order to get
corn briquettes by using pressing machines designed and developed initially for sawdust. It was
aimed to reach the pressing parameters depending on the various degrees of humidity of the
maize stalks. The presses are provided with force and displacement transducers for determining
the optimum pressing modality.
The hydraulic press, see figure 7, is composed of an actuator including a servo valve and a
displacement transducer which is fixed on the downside part of a layer. The layer, two guys and
an upper support form a close framework. In this framework supported by the rod of the actuator

Fig. 4 Front view of the equipment

Fig. 5 Side view of the equipment

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it is introduced a cylinder provided with a piston. On the rod of the actuator is mounted a force
transducer.

The check up method at pressing
The cylinder is filled with chipped stalks, it is introduced the piston with the force transducer and
the assembly is set on the rod of the actuator. The actuator is set into action until the transducer
is propped by the upper support. It is continued the action, performing the pressing. There are
measured the pressing force, deplacement and it is found the deplacement speed depending on
time. It is made the diagram of force depending on deplacement and pressing speed depending
on deplacement. In figure 8 there are shown the obtained briquettes.


Fig.7 Hydraulic press for determining the pressing
drive of the briquettes


Fig.8 Briquette in the pressing cylinder; it is
shown how the material is compacted

In the diagram in figure 9 it is shown the graphic of the pressing force which depends on the
piston deplacement. The force from the axis y gets higher when the deplacement from the axis
x reaches that (this presenting the briquette pressing). It is also presented the graphic of the
piston speed depending on the pressing degree (deplacement).

0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140
Dis plac ement (mm)
F orc e (daN)
0
0,5
1
1,5
2
2,5
3
3,5
4
4,5
5
S peed (m/s )
force s peed

Fig. 9 Diagram showing the pressing of the briquettes by the pressing force and the piston speed


The press for briquetting, see figure 10, is composed of a hydraulic cylinder for briquetting driven
by a hydraulic installation which presses the material through a choke. The material is introduced
in the press by a cylinder by means of a charging piston which takes over the maize bio mass
from the charging zone and pushes it in the briquetting press. The briquetting choke releases the
briquette after it is performed the pressing stroke by the piston of the hydraulic cylinder.
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There have been performed tests on a hydraulic press (see figure 10) used for sawdust
briquettes. The new operational drives were found depending on the humidity and the changes
required for working at pressing maize stalks.
Maize stalks briquettes obtained on the sawdust presses are presented in figure 11.


Fig.10 Graphic representation of the press for
obtaining maize stalks briquettes

Fig.11 Maize stalks briquettes obtained
on the sawdust presses


2.4. Complex instalation for obtaining and using the gas produced by gasification of
vegetal wastes
The use of gas produced by a gas generator, although not a novelty in terms of energy production,
is reset in actuality by specialists working as researchers in environmentally advanced countries.
Among the concerns of the Institute INOE 2000-IHP, there have been concerns for designing,
developing and testing various technologies and equipment for the development of a complex
installation energetic generating and using vegetal waste, with transportation mobility and sufficient
capacity to drive a low flow irrigation pump.
In this respect, in Figure 12 is shown a general schematic diagram of a complex installation for
obtaining and using gas produced by gasification of vegetal waste in order to drive an irrigation
pump with internal combustion engine, adjusted to gas.


Fig. 12 The general schematic diagram of a complex installation for obtaining and using gas produced by
gasification of vegetal waste
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Following the studies and research undertaken, has resulted a facility for obtaining gas through
gasification of vegetal waste, gas which can be used as fuel for heat engines. Potential
beneficiaries of the facility are small households in rural and remote areas, where biomass is
available.

3. Conclusions
The article presents a range of equipments specific to lines / installations for generating and using
energy obtained by processing vegetal wastes, equipments using, as means of actuation / drive,
hydraulic and / or pneumatic systems.
From the description of these equipments, it can be seen both the ease of operation achieved by
way of hydro-pneumatic systems, and the possibility of finding solutions / models with high energy
efficiency.
Each of the equipments shown can be integrated into lines / installations for generating /obtaining
energy from vegetal wastes, with known advantages over the use of classic fuels.

REFERENCES
[1] Cristescu, C. Echipamente pentru obţinerea compostului ecologic vegetal (Equipment for production of
ecological vegetal compost). Publishing House AGIR, Bucharest, 2008.
[2] CRISTESCU, C., KREVEY, P., VRANCEANU, G., RADU, S., NEACSU, M., CRISTESCU, C-ta.,
Echipamente moderne de procesare a materialului vegetal lemnos pentru obtinerea compostului ecologic
(Modern equipment for processing wood vegetal material in order to obtain organic compost). In vol. 11
„Stiinta si Inginerie”, Lucrarile celei de-a VII-a Conferinta Nationala Multidisciplinare - cu participare
internationala – „Profesorul Dorin Pavel – fondatorul hidroenergeticii românesti, SEBES 2007, pp. 269 –
276, Publishing House AGIR, Bucharest 2007, ISBN 973 – 8130 – 82 – 4; ISBN 978–973–720–123–2.
[3] CRISTESCU, C., KREVEY, P., DUTU, I., Echipament cu actionare hidraulica pentru procesarea
compostului din deseuri vegetale (Hydraulic drive equipment for processing the compost from vegetal
wastes). In: AUTOMATIZARI SI INSTRUMENTATIE, no. 5, 2007, pp. 22 – 23, ISSN 1582-3334.
[4] CORNELIU CRISTESCU, PETRIN DRUMEA, CONSTANTIN CALINOIU, AUREL ZAPCIU, BOGDAN
LUPU, LEONARD MIHAESCU. Experimental measuring of the operational parameters of the wood
chipper equipment “ECHIFRAG”. In:volume “Lucrarile celei de a VI-a Conferinte a Hidroenergeticienilor
din Romania – “Dorin Pavel””, May 27-28, 2010, pp. 457 ... 466, Publishing House POLITEHNICA
PRESSS, ISSN 2068-276X.
[5] CORNELIU CRISTESCU. Advanced technology and equipment for processing vegetal waste used for
greening farming and forestry areas (Abstract). In: BULETINUL AGIR, year XV, no. 4, October-December
2010, Publishing House AGIR, pp. 8-9, ISSN 1224-7928.
[6] Cristescu, C., Petrin Drumea, Catalin Dumitrescu, Constantin Chirita. Technologies and equipments for
wood waste recycling in order to obtain ecological compost used in sustainable agriculture. In:
Proceedings of the 11th International Multidisciplinary Scientific Geo-Conference & EXPO - SGEM 2011,
20 - 25 J une 2011, Albena Resort, Bulgaria, Vol.III, pp. 895-902, ISSN 1314-2704, DOI:
10.5593/sgem2011
[7] Anghel, S., Dumitrescu, C., Şovăială, Gh. Research study regarding the making of maize stalks
briquettes. In: Proceedings of the Conference Hydraulics and Pneumatics, Wroclaw, October 7-9, 2009,
pp. 349-353, ISBN 978-83-87982-34-8





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CLICKS COUNTING METHODS FOR A SCOPE KNOB
Andrei DRUMEA
1
, Robert DOBRE
1

1
Department of Electronics Technology, Politehnica University Bucharest, andrei.drumea@cetti.ro

Abstract: A required feature of a high zoom scope from customer point of view is the clicks
counting and display of windage and elevation corrections. The paper analyzes the methods for
click counting usable with existing mechanical knobs. Implementation aspects like required
changes in mechanical construction, influence of perturbations, complexity of electronics or power
consumption are studied. For some methods considered by authors as easier to implement some
experimental results are presented.
Keywords: clicks counting, knob, electronic module.
1. Introduction

Knobs with large number of clicks per rotation are used in a wide range of mechanical, industrial or
military applications requiring precise adjustment of displacement of a mechanical item. Typical
examples are windage and elevation adjustment for a gun with a zoom scope or adjustments
screws and knobs for precise mechanical positioning (Fig.1).

Fig. 1. Adjustment knobs.

Unfortunately, reading of the state of these knobs can be performed only by a person focused on
knob scale and position, so no remote or automated readouts are possible. To solve this problem,
present paper studies different methods for electronic readout of knob state and analyzes them
from different points of view – mechanical construction, electronic implementation, power
consumption and resistance to perturbations. The display unit of knob position is LCD based and
can be placed away from the knob, so wire or wireless connection between sensing and display
units is required; each solution has its own advantages and disadvantages.
2. Description of methods for clicks counting for a scope knob
Adjustment knob is rotating in equal steps, 100 per complete rotation in the particular case of zoom
scope; each step is associated with a click. There are more methods for obtaining knob state
information, like counting clicks relative to default (zero) position or by measuring an angle or
observing its state. These methods can be implemented with different types of sensors like:
- incremental rotary encoders – clicks are not counted, knob rotation is measured. These encoders
can be inductive, optical or mechanical.
- multiturn potentiometer in voltage divider connection - clicks are not counted, knob angle is
measured. This method offers information regarding the absolute position of knob.
- video camera for image capture of the knob scale and gradations and image processing for
position computing; the method mimics the human behaviour
- microphone for click detection and counting
- accelerometer for click detection and counting


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These methods are described and compared; those that require complex efforts from
implementation point of view are rejected and only for the remaining ones some experiments are
performed and presented in this paper.

2.1 Knob position measurement with image processing
Rotation movement can be detected quite simple using digital processing of the video signal by
identifying the position of a predetermined shape or by calculating the correlation between
captured image and multiple images stored in memory (figure 2). This requires a camera with a
resolution high enough to detect shape movement for one click angular rotation. A usable pattern
for correlative method is shown in figure 3.


Fig. 2. Image processing method. Fig. 3. Possible pattern for image processing method.

The method has some major drawbacks - high computing power requirements so high power
consumption, it is difficult to mount in a specific installation and is sensible to vibrations, dust or
smoke, factors that can affect image quality.
2.2 Knob position measurement with sound processing
This method is similar with image processing method but use a microphone instead of video
camera (figure 4). It allows a sturdier, more compact construction, but is also susceptible to
vibrations and knob mechanical properties (different knobs produce different click sounds) so
complex sound processing is required to detect click sounds.


Fig. 4. Sound processing method. Fig. 5. Multiturn potentiometer method.

A major drawback of this method is its inability to offer sense information – it ‘hears’ clicks, but is
unable to find rotation direction.
2.3 Knob position measurement with multiturn potentiometer
Circular movement can be detected with a multiturn potentiometer (figure 5) in voltage divider
connection. The method is very simple and straightforward, rotation direction information is always
available because cursor position contains angle and turn number. The drawbacks of the method
are: its reliability (cursor is a moving part susceptible to wearing) and limited precision (not suitable
for knobs with more than 100 clicks per rotation).


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2.4 Knob position measurement with inductive incremental encoder
Another option for click counting/knob position measurement is to use an incremental rotary
encoder (figure 6). The encoder can be inductive, optical or mechanical, and it measures angular
rotation in constant steps. The method finds only relative position, so a reference position must be
known by the measurement system, usually the zero value for the knob.


Fig. 6. Incremental encoder method. Fig. 7. Structure of an inductive incremental encoder.

The inductive incremental encoder is based on a coil with permanent magnet core placed near an
iron/steel toothed disk. During rotation a rectangular voltage is induced into the coil with maximal
value associated with tooth positioned near the core. The method can be very precise – more teeth
on the disk, better precision – but, unfortunately, is not suited for fine mechanics devices with
dimensions smaller than 5 centimetres, because a small disk with many teeth would require an
extremely small coil.
2.5 Knob position measurement with mechanical and optical incremental encoders
An optical incremental encoder has a slotted disk (figure 8) and two pairs of sender-receiver optical
sensors. There are 2 rows of slots, shifted with half slot (or 90 degrees phase shift for outputs), for
direction detection (figure 9). To make the system immune to ambient light, infrared LEDs and
detectors are used; LEDs are modulated with a 36 kHz frequency. The method is well suited for
fine mechanics devices – small disk with many slots is usable because infrared light can be
focused.


Fig. 8. Slotted disk for optical encoder. Fig. 9. Optical sensors’ outputs for clockwise rotation.

This method can be implemented on an existing knob without important changes in mechanical
construction. Only slotted disk is moving with the knob, optical and electronic devices are placed
on the fixed side (figure 10). Because an incremental encoder offers only relative position, a zero
setting button is needed to be pressed at zero knob position.

Fig. 10. Structure of an optical incremental encoder based method.

A mechanical incremental encoder has the same behaviour like optical one, but is simpler to use –
no slotted disk to build, no optical devices to align, is available with reasonable price from different
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manufacturers. It switches the two outputs (figure 11) for each step/click as optical encoder, but
has a drawback – as any mechanical switch, its outputs bounce during switching (figure 12).


Fig. 11. Mechanical incremental encoder. Fig. 12. Switching bouncing for mechanical encoder.

Mechanical incremental encoder solution is the simplest to implement and has also lowest power
consumption - microcontroller can be kept in sleep state and only switching interrupts awake it.
2.6 Knob position measurement with accelerometer
An integrated accelerometer (figure 13) can be used for click counting if placed on the knob. The
method uses some properties of the rotation movement of the knob – clicks are short and sharp
steps with relevant tangential speed and acceleration (figure 14) – to count the clicks by observing
acceleration pulses. Z-axis information is not used in this method, XY accelerations in board plane
(or knob top side) are enough to find click number and direction. The accelerometer must have fast
response time to be able to detect clicks during fast turnings of knob.


Fig. 13. 3-axis accelerometer. Fig. 14. Accelerometer placement on knob.

This method can be implemented without any change in existing mechanical construction of the
knob. One electronic module with battery, accelerometer and radio transmitter is attached to the
knob and information is displayed on the display from the fixed part of the system (figure 15).

Fig. 15. Structure of an optical incremental encoder based method.

Comparing presented methods, only mechanical, optical encoder and accelerometer based
methods are viable choices for real implementation. Some experiments and tests are performed on
these sensors/solutions for further evaluation.

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3. Experimental data regarding clicks counting for a scope knob
At the moment, test setup for optical encoder method is under construction but mechanical
incremental encoder and accelerometer-based methods were investigated and first results are
promising. For the mechanical incremental encoder method, an EC12E 24204A9 device with 24
steps per rotation was used. The signals for one step movement are shown in figures 16 and 17;
they are very clean, no visible bouncing, and easy to process even with a simple microcontroller.


Fig. 16. Mechanical incremental encoder, one
click counter-clockwise.
Fig. 17. Mechanical incremental encoder, one
click clockwise.

For the accelerometer based method a test module with a ST Microelectronics 3-axis
accelerometer with analogue output was designed and constructed. Module schematic is shown in
figure 18 and its printed circuit board in figure 19. This module was attached to the knob and the
whole construction was fixed on a vice. A digital oscilloscope was connected to sensor outputs.


Fig. 18. Schematic of the accelerometer module. Fig. 19. PCB of test module.

The clicks are detected as pulses in X and Y components of acceleration. The Z axis component is
neglected because is very small and offers no extra information – the direction of rotation is
already found from XY components. In figures 20-23 accelerometer outputs (X blue, Y orange) are
shown for one and three clicks in both directions – clockwise and counter-clockwise.


Fig. 20. Accelerometer outputs , one step
clockwise.
Fig. 21. Accelerometer outputs , one step
counter-clockwise.
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Fig. 22. Accelerometer outputs , three steps
clockwise.
Fig. 23. Accelerometer outputs , three
steps counter-clockwise.

The oscilloscope screen captures prove the ability of the method to count knob clicks, but robust
measurement requires careful signal processing of accelerometer outputs as these signals have
only about 1 Volt peak to peak amplitude and their shape depends on knob rotation speed and
number of clicks. For better results, more sensible accelerometers can be used. Another possible
improvement of method is to use 2 accelerometers, placed diametrically opposed and use for data
processing the difference between their outputs. The authors are testing now different
accelerometer configurations to find an optimal solution for clicks count for a real knob.
4. Conclusions
The analysis of the presented methods and their application reveals the most efficient ones in
terms of implementation – accelerometer and optical or mechanical incremental encoder based
methods. All three methods require small mechanical parts, can be implemented using low
processing power microcontrollers and therefore have low power consumption. The incremental
encoder based methods require constructive changes in the structure of the knob, yet easy
mechanical changes. These methods offer robust operation, no lost clicks and require very simple
electronics to work thus lowest power consumption. Accelerometer -based method does not
require any modification of the mechanical design because the electronic module is placed directly
over the knob. There may however be some problems in clicks counting while the equipment is
subjected to movement (additional occurring accelerations must be rejected in terms of useful
information) so more data processing is required compared to incremental encoder methods.
All three methods are viable and choosing the best one can be done only after following a set of
rigorous tests and depending on application conditions and requirements.
Presented work has been funded by the Executive Agency for Higher Education, Research,
Development and Innovation Funding (UEFISCDI) of the Romanian Ministry of National Education
through the Financial Agreement DPST/3/20.08.2013.

REFERENCES
[1] J . Fraden, “Handbook of Modern Sensors Physics, designs, and applications”, Springer-Verlag, New York, 2004.
[2] J . G. Webster, “Measurement, Instrumentation, and Sensors Handbook”, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1999.
[3] J . S. Wilson, “Sensor Technology Handbook“, Elsevier Newness, New York, 2005.
[4] S. Hesse, G. Schnell, “Sensoren für die Prozess und Fabrikautomation Funktion – Ausführung – Anwendung”,
Vieweg+Teubner, Wiesbaden, 2009.
[5] D. A. Visan, I. Lita, “Multipoint Wireless Measurement System with LabVIEW Interface”, SIITME2011, IEEE 17th
International Symposium for Design and Technology in Electronic Packaging, Timisoara, Romania, 20-23 October
2011, ISBN 978-1-4577-1277-7, pp.269-272.
[6] A. Drumea, “Education in development of electronic modules using free and open source software tools”,
“HIDRAULICA” Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics, No. 3-4/2012,
ISSN 1453–7303, pp. 54-60.
[7] C. Marghescu, M. Pantazica, S. Pasca, “Integration of a Pletysmographic Sensor for Pulse Measurements in a
ZigBee Medical Network”, ATEE2013, The 8th International Symposium on Advanced Topics in Electrical
Engineering, 2013, pp.1-4.
[8] R. G. Bozomitu, V. Cehan, V. Popa, “A New Linearization Technique Using Multi-sinh Doublet”, Advances in Electrical
and Computer Engineering, vol. 9, no. 2, ISSN Print 1582-7445, ISSN On-line 1844-7600, pp.45-57, 2009.
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THE EFFICIENCY OF STREET CAR POLLUTION REDUCTION
EQUIPMENTS
Ioan LEPADATU
1
, Adrian CIOCANEA
2

1
Hydraulics and Pneumatics Research Institute, lepadatu.ihp@fluidas.ro
2
University Politehnica Bucharest, adrian.ciocanea@upb.ro

Abstract: The present paper presents an evaluation of the technical efficiency degree of a
collection and treatment facility for pollutants resulted from high intensity road traffic, characteristic
for the urban traffic. The analysis of the version proposed started from the results obtained on a
tested equipment -“hall type” application; there it was studied on one hand the polluted airflow, and
on the other hand the speed and treatment process, the installation being equipped with active
carbon filters. The results showed that for the urban areas with high traffic and especially for
periods of high ambient temperatures, the solution proposed allows the collection of aprox. 60-70%
of the exhaust gasses eliminated by the buses that starts from a standstill.
Keywords: (urban pollution, road traffic, active coal filter)
1. Introduction
Street car pollution is one of the most relevant issues facing large urban agglomerations, from the
point of view of heat island [1-4], as well as canyon effects [5-8]. The solutions proposed to reduce
the pollution are various and are based on interventions aimed at increasing the green areas,
ventilation of critical areas, use of new building materials and/or strategies for urban space
optimization etc.
Regarding the equipments that can be used for the purpose of gas depollution resulting from
traffic, they can be classified according to the area where the phenomenon occurs and can
describe: “tunnel type” applications, “closed parking type” applications, “garage-service”, “hall”
applications, “intersection” applications. The difference between the various facilities consist in the
openness degree of the space they service – the fluid flow in closed, opened or semi-opened
spaces – and in the pollutant parameter variation – temperature, concentration, density, on which
depends the correct calculation of the filtering modules.
In this paper, we studied the equipment destined to decontaminate the urban open spaces,
intersection type, extending the results of the study of a ”hall” type equipment.
2. Urban car pollution – Case Study: Bv. N. Bălcescu and Bv. Carol I

The main source of pollution is the fuel for motor vehicles, accounting for over 96%. To determine
the environmental impact emissions, the gasses have been classified into: gasses that affect
climate (CO
2
, CH
2
, N
2
O), damage of the ozone layer gasses (NOx and CFC), determining their eco
toxicity and human toxicity. The mechanisms through which motor fuels produce environmental
contamination are determined by two chemical phenomena: evaporation of unburned fuel, exhaust
gas ejections into the atmosphere.

It is considered a contribution to environmental pollution the evaporation phenomenon
(conventional) of the fossil fuel to 15%. Exhaust gas ejections is contributing up to 85% and two
areas are located: crankcase gases, contributing about 15%, exhaust gases through the exhaust
system about 70%.




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Table 1.
Emissions depending on the nature of the fuel

Nature of the fuel
gr/1 kg of fuel
Gasoline Diesel
CO 465 21
NO 23 27
HC 4 12
SO
2
0,8 4,8
Particles 0,1 0,8

Besides the nature of fuel used, engine operating conditions influence also the degree of pollution.
Variable speed and load, together with the speed of the vehicle and the transitional arrangements
appearance permanently change the level of emissions. Given the fact that pollutant emissions
from motor vehicles occur close to the ground, their maximum impact on air quality occurs in the
vicinity of the traffic path, the human respiratory tract level (effective emission height is about 2 m).
In the center of large cities, where the traffic arteries are “canyon type”, the polluting agents persist
a longer time at the respiratory level and domestic windows. Pollution is much greater and more
adverse effects where vehicles are stationed with engines running: at signalized intersections, at
bus stops, on roads with traffic jams and when the ambient temperature is high, in the summer. If
in open spaces and under certain weather conditions, emissions can be dispersed by wind, in
closed spaces (underground and outdoor car parking, garages, buildings or warehouses)
decontamination of the air is mandatory.
This study deals with the area at the intersection of Boulevard Nicolae Balcescu and Carol I, where
we have previous data referring to traffic [9] as per figures 1 and 2.



Fig.1 Fig.2

Fig. 1 Bv. N. Balcescu and Bv. Carol I
Fig. 2 Traffic frequency in the street canyon call ed U
1
for each day of the week, annual averages.

According to measurements, there is relatively high level of traffic flow around two times a day:
between 7:00 and 10:00 a.m. local time, and in between 16:00 and 19:00 p.m. local time; very high
levels recorded for NO
x
(up to 1500 μg/m
3
) were registered, while for SO
2
the values are below
30 μg/m
3
. The traffic congestions and the stop-start traffic flows lead to high pollution and strong
temporal variability because they enhance emission rates from vehicle engines. This means that
the fluidization of the traffic is very necessary, or the use of methods to decontaminate the area.


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3. Installation setup
For the “intersection” type application, we propose a technical solution based on the idea that the
aspiration of polluted air must be ensured along the length of the urban bus stations, pathway
along which most of the emissions are discharged as a result of motor torque acceleration.
According to technical data of the busses from the Bucharest fleet and from the preliminary
experiments, we determined that the necessary length is about 20 m and this statistically
represents about two vehicle lengths (max. 12 m according to the Directive 2002/7/CE).
Furthermore, besides establishing the length for the capture of pollutants it is also necessary to
determine the flow rate that needs to be sucked by the exhausters placed in the roadway structure,
on whose aspiration the active carbon filters are placed. The filters are designed depending on the
degree of pollutant load of air aspirated from the ground level, namely from aprox. 1 m above zero
altitude, considered to cover the exhaust pipe axis of the vehicle. The installation shown in figure 3
[10] is automatic, working in a system which takes into account the pollutant concentration
variations in the air below the vehicle when stationary – site presented in figure 4.
The site considered is the alignment of the transport station in the vicinity of the intersection
described in Figure 1 (University of Bucharest).

Fig. 3 Fig.4
Fig.3 Filtration unit and bl ower system located underground

(Section I: Channel polluted air reception; Section II: Channel polluted ai r transport; Section
III: Distribution system; Section IV: Filtering station; Section V: Blower unit)

Fig.4 Install ation site

The structure of the scheme is available in figure nr. 5 were both components and installation
functions are described.
Number of vehicles currently waiting at traffic lights or at the station is noticed by presence sensors
SP1, SP2, ... SPn. According to the number of active sensors, the adding machine signals the R1
regulator which commands the actuators AC1, AC2… in order to regulate the crossing section of
fluidic resistance VF1, VF1… and sends a signal to regulator R2 that adjusts engine M2 speed
blower S drive.

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Fig.5 Decontaminating equipment type " intersection" Constructive di agram

I - Pollution channel, Presence sensors (SP
i
); II - Tube φ 100 ... 150 mm; III - Fluid resistance (VF
i
),
Actuators (AC
i
), Transducers (TP
i
), IV - Collectors Ring filter (F), Reducer (M1 + Ab + R), Pressure
transducer (TPD); V – Blower (S), Motor (M2), Velocity transducer (TM); Control System - Distribution
regulator (R1), Front transducers block (S2), Electric motor converter (R2), Manual drive (M2)

The reaction circuit contains also the TN sensor, which according to a program, corrects the
commanded speed.
On the other hand, equalizing piping elements’ pressures is sensed by depression transducers
TP1, TP2…which, through the adder S1, send a signal to regulator R1, who is in command of
Actuators AC1, AC2 etc.
The mode of control and maneuver for the filter ring is as follows: if the pressure drop in the filter
increases, it is noticed by the differential pressure transducer TPD, that triggers a warning system
AU; handling the filter elements is done through a semiautomatic control system of platform herd
rotation, with a manual control motorcycle gear, which at a manual command performs an angular
race equivalent to the moving of a filter element towards the external access channel.
The two ducts are located in the ground, the emissions reception device is as much as possible in
the vehicle exhaust pipes area, and the transport emissions device is located perpendicular to the
road axis. Under polluted air channel is the channel that directs rainwater from the street-to-street
sewer.

3. Experimental results
In order to evaluate the efficiency of the installation functional tests were performed. The
installation was introduced in a hall with a volume of air of about 1000 m
3
– see figure nr. 6. In this
case there will be neglected the influence of horizontal air current but correction coefficient could
be introduced. The objective of the tests was to calculate the optimum size of the active coal filter
as function of pollution concentration gases, materials used and centrifugal fan flow rate. One used
an absorbent circular column (inside diameter of D=500 mm and height H =1 m) and the velocity
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of the gas throughout the filtering cylinder with steady layer was 0.5 m/s. The circulation of the
toxic air was from bottom to the top and the fan intake covered basic needs: Q
min
=400 m
3
/h, H
min
=
17,6 mm.


Fig.6 The tested install ati on

The functional model of depolluting filter with active coal AD 3 – ROMCARBON Buzau – had good
performances for the following toxic gases: NO, NO
2
, COV (9 volatile organic compounds). For CO
the filter was equiped with activate hopcalite. In figure nr. 7 one presents results of filtering process
for NO
2
and COV [11].

Fig. 7 Filter effici ency
(K
am
- the concentration of toxic gases before the depolluting filter; K
av -
the concentration of toxic gases
after the depolluting filter)

Semnificant concentration decrease of the polluting gases was recorded – 10 to 15 times for NO
x

and 2 to 5 times for COV. In order to simulate the real situation an used automobile was placed
inside the hall. Automatization of the system was tested for various concentration of the polluting
gases obtained including and start/stop comand at minium level of the accepted concentrations.

Testing the installation as a “hall application” one can consider that all the functional parameteres
are efficient also in a “road intersection application” since high air volume and real automobile was
consedered. Also, the intake pipe ot the instalation is aprox. 10 m similar to a bus length.
Conclusions
A “hall“ application was tested in order to assess the efficiency of an instalation designed in order
to decrease the level of pollution in urban areas. The installation is consisting in two active coal
circular filters connected at two centrifugal fans. Automation was used in order to meassure in real
time the values of polluting gases and to regulate the performances of the ansamble. The tests
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performed for various concentrations of the pollution gases and for relevant air flow rates
throughout the installation had relevant results concerning the reducing level of polluting air and
the velocity of the process. The results allows the conclusion that the installation could be used in a
“cross road application” in certain conditions such the location proposed in the paper: Bv. N.
Balcescu – Bv. Carol I.
REFERENCES
[1] Santamouris, M., “Using cool pavements as a mitigation strategy to fight urban heat island heat island—A
review of the actual developments”, “Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews”, Volume 26, October
2013, Pages 224-240.
[2] Gago, E.J ., Roldan, J ., Pacheco-Torres, R., Ordóñez, J ., “The city and urban heat islands: A review of
strategies to mitigate adverse effects”, “Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews”, Volume
25, September 2013, Pages 749-758.
[3] Agarwal, M.,Tandon, A., “Modeling of the urban heat island in the form of mesoscale wind and of its effect
on air pollution dispersal”, “Applied Mathematical Modelling”, Volume 34, Issue 9, September
2010, Pages 2520-2530.
[4] Sarrat,, Lemonsu, A., Masson, V., Guedalia, D., “Impact of urban heat island on regional
atmospheric pollution”, “Atmospheric Environment”, Volume 40, Issue 10, March 2006, Pages 1743-1758.
[5] J . Gallagher, L.W. Gill, A. McNabola, “Numerical modelling of the passive control of air pollution in
asymmetrical urban street canyons using refined mesh discretization schemes”,
”Building and Environment”, Volume 56, October 2012, Pages 232-240 .
[6] J ennifer Richmond-Bryant, Adam Reff, “Air pollution retention within a complex of urban street canyons: A
two-city comparison”, “Atmospheric Environment”, Volume 49, March 2012, Pages 24-32
[7] J . Richmond-Bryant, S.S. Isukapalli, D.A. Vallero, “Air pollutant retention within a complex of urban
street canyons”, “Atmospheric Environment”, Volume 45, Issue 40, December 2011, Pages 7612-7618
[8] J ong-J in Baik, Kyung-Hwan Kwak, Seung-Bu Park, Young-Hee Ryu, “Effects of building roof greening on
air quality in street canyons”, “Atmospheric Environment”, Volume 61, December 2012, Pages 48-55
[9] G. Raducan, S. Stefan, “Characterization of traffic-generated pollutants in Bucharest”, “Atmósfera”, 2009,
22(1), 99-110.
[10] Lepadatu I., Ciocanea, A., Radulescu, G. “Echipament pentru depoluarea aerului din spatiile deschise
ale aglomerarilor urbane cu trafic auto”, Brevet de inventie RO 125585/30.01.2012.
[11] Drumea, P.,

Lepadatu I., Georgescu F., Corciova, S., Dumitrescu, L.,”Depoluting filter for exhaust gases
from the air”, “Conferinta CEEX, Cercetarea de excelenţă – calea spre inovare”, Braşov , pp.104-109,
2008.









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SOLAR INSTALLATION FOR HOT WATER FOR A FAMILY HOME

Adriana Gruia
1
, Carmen Otilia Rusănescu
2*
, Marin Rusănescu
3

1 ,2
University Polytechnic Bucharest, Biotechnical Faculty of Engineering, otiliarusanescu@yahoo.com
3
Valplast Industry Bucharest

Abstract: In this paper, we present a solar thermal system for hot water supply of family housing to be
functional and o exploit solar heat all year round: in summer for hot water and cold season contributes
to heating the water in the storage tank. For this purpose we chose a storage tank with two coil type
heat exchanger (exchanger for solar circuit and the other for connecting to a boiler) and a 2 kW
electric resistance (to heat water in the boiler when any of the two sources is not available. We
determined the average monthly temperatures accumulated water storage tank in summer.

Keywords: solar system, solar heat, solar collector field

1. Introduction

This paper is part of the new technological approach that takes account of capitalization “clean
sources” which provide effective protection of the environment. Solar energy is available worldwide.
Solar energy is the only form of clean energy that does not create harmful by products, as in classical
and nuclear fuels, solar energy does heat release in other forms of energy, but heat transport from the
place of capture to the user. The traditional system for domestic hot water production, harnessing,
always use a collector containing heat (liquid or gaseous working fluid) with or without accumulation
system.
The principle of operation of these facilities is relatively simple and is based on the conversions of
solar radiation into heat energy used to heat domestic water. Installation of solar energy conversion
into heat is the main equipment solar collectors that convert solar radiant energy into thermal energy,
solar heat storage devices, network transmission and distribution pipelines solar heat to consumers
and automation elements whole process of production, storage, transport and distribution of solar
heat. Typical, application systems for producing solar water heating provides hot water supply
temperature of 45
0
C in summer. In March-April and September-October the system can take only part
of the thermal load required to produce hot water.
In practice it was found that the production of hot water at a temperature of 45
0
C, considering the cold
water temperature of 10
0
C, 35
0
C water temperature must be raised. Under these conditions the
collector absorbing surface must reach a temperature of 50-70
0
C to transfer heat to the heat and
domestic hot water then an acceptable efficiency [4,5].
Systems for domestic hot water still running and in winter, because they can provide even sunny
winter days the amount of heat to be transferred to the domestic hot water.
All the practice has been established that a person consumes 50 litters per day hot water. This
requires an area of 1,5 m
2
of collector covering domestic hot water needs a rate of 90-100%.
Average solar radiation is considered 1000 kW/m
2
per year.
Depending on the size of the solar hot water preparation and constructive solution adopted to obtain
300-500 kW/m
2
per year [6,7,8].




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2. Materials and methods

When choosing a solar system for hot water, you firs need to set the preferred temperature hot water
usage and quantity and distribution needs throughout the day. Temperature of hot water use in most
practical installations in operation temperature is 45
0
C. Hot water needs, depend on the attitudes and
habits of consumers and the characteristics and specific features of each application.
The study concerns a family home consists of four that has a fuel consumption of 50 litters / person /
day, so the solar system will need to produce 200 litters of hot water daily.
Distribution of daily consumption of hot water, over 24 hours is considered statistically consistent with
values determined by measurements.
On this basis we determined that the volume of storage tank which should cover domestic hot water
scarcity at peak hours, you must be at least 120 litters. Therefore we chose a boiler with a capacity of
200 litters.
Cold water temperature used in hot water take into account the value of 10
0
C. Hot water will be
prepared so that the user can reach a temperature of 45
0
C. To ensure that temperature is required at
the point of storage temperature is higher, setting the value of 45
0
C Achieved by means of mixing
valve placed on the grid, leaving the boiler. Typically, the point of storage is practiced temperature
60
0
C [1], which provides safe disinfection of hot water from Legionella bacteria.
In terms of health it is recommended that the hot water system to intervene household disinfectant at
least once a year by raising water temperatures above 60
o
C stored for a period of time.
- The solar system object of this study will be operational throughout the year, in summer for hot water
and cold season to contribute to preheat cold water in the boiler, following the rise in temperature of
water use by at 45
o
C is achieved by heating boiler (gas and condensation) or a 2-kW electric
resistance heater mounted.
For this purpose choose a bivalent boiler with two coils and electrical resistance of 2 kW.
Basic options for choosing solar thermal system for domestic hot water is to optimize the investment
and operating costs. For this purpose we adopted the solution of solar thermal energy recovery
throughout the year.
For this purpose we analyzed three offers of technically all three offerings using the same schematic
structure of the solar system, all using vacuum tube panels, constructive solutions are relatively
similar, which makes choosing the lowest bid price, respectively HELIS solar system.
It provides heating to 200 liters of water at t
0
=10
o
C (cold temperature) to t
acm
=45
o
C (temperature hot
water consumption).

3. Results and discussion

● The amount of solar heat (Q
n
) for heating water volume of 200 l is given by:
t c m Q
a a n
Δ ⋅ ⋅ = (1)
- m
a
- mass of water in kg corresponding to a volume of 200 l (m
a
=200 kg);
- c
a
=specific heat of water (c
a
=4,173·10
3
J /kg·
o
C);
- Δt =temperature difference in °C (Δt = 35
o
C C).
● The area calculated as required solar collector:
med col
n
col
G
Q
S
β
η ⋅
= (2)
- η
col
- collector efficiency HELIS (η
col
=0,83 %);
- G
β med
- global radiation on collector plane averaged from March to October;
G
β med
=16,6 MJ /m
2
·zi.
2
m 12 , 2
6 , 16 83 , 0
21 , 29
=

=
col
S .
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● Actually used a solar collector area of supply is 3.7 m
2
favorable situation because it has reserves to
compensate for the heat losses along the primary circuit and the heat exchanger S
1
.
Theoretical explanations:
Solar circuit heat transfer in the boiler is achieved by S
1
which is heated in the heat exchanger fluid.
Solar system with heat exchanger circuit S
1
form a closed system in which the movement is made by
heating liquid.
The process can take place so that natural circulation and forced circulation as (solar circuit pump that
increases the productivity of exchange). Heat load of the heat exchanger is determined from the heat
balance equation [3,9]:
2 2 2 1 1 1
1
t c G t c G Q
sc
Δ
η
Δ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ =


where: Q

[W] is the flow of heat from the solar circuit;
G
1
, G
2
[kg/h] is the mass flow of liquids;
c
1
, c
2
[J /kg·
o
C] is the specific heat of liquids
The heat transfer due to a temperature difference occurs by conduction and radiation through
the surface S
1
by the equation:

med
t S k Q Δ ⋅ ⋅ =

[W]
where k is the overall heat exchange coefficient [W/m
2
·
o
C]
To simplify assessment levels recorded in stored water temperature in the boiler use:
• The relationship of heat quantity:
t c m Q
a a a
Δ ⋅ ⋅ =
where: Q
a
[J ] is the amount of heat (thermal energy) received water from the boiler during the
exchange, which is equal to the change in internal energy.
•expression exchanger efficiency:

d sc a
Q Q ⋅ = η [2]
where: Q
d
[J ] is the amount of heat absorbed by the solar collector heat solar heating cycle.

•Heat quantity Q
d
:

med col col d
G S Q
β
η ⋅ ⋅ = (3)
•The amount of heat Q
a
:

d sc a
Q Q ⋅ = η
• The relationship determine the amount of heat stored in the boiler water temperature t
sb
:
( )
0
t t c m Q
sb a a a
− ⋅ ⋅ = (4)

a a
a
sb
c m
Q
t t

+ =
0

o
C (5)
97 , 64
10 173 , 4 200
10 88 , 45
10
3
6
=
⋅ ⋅

+ =
sb
t
o
C
This temperature is the average temperature of the water stored in the tank during the hot season.
•To determine the monthly average temperatures during each month of the hot season, from relations
(3) and (4) calculate the amount of heat taken from the water heater:
col col sc med d sc a
S G Q Q ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ = η η η
β

med med a
G G Q

76 , 2 7 , 3 83 , 0 9 , 0
β β
⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =


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The value of q is introduced in relation (5) becomes:
a a
med
sb
c m
G
t t


+ =
β
76 , 2
0


Table 1 Monthly average temperatures in the months of March to October

t
sbIII

0
C t
sbIV

0
C t
sbV

0
C t
sbVI

0
C t
sbVII

0
C t
sbVIII

0
C t
sbIX

0
C t
sbX
0
C
47,91 60,82 68,31 75,44 73,92 72,50 66,40 42,97

Level during April-September temperatures of over 60
o
C will ensure sterilization of water
stored in the tank against Legionella bacteria.
Hot water temperature of 45
o
C will ensure the automatic mixing valve is placed at the exit of
the boiler. The calculated values for cylinder temperature which explains the company MEGASUN as
typical boiler cold water temperature =10
o
C, cylinder temperature =60°C and hot water temperature
prepared by mixing =45
o
C. Heater coil is calculated so that the solar circuit is circulated heat with
temperatures between 55
o
C and 80
o
C.
Schematic structure of the solar system HELIS
Solar system presented consists primarily of the following components:




Conclusions

In this paper, we chose a solar thermal system for hot water supply of family housing to be functional
and to exploit solar heat all year round: in summer for hot water and cold season contribute to the
heating of water in the storage tank.
For this purpose we chose a storage tank (tank) with two coil type heat exchanger (exchanger for
solar circuit and the other for connecting to a boiler) and a 2 kW electric resistance (to heat water in
the boiler when any of the two sources is not available).
To purchase equipment solar system components we considered that most companies that have
manufacturing and marketing concern such facilities supplied equipment packages and electronic
components integrated for different types of applications that use solar thermal. As a result, the three
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bids considered that the technically used the same schematic structure of the solar thermal system we
chose the one with the lowest price.
We determined the average monthly temperatures accumulated water storage tank in summer.
Especially solar panel scheme used HEAT-PIPE Helis presents a major advantage to be taken into
account in that outside a maximum efficiency of 80% has the advantage that installs with simple
installation procedures. It is worth noting that the entire solar installation can be installed and
functionally tested prior to actually mount the solar collector vacuum tubes. They can be mounted at
the end of trial operations of the solar system in a very short and very simple installation procedure

References
[1] www.megasun.com - solar thermal
[2] Răducanu P. Technical Thermodynamics, Bren Publishing House, Bucharest, 2010
[3] Kicighin M.A., Kostenko G.N. - Heat exchangers and vaporizing facilities, Technical Publishing
House, Bucharest, 1958
[4] Carmen Otilia Rusănescu, Gigel Paraschiv, Gheorghe Voicu, Marin Rusănescu - Comparative
Analysis of Atmospheric Temperature Values, Relative Humidity In 2009 And 2010 In West Side Of
Bucharest City, Bulletin UASVM Agriculture, 68(2)/2011, pag. 130-138.
[5] Carmen Otilia Rusănescu, Marin Rusănescu - Processing Records of Wind Speed and Direction
(September - November 2009), Bulletin USAMV Agriculture, Volume 67(2)/2010
[6] Ghermec, O., Ghermec, C., Popescu, T., (2009), A new technology to obtain ecological steel,
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th
Int. Conf. on Environmental Engineering and Management, ICEEM/05, 15-19 September,
Tulcea, Romania, Environmental Engineering and Management J ournal, vol. 8, no. 5, 1141 – 1144.
[7] Ghermec, O., Ghermec, C., Didu, M. – Recycling of waste from the grinding operations, Proc.5
th
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Conf. on Environmental Engineering and Management, ICEEM/05, 15-19 September, Tulcea,
Romania, Environmental Engineering and Management J ournal, vol. 8, no. 6, 1491-1493.
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alloyed steels with nanometric master alloys, J ournal of Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials, 15
(7-8), 673-678,2013
[9] Adriana Gruia - Sizing solar circuit corresponding to a solar installations preparation hot water
systems - Hidraulica, Nr. 2, 2013
[10] Elena Cristina Rada, Irina Aura Istrate, Marco Ragazzi, Gianni Andreottola and Vincenzo Torretta
Analysis of Electro-Oxidation Suitability for Landfill Leachate Treatment through an Experimental
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