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Answers to Science Focus 4 second edition Student Book questions

3.1 Answers
Remembering
1 2 3 4 heredity (potential height), environment (nutrition) characteristics inherited from parents plants that consistently produce offspring the same as the parents a recessive b dominant c dominant d dominant e recessive deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) a 46 (2 pairs) b 2 c 46

5 6

7 P1 P2 R W RR WR RW WW R W

Understanding
8 a A gene that is not !mas"ed#, it appears in the $% generation& 't is the gene that mas"s a recessive gene& b (hen both alleles are the same) for example, gg or **& c +he form different genes come in& d +he physical appearance produced by the genotype& e +he first ne, cell formed ,hen sperm and ova -oin during fertilisation& 9 A gene is a hereditary unit that controls a particular characteristic& *enes determine the physical features of an organism& 10 .perm and ova contain only one of each type of chromosome (only half of the necessary chromosomes)) therefore, they cannot ma"e a ne, organism by themselves& 11 (hen a dominant allele is present in a genotype (GG homo/ygous and *g hetero/ygous) it ,ill al,ays be displayed in the phenotype&

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Answers to Science Focus 4 second edition Student Book questions
12 a (hen the hetero/ygous genotype displays a patch,or" of the homo/ygous parents& (hen a red (RR) co, mates ,ith a ,hite (WW) co, it produces a hetero/ygous (RW) roan (patches of red and ,hite) co,& b (hen hetero/ygous genes in an offspring blend to produce a different colour to the parents& 'n the case of snap dragons, a red and ,hite parent ,ill produce a pin" offspring&

Applying
13 a b c d 14 a b c d e 15 haploid diploid diploid haploid meiosis mitosis mitosis mitosis meiosis

Symbol gg green pods G Gg g

Description 0omo/ygous genotype 1henotype Dominant allele 0etero/ygous genotype 2ecessive allele

16 a b c d 17 a b c d e

blac" bro,n blac" blac" red ,hite parent 2 345 345

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Hh.Answers to Science Focus 4 second edition Student Book questions 18 a b c d 19 a b c Hh HH. hh long hair. 235 short hair incomplete dominance complete dominance complete dominance Analysing 20 eight .valuating 21 a b Copyright © Pearson Australia 2010 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty td! "#$% &'( 1 ))2* 1*)1 + . hH. short hair 635 long hair.

Answers to Science Focus 4 second edition Student Book questions c d Creating 22 a P1 P2 w w Ww Ww ww ww W w b i Ww (hetero/ygous). ww (homo/ygous recessive) ii 345 hetero/ygous. 345 homo/ygous recessive iii 345 Copyright © Pearson Australia 2010 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty td! "#$% &'( 1 ))2* 1*)1 + .

235 .Answers to Science Focus 4 second edition Student Book questions 23 a P1 P2 l l Ll Ll Ll Ll L L b P1 P2 L l LL Ll Ll ll L l c 7% d 8es.ith the long9stem phenotype. so .henever it is crossed .hite d +he blue Andalusian fo. because there is one homo/ygous dominant (LL) and t.ith another blue fo. Ll) to give offspring . .o hetero/ygous dominant (Ll.l carries the alleles for both the .hite (WW). 345 blue. blue (BW) b P1 P2 B W BB BW BW WW B W c 235 blac".hite and the blac". and one homo/ygous recessive (ll) to give offspring .ith the long9stem phenotype& 24 a blac" (BB).l it has a 345 chance of producing a colour other than blue& Copyright © Pearson Australia 2010 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty td! "#$% &'( 1 ))2* 1*)1 + .ith the short9stem phenotype& +his means there are three chances out of four of producing an offspring .

Pra.6. 2 Whe! li!i!g u# i! homologous #airs. but should be similar to Figure 3.1. students observe the se:uence changes in the nucleus of an onion root tip cell undergoing mitosis& Suggested answers 1 Results will vary. 0odelling inheritan-e Common mistakes <nsure that the paper bag is large enough to avoid possible ripping .tudents construct models to demonstrate the process of meiosis& Suggested answers 1 $eiosis #rodu es "our gametes i! males a!d o!e i! "emales.tudents use beads. there is !o way o" #redi ti!g whi h hromosomes e!d u# with whi h gamete' it is o!ly ertai! that ea h hromosome will be re#rese!ted.Answers to Science Focus 4 second edition Student Book questions 3. Pra.1.1 Practical activities Pra. 4 The rossi!g over o" homologous hromosomes was !ot demo!strated i! this model.+.ill assist this exercise& 'f the plasticine is too hard. Li&ewise.el and micro.ave for a very brief time (too long and it melts)& Possible results . place on paper to. counters and -elly beans to model simple inheritance to sho. that it is a random process& +he three genotypes that should be seen are 345 RG. 3 $eiosis e""e tively #rodu es ells with hal" the !umber o" hromosomes.2.sing prepared slides and images of mitosis.hen students place their hands inside& Possible results .ould be useful for this activity& Possible results . 0odelling meiosis Common mistakes .oft malleable plasticine . the hromosomes "rom the "ather do !ot gather together. %ight ombi!atio!s o" hromosomes are #ossible. 2 The se o!d stage o" ell divisio! i! mitosis does !ot i!volve hromosomes li!i!g u# i! homologous #airs. 235 RR and 235 GG& Copyright © Pearson Australia 2010 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty td! "#$% &'( 1 ))2* 1*)1 + . /bserving mitosis Common mistakes 'ncorrect focusing techni:ues may result in bro"en cover slips and slides& 'nstruct students on the use and care of microscopes and slides& A videoflex or a digital microscope camera . This mea!s that whe! the hromosomes se#arate a!d move to the e!ds o" the ell. the hromosomes "rom the mother do !ot gather together.

3 /tatisti al #atter!s be ome more obvious whe! the sam#le is large. hair or s"in colour albinism. ear lobe attachment or left=right handed Copyright © Pearson Australia 2010 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty td! "#$% &'( 1 ))2* 1*)1 + . ear lobe attached or free.+.GG.. right9 or left9 handed. so may !ot be see! a"ter .. sele tio!s.RG. 5 a homo)ygous 0 homo)ygous 1 RR 0 GG b homo)ygous 0 hetero)ygous 1 RR 0 RG or GG 0 RG 3. 4 /tatisti al #atter!s be ome more obvious whe! the sam#le is large. 2 The three ge!oty#es that should be see! are +. eye.Answers to Science Focus 4 second edition Student Book questions Suggested answers 1 (Hetero)ygous* mea!s that the ge!oty#e is made u# o" two di""ere!t alleles. hairline.2 Answers Remembering 1 2 Male Female XH Xh 2H 2H 2H 2h 2H 3 2h 3 XH Y tongue rolling. albinism. colour blindness 3 4 5 a b a b a b RR or Rr rr green and grey ha/el and blac" height. .. so should be see! a"ter 1. cleft chin.+.RR a!d . sele tio!s.

o copies to cause the disorder& 11 >ales have only one 2 chromosome.o 2 chromosomes are responsible for female characteristics& >ales have the genotype ?8& +he 2 chromosome carries more genetic coding than the 3 chromosome& . a carrier !hides# or mas"s the recessive gene.ho can mas" a recessive gene causing a disorder . unli"e females .ith its dominant allele on the other 2 chromosome& a b c d Applying 12 a b c d e A A A@ @ @ A Copyright © Pearson Australia 2010 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty td! "#$% &'( 1 ))2* 1*)1 + .Answers to Science Focus 4 second edition Student Book questions 6 7 a 23 b 22 Understanding 8 +.hich is then passed onto their child& 10 Due to the presence of the dominant allele.hether or not the disorder is present. so it solely determines .ex9lin"ed diseases occur because the 3 chromosome doesn#t have a matching gene on the 2 chromosome& e Diseases such as haemophilia are inherited through females in a family& 9 @oth parents carry a !mas"ed# gene.hich re:uires t. . .

hen the gene is present. AA. fertilisation is random& Analysing 16 !ontin"o"s 0eight. @A. the male gamete (sperm) carried the recessive trait and fertilised an ovum that also carried the recessive trait& <ven though there is a 635 chance of having an unaffected offspring. . baldness Discontin"o"s Ability to roll tongue. children are A@.& 18 a Rr b Rr c Rr .ho .ith 223 is a hermaphrodite . sex or gender. blood group 17 .perm are male& +his statement is a bit of both& A sperm cell is haploid and may carry either a 3 chromosome or an 2 chromosome& c A person .valuating 19 a >ales have one only 2 chromosome& +his chromosome either doesn#t have the gene or it does& 'n the case of .eight. although the chromosome !carries# the gene.ee ans. @@. children are all A@& 'f @A B AA.ith a dominant allele& +he 3 chromosome doesn#t carry information about sex9lin"ed disorders& b . children are A@.Answers to Science Focus 4 second edition Student Book questions 13 'f @@ B AA. the gene can never be !mas"ed# because there is no other 2 chromosome present to mas" the gene . children are A@ and AA& 'f @A B AA. s"in colour. albinism. intelligence. AA& 'f @@ B AA. A@ b @ or A@ 15 a 235 b 635 c 'n each of the three affected children.ers in C%D belo. @A& 14 a @A.ill display characteristics of both genders& Copyright © Pearson Australia 2010 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty td! "#$% &'( 1 ))2* 1*)1 + .

Answers to Science Focus 4 second edition Student Book questions Creating 20 Donor #ecipient $% $% $& '% '& $'% $'& (% (&         $&         '%         '&         $'%         $'&         (%         (&         21 a 2 E tongue roller) r E non9tongue roller P1 P2 r r rr rr rr rr r r b none Copyright © Pearson Australia 2010 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty td! "#$% &'( 1 ))2* 1*)1 + .

tudents may mista"enly believe that -ust because a characteristic is more fre:uent in a population that it is the dominant characteristic& Copyright © Pearson Australia 2010 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty td! "#$% &'( 1 ))2* 1*)1 + .2 Practical activities Pra. 1ominant or re-essive2 Common mistakes .1.Answers to Science Focus 4 second edition Student Book questions 22 a P1 P2 a a %445 b P1 P2 A a 345 23 4a aa 4a aa a a aa aa aa aa a a 3.

Pra.+.. 5e#e!di!g o! the s hool.ill ma"e better appendages if the vegetables are crisp& Fut the vegetables -ust before starting the activity& Possible results . 2 4!swers will vary. they may also be re#rese!tative o" o!e #arti ular ge!der or eth!i ity o!ly. the results may be o##osite. 7! 3ear 8. +.. +..arrot. as girls te!d to go through #uberty be"ore boys. that height is a continuous variation& Suggested answers 1 The results obtai!ed should show o!ti!uous variatio! withi! the heights !ormal "or this age grou#. however.Answers to Science Focus 4 second edition Student Book questions Possible results Dominant characteristics are usually free ear lobes. Pra.tudents construct different phenotype vegetable babies based on dominant and recessive alleles& Suggested answers 1 Feet f f F F" F" f "" "" $rms A A a 4a 4a a 4a 4a )yes e e E %e %e e ee ee 2 "eet9 +. no bump on the outer rim of the ear. no gap bet... 3egetable babies Common mistakes +he vegetables in this activity .sulta!as Copyright © Pearson Australia 2010 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty td! "#$% &'( 1 ))2* 1*)1 + .een the front teeth and little finger bent in.2. Continuous variation Common mistakes >easurement errors& Possible results 2esults sho. 2 The results obtai!ed are !ot re#rese!tative o" the e!tire #o#ulatio! be ause they sam#le o!ly a !arrow ba!d o" ages.#eas.ards& Suggested answers 1 4!swers will vary de#e!di!g o! whether the stude!ts themselves have these hara teristi s. 3 The average height o" boys i! 3ear 6 will ge!erally be greater tha! that o" girls.#ars!i#' arms9 1..short elery sti &' eyes9 +.

Results will vary.Answers to Science Focus 4 second edition Student Book questions 3 4 5 6 +. *7 guanine a cytosine b adenine (atson and Fric" (Games (atson and $rancis Fric") and they shared the Nobel 1ri/e . Results will vary.hich it codes& c A mutation9causing agent& 9 A codon is a set of three bases that contains the instructions to form an amino acid& +hese amino acids -oin to form chains that ma"e proteins& +hese proteins. F7 cytosine.ith >aurice (il"ins& HD&35 (hen it produces a change in the gene or chromosome that leads to a ne. phosphate c nitrogen bases (adenine. Results will vary. cytosine. such as the *ranny . 3. DNA strand. +7 thymine. cell 11 (hen genes become active and are expressed) that is. it is referred to as gene expression& 12 +he mutation must be present in the sex cells (gametes7 ova and sperm) to be inherited by the next generation& Copyright © Pearson Australia 2010 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty td! "#$% &'( 1 ))2* 1*)1 + . codon.mith apple& a sic"le9cell anaemia b Do.n syndrome 2 3 4 5 6 7 Understanding 8 a A set of three bases is called a codon& b A mutation is a spontaneous change in a gene or chromosome that may alter a characteristic for .3 Answers Remembering 1 a double helix b sugar. thymine. species. guanine) A7 adenine. the characteristic they code for appears. in turn. determine the characteristics of individuals& 10 nitrogen base.

hich means that individuals may possess desirable traits that are advantageous& +his increases their chances of survival& Applying 15 . for genetic variation. such as s"in cells.th and repair& 'f DNA cannot replicate.Answers to Science Focus 4 second edition Student Book questions 13 14 >utations allo. the organism dies& Copyright © Pearson Australia 2010 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty td! "#$% &'( 1 ))2* 1*)1 + .I radiation is a mutagen& (hen cells.valuating 19 . the protein and the gene it codes for& Analysing 17 244 B E 644 bases 18 a 2% b girl . in turn.I radiation. asbestos 16 a *FF+A++F*A+ b . are exposed to mutagens they cause a mutation (alteration) in the genetic ma"e9up of an individual& 20 DNA needs to undergo replication so that it is able to ma"e copies of cells undergoing mitosis during gro.ill vary& An example is7 *FFAA++F*A+ c 't changes the amino acid produced and. . ben/ene.tudent responses .

Copyright © Pearson Australia 2010 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty td! "#$% &'( 1 ))2* 1*)1 + .#ose the 5:4. but the 5:4 should a##ear as thi! threads. a!d 6. 3 $ai!tai!i!g the tem#erature betwee! +.2.tudents construct a model of DNA& Suggested answers /tude!t desig!.Answers to Science Focus 4 second edition Student Book questions Creating 21 3. b %tha!ol #re i#itates the 5:4.3 Practical activities Pra. .4tra-ting 1%A Common mistakes +o achieve impressive strands of DNA it is essential to stir very gently& Possible results +hin strands of DNA are extracted from a sample of . 0odelling 1%A Common mistakes .1. Pra.tudent9designed experiments should be assessed by the teacher for feasibility before they are carried out& Possible results .<= a!d ge!tle stirri!g. 2 a 5eterge!t brea&s dow! ell walls a!d !u lear membra!es to e.heatgerm& Suggested answers 1 4!swers will vary. ma&i!g it visible.

hen the caterpillar eats the leaves& en/ymes sic"le9cell anaemia.ith a genetic disorder& +he probe stic"s to the abnormal gene. in this case. insulin for use by diabetics is produced in large :uantities by bacteria& +he DNA se:uence of insulin is inserted into plasmids that have been removed from bacteria& +he altered plasmids are then put bac" into the bacteria& An reproduction. 0eliothis caterpillar& c 'nsertion of modified genes directly into animal cells& $or example.Answers to Science Focus 4 second edition Student Book questions 3. genetically modified cotton has the bacteria @acillus thuringiensis inserted to help the cotton produce a protein that "ills its ma-or pest. foreign DNA is inserted into the plasmid and the plasmid is then re-oined to form recombinant DNA& +he altered plasmids are then put bac" into bacteria& +he bacteria :uic"ly reproduce multiple copies of the !foreign# DNA that . insertion of the -elly fish gene into mice to code for *$1 (green fluorescent protein)& a 1lasmids are circular pieces of DNA that occur naturally in bacterial cells& b <n/ymes are used to cut open a plasmid. fragments of s"in or strands of hair found at a crime scene& DNA fingerprints can then be used in court to prove innocence (no DNA match) or guilt (DNA match)& 8 9 Copyright © Pearson Australia 2010 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty td! "#$% &'( 1 ))2* 1*)1 + .ith a base se:uence identical to that of a gene associated . these bacteria :uic"ly produce multiple copies of the !foreign# DNA that . instructions of the inserted DNA and manufacture the proteins it codes for& a A gene probe is a small piece of DNA . plant that possesses desirable traits from both parent plants +he protein "ills the ma-or pest of cotton (Heliothis caterpillar) . such as sic"le9cell anaemia or cystic fibrosis& DNA fingerprinting7 DNA fingerprinting relies on the fact that everyone has a uni:ue se:uence of bases in their DNA found in every cell of their body& A suspect#s DNA fingerprint can be compared to the DNA obtained from body fluids.ith a related plant genus to produce a ne. insulin& b +he altering of a plant#s gene se:uence& $or example.4 Answers Remembering 1 2 3 4 5 6 "eeping the seeds from only the best plants for next year#s crop) crossing .as inserted& +he bacteria act according to the ne.ithin an organism& $or example. cells for repair of damaged cells a HH&H5 b 2 444 genes c 26 444 proteins Understanding 7 a >anipulating DNA to change the genes .as spliced into them. allo.ith a base se:uence identical to part of a gene& b 1renatal testing to identify defects or diseases7 1renatal testing is carried out using gene probes containing a small piece of DNA .ing embryos to be tested for disorders. cystic fibrosis DNA fingerprinting to solve criminal cases) therapeutic cloning to gro.

a prospective employer might not hire you or may not promote you& 8our medical bills and insurance premiums could be higher or you could be refused medical insurance because you could become costly to the insurer& c .n to produce a ne.valuating 14 .hereas therapeutic cloning is the insertion of an individual#s DNA into eggs to produce stem cells& +hese stem cells are then manipulated to produce any type of cell re:uired by the patient to repair damaged tissue& . such as cancer.tudents# responses .ill vary& 16 a *ene cell therapy involves removing the genetic material from some body cells.ill vary& Analysing 13 Floning is the process in . so the heart . . and to prevent the inheritance of diseases such as haemophilia& 17 +he protein may "ill other insects that feed on the cotton& 1redators of the caterpillar may also be affected& Copyright © Pearson Australia 2010 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty td! "#$% &'( 1 ))2* 1*)1 + .ill not be re-ected and the patient may have a faster and easier recovery& 15 a plan a healthier lifestyle (food and exercise) b 'f you are prone to illness.tem cells have the same DNA as the rest of the cells in the body.Answers to Science Focus 4 second edition Student Book questions 10 DNA fingerprinting relies on the fact that everyone has a uni:ue se:uence of bases in their DNA found in every cell of their body& Applying 11 2ice that produces more seeds) dairy cattle that produce more mil"& 12 . individual.hich a single cell is gro. manipulating it and reinserting it into the same person& b +o overcome diseases.tudents# responses .

tudents# responses .tudents# responses .ill vary& b .ill vary& Copyright © Pearson Australia 2010 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty td! "#$% &'( 1 ))2* 1*)1 + .ill vary& 20 a .tudents# responses .Answers to Science Focus 4 second edition Student Book questions 18 Creating 19 .

Answers to Science Focus 4 second edition Student Book questions Chapter answers Remembering 1 *erm >eiosis Description Fell division producing gametes >itosis Fell division producing daughter cells identical to the parent cell Diploid A cell having t. thymine. guanine.o of each type of chromosome 0aploid A cell having one of each type of chromosome *ene A hereditary unit DNA +he chemical that carries the genetic code& 2 3 double helix uprights7 alternating sugar and phosphate units rungs7 nitrogen bases (adenine. cytosine) Copyright © Pearson Australia 2010 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty td! "#$% &'( 1 ))2* 1*)1 + .

unless they occur in the sex cells (sperm or egg cells) or in the /ygote that forms on fertilisation& b A change in the base se:uence of DNA .ever. base se:uence could code for a dysfunctional=harmful gene that could lead to a disease or a non9desirable trait& c . mutations can lead to the creation of a different species) e&g& *ranny smith apples& a *ene technology is the manipulation of DNA to change the genes .ithin an organism& b Floning is the process in . forming cancerous tumours in an individual.ith its complementary base& a >utations can cause cells to mutate.Answers to Science Focus 4 second edition Student Book questions 4 *erm Fodon *enetic map 1lasmid *ene probe 2ecombinant DNA +ransgenic organism >utagen Description A se:uence of three bases that codes for an amino acid . individual .ithout the need for fertilisation& c *ene cell therapy involves removing the genetic material from some body cells. but have no effect on the species.n to produce a ne.ith a ne.o organisms An organism .ill vary& Copyright © Pearson Australia 2010 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty td! "#$% &'( 1 ))2* 1*)1 + . if this change is passed onto their offspring.ho.hich a single cell is gro. gene Fauses a spontaneous change in a gene or chromosome Understanding 5 6 7 8 0eredity7 the set of characteristics inherited from your parents) the environment7 a diverse set of factors that act on the organism throughout its life.tudents# responses .ithin sex cells (sperm or ova) .ometimes.s positions of genes on chromosomes A circular piece of DNA A small piece of DNA that recognises a gene A molecule containing DNA from t. the ne. manipulating it and reinserting it into the same person& 9 Applying 10 .ill not affect the individual& 0o. such as pollutants and :uality of food& A gene is a hereditary unit that controls a particular characteristic& *enes are made of a chemical called DNA& *enes are located on chromosomes& DNA un/ips and ma"es an exact copy of each strand by matching each base .

there are t. are discontinuous& Fontinuous variation refers to characteristics that have a range of possible outcomes. because both parents must each have a recessive gene& b @oth parents must be hetero/ygous (Tt) tasters for them to produce one non9taster and three taster children& 16 $ ( AA ' @A Copyright © Pearson Australia 2010 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty td! "#$% &'( 1 ))2* 1*)1 + .o long stem alleles (LL). 345 homo/ygous recessive d red eyes. .hite eyes 14 Fharacteristics that are clearly defined. such as ear lobe attachment and albinism. t.o alleles for stem lengthJone allele codes for long stem (L) and the other codes for short stem (l)& b +he possible combinations of t.o alleles together determine a genotype) e&g& t. 345 .ho are tasters. such as eye colour and height& 15 a 't is not possible for t.hen both alleles are the same) e&g& LL or ll& e 0etero/ygous is .Answers to Science Focus 4 second edition Student Book questions 11 a *enes come in different forms& 'n this example.hite eyes e 345 red eyes.hen both alleles are different) e&g& (Ll)& Analysing 12 a b c d e 13 a b both mitosis meiosis meiosis mitosis Rr B rr R r r Rr Rr r rr rr c 345 hetero/ygous.o non9tasters to have three children .o short stem alleles (ll) or one of each allele (Ll)& c +he appearance produced by the genotype is the phenotype) e&g& the plant .ill have long (Ll or LL) or short (ll) stems& d 0omo/ygous is .

valuating 18 a HH&H 5 b 8es. identical t.orld#s food shortage problems. and insects that are not pests may be "illed& Creating 20 a R R R RR RR W RW RW 2 red7 4 .ill either be blood group A or @& 17 a i 2$3 ii 2m2m iii 2m3 b recessive c XM XM Y 2$ 2$ 2$ 3 Xm 2m 2$ 2m 3 +here is a 345 chance of the boy having the disease& . they may pass on the resistant gene to other plants creating !super.ins come from the same fertilised egg and so .hite7 2 pin" b Copyright © Pearson Australia 2010 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty td! "#$% &'( 1 ))2* 1*)1 + . may be pest resistant and tolerate harsher environmental conditions& b *> foods that contain pesticide9resistant genes don#t necessarily solve the .Answers to Science Focus 4 second edition Student Book questions ( AA @A +he child .ill have the same total DNA base se:uence& 19 a *> foods may be more nutritious and "eep better than conventional foods.eeds#.

hite7 2 pin" 21 a Rr B rr b R r r Rr Rr r rr rr c Rr. rr d 345 Rr. 345 rr e tongue rolling and non9tongue rolling 345 tongue rolling and 345 non9tongue rolling 22 a No. they are not albino& b A A a 44 4a a 4a aa c K 23 a Xn XN 2: 2! Xn 2: 2! Copyright © Pearson Australia 2010 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty td! "#$% &'( 1 ))2* 1*)1 + .Answers to Science Focus 4 second edition Student Book questions R R W RR RW W RW WW % red7 % .

therefore !mas"ing# the colour9blind gene in the daughters .ill be affected& Copyright © Pearson Australia 2010 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty td! "#$% &'( 1 ))2* 1*)1 + .Answers to Science Focus 4 second edition Student Book questions Y 2! 3 2! 3 b +he husband carries the dominant gene because he isn#t colour blind.ho are carriers& c All their sons .