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No.

3/2013
ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 3/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics


CONTENTS

• EDITORIAL
Petrin DRUMEA

5 - 6
• ELECTROHYDRAULIC SERVOMECHANISM FOR DRIVING THE REELS OF COIL
WINDING MACHINES SPECIFIC TO WIRE ROLLING MILLS
Teodor Costinel POPESCU, Marian BLEJAN, Ioan LEPĂDATU

7 - 14
• RANS SIMULATION OF COMBINED FLOW AND HEAT TRANSFER THROUGH
OPEN-CELL ALUMINUM FOAM HEAT SIN
Petre OPRIŢOIU
15 - 25
• ANALYSIS SOLAR RADIATION
Carmen Otilia RUSĂNESCU, Marin RUSĂNESCU, Dorel STOICA

26 - 31
• REPAIRING AND TESTING OF THE HYDRAULIC SERVO VALVES
Radu RADOI, Ioan BALAN, Iulian DUTU

32 - 37
• RESEARCH ON VARIATION OF DISPLACEMENTS, VELOCITIES AND
ACCELERATIONS AT A SITE SELECTOR BLOCKS (FANNER) GRAIN
Dorel STOICA, Carmen Otilia RUSANESCU


38 - 42
• NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF FLOW IN ANASTOMOTIC COMPLEX AFTER
GASTRIC RESECTION WITH GASTROJEJUNAL ANASTOMOSIS
O. VAIDA, Liviu VAIDA, A. ANDERCOU

43 - 52
• TESTING OF LINEAR PNEUMATIC ACTUATORS WITH HYDRAULIC LOAD
Gabriela MATACHE, Stefan ALEXANDRESCU, Gheorghe SOVAIALA, Ioan PAVEL,
Iulian-Cezar GIRLEANU


53 - 56
• ANALYSIS OF PRESSURE IN BUCHAREST BETWEEN 2009-2012
Carmen Otilia RUSĂNESCU, Gigel PARASCHIV, Gheorghe VOICU, Dorel STOICA

57 - 63
• EXPERIMENTAL TESTING OF A LOW SPEED HYDRAULIC MOTOR WITH AXIAL
PISTONS
Laura GRAMA, Daniel BANYAI, Liviu VAIDA

64 - 73
• SONIC EFFECTS OF A UNCONVENTIONAL HEAT INSTALLATIONS
Carmen BAL, Nicolaie BAL, Lucian MARCU, Carmen Ioana IUHOS

74 - 79
• ANALYTICAL MODEL OF THE CONNECTION PIPES OF THE ALTERNATING
FLOW DRIVEN HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS
Ioan-Lucian MARCU, Daniel-Vasile BANYAI

80 - 85








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ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 3/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics

MANAGER OF PUBLICATION
- PhD. Eng.Petrin DRUMEA - Manager - Hydraulics and Pneumatics Research Institute in Bucharest,
Romania
CHIEF EDITOR
- PhD.Eng. Gabriela MATACHE - Hydraulics and Pneumatics Research Institute in Bucharest, Romania
EXECUTIVE EDITORS
- Ana-Maria POPESCU - Hydraulics and Pneumatics Research Institute in Bucharest, Romania
- Valentin MIROIU - Hydraulics and Pneumatics Research Institute in Bucharest, Romania

SPECIALIZED REVIEWERS
- PhD. Eng. Heinrich THEISSEN – Scientific Director of Institute for Fluid Power Drives and Controls IFAS,
Aachen - Germany
- Prof. PhD. Eng. Henryk CHROSTOWSKI – Wroclaw University of Technology, Poland
- Prof. PhD. Eng. Pavel MACH – Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic
- Prof. PhD. Eng.Alexandru MARIN – POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest, Romania
- Assoc.Prof. PhD. Eng. Constantin RANEA – POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest, Romania
- Lecturer PhD.Eng. Andrei DRUMEA – POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest, Romania
- PhD.Eng. Ion PIRNA - General Manager - National Institute Of Research - Development for Machines and
Installations Designed to Agriculture and Food Industry – INMA, Bucharest- Romania
- PhD.Eng. Gabriela MATACHE - Hydraulics & Pneumatics Research Institute in Bucharest, Romania
- Lecturer PhD.Eng. Lucian MARCU - Technical University of Cluj Napoca, ROMANIA
- PhD.Eng.Corneliu CRISTESCU - Hydraulics & Pneumatics Research Institute in Bucharest, Romania
- Prof.PhD.Eng. Dan OPRUTA - Technical University of Cluj Napoca, ROMANIA

Published by:
Hydrauli cs & Pneumatics Research Institute, Bucharest-Romania
Address: 14 Cuţitul de Argint, district 4, Bucharest, cod 040557, ROMANIA
Phone: +40 21 336 39 90; +40 21 336 39 91 ; Fax:+40 21 337 30 40 ; E-mail: ihp@fluidas.ro
Web: www.ihp.ro
with support of:
National Professional Association of Hydrauli cs and Pneumatics in Romani a - FLUIDAS
E-mail: fluidas@fluidas.ro
Web: www.fluidas.ro

HIDRAULICA Magazine is indexed in the international databases:


HIDRAULICA Magazine is indexed in the Romanian Editorial Platform:


ISSN 1453 – 7303;
ISSN – L 1453 – 7303

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ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 3/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics

EDITORIAL

CAUZE SI ARGUMENTE

In ultima perioada constatam o stagnare in dezvoltarea hidraulicii, la
nivel national, intr-o masura ingrijoratoare pentru cei care stiu ce a fost
si mai ales inteleg utilitatea acestui tip de actionare. Argumentele de
tipul scaderii numarului de firme productive in domeniu, al scaderii
numarului de specialisti si altele asemenea ar putea explica in mare
masura situatia, totusi mai sunt si alte elemente de luat in calcul. Eu
cred ca un element esential il reprezinta nivelul profesional din ce in ce
mai scazut al specialistilor in actionari hidraulice indiferent de
pregatirea lor scolara (academica). Ruptura creata intre nivelul prea
ridicat si mai ales teoretic al pregatirii universitare si realitatea
industriala, lipsa unei pregatiri coerente la nivelul muncitorilor si


Dr.ing. Petrin DRUMEA
DIRECTOR INOE 2000 – IHP

tehnicienilor, precum si inexistenta unei calificari recunoscute pentru specialistii in hidraulica, au
codus la ideea ca in tara noastra nu mai putem face prea multe in domeniu.
Aceasta deficienta poate fi inlaturata cu ceva eforturi prin intensificarea perfectionarii profesionale
in conformitate cu cerintele CETOP. O alta cauza ar fi ca prea multi conducatori de firme
considera ca hidraulica este o “chestie” la indemana oricui si ca nu merita sa angajezi un
specialist, care costa, pentru rezolvarea problemelor, cand se poate ocupa de acest tip de
activitati, pe bani putini, orice persoana care are tupeu si ceva pregatire mecanica. Sigur ca in
final lucrurile nu merg, sau merg prost, dar se poate da vina pe hidraulica spunand ca aceasta e
imposibil de intretinut si ca oricum “merge si asa.”
Nu este de neglijat nici situatia precara a dotarii unitatilor de mentenanta si de reparatii, ceea ce
conduce la o depistare greoaie a defectiunilor si mai ales la o reparatie si o reglare finala
neconforma cu cerintele functionale ale fiselor tehnice ale produselor. Probabil ca ar fi extrem de
util sa apara in tara cateva firme de engineering capabile sa proiecteze modernizeze si intretina
sistemele modern de actionare hidraulica. Este destul de clar ca astazi din cauza deficientelor
prezentate si a inca multor altora s-a ajuns la rezultatul cel mai grav reprezentat de o crestere
alarmanta a pierderilor energetice in cadrul utilajelor complexe, care nu se datoreaza utilizarii
sistemului hidraulic ci interventiilor incorecte asupra acestuia.
Lupta specialistilor pe plan international de a reduce pierderile energetice si a mentine actionarea
hidraulica in contact cu dezvoltarea impetuoasa a actionarilor electrice si a actionarilor mecanice
va trebui sa gaseasca si in Romania un raspuns favorabil. Agresivitatea nespecialistilor care se
implica in domeniul actionarilor hidraulice ar putea fi diminuata doar de coeziunea putinilor
specialisti care inca mai lucreaza in tara si care ar putea sa intervina pentru marginalizarea celor
neaveniti.


















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ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 3/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics

EDITORIAL

CAUSES AND ARGUMENTS

We have found lately a certain stagnation in the development of
hydraulics at national level, in such a degree that worries the people
who know what it meant before and understand the utility of this type
of drive. Such arguments as the decrease in number of the
manufacturing companies from the field and of the specialists and
many other of the same kind, could explain in a good measure the
situation, however there are some other elements to be taken into
account as well. I consider that an essential element is represented by
the lower professional level of the specialists in hydraulic drives,
regardless to their professional education. The break created between
the elevate level of the academic education and the industrial reality,


Ph.D.Eng. Petrin DRUMEA
MANAGER INOE 2000 – IHP

the lack of a coherent training for workers and technicians as well as the inexistent qualification
acknowledged for the specialists in hydraulics, led to the conclusion that in our country there is
nothing more to be done in the field.
This deficiency may be removed with certain efforts, by the intensification of the professional
training in accordance with the CETOP requirements. Another cause may be that too many
company managers consider that hydraulics is something out of anyone s reach and it is not
necessary to hire a specialist who costs for solving the problems, when anyone can in fact deal
with such matters and perform the related activities if has some guts and some mechanical
training. Of course that in the end things don t work or go wrong but we can blame it on hydraulics
saying that it is hard to provide its maintenance and anyhow it goes anyway.
It must not be ignored either the precarious situation which regards the equipping level of the
maintenance and repair units, fact that leads to a difficult screening of the flaws and to some
repairs and final adjustment which are not at all in accordance with the operational requirements
comprised by the technical sheets of the products. It might be extremely useful to be founded
some engineering firms in the country, capable to design, modernize and maintain the modern
hydraulic drive systems. It is clear enough that nowadays, cause of the deficiencies presented
above and of many others it was reached the most severe result, represented by an alarming
increase of the energetic losses at complex equipment, which is not caused by the use of the
hydraulic system itself but by the wrong interventions performed at it.
The fight of the specialists on international scale against the energetic losses and for maintaining
the hydraulic drive in touch with the impeuous development of of the electric and mechanical drives
must find a favorable answer in Romania as well. The aggressiveness shown by the non experts
who involve in the field of hydraulic drives might be diminished only by the cohesion of the few
specialists who are still working here and might intervene for the marginalization of the undesired
ones.



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ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 3/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics

ELECTROHYDRAULIC SERVOMECHANISM FOR DRIVING THE REELS
OF COIL WINDING MACHINES SPECIFIC TO WIRE ROLLING MILLS
Ph.D. Teodor Costinel POPESCU
1
, Ph.D. Marian BLEJAN
2
, Ph.D. Ioan LEPĂDATU
3

National Institute for Optoelectronics, INOE 2000-IHP Bucharest,
e-mail address:
1
popescu.ihp@fluidas.ro ;
2
blejan.ihp@fluidas.ro ;
3
lepadatu.ihp@fluidas.ro

Abstract: The drive system of a winding machine, mounted on the production line of a wire rolling
mill, must perform at the same time driving in a rotary motion of the drum on which the wire is
wound and linear displacement of the wire reeling device. On the dynamic performance of the
operation of this system depends largely the quality of wire winding in the coils delivered to the
beneficiaries, reducing losses caused by re-melting the wire improperly wound and productive
capacity of the mill.
This system is usually of two types: electromechanical, based on variable speed electric motor and
ball valve screw or electro-mechano-hydraulic, without control loop, based on variable speed
electric motor, speed reduction gear and hydraulic drive system on-off type. Typically, the drum
which the wire is wrapped around is operated electromechanically for both types of systems, and
the reeling device, which moves linearly, along the drum, the wire coming out of the mill, is driven
by a ball screw, for the first type, or hydraulically, without control loop, for the second type.
The authors of this material have developed and put into operation an electro hydraulic
servomechanism for driving the reeling head that allows controlling its position and speed by
means of an electro hydraulic control loop.
Keywords: reeling device, coil winding machine, electrohydraulic servomechanism
1. Introduction
The production practice of wire manufacturers, such as SC ALRO SA Slatina, shows that the drive
systems of drums cause no problems in operation and exploitation; they achieve both a
satisfactory uniformity of the rotation, for each layer of wire coiled, and a corresponding reduction
in rotational speed at the beginning of each new layer of wire that will be wrapped. The two known
types of drive systems of the reeling head however cause problems, regarding correlation with the
rotational speed of the drum, for the first type, and problems of reliability, for the second type. In
this context came the demand from SC ALRO SA, submitted to INOE 2000-IHP Bucharest, to
develop a new solution for driving, operation and control of the reeling head, with operating
parameters better than the existing solutions [1]. Achieving this new solution for control of the
reeling head considered the operating conditions of winding machines, specific to wire rolling mills
existing in Foundry Division at ALRO Slatina.
2. The operating conditions of winding machines specific to wire rolling mills
The winding machines, specific to wire rolling mills at ALRO Slatina, operate within foundry
divisions where aluminum bars and wire are manufactured.
The flow of production of these divisions is continuous, almost totally automated and it includes
preparation of raw material in furnaces or electrolysis baths, feeding bar rolling mills and wire
rolling mills, storage of finished products, namely wire bars and coils.
A wire winding machine is the terminus point of a production line of aluminum wire. It contains two
drums, operated successively, by means of a variable speed electric motor and a reduction gear
with two output shafts.
The wire coming out of the mill is directed along a groove towards the evenly rotating drum. The
constant value of the speed depends on the diameter of wire that will be wrapped around the drum,
namely: 9.5; 12; 15; 19.3 mm.
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ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 3/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics


Fig.1. Wire production flow (back to front):
furnace, rolling mill, gutter, winding machine with two drums and two reels.
The technology of winding includes the next steps:
a) Before winding wire around one of the two drums, it begins to rotate uniformly accelerated,
until it reaches the constant speed specific to the diameter of wire coming out of the mill.
Simultaneously, the device for wire reeling on the drum, electro hydraulically actuated,
moves to the right end and waits for the wire from the rolling mill.

Fig.2. Two drum coil winding machine idle: both reels stationed at the flange on the left of drums; right,
foreground –gutter through which the wire comes from the rolling mill; right, background - gutters through
which the wire is directed to the drums, where it is taken up by the reel.


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ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 3/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics


Fig.3. Reeling head, driven by a hydraulic cylinder with fixed bilateral rod and mobile liner.
b) When the wire coming out of the rolling mill, directed along the gutter by the guide in the
reeling head, comes into contact with the drum, there is actuated a device for clamping the
end of the wire on the drum. The reeling head is stationary during winding the first spire,
then it moves to the left. It contains two limiters, one of which controls the duration of
standing and the other controls change in direction of reeling head motion (at the end of
stroke). Movement of the reeling device is correlated with the drum rotational speed as
follows: during one rotation of the drum, the reel moves uniformly and continuously,
along a distance equal to the diameter of the wire and 0.7...0.8 mm additionally. x
c) On completion of winding of the first layer of wire around the drum, there is ordered
reversing of reel movement, by activating the other proportional electromagnet of the
control directional valve which actuates the cylinder of the reel. Simultaneously, the drum
rotational speed decreases, so that the tangential speed of the wire on the drum to be
steady.
d) At each change of layer, the winding diameter is changed and, from the automation panel
of electric motor operation, lower speed of the drum is ordered, so that the wire speed
remains constant. Thus, for the first layer of wire wrapped with 9.5 mm diameter, the
displacement speed of the reel is 1.8 m / min, and the drum rotational speed is 180
rev/min.
e) During the winding the drum is weighed; when the scale shows 2.1 ... 2.2 tons, order is
made for the drive of the second drum, respectively for the displacement of the second reel
to the standby position.
f) The wire on the wound drum is cut by means of a guillotine, then it is directed to the second
drum, on which winding continues.
g) The duration of wire winding around the drum is approx. 60 minutes. In this period of
winding time is sufficient for manually binding the wound coil, manual removal of a flange of
the drum, by unscrewing a large nut, extraction of the coil from the drum, using a hydraulic
device, its moving by means of the running bridge to the storage location, reassembling of
the drum flange and preparing it for a new winding cycle.
h) Working is non-stop, in three shifts, and the number of wire rolling mills, each serviced by
two drums, and the wire diameter are set according to the demands.
i) In case of failure in operation, poor winding quality and at the end of each coil, the wire is
cut and directed to a chopper, until the fault is rectified, or winding is switched to the other
drum.
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ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 3/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics

j) The wire wastes resulting from chopper are melted down and sent back into the
manufacturing cycle.

Fig.4. Wire coil bound, taken from the drum and stored for delivery.
3. The electro hydraulic servomechanism for control of the reeling head
In the division at ALRO, each reel of a winding machine, which services a wire rolling mill, is driven
by a hydraulic cylinder with bilateral fixed rod and mobile liner, powered by an adjustable pump,
directly driven by the speed reducer. Along the supply lines of cylinder there are mounted
adjustment valves and throttles, from which is made the setting of cylinder speed in both directions
of travel. For each diameter of wire is made an adjustment of the pump. The actuating directional
control valve of the cylinder is on/off type, not proportional. In these circumstances, one loses
much time for adjustments, and the quality of wound coils is poor, which results in multiple wastes
(which are re-melted).
To test the proposed solution, in December 2012, at ALRO, INOE 2000-IHP Bucharest mounted
on a drum of a winding machines an own system for operation of the reel, type electro hydraulic
servomechanism, and on the other was kept the existing home solution. This system worked and
compared with the classical solution proved to be more reliable (higher quality in winding wire, less
wastes).
From the original solution, existing at ALRO, there has been preserved only the hydraulic cylinder
with fixed bilateral rod and mobile liner. The structure of this electro hydraulic servomechanism for
control of the reeling head includes:
The pumping unit, which has a modular design and comprises: an oil tank (with lid, filling opening
and vent, level gauge and drain plug) on the lid of which is bolted a plate of hydraulic mechanical
joints, inside which, by means of a grip mechanical coupling, is made coupling between the shaft of
a fixed gear pump, mounted submerged in the tank, and the shaft of an electric motor, of constant
speed, fitted to the top of the plate. Also inside this plate there are embedded a check valve, acting
as anti-cavitation for the pump, a pressure control valve with direct control and a 2/2 normally
closed directional control valve, which protects the pump at starting, not allowing it to start under
load. In the proximity of the plate of mechanical hydraulic joints there is mounted an adapter plate,
which distances from the electric motor the other modules of the pumping unit, respectively the
plate incorporating the return filter and the mounting plate of the proportional directional control
valve Dn6. On the mounting plate of the 4/3 proportional directional control valve, Parker
production, there is screwed a glycerine pressure gauge with measuring range 0-100 bar.
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ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 3/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics


Fig.5. The existing pumping unit and the shoe and drum brake of the reducer: there have been blocked the
pipes by which this group supplies the hydraulic cylinder of the reel; a speed transducer was mounted on the
drum shaft of the reducer.

Fig.6. The modular pumping unit
fitted with proportional directional control
valve (IHP).

Fig.7. Drive cylinder of the reel:
position and speed cable transducer (IHP).

The hydraulic cylinder with bilateral rod and double acting (existing subassembly) is connected
by means of two 12x1 pipes to the consumers A and B on the mounting plate of the proportional
directional control valve.
Thermostatic control of hydraulic oil in the installation is provided by a system comprising the
following components: a dedicated module of the electric and automation panel; a resistance for
heating the oil, immersed in oil and attached to the front wall of the tank; a winding tube of copper
14x1 pipe, oil immersed, with the ends attached to the tank cover and a normally closed electro
valve on the inlet of the cooling water in the winding tube; a temperature sensor mounted
immersed in oil and attached to the tank cover.
Automating the operation of the reel is made by the following procedure:
- on the existing hydraulic cylinder, actuating the reel, is mounted a position transducer,
which allows precise monitoring and control of travel speed of hydraulic cylinder liner and
instantaneous position of the liner, throughout the active displacement stroke; position
and velocity control is carried out by means of an electro hydraulic control loop;
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ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 3/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics

- drive of the hydraulic cylinder is carried out through the hydraulic proportional directional
control valve, which actuates the hydraulic cylinder in a displacement closed loop;
- travel speed of the reeling head is v [mm/s] = d [mm] * n [rev/s] , where d is diameter of the
wire which is wound around the drum, and n is rotational speed of the winding machine
drum (in the period required for winding one spire around the drum, the reeling head, thus
the cylinder liner, performs a stroke equal to the wire diameter);
- the information on the drum rotational speed is taken from a variable reluctance speed
transducer, mounted on the shaft of winding machine reducer;
- there has been used an TWIDO (Schneider Electric) programmable logic controller
(PLC) equipped with an LCD console for monitoring and introduction of operating
parameters of the reeling head (for example, the diameter of the wire to be wound around
the drum). On customer request, the programmable logic controller (PLC) can be provided
with a data communication line, type RS232/485, CANopen or Ethernet, with MODBUS
communication protocol (RTU or ASCII).
The electric and automation board includes: the electrical power components, namely the
contactors and the safety devices specific to the electric motor actuating the fixed flow pump and to
the hydraulic oil thermostatic control system; ON / OFF switch; HAZARD WARNING mushroom
push button; optical indicators; temperature controller; TWIDO programmable logic controller.

Fig.8. The electric and
automation board
(IHP).

Fig.9. Wire connections at transducers,
made on the inner surface of the board
case (IHP).


Fig.10. The outside of the board case
(IHP): wire diameter selection keys;
reel manual displacement control;
operating mode switching control;
start; stop; signaling lamps.

4. Schematic diagram and technical characteristics of the product
The schematic diagram, fig.11, refers only to the operation of a single reel, but it can be also
extended to two reels, keeping the same hydraulic unit to power both hydraulic cylinders, as
they work almost continuously in sequence and only a short sequence at the same time (at the
end of winding around a drum and preparation of winding around the other drum). This
schematic diagram can be materialized for all 7 double winding machines of wire rolling mills at
ALRO and is suitable for both the introduction of the reel operating parameters and the
monitoring of the production of wire.
The structure of the diagram in Figure 11 is as follows: 1- oil tank, fitted with tight cover, level
indicator, filling and ventilation opening, drain plug, with V
max.
=30 l and V
effective
=22 l; 2- oil
heating resistor, with N=1330 W; 3- winding tube for cooling the water inside the copper 14x1
pipe; 4- normally closed electro valve, G1/2

, ∆p
max
= 6 bar, supply voltage 24 V DC; 5-
temperature sensor Pt 100; 6- gear pump, capacity 3.65 cm
3
/rev, maximum pressure 250 bar,
inlet filter; 7- electric motor, 220 V, single phase, 0.55 kW, 1400 rev/min; 8- grip mechanical
coupling; 9- pressure control valve 0...60 bar; 10- check valve, opening pressure 1 bar; 11- 2/2
hydraulic distributor, normally closed, operated electrically and manually, which protects the
pump at starting. 12- intermediate plate with role in fastening and mounting the pumping unit;
13- return filter, filtration fineness 10µm, equipped with bypass valve; 14- pressure gauge wit
glycerine, measurement range 0...100 bar; 15- proportional hydraulic directional control valve,
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ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 3/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics

4/3, rD6, closed center; 16- (existing) hydraulic cylinder, bilateral fixed rod and mobile liner,
Ø
piston
=65 mm; Ø
rod
=48 mm; Stroke =870 mm; 17- cable position transducer, for monitoring
and control of hydraulic cylinder speed; 18- speed transducer of winding machine drum; 19-
(existing) end of stroke signaling devices, controlling the change of the direction of hydraulic
cylinder displacement.

Fig.11. Schematic diagram of the electro hydraulic servomechanism for driving the reeling head


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ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 3/2013)
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5. Description and operation of the electro hydraulic servomechanism driving the reeling
head
At the level of the pumping unit, mechanical energy from the electric motor shaft (the wedge of
speed and torque) is converted into hydraulic energy (the wedge of flow and pressure) materialized
by the oil flow, routed from the pump discharge pipe to the hydraulic cylinder. The amount of oil
pressure, depending on the load of the hydraulic cylinder, can be adjusted by manual operation of
the pressure valve.
When starting the pumping unit there is operated automatically (or manually), for 4-5 seconds,
the hydraulic 2/2 directional control valve, normally closed, which closes the flow path to the
hydraulic cylinder and allows free discharge (no load) of the pump to the tank.
At the level of hydraulic proportional 4/3 directional control valve, closed center, on the center
position, without drive, the holes P (pressure, from pump), T (tank), A and B (consumers, that are
connected to the hydraulic cylinder) are closed (not communicating with each other). When
supplying one of the two coils of directional control valve, its slide valve moves, left or right, with a
stroke proportional to the intensity of the supply current of the coil, and connects P to A,
respectively B to T, for a direction of travel of the hydraulic cylinder or P to B, respectively A to T,
for the opposite direction of travel.
The distribution system of the hydraulic oil, to the hydraulic cylinder, ensures: proportionality
between actuation of proportional directional control valve in current and speed of movement of the
hydraulic cylinder, change of the direction of movement of the hydraulic cylinder, starting and
stopping of the hydraulic cylinder.
The closed loop of electro hydraulic control, achieved by means of the speed transducer,
displacement transducer and the PLC, controls the travel speed of the hydraulic cylinder by
maintaining the linear static characteristic current-flow of the proportional directional control valve
in a constant and sufficiently small deviation range.
At the level of the hydraulic oil thermostatic control system, when the temperature sensor
detects values lower than 38
o
C, there is ordered starting of supply of the electrical resistance, and
at values of the oil temperature higher than 42
o
C there is ordered opening of the electro valve for
access of cooling water into the winding tube of copper pipe.
Conclusions
• Tests conducted during putting the product into service, as well as its subsequent
exploitation, over a period of 3 consecutive months, have clearly demonstrated the
advantages of this type of drive, command and control of the reeling head, compared to the
existing solution: higher quality of wire winding around the drum; decrease of scraps of
badly wrapped wire, that is re-melted; thermostatic control of the hydraulic oil temperature;
the possibility to set the diameter of wire that is to be wrapped; on customer request, the
possibility to monitor, record and control the production of wire through a data
communication line.
• The only drawback of the product is related to random blocking of the slide valve of
proportional directional control valve, due to impurities from the environment, which can not
be prevented from entering the hydraulic oil. The solution for removing this obstacle is to
take three steps: installing a filter on the hole P of the proportional directional control valve;
an increase of 10 bar of the maximum pressure adjusted (from 30 bar to 40 bar); choosing
a higher gear electric driving motor.
REFERENCES
[1] INOE 2000-IHP Bucharest, S.C. ALRO S.A. Slatina, “Centrală Hidraulică pentru Bobinatorul Laminorului
de sârmă“ (Hydraulic plant intended for the bobbin winder of a wire rolling mill), Contract No.
4600007204/30.08.2012, Construction documentation, 2012

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RANS SIMULATION OF COMBINED FLOW AND HEAT TRANSFER
THROUGH OPEN-CELL ALUMINUM FOAM HEAT SINK

assistant professor Petre OPRIŢOIU*

*Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Departament of Infrastructure, str. Observatorului, nr.72-74, 400363,
Cluj-Napoca, Romania, E-mail: petre.opritoiu@ggi.utcluj.ro

Abstract

Frequently, advanced electronics, optics, nuclear equipment and high frequency microwaves
systems require cooling of some devices at a heat flux of about 5-30 MW/m
2
. To meet this demand
the porous medium of the heat exchangers has to be compressed thus the spherical particles are
distorted and agglomerated.
The aim of this research is to study by simulation the effect of open cell aluminum foam on
the heat transfer and pressure drop in cooling devices at the high heat fluxes. Heat transfer and
pressure drop in an open foam heat exchanger, made of aluminum of different porosity (ε) and
porous density (PPI), cooled by water were investigated numerically using CFD code Fluent and
the results are presented.
Maximum fluid flow velocity used was 1.2m/s. The permeability (K) and form coefficient (c
F
)
varied from 2.52×10
-10
m
2
and 1276 m
-1
to 3.44×10
-9
m
2
and 4731 m
-1
, respectively. It was
determined that the flow rate range influenced these calculated parameters.

Heat flux (q) up to 1.38 MW/m
2
was removed by using porous sample with porosity 60%
(ε=0.608) and average pore diameter (d
p
) 2.3mm. Under this simulating condition, the difference
between the temperature of the wall and the bulk water did not exceed 63⁰C.
An estimate of heat sink efficiency using compressed aluminum foam for cooling high-power
electronic devices was done. The results obtained in this study are relevant to engineering
applications employing metal foams ranging from convection heat sinks to filters and flow
straightening devices.

Keywords: simulation, pressure drop, flow characteristics, heat transfer performance.
1. Introduction
The problem of dissipating high heat fluxes has received much attention due to its
importance in applications such as open-cell aluminum foam heat exchanger, cooling of electronic
equipment.
The most effective way of cooling is pumping liquid inside these devices through
michrochannels of porous medium. The effects of fluid velocity, particle diameter, type of porous
medium and fluid properties on the heat enhancement were investigated.
However the estimated maximal values of the heat flux dissipated does not exceed
1.38MW/m
2
, at pressure drop 8.22bar and at a velocity 1.2m/s in a single phase water flow. Most
of the theoretical models and numerical simulations used pore diameter (d
p
) as one of the basic
parameters for calculating both heat transfer and friction in the porous medium of cooling systems.
Experimental studies on the effect of compression and pore size variations on the liquid flow
characteristics and heat transfer has been performed by Boomsma and Poulikakos [1].
They showed the compressed open-cell aluminum foam heat exchangers had thermal
resistance (R
t
) that were two or three times lower than the best commercially available heat
exchanger, with the same pumping power (Ẇ).

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2. Theory
Compression in the y direction is parallel to the airflow. Compression in the x
direction is transverse to the airflow. The highest heat transfer coefficient (α
eff.
)

was
obtained with compression in the x or y directions. However, the highest pressure drop (ΔP)
was obtained with compression in the x direction. High-pressure efficiency was obtained with both
y, and equal x and y, compression. Compression in the y direction yields high heat transfer and
moderate pressure drop. Equal x and y compression results in lower heat transfer and lower
pressure drop, compared with y compression [2].
In this case a model for numerical simulation and practical calculation needs somewhat other
approaches and require an extension of experimental base to provide the necessary background.
Open-cell aluminum foam was used as a porous medium in the model of heat sink. Applied
porous media is manufactured from special grades of atomized metal powders. The initial powder
particle size controls the pore size and distribution when sintered to a specified density.
The permeability (K) is related to the pore size (d
p
) and pore distribution (PPI). Material
properties such as thermal conductivity, thermal expansion and density are highly dependent on
the porosity and generally decrease as porosity increases.
Table 1 gives an overview of the physical properties of all foams which were tested by
simulation. 40 PPI foam, of two different initial porosities, one of 92% and the other of 95% were
compressed by various factors from two to eight.
The first two digits of the foam’s name designate the porosity of the foam in pre-compressed
form. The second pair of numbers of the foam name signify the compression factor.

Table1. Compressed foam physical data(A) and uncompressed foam physical data(B)[1].
Foam Compression Name
Expected
porosity [%]
Effective
porosity [%]
Panel A
5% 2 95–02 90.0 88.2
4 95–04 80.0 80.5
6 95–06 70.0 68.9
8 95–08 60.0 60.8

8% 2 92–02 84.0 87.4
3 92–03 76.0 82.5
6 92–06 52.0 66.9

Panel B
Foam
Pore diameter
[mm]

Ligament
diameter
[mm]
Specific surface
area [m
2
/m
3
]
Effective
porosity [%]
10 PPI 6.9 0.40 820 92.1
20 PPI 3.6 0.35 1700 92.0
40 PPI 2.3 0.20 2700 92.8

To measure the actual values of the porosity, each compressed foam block was weighed,
each compressed foam block was weighed, and based on the external measurements, an effective
porosity was calculated and compared to an expected final porosity based on the foam’s initial
solid fraction initial and compression factor.
The expected porosity was based on the simple physical relation for a change in volume,
where M is the compression factor (ratio of the original uncompressed foam block height to the
final compressed height) and ε is the void fraction of the material(0<ε≤1).
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ε
compressd
=1– M(1 – ε
uncompressed
) (1)
Figure 1 shows the expected porosity of the compressed foams blocks as lines with the
actual porosity measurements represented as points.

Fig. 1. The expected compressed metal foams porosities based on the precompression porosity and nominal
compression factor compared against measured values [1].
The porosity of each block was calculated by dividing its weight by the volume, as measured
by the external dimensions, and then comparing this value to the density of the solid material,
aluminum 6101.
The surface aria to the volume ratio (specific surface aria) is also tabulated for the
uncompressed metal foam blocks in Table 1. This specific surface area data were provided by the
foam manufacturer [3].
Porous media model is nothing more than an added momentum sink in governing momentum
equations. Since the volume blockage that is present physically is represented in the model,
FLUENT uses and reports a superficial velocity inside the porous medium, based on the volumetric
flow rate, to ensure continuity of the velocity vectors across the porous medium interface. The
following properties are required [4]:

(a) Porosity (ε);

(b) Viscous resistance (1/K), for aluminum foam:

p
d K ×
=
ε
π 32 1
(2)

where K - permeability,[m
2
] and d
p
- pore diameter,[m];

(c) Inertial resistance (c
F
)


L
K
L
P
c
F
ρ
µ
2
v
v
2






− ∆
= (3).



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The theoretical pressure drop per unit length for porous media was predicted following
Forchheimer equation (1901):


2
v v ⋅ + ⋅ =

ρ
µ
K
c
K L
P
F

(4)


where ∆p/L - pressure drop per unit length, [Pa/m]; μ - fluid viscosity, [kg/m·s];K - permeability,
[m
2
]; v - velocity, [m/s]; c
F
- innertial coefficient, [m
-1
]; ρ - fluid density, [kg/m
3
].

3. Results and discussion
3.1 Heat transfer performance
The final overall dimensions of the compressed foam blocks used in pressure-drop and heat
transfer simulations were 240mm×100mm×100mm, with the cross-sectional area normal to the
flow direction measuring 240mm×100mm.
To make them functional heat exchanger, each foam was brazed in a central position to an
adjoining heat spreader plate made by solid aluminum.
A typical flow and heat transfer configuration is shown in fig. 2. A heat source is bonded or
joined to a thin conductive substrate on which a block of open-cell aluminum foam of length L and
thickness W is attached.
The foam is then placed in a channel, and cooling fluid of velocity u
0
at a temperature T

is
pumped through the open celled material, thereby affecting heat transfer from the hot source to the
cooling fluid.

Fig. 2. Schematic of geometrical model as used in simulation [5] and contours of fluxes.
The heat transfer rate to the coolant q is defined by the following energy balance in eq. (5)

) (
in out
T T c m q − = 

(5)

where T
in
, T
out
– the inlet and outlet temperature of the liquid, [K]; ṁ - mass flow rate, [kg/s] and c -
specific heat, [j/kg·s]. Fig. 3 shows the value of the heat flux q, [MW/m
2
] remove by the heat
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exchanger of 10 cm thickness, depending on the velocity of the coolant. We can see that
dissipation of heat flux up to 1.38MW/m
2
was obtained by simulation.



Fig. 3. Heat flux plotted against flow velocity

Under this simulating condition, the difference between the temperature of the wall and the
bulk water did not exceed 63⁰C. A practical measure of the performance of a heat exchanging
device is the dimensionless Nusselt number (Nu) as given in eq. (6).

f
l por
d
Nu
λ
α ⋅
= (6)
where α
por
, [W/m
2
K] is the convection heat transfer coefficient, which caracterizes the heat transfer
between a solid and a fluid; λ
f
, [W/mK] is thermal conductivity of the coolant and
d
l
, [m] is ligament diameter. The Nusselt numbers were calculated at various coolant flow rates and
plotted against the coolant flow speed in fig. 4.


Fig. 4. Nusselt number plotted against flow velocity.
The heat transfer from the foam to the fluid will increase as either the porosity decreased
(thus increasing surface area for heat transfer) or as the relative density (ρ%) increases (thus
increasing heat conduction through the ligaments) or as the velocity of the fluid increases.
The localized heat transfer coefficient Nusselt (Nu) will vary with velocity, even at the low
Reynolds number. This is primarily due to a physical phenomena caused by the tortuous nature of
the porous flow.
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
0 0.5 1 1.5
q

[
M
W
/
m
2
]
v [m/s]
q ε=0.608
q ε=0.669
q ε=0.805
q ε=0.825
q ε=0.874
q ε=0.882
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
0 0.5 1 1.5
N
u

[
-
]
v [m/s]
Nu, ε=0.669
Nu, ε=0.825
Nu, ε=0.874
Nu, ε=0.608
Nu, ε=0.805
Nu, ε=0.882
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At the openings between the cells, where the fluid passes from one cell to another, fluid
passes through a contraction and expansion. At the back side of the opening (expansion side) the
fluid develops eddies and vorticies. These vorticies will affect the mixing and local boundary layers,
thereby affecting localized heat transfer from the cell walls to the fluid.
Heat transfer are commonly characterized by the Colburn factor (j), which gives a heat
transfer performance estimate comparing the convection coefficient to the required flow rate of a
heat exchanger. The Colburn factor is given in eq. (7) [7].

3 / 2
ν
v






=
a c
j
por
ρ
α
(7)
where ν is the kinematic viscosity and a is the fluid thermal diffusivity. Fig. 5 show the value of the
Colburn factor depending on the Reynolds number.



Fig. 5. Colburn factor plotted against permeability-based Reynolds number

The values of Colburn factor are highest for foam 95-08 with ε=0.608, at very low values of
Re
K
. The heat sink 95-02, with ε=0.882 shows lower magnitude of Colburn factor, but its observed
for extended range of Re
K
. Clearly that the metal foam with verry high initial porosity, even
compressed, yields low Colburn values.
In any heat exchanger design, the heat convection performance of the heat exchanger must
be weighed against the energy required to operate the system, which is the pumping power in this
configuration. The required pumping power Ẇ, [w] was calculated for the aluminum foam heat
exchanger at various coolant flow velocities, according to eq. (8).

v
Q ⋅ ∆ = P W

(8)
where ΔP is the pressure drop across the aluminum foam heat exchager and Q
v
, [m
3
/s] is the
volumetric flow rate of the coolant passing through the heat exchanger. Also, a common means to
measure the heat convection effectiveness is the thermal resistance R
t
, [K/w] as shown in eq. (9).

) (
in out
in pl
t
T T c m
T T
q
T
R


=

=

(9)
where T
pl
– average wall temperature. Lower thermal resistance facilitates the heat flow through
heat exchanger (fig. 6).

0
500
1000
1500
0 5 10 15 20
j

[
-
]
Re[-]
j 92-06
j 92-03
j 92-02
j 95-08
j 95-04
j 95-02
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Fig. 6. Plot of the required pumping power against the corresponding thermal resistance.
In fig. 6 the optimal design is that which minimize the distance from the point to the origin of
the plot. This point was obtain by foam 92-06 with porosity ε=0.669 and for a thermal resistance of
0.061K/W. The worst performance was generated by 95-02 with porosity ε=0.882 and for a thermal
resistance of 0.199K/W. The metal foam heat exchangers decreased thermal resistance by nearly
half when compared to currently used heat exchangers designed for the same application.

3.2 Pressure and flow characteristics
The amount of work required to pump the coolant through a heat exchanger is a critical heat
exchanger design parameter. The parameters used to describe the pressure drop characteristics
of the foam heat exchangers are the permeability and form coefficient which are defined in
equation (4).
All data were calculated and reported on a Darcian flow velocity basis. This velocity accounts
only for the channel dimensions, its independent of the porosity of the test material, and is practical
for comparison against other sets of porous media. The range for the water velocities were from
0.25 to 1.2m/s and for pressure changes were from 0.113 to 8.226 bar.
Figure 7 shows the pressure drops simulating data and the fitted curves in graphical form for
the compressed blocks based on velocity.


Fig. 7. Pressure drop versus fluid velocity for compressed foams and contours of static pressure.
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25


[
W
]
R
t
[K/W]
Ẇ, ε=0.669
Ẇ, ε=0.825
Ẇ, ε=0.874
Ẇ, ε=0.608
Ẇ, ε=0.805
Ẇ, ε=0.882
0
2
4
6
8
10
0 0.5 1 1.5
Δ
P

[
b
a
r
]
V [m/s]
92-06, ε=0.669 92-03, ε=0.825
92-02, ε=0.874 95-08, ε=0.608
95-04, ε=0.805 95-02, ε=0.882
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As seen in fig. 7 compression has profound effect on the pressure-drop behavior of
compressed foam. As expected, those foams which possess the highest solid fraction 95-08
(lowest ε) as seen in Table 1, generated the largest pressure drop. The foam which produced the
lowest pressure drop was foam 95-02, which was also the most porous of the samples.
For a more general base of comparison, the hydraulic characteristics of the heat exchangers
can be viewed using non-dimensional flow factors, like Reynolds number based on permeability
(Re
K
).
The characteristic length is replaced by the square root of permeability, as shown in eq. (10),
where ρ is the density of the fluid, v is the Darcian flow velocity, and μ is the dynamic viscosity of
the fluid.

µ
ρ K v
Re =
K
(10)

The other commonly used non-dimensional flow describing factor is the Fanning friction
factor (f) which is given in (eq.11). This provide information concerning the required pressure drop
(ΔP) across a heat exchanger and come into use when the heat transfer performance to cost ratio
is considered.

















=
2
v
4
2
ρ
h
D
L
P
f (11)

In eq. (11), the hydraulic diameter (D
h
) is described by eq. (12):

p
C
h
L
A
D
4
= (12)
with A
C
being the cross-sectional area of the flow channel and L
p
being the wetted perimeter of the
flow channel. Fig. 8 plots the friction factor of eq.(11) against the velocity. Refering to the friction
factor the pressure drop of the foam is dominated by the form coefficient of eq. (4).

Fig. 8. Friction factor plotted against darcian velocity and contours of skin friction coefficient.
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
0 0.5 1 1.5
f

[
-
]
v [m/s]
f, ε=0.669
f, ε=0.825
f, ε=0.874
f, ε=0.608
f, ε=0.805
f, ε=0.882
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Permeability and form coefficient were calculated for each block using the entire flow rate
range tested for each foam block (Table 2).
Table 2 Flow characteristics and associated pressure drop

Both foam samples series which were 95% and 92% porous before compression show
similar flow behavior with the respect to the changes in the compression factor. For the 95%
original porosity series, increasing the compression factor from two to four reduced the
permeability from 3.44E-09m
2
to 6.87E-10m
2
.
The other series of compressed foam blocks showed approximately the same sensitivity
between the compression factor and the change in permeability.
Fig. 9 shows a plot of the permeability based on the measured porosity of the compressed
metal foam samples. There is no difference made in the plotting data points between foams of 95%
and 92% pre-compression porosity; all are placed on the same scale by their measured porosity in
compressed form.

Fig. 9. The permeability of compressed foams is plotted against the values of measured porosity.
The form coefficient also varied with the compression of the metal foam blocks and the
differing pre-compression porosities, ultimately being controlled by the porosity of the compressed
metal foam. The form coefficient of the foams increased monotonically with decreasing porosity
(fig. 10).






Foam ε[-] K[m
2
] cF[1/m] ΔP[bar]
95-08 0.608 2.52E-10 4731 1.149-8.226
92-06 0.669 3.95E-10 3399 0.180-2.800
95-04 0.805 6.87E-10 2957 0.461-3.905
92-03 0.825 8.26E-10 2820 0.393-3.503
92-02 0.874 3.08E-09 1472 0.128-1.457
95-02 0.882 3.44E-09 1276 0.113-1.274
0.00E+00
5.00E-10
1.00E-09
1.50E-09
2.00E-09
2.50E-09
3.00E-09
3.50E-09
4.00E-09
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
K
[
m
²
]
ε[─]
95-08
92-06
95-04
92-03
92-02
95-02
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Fig. 10. The form coefficient of compressed foams is plotted against the darcian velocity.

The three aluminum foam blocks which were tested were of nearly the same porosity. The
only difference between the samples was the average pore diameter. Referring to Table1, the
porosities of these aluminum foam blocks ranged from 92% to 92.8%, and the pore diameter
varied from an average of 6.9mm to 2.3mm. The difference in pore diameter appeared to
dramatically affect the permeability and the form coefficient of the foams.
Decreasing the pore diameter (d
p
), decreased the permeability and increased the form
coefficient. The 10 PPI foam (95-02), which had a pore size of 6.9mm, generated the least flow
resistance. In contrast, the 40 PPI foam (92-06) with a pore size of 2.3mm, had the greatest flow
resistance. The increase of flow resistance directly relates to the effective surface length as
explained by Lage [6], which relates an increase in drag to the increase in the specific surface
area.
That values for the permeability and form coefficient of the porous medium depend upon the
flow velocity range over which are they are calculated [7]. The permeability and form coefficient
were calculated for each foam by varying the flow velocity range which the terms were calculated
to investigate this dependence [1]. Fig. 11 plots the permeability based on an increasing flow
speed. The permeabilities of the three uncompressed foams are nearly constant.


Fig. 11. Permeability plotted against darcian velocity
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
0 0.5 1 1.5
c
F
[
m
-
1
]
v [m/s]
cF 92-06
cF 92-03
cF 92-02
cF 95-08
cF 95-04
cF 95-02
0.00E+00
5.00E-10
1.00E-09
1.50E-09
2.00E-09
2.50E-09
3.00E-09
3.50E-09
4.00E-09
0 0.5 1 1.5
K

[
m
²
]
v [m/s]
K 92-06
K 92-03
K 92-02
K 95-08
K 95-04
K 95-02
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4. Conclusions about flow and heat transfer through open-cell foam
Open-cell aluminum foam compressed by various factors and then fashioned into heat
exchangers for cooling electronic devices can dissipate large amounts of heats. Various heat
exchanger evaluation methods were applied to the data, which included the hydraulic
characterization, the heat transfer performance and an efficiency study to determine the most
efficient metal foam heat exchanger configuration.
The compressed aluminum foam performed well not only in the heat transfer enhancement,
but they also made a significant improvement in the efficiency over several commercially available
heat exchangers which operate under nearly identical condition [8].
Open-cell aluminum foam were numerically tested to evaluate their hydraulic characteristics
using water. The modules consisted of open-cell aluminum foams of various porosities and pore
diameters.
The characterization procedure involved solving for two terms, the permeability and the form
coefficient. These two factors accurately described the pressure-drop versus flow velocity behavior
in porous media in general and were shown to be applicable to high porosity metal foams. From
these simulations several conclusions can be drawn:
- The structural differences in the precompressed form did not a noticeable effect on the
permeability. When comparing compressed foams with varying degrees of compression and initial
porosities, the post-compression porosity governs the permeability and the resulting pressure drop.
- Increasing the compression factor decreased the permeability by regular amounts, which
were nearly equal for of the two foam series (92 and 95%).
- The permeability of the compressed foams became more sensitive to changes in the
porosity as the porosity increased.
- Holding the porosity constant and decreasing the pore diameter increased the flow
resistance by reducing the permeability and increasing the form coefficient. This increase is
attributed to the higher specific surface area generated by the smaller pore size.
- Using different flow velocity regimes resulted in various permeability and form coefficient
values. Whenever the permeability and the associated form coefficient for a high-porosity porous
medium are stated, the flow velocity range over which these terms are calculated must also be
specified for accuracy.
REFERENCES
[1] Boomsma K. and Poulikakos D., 2002, The Effects of compresion and Pore Size variations
on the liquid Flow characteristics in metal foams, ASME J . Fluids Eng., 124, pp. 263-272.
[2] J ohn F. Klein, Noe Arcas, George W. Gilchrist, William L. Shields, J r., Richard Yurman, and
J ames B. Whiteside, 2005, Thermal Management of Airborne Early Warning and Electronic
Warfare Systems Using Foam Metal Fins, Technology Review J ournal.
[3] Duocel Aluminum Foam Data Sheet, 1999, ERG Material and Aerospace, Oakland.
[4] Opritoiu, P., 2007, Fluid flow and pressure drop simulation in aluminium foam heat
exchanger, Acta Tehnica Napocensis, nr.50.
[5] Nihad, D., Ruben, P., and Alvarez, H., 2006, Heat transfer analysis in metal foams with
low-conductivity fluids, ASME J . of Heat Transfer, 128, pp. 784-789.
[6] Lage J .L., 1998, The Fundamental Theory of flow through permeable media from Darcy to
turbulence, Transport Phenomena in Porous Media, Elsevier Science, Oxford, pp.1-30.
[7] Antohe, B. V., Lage, J . L., Price, D. C., and Weber, R. M., 1997, Experimental
Determination of Permeability and Inertia Coefficients of Mechanically Compressed Aluminium
Porous Matrices, ASME J . Fluids Eng., 119, pp. 404-412.
[8] Boomsma, K., Poulikakos, D., Zwick, F., 2003, Metal foams as compact high performance
heat exchangers. Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich, Switzerland.
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ANALYSIS SOLAR RADIATION
Rusănescu Carmen Otilia
1
, Rusănescu Marin
2
, Dorel STOICA
1

1
University Polytechnic Bucharest, Biotechnical Faculty of Engineering, otiliarusanescu@yahoo.com
2
Valplast Industrie Bucharest

Abstract: In this paper is monitored the intensity of solar radiation by the meteorological station in the
year 2012 and is calculated: intensity of diffuse radiation, direct radiation intensity, declination angle,
hour angle . The the weather station type: AWS / EV is a product born from the need to frequently
monitor the environment variables. The usage of the suitable mathematical algorithm makes possible
to accurately follow the movement of the sun.

Keywords: global, direct and diffuse radiation, declination angle hour angle.


1. Introduction
Sun is the largest object in the solar system containing 98% of its mass. He is a ball of
incandescent gas mass from which we get heat and light. It has a diameter of 1.391 million
kilometers which means it is 109 times greater than Earth
Radiation, the most important agent of heat in the atmosphere plays a major role in the
processes that occur at medium and large scale. Radiation appears as a genetic element of
the climate on a global scale [3].
Even under clear sky radiation that reaches the earth's surface in all directions from the
diffusion phenomena, known as diffuse radiation, is 5 ... 15% of the flux of solar radiation that
reaches the Earth's surface without being affected by this phenomenon, known as direct
radiation. Together, direct and diffuse radiation, the so-called total radiation.

2. Materials and methods
Determination of the Sun-Earth angle (angle of declination, zenith angle, solar azimuth) makes it
possible to determine the position of collector of solar radiation from the sun so that its efficiency is
maximized. Based on mathematical algorithm, we determine the values of these angles for the period
J anuary to J une 2012, and the minimum and maximum period.
The efficiency of a solar collector (the heating panel or PV) can be significantly increased if the
collector is located under the sun so that the angle of incidence (angle between the radius of the sun
and the line perpendicular to the collector) becomes zero or very small. Implementation of this
requirement involves modeling the Sun-Earth angle, which must be accurate, relatively simple.
Global solar radiation intensity G horizontally was monitored weather station: AWS / EV
Biotechnical Faculty of Engineering, Geco MICROS SIAP program version 2.3.2 software
automatically records the following parameters: air temperature, wind direction and speed,
atmospheric humidity, solar radiation, rainfall.
The weather station is wireless transmission range up to 300 m and the set of sensors
integrated pillar of 1.77m and tripod for. [2]. Solar radiation sensor is manufactured in accordance with
international specifications WMO (World Meteorological Organization).
It consists of a transducer which is heated in proportion to the incident solar radiation,
absorbed by a special layer of black paint of the measuring surface of the heat. Double layer shielding
of special optical glass to optimize the characteristics of the measurement under different
environmental conditions.
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This transducer is included in the family of smart sensors, as it is equipped with a
microprocessor that performs multiple functions: checking the operation right, data preprocessing, A /
D conversion to electrical signals, etc..
These features will ensure excellent accuracy and high reliability of data.
The protection is made of aluminum alloy corrosion, shield UV-resistant plastic material with a low
thermal capacity.
Internal circuits are protected from atmospheric discharges and polarity reversal. This is an
analog sensor output signal between 0 and 2 VDC.
Privacy Framework is a aluminum alloy corrosion, UV resistant plastic with low thermal capacity.
Internal circuits are protected from atmospheric changes and polarity inversion. This is an analog
sensor output signal having a range from 0 V to 2 V [6].
Measurement from 0-1300 W/m
2
.
Sensitivity of 1.5 mV / W / m
2

Accuracy +/ - 10 W / m
2

Resolution +/ - 0.5 W/m
2
.
Linearity: +/ - 1%
Operating Temperature -30 to 60
0
C
Output signal: 0 V (0 W/m
2
) at 2 V (1300 W/m
2
)
Sensor connector 4 pin female
Mounting: with support (mast), the position is important because it must be pointed south.

3. Results and discussion

Based on recorded global radiation intensity, we calculate the direct and diffuse components of solar
radiation. Based on 24 hour weather station record of 24 in 2012, we assumed diffuse radiation
intensity equal to one fifth of global radiation intensity and the intensity of direct radiation is the
difference between global and diffuse [8].
According to equation (1),
D - is the intensity of scattered radiation;
G - global or total radiation intensity
B - Direct radiation intensity
D G B
G
D − = = ,
5
(1)
hour angle: determines the position of the Sun in the sky at a given moment. Is 0 when the sun passes
the local meridian corresponding point of the sensor location. This angle is positive to the east (to the
east) and negative to the west (at dusk).
Within an hour the sun across the sky at an angle of 15 °, and the position of the clock (T) is
determined by the relationship:

( ) T − ⋅ = 12 15 ω (2)

If you are known angle of declination, latitude and hour angle can be determined by calculating the
position of the Sun in the sky the sun height angle and solar azimuth angle, applying the above
calculation formulas.
The angle between the direction to the sun the place of capture and the equatorial plane is called
declination δ.
Relations for calculating the angle of declination δ are:





 +
⋅ ⋅ =
365
284
360 sin 45 , 23
n
δ
[1] (3)
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 −
=
365
) 80 ( 360
sin 45 , 23
n
δ
[8] (4)

where n is the day of the year in which the measurements were taken.
In Figure 1 is the angle of declination.

Figure 1 Representation of establishing the position angle sun in the sky [4]

Based on recorded global radiation intensity, we calculated the direct and diffuse components of solar
radiation.
Figure 2 shows the proportion of diffuse radiation intensities and intensity of direct radiation in global
radiation. It is interesting to note that the intensity of diffuse radiation has a high intensity compared
with direct radiation.
Based on 24 hour weather station record of 24 in 2012, I assumed diffuse radiation intensity equal to
one fifth of global radiation intensity and the intensity of direct radiation is the difference between
global and diffuse.
In Figure 3, we present the variation of global radiation, diffuse and direct weather station recorded in
May 2012.
Based on the measured and calculated values of global radiation, diffuse, direct from J anuary 2012 to
J une 2012 we plotted Figure 4. It is noted that the high value of global radiation was recorded on May
8 at 14, having a value of 879, the 10th of J une at 14 was recorded the highest value of global
radiation during J anuary 2012-J une 2012 which is the 899 [W / m²]. Some authors have performed
statistical analyzes on different materials. [2,5].


Figure 2 The variation in global radiation, direct and diffuse for J anuary-J une 2012

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0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
5
/
1
/
2
0
1
2
5
/
3
/
2
0
1
2
5
/
5
/
2
0
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/
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/
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/
9
/
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/
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1
/
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/
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/
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/
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/
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/
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/
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/
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/
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0
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/
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7
/
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0
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2
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/
2
9
/
2
0
1
2
5
/
3
1
/
2
0
1
2 S
o
l
a
r

r
a
d
i
a
t
i
o
n

i
n
t
e
n
s
i
t
y


[
W
/
m
2
]
G
D
B


Figure 3 Intensity variation of global radiation, direct and diffuse recorded by the weather station
in May 2012 [8]



Figure 4 Correlation between components: global direct diffuse solar radiation during
J anuary-J une 2012 [8]


If you are known angle of declination, latitude and hour angle can be determined by calculating the
position of the Sun in the sky the sun height angle and solar azimuth angle, applying the above
calculation formulas.
According to figures 5 and 6 the angle of declination is dependent on the day they were made in solar
radiation measurements. In Figure 5 are the values of the angle of declination in May 2012 and in
Figure 6 are the minimum and maximum declination angle based on statistical analysis in 2012.
From Figure 7 is observed, as shown in the literature [1] that the values are positive hour angle
morning and afternoon negative.





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-4
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
5
/
1
/
2
0
1
2
5
/
3
/
2
0
1
2
5
/
5
/
2
0
1
2
5
/
7
/
2
0
1
2
5
/
9
/
2
0
1
2
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/
1
1
/
2
0
1
2
5
/
1
3
/
2
0
1
2
5
/
1
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/
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0
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2
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/
1
7
/
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/
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9
/
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/
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/
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0
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/
2
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/
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5
/
2
0
1
2
5
/
2
7
/
2
0
1
2
5
/
2
9
/
2
0
1
2
5
/
3
1
/
2
0
1
2
May, 2012
ω

Figure 5 Declination angle variation by day of n calculated in May 2012 [8]



Figure 6 Variation of minimum and maximum angle of declination in J anuary-J une 2012


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Figure 7 The variation angle zone in May 2012 [8]


Conclusions
Using mathematical algorithms presented in this paper to determine the Sun-Earth angle (angle of
declination, zenith angle, hour angle), makes it possible to determine the position of collector of solar
radiation from the sun so that its efficiency is maximized. Based on mathematical algorithm, we
determined the values of these angles for 2012 and we represented graphically angles for J uly month
was recorded maximum solar radiation and minimum and maximum values for the entire year.
The results of this study to monitor solar radiation, allowing interpretations that may be used to
establish local potential use of solar energy. To complete this study, it takes more time to monitor solar
radiation. Solar energy is the gateway to a new era, with its use in heating, resulting in reduction of
environmental pollution.
The efficiency of a solar collector (the heating panel or PV) can be significantly increased if the
collector is located under the sun so that the angle of incidence (angle between the radius of the sun
and the line perpendicular to the collector) becomes zero or very small. Implementation of this
requirement involves modeling the Sun-Earth angle, which must be accurate, relatively simple.

REFERENCES
[1] Goswami, D.J ., Kreith, K., Kreider, J .F.: Principiile ingineriei solare, Philadelphia, PA, George H.
Buchanan Co., 1999.
[2]Irina Istrate, Diana Cocârță, Silvia Neamțu, Talida Cirlioru - The assessment of an alternative
treatment for PCB polluted soils in the romanian context - bench scale tests, 2012, Water air and soil
pollution, vol 224 (4),DOI: 10.1007/s11270-013-1516-2, ISSN: 0049-6979 (print version), ISSN: 1573-
2932;
[3].Cristian Oprea – Radiatia solara, Aspecte teoretice si practice Bucuresti 2005
[4]. Daniel Tudor COTFAS, Petru A. COTFAS, Corina COJ OCARIU, Lucian COSTINESCU, Cornel
SAMOILA,Solar Tracker cu algoritm matematic - Conferinţa Naţională de Instrumentaţie virtuală,
Ediţia a V-a, Bucureşti, 20 mai 2008
[5] D. Stoica, G Stanciu: “Influence the degree of sorting the separation process a conical sieve”
Digest J ournal of Nanomaterials and Biostructures Vol. 8, No. 2, April - J une 2013, p. 513 - 518
[6].Manual de instalare al Statiei Meteo AWWS/EV firma Elettronica Veneta;
[7]. Messenger, R., Ventre, J .: Sistemul fotovoltaic de inginerie, Boca Raton, London, New York,
Washington, CRC Press, 2000.
[8]Rusanescu Carmen Otilia – Indrumar de meteorologie si climatologie, Editura Matrix Rom,
Bucuresti, 2013
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Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics

REPAIRING AND TESTING OF THE HYDRAULIC SERVO VALVES
Radu RADOI
1
, Ioan BALAN
2
, Iulian DUTU
3

1
INOE 2000 - IHP, radoi.ihp@fluidas.ro
2
INOE 2000 - IHP, balan.ihp@fluidas.ro
3
INOE 2000 - IHP, dutu.ihp@fluidas.ro
Abstract: (Arial, 11pt, Italic, Justify)
The equipment which must work at high values of speed and response frequencies and
reach optimum performance need to have their hydraulic installations equipped with servo valves.
The costs of production of the servo valves are very high, due to their mechanical complexity and
they are not compatible at all with the contaminated fluids, cause of the small gaps between the
parts in motion and of the very small apertures of nozzles. If these installations are not properly
maintained servo valves can be damaged very quickly and can only be remedied in centers
(laboratories) by specialized personnel. The paper presents ways of identifying a faulty servo
valves, symptoms and possible causes and their testing.

Keywords: hydraulic, servovalve, testing, fault
1. Introduction
The equipment which must work at high values of speed and response frequencies and
reach optimum performance need to have their hydraulic installations equipped with servo valves.
The modern servo valves are very reliable components, due to the major improvements applied to
them in the course of time. The costs of production of the servo valves are very high, due to their
mechanical complexity and they are not compatible at all with the contaminated fluids, cause of the
small lost motions between the parts in motion and of the very small apertures. These very
performant equipment are therefore suitable for sophisticated systems and require a rigurous
maintenance.
These prerequisites regarding precision and dynamics of the hydraulic drives lead to the
use of hydraulic devices of control with high performances. The dynamic performances of the
servo valves with direct command, are limited at 80 Hz and of those with piloting stage at about
100 Hz. Beside the influence of the hydrodinamic forces, the performances of the hydraulic devices
are much influenced by the dynamics of the electromechanic actuators, which drive, directly or
indirectly the slide.
The close loop drives have been utilized a lot lately. In a drive of this kind with close loop or
with servo control, the servo valves are the key elements, with the greatest impact upon the static
and dynamic features of the drive system.
The servo valves must provide high fluid flows and dynamic features, high rigidity of the
system at load and very slight deviations of position of the operating element, from the prescribed
position.
For reaching this must be accomplished the following:
- High degree of accuracy at the execution of the bushand servo valve slide, for obtaining
a symmetric and linear signal flow function
- Reduction of the mass of the parts in motion
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- Reduction of the interference forces which have a negative impact upon the slide
dynamics friction forces, hydrostatic forces, hydrodynamic forces and impulse forces
- Reduction of power losses of the piloted servo valves and minimization of the control
chambers volumes
- Improvement of the dynamics of the electromechanic convertor.

2. The description of the servo valves
Due to the afferent performances, the most widely spred servo valves are those with two stages
see fig.1 These type of servo valves have beside the compulsory pilot, a stage of hydraulic
amplification, directional type. The pilot which comprises the couple motor and the nozzle flap
amplifier may be considered and sometimes it is even utilized as a servo valve with an
amplification stage. This is a classic directional valve with marks executed in a higher precision
class. The symbol of this type of servo valve may be seen in fig.2



1 - torque motor;
2 - hydraulic amplifier;
3 - control spool;
4 - coil;
5 - armature;
6 - torque tube;
7 - flapper plate;
8 - control orifices;
9 - feedback spring.

Fig. 1 Rexroth servo valve type 4WS2EM


Fig. 2 Servo valve symbol
The servo valves are commanded with electric signal applied to the spools of the couple motor.
The two spools may be connected serially or in parallel. With a few exceptions, the servo valves
use only c.c.signal.
The hydraulic installations which enclose servo valves must take into account some very strict
conditions:
• The installed flow of the pump must be 10% higher than the highest flow supplied by the
servo valve
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• The servo valves must be protected with a filter of 5 +15 um This filter is recommended to
be put as an individual protection for each servo valve. It is recommended that the safety
filter of the servo valve to be deprived of by pass valve
• The pressure valve which maintains pressure almost constant on the input in the valve
must be chosen in such a waz that for the range of the flows discharged in the basin during
work the variation of the adjusted pressure to be below 10 bar
• It is recommended that the hydraulic cylinders which equip the hydraulic installation to be
with bilateral rod of the same dyameter. This ensures a good stability allowing also an
easier and more accurate calculation of the hydraulic system and also bring simplification of
the electronic control system.
• It is recommended that servo valves to be placed as close as possible to hydraulic motors
they serve. Is indicated as links of servo valve with hydraulic motor to be rigid (pipes) or not
to vary their volume at pressure variations.
• It is recommended that between pumping group and servo valve be mounted a
hydropneumatic accumulator whose size is determined by the pump flow and the operating
mode of the system. It is necessary to provide manual controls to bring hydraulic motors in
the original starting position.
• It is recommended that the hydraulic system be equipped with oil cooling - heating system
to ensure a temperature of 45 to 55 °C during operation.

3. Finding faults in installations with servo valves
If it is found that the system that comprises a servo valves is not working, for testing can be
replaced with another spare servo valves, and if you do not have a backup servovalve will proceed
as follows:
• Shall be measured the command signal of servovalve thus checking the electronic system
operation:
- If electronic block does not give electronic signal to needed parameters search fault here and fix
- If electronic block give control signal and if one can not vary manual the signal it must be used an
external signal generator.
- If the load does not move (at external command signal) put gauges on the supply and return ports
of servo valve. If the supply pressure is good that means the pressure source is good and then
continue searching fault.
• Place pressure gauges on motor ports. Vary the control signal and check output pressure
at motor ports.
- If we have not a gradual increase in pressure means that the servovalve is damaged.
Faulty servovalves must be removed from a system only after the place around them it is
cleaned. For servovalve removal first disconnects electrical connector, remove the screws with
which it is fixed and mount the replacement servo valve whose protective cover was removed
previously. Finally, the protective cover is mounted on demounted servo valve, to prevent dirt
entering in the joints and losing O-rings.
To see if servovalves can be repaired these should be sent to specialized laboratories
operated by highly qualified personnel .

4. Repairing servovalves
The symptoms of main defect encountered in servovalves can be:
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• The servovalve give flow only one way and the electric control gives no results (nozzle
clogged)
• Servovalve not respond to commands (broken coil, clogged nozzles);
• Presence of flow without giving an electric command, flow which decreases at electric
command in a certain sense (shifted null);
• Unequal flow at equal control level for both polarities (asymmetry)
• large hysteresis on reversing electrical control (friction between the spool and sleeve due to
impurities)
• High flow at null that can not be canceled by adjutments (high wear of spool and sleeve
edges).
Removal and installation of servo valves should be done only by specialized personnel and
only based on accurate and complete instructions. The place where is made removal and
instalation must be perfect clean. Because of the size of the nozzles and small gaps between
moving parts any impurity can cause blockage of servovalve. Dismantled parts shall be placed on
a non-metallic surface. On removal is well to note (mark the relative positions of the parts). Spool
must be handled with care not to damage the edges. He should not be placed on hard surfaces. It
is advisable to avoid removing the nozzle if it leads to change their position and if does not have
the possibility of resettlement at fixed odds. If they are removed have to avoid damaging them,
especially if there does not exist conditions to recalibrate them. After cleaning and repair
servovalve component parts are assembled at place, then appropriate adjustments will be made
and will be drawn static characteristic.
5. Testing of servovalves
Testing of servovalves is made on specialized stands. Such a stand for servo valves testing
(Fig. 3) consists of: a tank on which is fixed a plate for connecting servovalve in testing circuit, a
pumping group, pressure and flow transducers, a servocontroler and a computer equipped with
data acquisition board.
Testing is as follows:
1) Check that stand and equipment fitted on it corresponds with mounting scheme;
2) Adjust supply pressure to servovalve at nominal value
3) The input current is passed several times through the circuit
4) The testing application is opened on the computer and then start the testing, after that the
program generating the increasing steps of control signal and flow given by the servovalve is
recorded and after draw the characteristic diagram
5) Check that the machine pressure remains relatively constant throughout the current cycle
6) periodic signal applied continuously allows recording characteristics during a complete cycle

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Fig. 3 Servo valve mounted on stand for testing
Periodic signal during a complete cycle ± I
max
[mA]

(maximum control current in both
directions) applied to servo valve for plotting the characteristic is generated by a software
application (Fig. 4). The application allows recording the data for further processing. The
application generates the control signal and carries signals from the transducers through a data
acquisition board.
.
Fig. 4 Panel of the testing application made in TestPoint medium
From a recorded chart can be seen if hysteresis is large, if the parameters stipulated in the
data sheet (maximum output at maximum control signal) are touched and if the chart is asymmetric
or if nulll is shifted.
6. Terms of putting into service the installation with a new instaled servo val ve
Before mounting a servo valve in the system is necessary, especially in complex
installations that had a very long operating since last oil change, to make a washing of a hydraulic
installation. For this the servo valve is replaced with a special adapter plate for washing, on which
is mounted an electrically controlled directional valve that can provide equivalent flow with that one
given by the servo valve.
In some cases instead of servo valve is mounted a simple plate that directly connect the
tank port with inlet pressure port. All pumps are started at low pressures (with safety valves
opened, checking not to appear control signals to servo valves). Adjust safety valves at the values
set by the designer.
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Are given commands to the directional valve who replaced the servo valve to achieve the
rated machine cycle speed of hydraulic motors. Check at the same time outward leakage
appearance. Aftyer a while it stops the operation of the installation and replace the washer plate
with the new servo valve. Are gived to the servo valve electrical signals covering all the field of
control. Give commands in automatic mode making the final adjustments at the control electronics
as well as the hydraulic. It is well that all adjustments to be made at recommended hydraulic
medium temperature and designer prescription which is in domain 45 to 50° C. The null of servo
valve should be adjusted according to actual conditions of automatically cycle (supply pressure,
back pressure and oil temperature). Verification of correct adjustment of null is made by cutting
electric connection of servo valve, in which case if the electronics is well adjusted, operated
element must remain in place. After 3 hours filter cartridges are replaced with new ones.
7. Conclusions
Servo valves are high performance equipment and are suitable for sophisticated
installations and systems.
Servo valves are sensitive devices and their use must meet a number of strict conditions
such as:
- proper filter of oil to keep them in working order;
- respecting the installation instructions for servo valves can be achieved maximum of
performance.
Repair of servo valves must be performed only by qualified personnel, otherwise these can
be irreversibly affected.
REFERENCES
[1] Cornel Velescu, Aparate si echipamente hidraulice proportionale, Mirton publishing house ,
Timisoara, 2003
[2] M. Comes, P. Drumea, A. Mirea, G. Matache, Intelligent servohydraulic device for the control
of the motion – 24th International Spring Seminar on Electronics Technology ISSE 2001
[3] M. Comes, A. Drumea, A. Mirea, I Enache. , Electronic module for servohydraulic system with frequency
control, MTM 2001, Romania
[4] Dutu, R.I. Radoi, M. Blejan “Digital control module developed for a servohydraulic positioning system”
Caciulata, Romania; 7-9 November, 2011, “Proceedings - HERVEX”, ISSN 1454-8003; pp.381-385
[5] http://www.moog.com/literature/ICD/G761_CDS6673_D.pdf

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RESEARCH ON VARIATION OF DISPLACEMENTS, VELOCITIES AND
ACCELERATIONS AT A SITE SELECTOR BLOCKS (FANNER) GRAIN

STOICA DOREL
1
, RUSANESCU CARMEN OTILIA
1
1
, UniversityPOLITEHNICA of Bucharest, Faculty of Biotechnical Engineering,
dorelstc@yahoo.com

Abstract: The researches aimed to study and establish technologies vibratory phenomena
involves the tools and machines for processing agricultural products type wheat. The data
recorded in the experiments were statistically designed a series of graphs showing the correlation
between the outcome and the functional characteristics accompanied by reports of correlation.
Functions developed have allowed us to draw a number of conclusions nature of generalization.
Keywords: displacement, velocity, acceleration, selection, seed.

1. Introduction
The material obtained after harvesting with combine in the form of a mixture of primary
culture seeds, grains of other crops, seeds of weeds, and various impurities (scrap straw, chaff,
dust, sand, etc.), and the seed culture besides the main cover normally developed seeds, seeds
dry, shriveled or broken, and others. [1].
After the harvest, agricultural products (grains, fruits and vegetables) can not be directly
used for various purposes such as: storage, consumption, industrialization, commercialization,
seed material, since contain impurities (plant debris and other objects) and products injured.
Products harvested before receiving a particular destination is necessary and required to undergo
cleaning and sorting operations.
Through these operations [2], aims to increase the purity of the product, whilst achieving
best storage conditions, and a reduction in the transport and storage.
For operations of cleaning and sorting of seeds obtained after harvest, usually with
combinations, using special complex equipment specific to this domain [1,2,3].
In these machines, an important place flat site blocks whose operation is based on the
vibratory movement of the working surfaces. These are used to perform the separation of mixtures
of grains which differs by one of the two geometrical dimensions of their thickness or width.
Other authors in various works conducted various statistical analyzes, [5].
There are other methods and principles of separation of impurities in seed mass, which
may be based on other operating principles, such as using air currents, tables densimeters
separation after elastic properties, etc..[4].
Studies on the angle of the dials was conducted by the authors of paper [6].

2. Material and methods
In order to conduct experimental research needed for the thesis using winter wheat (variety
Flamura 85).
Experiments were performed in laboratory experimental bench, resulting in adaptation
Mechanical Vânturătorii VM - 4 existing laboratory of Agricultural Machinery Agricultural
Mechanization team of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Bucharest.
The experimental stand (Figure 1) is designed for cleaning and sorting by size and by the
aerodynamic properties of seeds of cereals, pulses, industrial crops, grasses obtained from or
combine threshers.
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ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 3/2013)
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It is used for cleaning and grading seed crop following wheat, rye, barley, oats, rice, peas,
beans, lentils, flax, mustard, hemp, sunflower, millet, rape.
























Figure 1. Stade experimental

Part of the stand experimentall: 1 – food cart; 2 – Superior support frame site; 3 – First sieve the
upper bearing pedestal; 4 – Second Screening upper bearing pedestal; 5 – fan; 6 – shutter to
evacuate chaff; 7 – shutter to evacuate chaff; 8 – first sieve the lower bearing pedestal; 9 – the
second screen of the lower bearing pedestal; 10 – framework; 11 – site backup box; 12 - small
impurities trough drain and leaks; 13 – a seed discharge chute topping; 14 – Electric motor drive;
15 - Seed discharge chute second rate; 16 – chute to evacuate large impurities.

For experimental determinations was used as a chain composed of the following devices:

1) - like National Instruments data acquisition with the following features: 24-bit resolution,
sampling rate of 50 kS / s analog input 4 channel simultaneous, dynamic range 102 dB input range
+/ - 5 V, USB 2.0 interface for PC connectivity
2) - four accelerometers Brüel & Kjær 4508B with magnetic fastening and metal clip, each
connecting cable with the following characteristics: - Description: top connector TEDS, sensitivity
100 mV / g, frequency range limits 10% (±1dB): 0.3 to 8000 Hz resonance frequency: 25 kHz, the
residual noise level: 0.35 mg operating temperature range: -54 100 deg C measuring range: 70 g;
maximum level of shock: 5000 g weight: 4.8 grams connector: 10-32 UNF, mounting: magnetic and
metal clip, connection cable length acquisition board: 5 m interface cable connection to acquisition
board: BNC.
3) - computer software Labview data acquisition and processing;
In order to achieve the four measurements used accelerometers were located in pairs
diametrically opposite the center of the grid being able to determine vibrations both in the
tangential direction and the radial direction.
Two accelerometers are able to determine the parameters of the vibrations in the radial
direction, while the other two accelerometers are methods of determining the vibration parameters
for the tangential direction.
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ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 3/2013)
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Measurements were made both idle and for driving the load in two directions, both in the
radial direction and the tangential direction as.
The four accelerometers were connected to the data acquisition board via a computer with
printer for plotting the acquired signals.
Before each sample were adjusted accordingly cinematic parameters namely oscillating
sieve oscillation frequency or amplitude of oscillation. For driving the load and oilseed rape have
been used, measurements are made at about the same flow conditions. It was tried to be kept
constant in all experimental measurements, that is around 0.01 kg / s.
Acquisition time was several seconds (8-12 seconds), the signals are acquired by taking on
only those corresponding to a relatively uniform movements work site.
Signal acquisition was made through LabVIEW, data acquisition was performed before
program structure by which the purchase was made and signal processing.
For plotting the acquired signals can also use a printer that can be connected to laptop
computer.
Variation of displacement, velocity and acceleration of the upper block of the site in relation to
time under load and at idle is achieved in the graphs in Figures 2 ... 13.
Changes in driving higher building site in relation to the time course load for the angle of the
upper sieve higher block site (

3 = α ,

6 = α ,

9 = α ), and the angle of the lower grid block below
the site

5 = β is shown in figures 2-5.

























Superior building site speed variation against time to walk to load the hopper angle higher
upper block site (

3 = α ,

6 = α ,

9 = α )and the angle of the lower grid block below the site

5 = β is shown in Figures 6-8 and in Figure 9 is shown the upper block with site speed range at
idle.




Fig. 2. Variation of displacement with time α=3 si β=5
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
50 53 56 59 62 65 68 71 74 77 80
time(s)
d
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

(
m
m
)

xant
x
xurm

Fig. 3. Variation of displacement with time α=6 si β=5
0.2
1.2
2.2
3.2
4.2
5.2
6.2
7.2
42 45 48 51 54 57 60 63
time(s)
d
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

(
m
m
)

xurm
x

Fig. 4. Variation of displacement with time α=9 si β=5
0.1
0.3
0.5
0.7
0.9
52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60
time(s)
d
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

(
m
m
)

xurm
x
xant

Fig.5. Variation of displacement with time idling
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60
time(s)
d
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t


(
m
m
)



16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30


o
c
i
t
y

(
m
/
s
)

vant
v
vurm


12
14
16
18
20
42 45 48 51 54 57 60 63

V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y

(
m
/
s
)

vurm
v

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Superior building site acceleration variation with respect to time in the course load for the
angle of the upper sieve higher building site (

3 = α ,

6 = α ,

9 = α ) and the angle of the lower
grid block below the site

5 = β is shown in Figures 10-12 and Figure 13 presents the variation in
acceleration higher block site at idle.
























Fig.8. Velocity variation with time α=9 si β=5
7
14
21
28
52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60
time(s)
V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y

(
m
/
s
)

vurm
v
vant

Fig.9. Speed variation with time idling
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.8
7.9
8
8.1
50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60
time(s)
V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y

(
m
/
s
)


Fig.10. Acceleration variation with time α=3 si β=5
4.5
5
5.5
6
6.5
50 53 56 59 62 65 68 71 74 77 80
time(s)
A
c
c
e
l
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

(
m
/
s
2
)


a
aurm

Fig. 11. Acceleration variation with time α=6 si β=5
4
5
6
7
42 45 48 51 54 57 60 63
time(s)
A
c
c
e
l
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

(
m
/
s
2
)

aurm
a
aant

Fig.12. Acceleration variation with time α=9 si β=5
1.3
2.3
3.3
4.3
5.3
6.3
52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60
time(s)
A
c
c
e
l
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

(
m
/
s
2
)

aurm
a
aant

Fig.13. Variation of acceleration with time idling
1.5
1.55
1.6
1.65
1.7
50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60
time(s)
a
c
c
e
l
e
r
a
t
i
e
(
m
/
s
2
)

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Conclusions
The process of separating the holes of the seed hopper is achieved by providing a relative
movement of the seed from the hopper. This relative movement to provide, by printing a grid linear
oscillatory motion of a drive mechanism (connecting rod - crank, eccentric).
Vibratory movement is applied in practice in various fields including agriculture And food industry,
both for the transport of granular and powder products, or even in the form of pieces, as well as
processes to achieve the separation, or to remove impurities from the mixture seed or plant
products sort by size. Separators is done in the form of block printing mechanisms driven
oscillating movement screening material found on the surface of separation. The mechanisms that
generate oscillations can be: crank, with backdrop oscillating vibrating devices unbalanced
unbalanced rotating or vibrating devices electromagnets etc..
From the dynamic point of view, the separator is a vibrator vibrating with one or more oscillating
masses linked to the support and to each other by elastic elements (made of metal or rubber) and
a drive system (drive) to ensure the generation of disruptive forces necessary for a stable
oscillating.
Working body vibration machine (the block making) has a generally translational movement, linear
or circular, depending on the type of vibration generator.
The vibration generators used to operate the oscillating blocks are present as well, the rotating
unbalanced mass, which results in a force directed interference (one-way).

REFERENCES
[1] Căsăndroiu T.,Voicu Gh. – Curba de separare a materialului pe lungimea sitei superioare la sistemul de
curăţire al combinelor de cereale, Bucureşti, 1992;
[2] Voicu Gh., Stoica D., Ungureanu

N. - Influence of oscillation frequency of a sieve on the screening
process for a conical sieve with oscillatory circular motion, lucrare publicata în J ournal of Agricultural
Science and Technology, ISSN 1939-1250, USA J une. 2011, Volume 5, No.2 (Serial No.27)
[3] Elfverson, C., Regnér, S., Comparative precision of grain sieving and pneumatic classification on a single
kernel level, Applied Engineering in Agriculture, p.537-541, Vol. 16(5), 2000;
[4] Stoica D., - Contribuţii la studiul fenomenelor vibratorii privind utilajele din domeniul prelucrării produselor
agricole (teza de doctorat, septembrie 2011)
[5] Rusanescu, Carmen-Otilia. "DETERMINATION OF SUGARS IN RED AND WHITE ROMANIAN WINE
SAMPLES." METALURGIA INTERNATIONAL 18.4 (2013): 131-133.
[6] Constantin POPA, Mihaela-Florentina DUȚU, Iulian DUŢU - THE INFLUENCE OF ANGLE OF TILT OF
THE SEPARATORS AND THE AIR COURSE VELOCITY ABOUT QUALITATIVE COEFFICIENT AND THE
EXPLOATATION AT THE CLEANING AND SORTING OF THE CORN PULSES, - Revista Hidraulica, 2013.


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NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF FLOW IN ANASTOMOTIC COMPLEX AFTER GASTRIC
RESECTION WITH GASTROJEJUNAL ANASTOMOSIS

O. Vaida¹, L. Vaida², A. Andercou³.

¹ Department of General Surgery, Municipal Hospital Dej, Romania
² Department of Mechanical Engineering of the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering of the Technical
University of Cluj-Napoca
³ University of Medicine and Pharmacy „Iuliu Hatieganu”, II Surgical Clinic, Cluj-Napoca, Romania


Abstract
Aim: To investigate the flow by numerical simulation in mechanical hydraulic models that
approximates the stomach and gastric resection procedures Billroth I (BI) and Billroth II (BII).
Method: Are used geometries axially symmetric non-deformable. Calculations obtain hydrodinamic
sizes for all configurations of interest: normal geometry and geometries that simulate gastric
resection procedures BI and BII.
Results: By calculating the modulus of resistance, M and of time of emptying it has been found an
acceptable flow for procedures BI (Péan), Y Roux (Y-R) and gastric resection Leger (GRL). In
techniques BII, Reichel-Polya (R-P), Hoffmeister-Finsterer (H-F) the flow is far away from that of
the normal geometry.
Conclusions: Operations drastically alter the flow in accordance with the extent of anatomical
changes.

Keywords: Numerical simulation, Gastric resection, Anastomosis.

Introduction
Motor function of the stomach and small intestine is essential for digestion of food. It is met of
smooth muscles of these digestive segments with the participation of intramural nerve plexus
Meissner and Auerbach. Stomach muscles are divided into three layers: external, longitudinal,
middle, circular and internal with oblique fibers. The intestine has one external muscular layer and
another internal circular.
Gastric and intestinal smooth muscle contraction is coordinated by a complex nervous and
endocrine mechanism that controls integrated and other functions: secretory of digestion and
absorption.
Stomach motor function is initiated by smooth muscle cells, by the contraction what triggers
„migratory motor complex” (MMC). This is carried out in four phases and repeat cyclically to 90
minutes, producing peristaltic waves (1).
,,Flow” to the stomach is materialized by the their sequence and has the following consequences:
gastric filling, fragmentation and mixing foods with gastric juice and finally discharge of chim into
the duodenum through the pyloric sphincter.
Pyloric sphincter along with the lower esophageal sphincter are specialized formations who acts
synergistically in regulating ,,impulses and outputs” from the stomach.
Pyloric sphincter by adjusting his tonus, opposes of discharge into the duodenum to remaining
unprocessed food particles in the stomach and stops duodenogastric reflux (2).
To explore the digestive segments have at hand various parameters like: intraluminal pressure,
time and velocity of the exhaust, resistance to flowing, etc.
There are numerous studies that can investigate anatomically intact gastrointestinal tract, but there
are few those explore the digestive tract after surgery.
In these cases impediments of explore are due to anatomical changes achieved trough operation
on the one hand and on the other through the difficulties to find appropriate method of investigation
whose results reflect with accuracy the functionality.
Known two main types of digestive reconstruction after gastrectomy: Billroth I (BI) with gastro-
duodenal anastomosis and Billroth II (BII) with gastro-jejunal anastomosis.
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Depending on the type of intestinal section for manufacturing anastomosis, processes BII can be:
BII by longitudinal enterotomie (LE) and BII by transverse enterotomie (TE).
The procedures BII most used are: Reichel-Polya (R-P) Hoffmeister-Finsterer (H-F) through LE
and the fitting in Y à la Roux (Y-R) (fig.1).









A. B.

Fig. 1. Procedures BII through LE
A. Reichel-Polya. B. Hoffmeister-Finsterer . 1 - gastric stump; 2- duodenal stump;
3 - afferent loop; 4- efferent loop.

The method through TE was launched in 1950 by L. Leger gastric resection Leger (GRL) (fig 2).


A. B.

Fig. 2. The fitting Y-R and GRL throughTE
A. The fitting Y Roux: 1- gastro-jejunal anastomosis; 2- gastric stump; 3- jejuno-jejunal anastomosis
B. Gastric resection Leger: 1- gastrojejunal anastomosis; 2-afferent loop; 3- efferent loop.

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In terms of peristalsis the BII anastomosis are isoperistaltic when the stomach and jejunum have
the same peristalsis direction and antiperistaltic when the stomach and afferent loop have the
opposite direction of peristalsis (3).
Through gastro-jejunal anastomosis is born gastro-jejunal anastomotic complex (AC). AC is a
structure resulting by uniting of anastomotic partners responsible by postoperative disordes. AC is
different in procedures BII especially according on the type of enterotomy used, LE or TE.
Whatever type of enterotomy in gastrojejunal anastomosis AC has the following components:
afferent loop (AL), anastomotic area or moth anastomosis and efferent loop (EL).
After LE anastomotic area is wide, gastric slope being the whole gastric trance (R-P) or half of it
(H-F) and intestinal slope is jejunum incised longitudinally on distance corresponding to trance. AL
and EL communicate each with anastomotic space, trough two openings, for entry (AL) and output
(EL) distant from each other to the small and to the great curvature of the gastric stump.
After TE anastomosis is to the great curvature of the gastric stump, with diameter of 3-4 cm. AL
and EL are in continuity and delimited endoluminal of a parietal spur. They have a common
opening toward the gastric anastomotic slope. Gastrojejunal anastomosis by ET resembles with
one end-to-end.
Numerical simulation can explore the functionality of AC but has limits related rigidity mechanical-
hidraulic models that approximates the stomach and surgical procedures. It is a research stage
which can be followed by the development of experimental models or experience on animals if
deemed necessary.

Working hypothesis
For numerical simulation of flow are necessary hydraulic mechanical models which reproduce
approximately the stomach and anastomotic montages achieved by the techniques of digestive
reconstruction after gastrectomy.
Flow from the stomach intact into the intestine is the reference point to assess AC with specific
structure for each technique of gastric resection.
Are to be sought the differences of flow which exist between techniques BI and BII and that differ
by the type of anastomosis used, gastroduodenal (BI) or gastrojejunal (BII). Is important to mention
that in the techniques BII duodenum is excluded from gastro-intestinal circuit, and that the AC
architecture is amended depending by type of enterotomy (LE or TE) for anastomosis.

Material and method
Simulation stomach evacuation
From point of view hydrodynamic gastric evacuation can be represented like a non-permanent and
multiphase movement which takes place in a complex field, deformable.
The flow is generated by two factors:
- pressure difference between the stomach and duodenum;
- peristaltic movements of the walls of these organs.
Between the stomach and duodenum is located pyloric sphincter. He has a smooth circular
musculature with annular thickenings, which under physiological conditions works like a
unidirectional mechanical valve (fig.3).



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Fig.3.The stomach and duodenum (7-pyloric sphincter; arrows indicate the direction of the outlet of the
stomach)

Measurable parameters that have relevance for the hydrodynamic study are:
- the pressure in the stomach: p1
- pressure difference Δp (fig.3)
Δp is the size of dynamic most important which is based mathematical modeling of the flow from
the stomach to the duodenum.
Local balance between Δp and elastic tension of pyloric musculature provide its normal operation.
For a normal function manometric relative pressure p
m
registered at the opening of pylorus is
between 80 - 120 mm H
2
O, respectively 784,532 - 1176,78 Pa (1 mmH
2
O =80665 Pa), a value
that is induced by the muscle tension of pylorus.
Pressure values outside this range can mean disfunctions of the pylorus.
For the hydrodynamic calculation, pressures values Δp and p
m
are the fundamental size without
which cannot obtain relevant quantitative results, simulation being limited at a qualitative
description of the phenomenon of gastro-duodenal flow.
Was created a first 2 D model that can study gastric emptying and who later allow qualitative
assessments about it, in case of surgical procedures that change constructive this model.
Proposed model for the analysis of hydrodynamics in gastric emptying uses an axial-symmetric
geometry non-deformable (fig.4). Stomach is considered a reservoir with variable section, and
duodenum and small intestine, two rigid sections in series, while large intestine has the rol of an
adjusting tap. The main objective of using this model is to get credible numerical solutions through
movement created in a rigid area at the ends of which applies constant differences of pressure.
Pylorus is considered a component of local resistance of the segment which simulates duodenum,
in direct relation with the size pressure variation between stomach and duodenum (fig.4).

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Fig. 4. Geometry used to simulate evacuation stomach

Numerical simulations describe completely, hydrodynamics movements analyzed for a Newtonian
fluid (water). Calculations allow obtaining of hydrodynamic size, for all configurations of interest:
normal geometry and the geometries that approximates gastric resections procedures. BI (Péan)
and BII (R-P, H-F, Y-R, GRL). The analysis will be made for low Reynolds numbers of the
movement because the evacuation of the stomach is a very slow process.
It will analyze the escape of liquid for a given model aiming to determine the time of emptying, in
which the level of water in gastric reservoir, reaches from baseline h
1
at one final h
2
where h
2
< h
1

(4, 6)
Such analysis starts from the fact that the movement cannot be considered permanent because
hydraulic parameters change in time. For solving, the movement is considered as a succession of
permanent movements, that take place at time intervals elementary, and total time will be obtained
by summing the elementary time.
It is considered the general case of a reservoir which empties free through a pipe, whose hydraulic
resistance module is M. It is to be determined separately at all the variants analyzed (fig.4).
Flow is clearly made from reservoir toward evacuation. By choosing of a the reference plan in
accordance with figure 4 gives:

2
2
1
1
h
g
p
h
g
p
+

〉 +
⋅ ρ ρ
(1)
Will fallow the time in which, free surface in the reservoir reaches from the value h
1
at h
2
. The
Energy Law (Bernoulli’s equation) between points A and B where occurs movement it can be
written in accordance with the relationship from Figure 4 as follows:

( )
2
2
1
2
2
1
1
1
2
Q
h A g
M h
g
p
h
g
p









⋅ − =








+










+

α
ρ ρ
(2)
Or:
( )
2 *
Q h M H
g
p
⋅ = +


ρ
(3)
Where: ( )
2 1
p p p − = ∆ is the static pressure difference between points A and B;
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2 1
h h H − = =is the height of position between points A and B;
( ) h M
*
=is the global module of hydraulic resistance which includes and the kinetic
terms;
Q =the exhaust flow

Because h
2
is constant in the case of elementary variation can write:
dh dh =
1
(4)
Taking account of the continuity ecuation (mass conservation law) results:
( ) dh h A dt Q ⋅ − = ⋅
1
(5)
Elementary time variation is:

( )
Q
dh h A
dt

− =
1
(6)
If gon replace in the relation 6 flow expression (Q) resulting of 3 is obtained:

( ) ( )
dh
h
g
p
h M h A
dt ⋅
+



=
ρ
*
1
(7)
By the integration result of the reservoir depletion time T between the initial difference H
(existing at the moment t=0) and final difference (at the moment t=T):

( ) ( )
dh
h
g
p
h M h A
T
H

+



=


0
1
ρ
(8)
For explaining overall module of resistance will apply energy law, between sections 1-1 and 2-2 of
the considered system. Under this law one can write:

2 1
2
2
2
2 2
1
1
2
1 1
2 2

+ +

+


= +

+


p
h h
g
p
g
v
h
g
p
g
v
ρ
α
ρ
α
(9)
Where: - α
1
si α
2
are coefficients by nonuniformity of speed (Coriolis coefficient). These coefficients
take into account uneven distribution of speed in the normal section studied. For these coefficients
will be adopted the value α
1
= α
2
=2, appropriate of laminar flow in ducts with circular section:
- the terms
g
v


2
2
α
, represents the kinetic energy reported at weight
- the terms h
g
p
+
⋅ ρ
represents the potential energy reported at weight
-
2 1−
p
h represents loos of total hydraulic load between sections 1-1 and 2-2. To note
that these are dissipation of energy that can be found in the form of temperature increases in the
fluid the moving.
Means that loss of total hydraulic load is the ratio of the flux of mechanical energy dissipated
between the two sections of the a current of fluids and the product ρgQ where p is density of the
fluid, g is gravitational acceleration and Q is the volume flow.
The loss of total hydraulic load
2 1−
p
h is determined by summing losses of load uniformly distributed,
h
l
and of locale losses h
loc.
For a circular pipe of diameter d and length l along which there is a
number n of irregularities (disturbing elements like: narrowing or widening of the section, elbows,
bends etc.) the loss of hydraulic load it write:


=
+ =

n
i
loc l p
i
h h h
1
2 1
(10)
Taking account of relationships for loss uniformly distributed and for local losses which is
expressed by the relations:
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g
v
d
l
h
l

⋅ ⋅ =
2
2
λ and
g
v
h
loc

=
2
2
ς (11)
where : λ is coefficient of the linear loss distributed;
l – the length of pipe;
d – diameter of the pipe;
v – fluid velocity in the pipe;
ζ – coefficient of local loss;
and also the equation of continuity:
A v Q ⋅ = (12)
Is obtained for value of miscarriages, expression


2
1
2
1
2
2 1
A g
Q
d
l
h
n
i
i p
⋅ ⋅
⋅ 





+ ⋅ =

=

ς λ , (13)
and for value of resistance modulus

2
1
1
2
1
A g d
l
M
n
i
i
⋅ ⋅
⋅ 





+ ⋅ =

=
ς λ (14)
Medical literature contains numerous dates about gastric resection, but in the majority of cases, the
studies are limited at quantifying of the extirpations, and efficiency of the operation of extirpation.
The main parameter that take it in consideration is the pressure drop in the area of intervention.
For shaping stomach evacuation is necessary following average values of physical sizes which
influencing it:
• the exhaust flow Q =8,83⋅ 10
-6
m
3
/s;
• the normal capacity of the stomach V
0
=1,2⋅ 10
-3
m
3
;
• the average diameter of the duodenum d
d
=3⋅ 10
-2
m;
• the average diameter of small intestine d
s
=3⋅ 10
-2
m;
• the density of fluid chyme ρ = 1000 kg/m
3
;
• dynamic viscosity of fluid chyme η ≈4 mPa⋅ s;
• the average speed v = ≈

2
4
d
Q
π
0.0125 m/s, which corresponds to a Reynolds
number of about 120;
• stomach pressure p
1
=(0,7 ÷1)⋅ 10
3
Pa.

Results
In the case of gastric resection shall be amended the conditions of flow downstream of the
stomach. They influence resistance modulus M. In table 1 are presented his values, calculated for
each type of gastric resection. Also are measured the emptying time t in all anastomotic montages
for a volume equivalent to 1/3 of the volume of the stomach (gastric stump volume remaining after
resection).













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Table 1
Type of gastric
resection
The main scheme equivalent
Modulus of
resistance
[s
2
/m
5
]
Time
emptying [s]
Stomach in
normal
operation

2.83*10
9
28.7
Gastric
resection
Péan

1.9*10
7
2.35
Gastric
resection
Reichel-Polya

1.1*10
7
1.72
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Gastric
resection
Hoffmeister-
Finsterer


1.2*10
7
1.8
The fitting Y
Roux

1.7*10
7
2.23
Gastric
resection
Leger

2.71*10
7
2.81

Discussion
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After gastrectomy digestive reconstruction with gastrojejunal anastomosis (GJ A) gives rise
at anastomotic complex (AC). He is the new section digestive of flow resulted through surgical act,
which changes substantially the area.
The flow in AC can be explored by calculating the modulus of resistance M, a value that shall be
amended, depending on the elements of local and linear geometry, with significance for energy
loss at the fluid passing through the system (4).
Towards normal anatomical configuration interfere local and linear resistance factors, that
influence modulus M at all procedures of gastrectomy used. Here are few details that affect the
flow in the system: suppression of pyloric sphincter, the exclusion from circuit of the duodenum;
length of the afferent loop (AL): izo- or antiperistaltic montage; intestinal section type (longitudinal
or transverse). Other factors of resistance may be: parietal spur, anastomotic loop bends, imposed
by technique or accidental; the multitude layers of digestive suture; deficiencies by fixation of
anastomosis at mesocolic breach; adherence syndrome postoperatively that can deform AC.
Watching results from table 1 shows the most acceptable flowing in gastric resection BI (Péan), in
technique on loop in Y Roux (Y-R) and after gastric resection Leger (GRL). In the procedures BI
and Y-R, anastomosis of gastric stump with duodenum or jejunum is done end-to-end. In GRL
although it is a suture gastrojejunal end-to-side due to cross-enterotomy behave as one end-to-
end. Over time termino-terminal anastomoses can arrive sphincters comparable with the pylorus
(5).
The farthest flowing from normal anatomy is observed after techniques BII (R-P) and (H-F). Local
resistance elements from these techniques, reflected by modulus M and the time of emptying are:
long AL; hipofunctional segment between AL and EL, obliquity of mouth anastomosis; longitudinal
section of the jejunal wall (interruption circular muscular fibers), sutures in two plans, antiperistaltic
gastrojejunal montage etc.

Conclusions
The surgical intervention alters substantially the flow regardless of the process used after
gastrectomy by changing the local resistances.
The flow is acceptable after techniques that change as little the digestive tract (section flow) and
doesn’t affect its structure.
Deficient flow regime even if the simulation was done on models with rigid walls, it may reflected
the postoperative disorders.

References
1. Gheorghe C. – Fiziologia gastrică din Tratat de chirurgie vol.VIII, Partea I B - Chirurgie Generală
sub red. Popescu I. – Editura Academiei Române – Bucureşti 2008; 1299-1301.
2. Hăulică I. Fiziologie Umană- ediţia a III-a Editura Medicală, Bucureşti 2009; 484-94.
3. Filopovic N, Cvetkovic A, Isailovic V, Matovic Z, Rosic M, Kojic M. – Computer simulation of flow
and mixing at the duodenal stump after gastric resection – World J . Gastroenterol, 2009 Apr. 28;
15(160: 1990-8.
4. Opruţa D, Vaida L. – Dinamica fluidelor – Editura Mediamira, Cluj-Napoca 2004; 161-170.
5. Popovici Z, Borcean Gh. – Rezecţia gastrică tip Leger reprezintă oare un progres? Revista
Română de Chirurgie nr. 2, martie-aprilie 1986.
6. . Idelcic I. I., Indrumător pentru calculul rezistenţelor hidraulice, Ed. Tehnică, Bucureşti,
1984



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TESTING OF LINEAR PNEUMATIC ACTUATORS
WITH HYDRAULIC LOAD

Gabriela MATACHE
1
, Stefan ALEXANDRESCU
1
, Gheorghe SOVAIALA
1
, Ioan PAVEL
1
,
Iulian-Cezar GIRLEANU
1
1
INOE 2000– IHP Bucharest, e-mail:fluidas@fluidas.ro
Abstract: Actuators are execution elements used in automated mechatronic drives, which
generate the useful mechanical work, needed for the working machine, converting hydraulic power
generated by positive displacement pumps (Qm x p) into mechanical power (Mm x ω – for rotary
motors, respectively Fm x v- for linear motors).
Testing of linear pneumatic actuators, also called cylinders, by way of the load achieved through a
hydraulic system uses test equipment of original design that connects to a hydraulic supply station
and to an adjustable pressure air supply unit. Test device users will be companies manufacturing
pneumatic cylinders, those reconditioning, as well as training laboratories, top and medium level.

Keywords: pneumatic actuators, testing, checking, verification.
1. Introduction
Pneumatic execution elements, currently called pneumatic actuators, are intended to produce
useful mechanical work, needed for the working machine in achieving its function within the
specific drive chain. In terms of energy transformation, input, output and status variables, actuators
turn the pneumatic power (energy) supplied by the generating elements – Qm x p into mechanical
power – Fmx v at linear actuators or Mm x ω at rotary actuators- figure 1.1 and 1.2.
Qm - air flow at the engine input
(actuator)
p – input pressure
LA – linear actuator (cylinder)
RA – rotary actuator (motor)
Fm – force produced by the linear
actuator
v – piston speed
Mm – torque
ω – angular speed



Fig.1.1. Block diagram of linear actuator (LA)

Fig.1.2. Block diagram of rotary actuator (RA)

As it can be seen, hydraulic actuators are classified, in relation to the physical nature of the primary
movement performed, into:
- linear actuators;
- rotary actuators.
This article refers to the testing methodology in static mode of linear pneumatic actuators, with
wide application in automated drives. In standard constructive design, linear pneumatic actuators
are composed of a piston with rod, sealed in a liner, and caps, moving under the action of pressure
and airflow - figure1.3. Special constructive design cylinders, also known as pneumatic servo
cylinders, have in their structure devices that are controlled and programmed by proportional
pneumatic elements.




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Fig.1.3. Linear pneumatic actuator (cylinder)
1- brake rod head, 2-damper, 3- threaded sector of rod, 4- seals fitted piston, 5- seal guidance
for high speeds, 6- cap, 7- brake throttle

2. Verifying the pneumatic parts
Regardless the design of cylinders, on these devices in order to assess their quality, on the stand
there are performed, according to the international standards, the following verifications:
 type checking - at prototype, zero series and constructive changes;
 periodic checking - after a period of manufacturing or number of pieces;
 batch checking.
As part of the methods of verifying the quality, an important role is played by the functional checks
performed on pneumatic devices, which are performed on test stands: functional diagram,
pressure resistance, exterior and interior tightness, etc.

3. Describing the schematic diagram of the stand
Below is shown the diagram of a stand on which pneumatic cylinders are tested, the antagonistic
resistance force is achieved hydraulically – figure 3.1. Adjustment of testing force is performed by
two pressure valves in both directions of movement of the hydraulic cylinder rigidly connected to
the pneumatic actuator being tested.
On this stand the following checks can be performed:
- pneumostatic pressure resistance;
- exterior and interior tightness;
- operation in idle and load;
- starting pressure;
- minimum travel pressure of the piston;
- minimum and maximum travel speed of the piston;
- thrust and tensile forces;
- plotting the characteristic curves;
- operating time (endurance).




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Fig.3.1. Pneumohydraulic schematic diagram for checking pneumatic linear actuators

The test device reproduces under actual conditions operation of pneumatic cylinders on the
working machines, where the parameters pressure (which determines force), respectively flow
(which determines speed) vary depending on the working cyclogram. The main subassembly of the
stand is the test device that comprises the hydraulic load cylinder CHs/HCl, the pneumatic actuator
which is tested Alp/LAp, served by the pneumatic installation, measuring instruments and
transducers: pressure (TRp1,TRp2), force TRf, stroke TRc/TRst, and speed transducers
TRv/TRsp. The hydraulic load system is powered by a low pressure pump with adjustable flow rate
PH/HP, whose pressure is adjusted by the valve SP1/V1. Pump flow supplies the two chambers of
the cylinder load CHs/HCl and it is designed to eliminate cavitation in the system at piston
displacement. Pressure, adjustable in steps, by the valves SP1/V1 and SP2/V2, generates the load
(the antagonistic force) on pulling and pushing the cylinder rod CHs/HCl by the actuator being
tested.
Furthermore, it is illustrated how a pneumatic actuator is tested in operation at idle and under load:
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• after setting the pneumatic cylinder on the stand, the device is connected to the hydraulic
pumping unit and the pneumatic installation;
• there are performed 15 ... 20 idle strokes, constantly actuating the electromagnets E1 and
E2, and by turns E3 and E4;
• there are conducted tests under load in pressure steps – E1 and E2 not actuated, air
pressure being adjusted in the range 0…10 bar by the air preparation unit FRU, and load
pressure by valves SP1/V1 and SP2/V2. The pneumatic throttles DRp1/THp1 and DRp2/
THp2 are intended to adjust the speed of the pneumatic cylinder which is tested. For
working pressures lower than the minimum pressure adjusted by SP1/V1 and SP2/V2 there
are used throttles DRh1/THh1 and DRh2/THh2.
Electrical parameters transmitted by transducers to the data acquisition board, DAQ and computer
are then printed on the printer I/P.
When checking functionality of pneumatic actuators, information about pressure from pressure
transducers TRp1 and TRp2 and about force from TRf allow plotting the diagrams F =f(p) in
situations when the rod advances - fig.3.2 and when it draws back – fig.3.2, for various sizes of
pistons.


Fig.3.2. Variation of force depending on pressure
at rod advancing
Fig.3.3. Variation of force depending on
pressure at rod withdrawal

4. Conclusions
The stand has a large area of applicability at enterprises that manufacture pneumatic cylinders or
recondition them, in education within technical high schools, in training people under
POSDRU/HRD projects, and in case that it is computerized with transducers and computing
system it may be a component of the pneumatics, tribology, mechatronics laboratories in higher
education for experiments and research conducted by students and PhD students.

REFERENCES
[1] C. Cristescu, P.Drumea ,D. I.Guta, C. Dumitrescu, P. Krevey ‚’’Theoretical and experimental research
regarding the dynamic behaviour of linear hydraulic motors’’, Magazine: Hidraulica no. 1 - 2 / 2011, ISSN
1453 – 7303
[2] Assofluid, ’’Hydraulics in industrial and mobile application’’, Milano, September, 2007
[3] C. Cristescu, P.Drumea, “Mathematical modeling and numerical simulation of the tribologic behaviour of
mobile translation sealings subjected at high pressures”, Magazine no.2 (22), September 2008, ISSN 1453-
7303

http://www.festo.com/net/SupportPortal/Files/142581/8000912d6.pdf
http://www.festo.com/cat/ro_ro/products_DNC
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ANALYSIS OF PRESSURE IN BUCHAREST BETWEEN 2009-2012
Rusănescu Carmen Otilia
1
, Paraschiv Gigel
1
, Voicu Gheorghe
1
,

Dorel STOICA
1

1
University Polytechnic Bucharest, Biotechnical Faculty of Engineering, otiliarusanescu@yahoo.com

Abstract: In this paper, we monitored the weather station atmospheric pressure based on pressure
values recorded by the station, we calculated the statistical analysis of the minimum, maximum and
average atmospheric pressure in the years 2009-2012, and step values in the same range baric
analyzed .

Keywords: pressure, step barrel
1. Introduction
The pressure of the gaseous envelope surrounding the globe is called atmospheric pressure or
barometric pressure.
Studying the atmospheric pressure regime and the distribution shows great theoretical
importance because it allows explaining local circulation of the atmosphere, as well as meteorological
processes such as gas exchange between the atmosphere and soil, evaporation or
evapotranspiration.
Gravity is what keeps the atmosphere around the Earth and all her weight down its print them.
Value in any point on the Earth's surface is equal to the weight of a column of air between that point
and the upper limit of the atmosphere click on a unit area.[1]
Atmospheric pressure varies from one area to another depending on geographical latitude and
temperature.
Pressure determinations at any point on the Earth's surface and in all geographic conditions,
show that the pressure does not remain constant over time, presenting variations.
Pressure decreases with altitude. The decrease is not linear, but exponential - increase height in
arithmetic progression, the pressure drops in geometric progression.
For Romania maxima occur at 500 and 1400 hours (in J anuary) and 400, 1700 (in J uly), and
minima occur at times in 1000, 2200 (J anuary) and 900, 2400 (in J uly).

Figure 1 Daily variation of pressure [4]

Non-periodic variations and disturbances often called the most significant category designates the
pressure changes. Their main cause is the temperature variations that generates dynamic processes
in the atmosphere. Accidental pressure oscillations generally vary between 970mb and 1040 mb. In
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exceptional cases, where depressions pressure can drop up to 925 mb and if anticyclones can grow
up to 1070mb.
Atmospheric pressure varies with weather. In general, an increase in pressure means an
improvement in the weather, and a decrease in pressure means a worsening of weather.
Atmospheric pressure varies with altitude. As altitude is higher, the pressure will be lower. A good
approximation is: for every 100 m climb in altitude, the pressure varies by 10 mb. Is approximately
valid up to approximately 3000 m above sea level.

2. Materials and methods
Pressure was monitored with Weather Station: AWS / EV of ISB faculty, program version 2.3.2 Geco
MICROS SIAP program automatically records the following parameters: pressure, air temperature,
wind direction and speed, atmospheric humidity, solar radiation, rainfall [8].
Atmospheric pressure sensor (TBAR-V)
The sensor is in accordance with international specifications WMO (World Meteorological
Organization).
To optimize the measurement, the sensor is equipped with electronic control inside that automatically
compensates for temperature variations, ensuring good accuracy throughout operational. Structure
protection range is made of plastic.
Internal circuits are protected from atmospheric discharges and polarity.
This is an analog sensor with linear output signal ranging from 0 V to +2 VDC.
- Measuring range: 700 - 1100 mb (hPa)
- Sensitivity: 0.1 mb (hPa)
- Accuracy: +/ - 1.5 mb (hPa)
- Resolution: 0.1 mb (hPa)
- Linearity: +/ - 0.15% (full scale)
- Temperature: - 30-60 0C
- Power supply: +10 to +16 VDC
- Output signal: 0 V (700 MB / hPa) at V +2 (1100 MB / hPa)
- The sensor connector: 4 - pin female
- Mounting: with support provided (Ф mast 48-50 mm)

3. Results and discussion
Established law Laplace pressure variation with altitude. This complex is a logarithmic function.
For ease of calculation was introduced step barrel. This is the vertical distance, in meters, for which
there is a decrease in air pressure of 1 millibar.
Baric is calculated every step that can approximate a linear decrease of the pressure value as
follows:
- At sea level falls to 1 mb to 8.4 m and 1 mm Hg for every 11.2 m;
- From 5000 m to 1 mb pressure drop every 16 m;
- From 11000 m to 1 mb pressure drop every 32 m [6]
- In this paper, we calculate the barometric stage based on the following mathematical
relationships:
) 1 (
8000
t
p
h α + =
where: p =pressure;
α =coefficient of expansion of the gas (0,04);
t =temperature at that time;
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Evolution of atmospheric pressure values from one month to another is closely correlated with
both air temperature, and especially with the dynamic atmosphere that carry latitudes investigated
area baric air masses with different characteristics.
By statistical analysis based on the values of atmospheric pressure to stop we calculated the
minimum, maximum, average atmospheric pressure and the results are shown in Figures 1 a - 1 d


Figure 1 a Variation of the minimum, maximum, average pressure in 2009 in the city of Bucharest

It is apparent from the graph that the atmospheric pressure in the year 2009 in the month of J anuary
1027 mbar maximum and lowest value in September 700 mbar.


Figure 1 b Variation of the minimum, maximum, average pressure in 2010 in the city of Bucharest
Note that the maximum value was recorded in J anuary 1029 mbar and 933 mbar minimum in
December when the temperature was lower and.
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Figure 1 c Variation of the minimum, maximum, average pressure in 2011 in the city of Bucharest

The maximum value is 1026 mbar in March and the minimum pressure of 988 mbar was recorded in
J uly.

Figure 1 d Variation of the minimum, maximum, average pressure in 2012 in the city of Bucharest

This graph shows that the maximum value is 1027 mbar in J anuary, and the minimum is 981
mbar station recorded all in J anuary.
Note that the air pressure imposed temporary knows a great variability of the general
circulation of the atmosphere. Given the predominance of a regime anticyclone in winter, when heat
activates continental anticyclones strongly developed (Siberian and East European) and whose dorsal
extend beyond South East, it records the highest values of atmospheric pressure. Weather influences
the atmospheric pressure so a place can change over time. If atmospheric pressure grows we hope to
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have nice time, if the atmospheric pressure decreases we expect the weather to become ugly. So
atmospheric pressure varies from one place to another, varies with weather, altitude. When
atmospheric pressure decreases (that is the lower temperature in the mountains) air is thinning and
high atmospheric pressure air is more dense, more (when temperatures are high), sea.

We calculated the mean, maximum and minimum step baric in 2009-2012, based on the
values of air temperature and atmospheric pressure and the results are shown in Figure 2 a - 2 d.
Other authors in their work studied the statistical analyzes various materials [3,4,5,6].


Figure 2 a The minimum, maximum, average baric stage in 2009

In 2009 the value of the step baric was 19 m in J uly, the lowest value in J anuary of 1 m


Figure 2 b The minimum, maximum, average baric stage in 2010

In 2010 the highest value of baric stage was about 19 m in August, the lowest value in J anuary
of about 1 m

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Figure 2 c The minimum, maximum, average baric stage in 2011

In 2010 the highest value of baric stage was about 19 m in J uly, the lowest value in J anuary of
about 1 m.


Figure 2 d The minimum, maximum, average baric stage in 2012

Conclusions
From the foregoing it follows that Bucharest is still located in the temperate climate and the
Biotechnical Faculty of Engineering where the weather station is situated, is a protected area of
influence of winds but has the advantage in terms of the values of solar radiation, which may be
considered useful in the event the installation of solar panels.
Bucharest City fall transition moderate continental climate characteristic of the SE part of the
Pannonian Plain, with some Mediterranean influences (version Adriatic). Its general features are
marked by diversity and irregularity of atmospheric processes.
Movement of air masses from the west so in the cold persists and in the warm seasons and is
characterized by mild winters, often with liquid precipitation. Frequently, even during winter, arriving
from the Atlantic humid air masses, bringing significant rain and snow, less cold waves. Polar
circulation is determined by cyclones in the North Atlantic Ocean and is characterized by decreases in
temperature, cloudiness and precipitation in the form of sharp showers, and winter snowfall is
accompanied by intensification of the wind. From September to February is manifested frequent
intrusion of continental polar air masses coming from the East. However the influence is strongly felt
cyclones and warm air masses from the Mediterranean, which generates thaw winter and summer
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periods require stifling heat. Tropical circulation causes mild winters with large amounts of rainfall and
the summer a while unstable with rain showers and thunderstorms.
Cold and dry air masses are accompanied by land surface pressures higher than warm and
humid air masses. In turn, hot air, dry determined pressure greater than a mass of hot air as but not
wet. Replacement of air masses with different can mean changes in atmospheric pressure and time,
but the surface pressure fluctuations may present even without changing air masses because
pressure may decrease or increase as local air is heated or cooled.
In addition to changes in air pressure resulting from variations in the temperature and water vapor
content, the pressure may also be influenced by the type of air circulation. Winds diverge from a
central point on the earth's surface causes the center air descending from above, the diverging air
taking place, if the surface diverges more air than the top down, the air density and pressure drop. In
the case of wind converging to a point on the earth's surface, if more air than converge rises to higher
altitudes, the air density and pressure increase.



REFERENCES

[1] APOSTOL L. – „Meteorologie si climatologie”, Editura Universitatii Suceava 2000
[2] N. Topor, V. Mosoiu, N. Vancea - Meteorologie Aeronautica 1967
[3] D. Stoica, G Stanciu: “Influence the degree of sorting the separation process a conical sieve”
Digest J ournal of Nanomaterials and Biostructures Vol. 8, No. 2, April - J une 2013, p. 513 - 518
[4]Irina Istrate, Diana Cocârță, Silvia Neamțu, Talida Cirlioru, The assessment of an alternative
treatment for PCB polluted soils in the romanian context - bench scale tests, 2012, Water air and soil
pollution, vol 224 (4),DOI: 10.1007/s11270-013-1516-2, ISSN: 0049-6979 (print version), ISSN: 1573-
2932 (electronic version);
[5] Dumitru Popovici, George Strejea, Ion Mihaila – Performante si limite umane in aviatie , Bucuresti
2009.
[6] C. O. Rusănescu, G. Paraschiv, G. Voicu, M. Rusănescu - Comparative Analysis of Atmospheric
Temperature Values, Relative Humidity In 2009 And 2010 In West Side Of Bucharest City, Bulletin
USAMV Agriculture, 68(2)/2011, Print ISSN 1843-5246; Electronic ISSN 1843-5386, pag. 130-138
[7] Rusănescu Carmen Otilia – Îndrumar de meteorologie si climatologie, Editura Matrix Rom,
Bucuresti 2013






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EXPERIMENTAL TESTING OF A LOW SPEED HYDRAULIC MOTOR WITH
AXIAL PISTONS
drd. ing. Laura GRAMA
1
, dr.ing. Daniel BANYAI
2
, dr. ing. Liviu VAIDA
3

1
Technical University of Cluj-Napoca,laura.grama@termo.utcluj.ro
2
Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, daniel.banyai@termo.utcluj.ro
3
Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, liviu.vaida@termo.utcluj.ro

Abstract:In the paper is presented a new design of low speed hydraulic motor with axial pistons. It
work stable at low speeds providing high torque. Another important advantagethat brings this new
model of stepper motor is the precision of the angular position that can be achieved. Also it is
cheaper then electric motors with the same power.The paper presents the results from tests with
an experimental model. Analyzing these results can be said that the motor fulfills the requirements
on its steady and dynamic behavior.
Keywords:Hydraulic motor, axial pistons, low speed.

1.Design of the new low speed hydraulic motor
The hydrostatic motors have apppeared and been used from the 17th century. Inclined
shaft motors, working at high pressure have been developed by Thoma in 1930. In 1950 axial
piston motors with tilted disc successfully emerged. Over time there have been researches on
hydraulic piston motor, in increasing their performances and accuracy. [2], [3], [4], [7].
Rotary hydraulic motors have to ensure great stability of movement in a wide range of
variation of the output values (1 rev/min ... 3000 rev/min) and aratio between active torqueand
moment of inertia, grater then electrical drives for the same power. [2], [3], [4].
In case of heavy loads at low speed, we need “slow” running motors that work stable at low
speeds and provide high torque. Starting with this premise, it is developed a version of a hydraulic
motor with axial pistons that is shown in figure 1. Through this design it was intended to adjust the
motor speed without dissipating energy by adjusting the feed rate, but which is able to transmit to
the shaft of the motor a greater torque for the entire speed range. [1], [5], [6].
The piston block is attached to the motor housing (8) and secured against rotation. The
pistons (4) are arranged in a circle in the block, having the axes parallel to the axis of the piston
port block. In line movement is determined by supplying the piston chambers with pressure oil via
rotary distributor (6). Turning it is done with a rotary electric motor (stepper motor or DC electric
motor (7)).
Pistons of the hydraulic motor (4) under the action of the pressurized fluid perform a
reciprocating motion in contact with a tilting drive. The pistons are acting on the disc by means of
connecting rods having both ends spheric. Removing the piston rod and the disk is prevented by
their crimping pistons, or by means of a retaining plate attached to the disc.
Due to the alternative movement of the pistons, to a full turn of the rotary distributor, the
tilted disc performs a swinging movement around its axis. Rotating the distributor allows the
pistons to connect to the supply and tank connections through the holes in the block and windows
made inside the block.
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The rotary distributor must ensure hermetic sealing of cylinder pistons near dead points,
areas that allow connecting the cylinders alternatively to the pressure or tank. Through the rotary
distributor it separates the high of low pressure zone of the motor.

Fig.1. Low speed hydrauli c motor: 1 – shaft, 2 – dri ven gear, 3 – drive gear (tilted disc), 4 – piston,5 –
piston block port, 6 – di stribuitor, 7 – el ectric motor, 8 – housing.

2. Description of the experimental stand
Schematic diagram of the testingstand is shown in Figure 2 and the panoramic description
of the rig is shown in Figure 3.

Fig. 2. Scheme of the experimental stand.
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The elements numbered in Figure 3 are the following:
1. Control panel for electrical motor;
2. Electric stepper motor;
3. Low speed hydraulic motor;
4. Hydraulic brake;
5. Pressure sensor;
6. Hand pump;
7. Device for measuring the pressure;
8. dSpace panel;
9. Computer.

Fig. 3. Experimental rig (overview image).
Figure 4represents the application made in MathLab Simulink software, performed for
command and data acquisition of the experimental stand.[9]
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Fig. 4. Control and data acquisition application
Graphic blocks marked "From Real World" and "To Real World" correspond to functions for
accessing hardware resources dSpace system. Amplification blocks serve to scale physical
quantities in the interval [-1,1]. Block "Signal Generator" transmits the frequency that control the
electric stepper motor which drives the distributor.
With the Control Desk software was made a GUI for controlling and viewing the
parameters. According to figure 5, this interface contains a block for entering numerical frequency
for electrical stepper motor, two display windows for pressures. Speed of the hydraulic motor and
distributor are plotted in two separate windows. [8]

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Fig. 5. GUI for data acquisition and control
3. Conducting experiments
There has been two series of experiments. In a first series, no load was considered, for
different supply pressures. For each value of the supply pressure were ordered seven different
speeds, introducing at the keyboard interface feed rate values corresponding to the stepper motor.
In this case the power supply of the motor was determined by the relationship:
[ ]
600
source
Q p
P kW

=
(1)
Where:
Q- flow [l/min];
p- pressure [bar].
The measured values from the experimetal research, are shown in Table 1.
Tab. 1. Testing without load
Nr.
crt.
Supply
pressure [bar]
Speed at
stepper
motor
[rot/min]
Speed at
hydraulic
motor
[rot/min]
Pressure
hydraulic
brake
[bar]
Braking
torque
[Nm]
Power
source
[kW]
Power
hydraulic
motor
[kW]
1
30
100 2
0 - 0,675 -
2 150 3
3 200 4
4 250 5
5 300 6
6 400 8
7 500 10
8
45
100 2
0 - 1,01 -
9 150 3
10 200 4
11 250 5
12 300 6
13 400 8
14 500 10
15
60
100 2
0 - 1,351 - 16 150 3
17 200 4
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18 250 5
19 300 6
20 400 8
21 500 10

A second series of experiments was performed by placing a load torque on the motor,
again for different supply pressures and the drive speed of the distributor.
For the test conditions, the values of the power supply has been calculated with the
equation (1), the braking torque determined with (2) and the motor power with (3):

[ ]
2
med
fr p fr
d
M F Nm µ = ⋅ ⋅
(2)

[ ]
motor
P M kW ω = ⋅ (3)
Where:
d
med
- the mean diameter of the braking disc [mm];
μ- friction coefficient;
F
p fr
- braking force [N];
ω- angular velocity [rot/min];
M- torque [Nm].
The parameter values for this series of measurements are presented in Tables 2, 3, 4, for
maximun pressure of 30, 45, 60 bar.
The values for the measurements at the supply pressure of 30 bar is given Table 2.
Tab. 2. Testing at 30 bar
Nr.
crt.
Speed at
stepper motor
[rot/min]
Speed at
hydraulic
motor
[rot/min]
Pressure
hydraulic
brake
[bar]
Braking
torque
[Nm]
Power
source
[kW]
Power
hydraulic
motor
[kW]
1 100
2
3,6 19,94
0,675
0,268
2 150
3
3,2 17,72 0,278
3 200
4
2,7 14,95 0,313
4 250
5
1,8 9,97 0,261
5 300
6
1,2 6,64 0,208
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6 400
8
0,8 4,43 0,185
7 500
10
0,4 2,21 0,116

Data from measurements made at a pressure of 45 bar can be seen in Table 3.
Tab. 3. Testing at 45 bar
Nr.
crt.
Speed at
stepper motor
[rot/min]
Speed at
hydraulic
motor
[rot/min]
Pressure
hydraulic
brake
[bar]
Braking
torque
[Nm]
Power
source
[kW]
Power
hydraulic
motor
[kW]
1 100
2
5,9 32,68
1,01
0,342
2 150
3
5,5 30,47 0,478
3 200
4
4,8 26,59 0,556
4 250
5
4,1 22,71 0,594
5 300
6
1,8 9,97 0,313
6 400
8
1,2 6,64 0,278
7 500
10
0,6 3,32 0,173

Table 4 displays the experimental data from testing at 60 bar.
Tab. 4. Testing at 60 bar
Nr.
crt.
Speed at
stepper motor
[rot/min]
Speed at
hydraulic
motor
[rot/min]
Pressure
hydraulic
brake
[bar]
Braking
torque
[Nm]
Power
source
[kW]
Power
hydraulic
motor
[kW]
1 100
2
6,9 38,22
1,35
0,400
2 150
3
6,6 36,56 0,573
3 200
4
6,3 34,90 0,730
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4 250
5
6 33,24 0,869
5 300
6
5,3 29,36 0,922
6 400
8
3,8 21,05 0,881
7 500
10
2,7 14,95 0,782

4. Experimental results
For experiments without load at the motor shaft, there has been done the following actions:
• It was fix the supply pressure of the low speed hydraulic motor at 60 bar;
• The values for the speeds of the rotary distributor (100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 400, 500 rot /
min);
• For each value of speed were drawn response diagrams depending of the slow speed
hydraulic motor (Figure 6).

Fig. 6. Diagram of speed at 100 rot/min value.

For the other speeds distributor diagram is still linear, with values from Table 1.

For sets of measurements with load:
• Three values for supply pressure were successively set (30, 45, 60 bar);
• For each value for maximum pressure, the values for the speeds of the rotary
distributor (100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 400, 500 rot / min);
• For each value for maximum pressure,was increased the load until the motor speed
was zero;
• For each set of measurements diagrams were drawn (Fig. 7, Fig. 8,Fig. 9).
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Fig. 7. Supply pressure 30 bar, speed distribuitor 100 rot/min.

For other speeds of the distributor, the diagrams look the same except that the values given
in Table 2.

Fig. 8. Supply pressure 45 bar, speed distribuitor 100 rot/min.

The other diagrams are the same, only the values, shown in Table 3.

Fig. 9. Supply pressure 60 bar, speed distribuitor 100 rot/min.

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For other values of speed, diagrams have a similar shape, the values are presented in
Table 4.

5. Conclusions
Were clarified the parameters which strongly influences the behavior of the low speed
motor, leading thus to find ways to improve their performance.
The trend of increasing the pressures is limited for these motors because the pressure in
thepistons chambers made forces acting on the gear teeth so the materials used require special
measures.
Finally we can say that the new hydraulic motor behaves as a dynamic system very stable
at real operating conditions. Compared to equivalent electrical systems, they are robust, reliable
and have a small size, also can achieve very small angular displacements and high torques.

6. REFERENCES
[1]Banyai D.V., „Metode noi în sinteza maşinilor hidraulice, cu volum unitar variabil şi reglare electro-
hidraulică”, teză de doctorat, 2011.
[2]Banyai D., Vaida L., Năşcuţiu L., Opruţa D., Giurgea C, Marcu I.L., Synoptic view of the latest trends in
hydraulic actuation, ICMS 2009, Buletinul Institutului Politehnic din Iași, Tom.LVI (LX), Fasc.1, Secția
Construcţii de Maşini, p.148-155, ISSN 1011-2855, Iași, 2010.
[3]Deacu L., “Hidraulica maşinilor unelte”, Ed. Dacia, Cluj-Napoca, 1989.
[4]Drumea P., Echipamente mecatronice cu structură hidraulică, Simpozion HERVEX, Olănești, 1999.
[5]Vaida, L.,Năşcuţiu, L., Deacu, L., Stand experimental pentru determinarea caracteristicilor motoarelor
hidraulice, Buletin informativ – HIDRAULICA, Institutul de cercetări pentru hidraulică şi pneumatică,
Bucureşti, 1999. ISSN/453-7303.
[6]Vaida L., Opruţa D., Năşcuţiu L., Implementarea pompelor si motoarelor reglabile electro-hidraulice în
sisteme informatizate de conducere a maşinilor, Lucrările celui de-al III-lea Simpozion, Metode moderne
în ingineria echipamentelor hidro, Editura Politehnica, Hidrotim S.A., p. 134, ISBN 973-8247-45-4,
Timişoara, 27-28 septembrie 2001.
[7]*** www.assofluid.it.
[8]*** www.dspace.de.
[9]*** www.mathworks.com.



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SONIC EFFECTS OF A UNCONVENTIONAL HEAT INSTALLATIONS
Prof.dr. eng. Carmen BAL
1
,prof. dr. eng.Nicolaie BAL
2
, lecturer eng. Lucian Marcu
3
,eng.
Carmen Ioana IUHOS
4

1
Technical University of Cluj Napoca, carmen.bal@dppd.utcluj.ro;
2,3
Technical University of Cluj Napoca, nicubal@yahoo.com.
3
S.C. BROKER SA; bic_tkd@yahoo.com.

Abstract:The present work aims, through the theme addressed, to make some contributions to a
better knowledge of the problems related to the study of theoretical and experimental sonicity in
heat transfer.
Based on these considerations, it has built a stand allowing implementation of the theory of sonics
actuator systems with harmonic flow rates to send sonic energy and remote to turn into heat by
friction between the phenomenon of the column of fluid friction and resistance.The stand consists
of hydraulic pump, capacitors, tubes and resistance of friction.In the present work the experimental
version of the installation is the serial installation: small condenser monted after friction resistance

Keywords: sonic pressure, sonic flow, sonic capacity, friction resistance, condenser..
1.Introduction
The present work aims, through the theme addressed, to make some contributions to a better
knowledge of the problems related to the study of theoretical and experimental sonicity in heat
transfer.
Sonic enables the actuators make optimum facilities offered by ease of processing electrical
signals (low energy) actuators make.sonic with high power and efficiency, which give the possibility
to eliminate the biggest parts of a classic waterworks (reservoirs, hydraulic valves, differential
pressure control, flow path, etc.), resulting in an actuator that combines the best opportunities
offered by processing technique of low-power signals and sonic compact actuators make, high-
efficiency, low-volume, so very economical.
The great inventor Gogu Constantinescu has spent an enormous energy to convince the world that
liquids are compression connectors with a lot more than they accept, and this property is essential
for the propagation of vibrations in liquids.
As has been said right from her appearance, the sonics is in correspondence with electricity, and
sonic transmissions are similar to AC electrical transmissions.Considering the above analogy,
compressing liquids is equivalent to proving the charge build-up in a capacitor.
Sonic transmission is achieved by vibration, and at the beginning of the 20
th
century, believed that
the energy of vibration is a degrading form of energy that can not only turn into heat. It was
unthinkable that in a system of vibration can get work with high efficiency.
Based on these considerations, it has built a stand allowing implementation of the theory of sonics
actuator systems with harmonic flow rates to send sonic energy and remote to turn into heat by
friction between the phenomenon of the column of fluid friction and resistance.
The stand consists of hydraulic pump, capacitors, tubes and resistance of friction. To find the
version with maximum efficiency experiments were made in several versions of the stand:
1. stand consisting of: pump, resistance and a capacitor connected in series;
2. stand consisting of: pump, stamina and two capacitors fitted in parallel;
3. stand consisting of: pump friction resistance and two capacitors fitted in the series;
4. stand consisting of: pump friction resistance and capacitive with two cylinders mounted in the
extension.

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2. Experimental research

Experimental research focused on getting the calorie effect of heat transmission through the
vibrations (sonic waves in fluids). Such research has been conducted on the stand, starting from
the different frequencies of the propulsion engine piston sonic generator. For each frequency were
conducted three static pressure measurements in the plant having the values(0; 0,25;0,5; 0,75; 1;
1,25; 1,5) bar.
In the present work the experimental version of the Installation in the series:Small condenser
monted after friction resistance.
The stand on which the trials were made is the one shown in Figure 1. Sonic generator from
leaving a pipe which connects withthe resistance of friction "R
f
" which is connected to the small
condenser whose volume is V =1462,411 10
3
mm
3
.
After processing files with experimental data obtained from the three sensors fitted in the system is
the result of primary form of histogram shown in figure 2. This illustrates the pressure generator
and developments at the two capacitors. Also you can see the speed of the generator (via view-
position curve generator). Pressure curve evolution reveals a phase shift between the generator
and pressure the pressure in the capacitors.



















Fig. 1 Scheme of experimental stand
1. electric motor; 2- proximity sensor; 3- elastic coupling;
4- Sonic pump; 5, 8, 10- pressure sensors; 6- temperature sensor; 7- resistance of friction; 9- small
capacitor; 11- large condenser; 12, 14- tap, 13- pump; 15- oil tank.
1
2 3 4 6 7 8 9 10
11
12 13
14
15
A B C
A B C
A B C
e
M
5

Fig.2. The evolution in time to mount pressure withsmall capacitor in series

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Research has been conducted on the arranged as in Figure 1.
Figure 3 and 4 have represented diagrams of pressure and temperature variation in function of
time and speed for static pressure of 0 Pa. pressures on those two cylinders not capacitive
changed instead to pressure generator remains constant around smaller 40E+05 Pa.

In the graphs of resultsnote:
- ΔG- sonic's pressure variation at sensor pump 5;
- ΔS1-pressure variation obtained from the pressure sensor 8;
- ΔS2-pressure variation obtained from the pressure sensor 10;
- T-temperature.
Although the speed was very high temperature of 2200 rpm failed to exceed 30° C, there may be
air in the plant whereas after a period of time it was stopped by the electric motor.
In Figure 5 and Figure 6 he represented diagrams of pressure and temperature variation in
function of time and speed for static pressure of 0,5E+05 Pa. In this situation it becomes apparent
that pressures on pressure sensors are on cylinders are approximately equal and constant having
a pressure of about 50E +05 Pa. Pressure generator is labile, and after about 50 got a jump up to
250E+05 Pa, at which point the engine shutdown occurs. The temperature does not exceed 48°C
until turning off the electric motor.
n = 1400 rot/min p
s
= 0 Pa


Fig.3 Chart of the variation of pressure and temperature depending on the
time of static pressure of 0 Pa
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
0 20 40 60 80
t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
a

[
º
C
]
p
r
e
s
i
u
n
i

[
E
+
0
5

P
a
]
timp [ms]
Δ G Δ S1 Δ S2 T [ºC]


Fig.4 Diagram speed variation depending on time for static pressure 0 Pa
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n = 800 rot/min p
s
= 0,5E+05 Pa


Fig. 5.Diagram of variation of pressure and temperature
depending on the time of static pressure of 0,5E+05 Pa

p
s
= 0,5E+05 Pa

Fig. 6.Diagram speed depending on variationfor static pressure 0,5E+05 Pa


n = 800 rot/min p
s
= 2 E+05 Pa


Fig.7.Diagram of variation of pressure and temperature
depending on the time of static pressure of 2E+05 Pa
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
0 10 20 30 40 50
t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
a
p
r
e
s
i
u
n
e

[
E
+
0
5

P
a
]
timp [s]
Δ G Δ S1 Δ S2 T [ºC]
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p
s
= 2E+05 Pa


Fig. 8 Diagram speed depending on variationfor static pressure 2E+05 Pa

Figure 7 and 8 he represented diagram of pressure and temperature variation in function of time,
as well as the stages for static pressure of 2E +05 PA. The speed was 1400 RPM. the pressures
the two cylinders are approximately constant and equal to the smaller 40E+05 Pawhile the
pressure generator increases continuously up to 150E+05Pa, after which there is a drop in
pressure taking place and stop the engine electric. The maximum temperature reached is 70 °C.
3. Conclusions
From the analysis of the above charts can be drawn the following conclusions:
-the largest influence on the increased pressure and temperature in the plant a revolution, which
has the higherpower the higher the faster the pressure and temperature;
-static pressure in the plant to a lesser extent influences the evolution of temperature in friction
resistance;
-the pressure in the cylinder increases much faster than in the case of linking in large cylinder
series;
-because the electric motor turns off after a short period of operation (about 1 min) is not
recommended for the standconsists of a resistance of friction and a cylinder.
p
s
=2E+05 Pa


Fig. 8 Diagram speed depending on variationfor static pressure 2E+05 Pa
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Experimental results achieved with other pressures and revs were not significant strengthening the
conviction not to recommend us connections in this form.

REFERENCES
1. Abrudean, M., 1998, Teoria sistemelor şi reglare automată, Editura Mediamira, Cluj-Napoca,.
2. Constantinesco, G., 1918, Theory of Sonics: A Treatise on Transmission of Power by
Vibrations, The Admiralty, London,
3. Constantinescu, G., 1985, Teoria sonicităţii, Editura Academiei R.S.R., Bucureşti ,
4. Carmen Bal, (2007), The caloric effect in the circuits by harmonic flow, Cluj Napoca, Ed. ALMA
MATER, ISBN 978-973-7898-75-3.
5. Carmen Bal, (2006), Research and contributions about the drive systems with the harmonic
flow, the doctoral thesis Technical University of Cluj Napoca.
6. Pop I. Ioan, Marcu Lucian,Carmen Bal ş.a., (2007), Sonicity applications. Experimenthal
results. Iaşi, Ed. Performantica, ISBN 978-973-730-391-2.
7. Pop, I., Khader, M., Marcu, I. L, s.a, 1999, Modern hydraulics. Pneumatics, Editura U.T.Pres,
Cluj-Napoca,
8. Pop, I., Marcu, I. L., s.a,2004, Acţionări hidraulice moderne. Pneumatică, Editura U.T.Pres,
Cluj-Napoca,.
9. Pop, I., Marcu, I. L., 2004., Personalităţi în ştiinţă şi tehnică - Gogu Constantinescu, Editura
AGIR, Bucureşti,
10. Pop, I., 2006, Tratat de teoria sonicităţii,Editura Perfomantica, Iasi.

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ANALYTICAL MODEL OF THE CONNECTION PIPES OF THE
ALTERNATING FLOW DRIVEN HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS
Ioan-Lucian MARCU
1
, Daniel-Vasile BANYAI
1

1
Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Lucian.Marcu@termo.utcluj.ro
1
Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Daniel.Banyai@termo.utcluj.ro


Abstract: The paper presents the specific equations that are defining the transfer functions of the
connection pipes of the alternating flow driven hydraulic systems, determined based on each
component specific characteristics like fluid and pipe elasticity, inertia, friction and leaks. Also there
are presented the relations which are defining the amplitude and the phase alteration.
Keywords: analytical model, alternating flow, hydraulic system
1. General aspects
Alternating flow driven systems involves a new approach of the driving systems using
pressurized liquids, because we have here, in the entire system, along the pipes, an energy
transmissions without volumetric flow transportation between the energy converters, hydraulic
generator and hydraulic motor. [5], [7], [8]
Generally, an alternating flow driven hydraulic transmission consists in a alternating flows and
pressures generator (G) and a motor (M), the connection between them being realized with a number
of pipes equal with the number of phases (Phase 1, Phase 2 and Phase 3), the pipes being filled with
fluid at a certain pressure (pre-established with an hydraulic accumulator Ac), figure 1. During the
functioning of the system the pressure and the flow within each pipe varies in a sinusoidal way, around
an average value.
Rz
1
Rz
2
G
ME
~
C
Rz
3
Ac
R
Phase 3
Phase 2
Phase 1
M
~

Fig. 1. Principle schema of an alternating flows and pressures drive hydraulic system.
In order to have a proper functioning it is compulsory that this average pressure from each pipe
to have the same value and to have a constant value in time. Therefore, to obtain the correct
functionality we create from the beginning either a pressure in each phase, higher than the amplitude
maximum value, or this pressure is modifying itself during the functioning.
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2. Anal ytical model of the alternating flow driven hydraulic systems
The precision of the analyzed aspects, the design and the physical realization of an
automatically system depends on the complete modeling possibilities, using characteristic equations
for each component. It is also very important the correct determination of each constant value from the
equations structure which involve the establishment of the frequency functions.
The transfer functions of the elements (components) represent the rate between the Laplace
transformations of the output respectively input signal, for null initial conditions.
The general effect of using the Laplace transformation is the reducing of difficulty order of the
problems. The transfer function algebra contains some rules which allow combining the transfer
functions of many components and finally to obtain the transfer function of the entire assembly of
individual elements. [1], [4]
The transfer function of the entire system was determined considering that the input signal is a
harmonic one (sinusoidal), signal provided by alternative movement of the hydraulic generator piston,
and the output signal is also harmonic, but having an amplitude and phase angle alteration. [8]
The dynamic system schema is represented in figure 2.


Fig. 2. Representation of the hydraulic pressure losses in the connection pipe.

We assume that the governing equation for the instantaneous flow are: [5], [7]
( )
0 max
sin ϕ ω + ⋅ = t Q Q
a i
(1)
In which:
2
max
g g
a
S h
Q
⋅ ⋅
=
ω
(2)
The instantaneous flow Q
i
, equation (1), provided by the generator, is producing a variation
due to the combined effect of the frictions, capacity, inertia and leaks, figure 2. The dependences
between these instantaneous pressures and instantaneous flow are: [7]
i f if
Q C p ⋅ = (3)
dt
dQ
L p
i
iL
⋅ = (4)

⋅ ⋅ = dt Q
C
p
i
h
iC
1
(5)
P
i
iP
C
Q
p = (6)
The friction coeficient is:
c c
c
f
d S g
l
C
ef
V
⋅ ⋅
⋅ ⋅ ⋅
=
2
γ ε

(
¸
(

¸

5
m
s N
(7)
in which:
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ε - no dimensional coefficient;
γ - the specific weight of the oil [kg/m
3
];
l
c
- the length of the pipe [m];
V
ef
- the oil speed [m/s];
g - the gravitational acceleration [m/s
2
];
S
c
- the pipe area [m
2
];
d
c
- the inside diameter of the pipe [m].
Using experimental researches the coefficient ε is estimated by the equation: [7]
c ef
d V ⋅
+ =
18 , 0
02 , 0 ε (8)
The inertia or the hydraulic inductance is defined by the equation:
c
c
S g
l
L


=
γ

(
¸
(

¸


5
2
m
s N
(9)
The hydraulic capacity, considering the oil and pipe compressibility is:
|
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

⋅ + ⋅ =
1
5 , 1 5 , 2
1 1
2
2
0
int
int
c
c
c
c
conducta ulei
h
d
d
d
d
E E
V C
ext
ext

(
¸
(

¸

N
m
5
(10)
in which:
V
0
- the initial oil volume from the pipe [m
3
];
E
ulei
- elasticity modulus of the oil [N/m
2
];
E
conducta
- elasticity modulus of the pipe [N/m
2
];

ext
c
d - the inner diameter of the pipe [m];

int
c
d - the outer diameter of the pipe [m].
The coefficient which is defining the hydraulic leaks can be evaluated using the formula: [2]
η
π
12
3
h d
C
p
⋅ ⋅
= (11)
The combined effect of the friction, inertia, capacity and leaks, figure 2, is expressed by
summing the specific pressures, defined by the relations (3), (4), (5) and (6), obtaining in this way:
iP iC iL if i
p p p p p + + + = (12)
or:
P
i
i
h
i
i f i
C
t Q
dt t Q
C dt
t dQ
L t Q C t p
) (
) (
1 ) (
) ( ) ( + ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ =

(13)
Using the Laplace transformation we obtain:
) (
1
) (
1
) ( ) ( ) ( s Q
C
s Q
s C
s Q s L s Q C s p
i
P
i
h
i i f i
⋅ + ⋅

+ ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ = (14)
or:
) (
1 1
) ( s Q
s C
s L
C
C s p
i
h P
f i

|
|
.
|

\
|

+ ⋅ + + = (15)
In this way:
) ( ) ( ) (
*
s Q s F s p
i c i
⋅ = (16)

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ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 3/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics

in which:
s C
s L
C
R
s Q
s p
s F
h P
f
i
i
c

+ ⋅ + + = =
1 1
) (
) (
) (
*
(17)
is representing the transfer function of the pipe.
The equation (17) can be reconsidered like:
s C
s C
C
C s C L
s F
h
h
P
f h
c

+ ⋅ ⋅
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + ⋅ ⋅
=
1
1
) (
2
*
(18)
The Laplace operator is ω ⋅ = j s [6], and in this way the equation (18) is:
) (
1 ) (
1
) (
) (
2
*
ω
ω ω
ω
j C
j C
C
C j C L
j F
h
h
P
f h
c

+ ⋅ ⋅
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + ⋅ ⋅
=
or:
h
P
f h h
c
C j
C
C C j C L
j F
⋅ ⋅
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ −
=
ω
ω ω
ω
1
1
) (
2
*
(19)
considering: 1
2
− = j .
The transfer function of the pipe can by expressed like:
|
|
.
|

\
|

− ⋅ ⋅ +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
h P
f c
C
L j
C
C j F
ω
ω ω
1 1
) (
*
(20)
The real and the imaginary components are:
P
f
C
C
1
Re + = (21)
and:
h
C
L

− ⋅ =
ω
ω
1
Im (22)
In this way, the amplitude and the phase alteration of the transfer function of the pipe is defined
by the equations:
2 2
*
1 1
) (
|
|
.
|

\
|

− ⋅ +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
h P
f c
C
L
C
C j F
ω
ω ω (23)
and:
P
f
h
c
C
C
C
L
arctg j F
1
1
) (
*
+

− ⋅
= <
ω
ω
ω (24)
Knowing that the input signal, the instantaneous flow is harmonic equation (1), then the output
signal will be also harmonic, but having a different amplitude and phase alteration. Then, the output
signal which is the instantaneous pressure is defined by:
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ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 3/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics

|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

− ⋅
+ + ⋅
|
|
.
|

\
|

− ⋅ +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ ⋅ =
P
f
h
h P
f a i
C
C
C
L
arctg t
C
L
C
C Q p
1
1
sin
1 1
0
2 2
max
ω
ω
ϕ ω
ω
ω (25)
From equation (25), using the equations (23) and (24), we obtain the amplitude of the output
pressure, like:
2 2
max max
1 1
|
|
.
|

\
|

− ⋅ +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ ⋅ =
h P
f a a
C
L
C
C Q p
ω
ω (26)
and the phase alteration:
P
f
h
c
C
C
C
L
arctg
1
1
+

− ⋅
=
ω
ω
ψ (27)
If we not taking into account the hydraulic leaks coefficient C
p
, then the transfer function
defined by the equation (18) is:
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ =
h
f c
C
s C s L
s
s F
1 1
) (
2 *
(28)
Another form of the transfer function of the pipe is:
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅

= 1
2 1 1
) (
2
2
*
s s
C s
s F
nc
c
nc h
c
ω
δ
ω
(29)
in which the natural frequency is defined by:
h
nc
C L⋅
=
1
ω (30)
and the damping ratio of the pipe is:
L
C
C
h
f
c
⋅ =
2
δ (31)
Considering the Laplace operator ω ⋅ = j s we obtain a new expression of the transfer function:
h
nc nc
c
c
C
j
j F

|
|
.
|

\
|
− ⋅ +
=
ω
ω
ω
ω
δ
ω
1
2
) (
2
2
*
(32)
The natural frequency becomes:
|
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

⋅ + ⋅

=
1
5 , 1 5 , 2
1 1
1
2
2
2
int
int
c
c
c
c
conducta ulei
c
nc
d
d
d
d
E E g
l
ext
ext
γ
ω (33)
Also, the damping ratio of the pipe will be:
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ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 3/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics

|
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

⋅ + ⋅


⋅ ⋅ ⋅
⋅ ⋅ ⋅
=
1
5 , 1 5 , 2
1 1
4
2
2
2
int
int
c
c
c
c
conducta ulei
c
c c
c
c
d
d
d
d
E E
S g
d S g
l
ext
ext
ef
V
γ
γ ε
δ (34)
In this way, the new equation defining the amplitude and phase alteration are:
2
2
2
2
2
*
1
4 1
) (
|
|
.
|

\
|
− + ⋅

=
nc nc
c
h
c
C
j F
ω
ω
ω
δ
ω
ω (35)
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
− ⋅ = < 1
2
) (
2
2
*
nc c
nc
c
arctg j F
ω
ω
δ
ω
ω (36)

3. Conclusions

The objective of this study was a new approach of the hydraulic drives, in which the pressure
and flow is not continuously transmitted between the energy converters (pumps and motors).
The analytical model concern the connection pipes, taking into account some specific
characteristics like fluid and pipe elasticity, the fluid inertia, the fluid friction and also the leaks.
Simulating this model we can observe the possibility to adjust, during the functioning, the input
parameters, in order to obtain the anticipated output values of some parameters.

REFERENCES
[1] Coloşi, T., Ignat, I., "Elemente de teoria sistemelor şi reglaj automat", Lito. IPCN, Cluj-Napoca, 1981.
[2] Deacu, L., Pop, I., "Hidraulica maşinilor-unelte", Lito. I.P.C.N., Cluj-Napoca, 1983.
[3] Marcu, I.L., Pop, I. “Interconnection possibilities for the working volumes of the alternating hydraulic motors”
Proc. of the 6th International Conference on Hydraulic Machinery and Hydrodynamics - HMH2004 in Trans.
of Mechanics, Tom 49 (63), Timisoara, October 2004, ISSN 1224-6077, pp. 365-370.
[4] Ogata, K., System dynamics, Pretince-Hall, Englewood Clifs, New J ersey 07632.
[5] Pop, I. et all, "Conventional Hydraulics", Ed. U.T.PRES, Cluj-Napoca, 1999.
[6] Pop, I., et all, "Machines-tools acoustics and dynamics", Editura U.T.Pres, Cluj-Napoca, 2000.
[7] Pop, I., "Sonic Theory Treatise", Ed. Performantica, Iasi, (2006).
[8] Pop, I. et all, "Sonics Applications. Experimental Results", Ed. Performantica, Iasi, 2007.

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