You are on page 1of 96

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No.

1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics


CONTENTS

• EDITORIAL
Petrin DRUMEA

5 - 6
• HYDRAULIC SWITCHING CONTROL – OBJECTIVES, CONCEPTS,
CHALLENGES AND POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS
Rudolf SCHEIDL, Helmut KOGLER, Bernd WINKLER

7 - 18
• IMPROVEMENTS IN HYDRAULIC IMPACT MECHANISMS CONTROLLED BY
ROTATABLE DISTRIBUTORS
Claudia KOZMA, Liviu VAIDA

19 - 26
• HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC CYLINDER FAILURES , THE EFFECT OF FLUID
CLEANLINESS ON COMPONENT LIFE
Patrick Adebisi Olusegun ADEGBUYI, Ioan-Lucian MARCU

27 - 30
• PNEUMATIC PRESSURE SERVOREGULATOR WITH PIEZOELECTRIC
ACTUATION
Gabriela MATACHE, Ioana ILIE, Radu RADOI

31 - 41
• MODELING OF A THREE WAY ROTATABLE FLUID DISTRIBUTOR USED TO
COMMAND AND CONTROL A HYDRAULIC ROCK DRILL
Claudia KOZMA, Banyai DANIEL VASILE

42 - 51
• THE ANALYSIS OF FLOW LOSSES THROUGH DYNAMIC SEALS OF HYDRAULIC
CYLINDERS
Gabriela MATACHE, Stefan ALEXANDRESCU, Adrian PANTIRU, Gheorghe SOVAIALA, Mihai
PETRACHE

52 - 60
• DOUBLY FEED INDUCTION GENERATOR FOR BIOMASS COMBINED HEAT
AND POWER SYSTEMS
Curac IOAN, Craciun BOGDAN IONUT.Banyai DANIEL VASILE

61 - 64
• A NEW MODEL OF PNEUMATIC TRANSDUCER USED IN THE DRYING STAGE
OF THE CERAMIC PRODUCTS OBTAINING
Murad Erol, Dumitrescu Catalin, Haraga Georgeta, Dumitrescu Liliana

65 – 69
• THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE MECHANISM
FOR ADJUSTING THE CAPACITY OF THE PUMS WITH RADIAL PISTONS
Lepadatu Ioan, Dumitrescu Catalin

70 - 78
• CAVITATION EROSION RESISTANCE FOR A SET OF STAINLESS STEELS
HAVING 10 % NICKEL AND VARIABLE CHROMIUM CONCENTRATIONS
Ilare BORDEAȘU, Mircea Octavian POPOVICIU

79 - 85
• VIRTUAL INSTRUMENT FOR PLOTTING SERVO-VALVES CHARACTERISTICS
AFTER SIGNIFICANT MAINTENANCE OPERATIONS
Radu RĂDOI, Iulian DUȚU

86 - 89
• THE INFLUENCE OF ANGLE OF TILT OF THE SEPARATORS AND THE AIR
COURSE VELOCITY ABOUT QUALITATIVE COEFFICIENT AND THE
EXPLOATATION AT THE CLEANING AND SORTING OF THE CORN PULSES
Constantin POPA, Mihaela-Florentina DUȚU, Iulian DUŢU
90 - 96
3

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics

MANAGER OF PUBLICATION
- PhD. Eng.Petrin DRUMEA - Manager - Hydraulics and Pneumatics Research Institute in Bucharest,
Romania
CHIEF EDITOR
- PhD.Eng. Gabriela MATACHE - Hydraulics and Pneumatics Research Institute in Bucharest, Romania
EXECUTIVE EDITORS
- Ana-Maria POPESCU - Hydraulics and Pneumatics Research Institute in Bucharest, Romania
- Valentin MIROIU - Hydraulics and Pneumatics Research Institute in Bucharest, Romania

SPECIALIZED REVIEWERS
- PhD. Eng. Heinrich THEISSEN – Scientific Director of Institute for Fluid Power Drives and Controls IFAS,
Aachen - Germany
- Prof. PhD. Eng. Henryk CHROSTOWSKI – Wroclaw University of Technology, Poland
- Prof. PhD. Eng. Pavel MACH – Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic
- Prof. PhD. Eng.Alexandru MARIN – POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest, Romania
- Assoc.Prof. PhD. Eng. Constantin RANEA – POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest, Romania
- Lecturer PhD.Eng. Andrei DRUMEA – POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest, Romania
- PhD.Eng. Ion PIRNA - General Manager - National Institute Of Research - Development for Machines and
Installations Designed to Agriculture and Food Industry – INMA, Bucharest- Romania
- PhD.Eng. Gabriela MATACHE - Hydraulics & Pneumatics Research Institute in Bucharest, Romania
- Lecturer PhD.Eng. Lucian MARCU - Technical University of Cluj Napoca, ROMANIA
- PhD.Eng.Corneliu CRISTESCU - Hydraulics & Pneumatics Research Institute in Bucharest, Romania
- Prof.PhD.Eng. Dan OPRUTA - Technical University of Cluj Napoca, ROMANIA

Published by:
Hydrauli cs & Pneumatics Research Institute, Bucharest-Romania
Address: 14 Cuţitul de Argint, district 4, Bucharest, cod 040557, ROMANIA
Phone: +40 21 336 39 90; +40 21 336 39 91 ; Fax:+40 21 337 30 40 ; E-mail: ihp@fluidas.ro
Web: www.ihp.ro
with support of:
National Professional Association of Hydrauli cs and Pneumatics in Romani a - FLUIDAS
E-mail: fluidas@fluidas.ro
Web: www.fluidas.ro

HIDRAULICA Magazine is indexed in the international databases:


HIDRAULICA Magazine is indexed in the Romanian Editorial Platform::


HIDRAULICA Magazine:
E-mail: hidraulica@fluidas.ro
Web: www.fluidas.ro/hidraulica

4

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics


EDITORIAL

About the technical level

For a long time people talk about the technical level of products,
services, and even of people, but most times it is mixed with
technological or quality features. Most of the technical level elements
are set by the designers, who predict some technical performances,
some work methodologies, based on the level of knowledge in the time
of conception, virtually even on their own technical level. It is obvious
and has to be pointed out that the technology level of manufacturers
determines products price and quality in terms of achieving the
expected technical level..


Ph.D.Eng. Petrin DRUMEA
MANAGER INOE 2000 – IHP

These things happen also in the fields of hydraulics and pneumatics. Manufacturers and users of
hydraulic equipment have concluded that it is important that items related to technical level to be
normalized, otherwise there was not possible professional maintenance and an acceptable
economic performance. In this way competition between manufacturers is focused on superior
performance that can be achieved in terms of predetermined dimensions and areas of basic
parameters, such as pressure, also default.
Producers who fail to get small weights, small pressure loss, long lifespan, high functional safety,
visual aesthetic good appearance and regular functional and maintenance requirements will have
big problems on the globalized competitive market. The user will buy cheap equipment, with
functional and energy performances appropriate for the integrator equipment, with good reliability
and maintenance costs as low as possible.
From this brief enumeration it is clear that the technical level is implied, it is eliminatory in our
choices and it is provided by all serious manufacturers.
Technical level of hydraulic equipment creates prerequisites for obtaining high technical
performance for complex equipment, and in most cases this, combined with high quality of
products, leads to increased technical and economic performance of the integrated assembly.
Issues related to raising the technical level of hydraulic equipment are not simple, even if
sometimes they seem so, but there always has to be made a technical and economic choice
having to be noticed what an increase in performances such as pressure or frequency inside the
machine as a whole involves, considering that the entire structure must be changed and possibly
the maintenance and safety of the entire system will suffer.
There should be included in the technical level also the news inside the field such as hydraulics
digitization, use of new clean working fluids, introducing electronic and mechatronic parts in the
structure of equipment and systems and even the use of some new materials. In the end we can
say that the technical level should not be considered as a single element of the production but only
within certain general considerations, in close connection with technological processes and quality
assurance methods.











5

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics


EDITORIAL

Despre nivelul tehnic


De foarte mult timp oamenii discuta de nivelul tehnic al produselor, al
serviciilor, ba chiar si al persoanelor, insa de cele mai multe ori acesta
este amestecat cu elemente tehnologice sau de calitate. Cele mai
multe elemente ale nivelului tehnic sunt stabilite de catre proiectanti,
care preconizeaza anumite performante tehnice, anumite metodologii
de lucru, pornind de la nivelul cunoasterii in perioada de conceptie,
practic chiar de la nivelul lor tehnic. Este evident si de subliniat ca
nivelul tehnologic al fabricantilor determina pretul si calitatea
produselor in conditiile realizarii nivelului tehnic asteptat.


Dr.Ing.. Petrin DRUMEA
DIRECTOR INOE 2000 – IHP

Aceste lucruri se intampla si in domeniul hidraulicii si pneumaticii. Producatorii si utilizatorii de
echipamente hidraulice au ajuns la concluzia ca este bine ca elementele legate de nivelul tehnic sa
fie normalizate, pentru ca altfel nu mai era posibila o mentenanta profesionala si o performanta
economica acceptabila.
In felul acesta competitia intre producatori se concentreaza pe performantele superioare care se
pot realiza in conditii de gabarit prestabilite si pe domenii ale unor parametri de baza, precum
presiunea, de asemenea prestabiliti. Producatorii care nu reusesc sa obtina greutati mici, pierderi
de presiune mici, durata de viata mare, siguranta functionala ridicata, aspect vizual, estetic bun si
cerinte functionale si de intretinere normale, vor avea mari probleme pe piata concurentiala
globalizata.
Utilizatorul va cumpara echipamentele ieftine, cu performante functionale si energetice adecvate
utilajului integrator, cu o buna fiabilitate si cu costuri de mentenanta cat mai mici. Din aceasta
scurta enumerare reiese clar ca nivelul tehnic este subinteles, el este eliminatoriu in alegerile
noastre si este asigurat de catre toti producatorii seriosi.
Nivelul tehnic al echipamentelor hidraulice creaza premizele obtinerii unor utilaje complexe de
mare performanta tehnica, iar in cele mai multe cazuri acesta combinat cu o calitate buna a
produselor conduc la cresterea performantelor tehnico-economice ale complexului integrator.
Problemele ridicarii nivelului tehnic al echipamentelor hidraulice nu sunt simple, chiar daca uneori
par asa, insa intotdeauna trebuie facuta o alegere tehnico-economica in care trebuie vazut ce
implica o crestere a unor performante de tipul presiunii sau frecventei in interiorul masinii in intregul
ei, tinand cont ca trebuie modificata intreaga structura si ca s-ar putea ca mentenanta si siguranta
intregului sistem sa aiba de suferit.
De asemenea trebuie incluse in nivelul tehnic si noutatile din domeniu precum digitalizarea
hidraulicii, utilizarea unor fluide de lucru noi, nepoluante, electronizarea si mecatronizarea
echipamentelor si sistemelor si chiar si utilizarea unor materiale noi.
In final se poate spune ca nivelul tehnic nu trebuie considerat ca un element singular al productiei
ci doarin interiorul unor aprecieri generale, in legatura stransa cu procesele tehnologice si cu
metodele de asigurare a calitatii.





6

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics

HYDRAULIC SWITCHING CONTROL – OBJECTIVES, CONCEPTS,
CHALLENGES AND POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS
Rudolf SCHEIDL
1
, Helmut KOGLER
1
, Bernd WINKLER
2

1
J ohannes Kepler University Linz, Rudolf.scheidl@jku.at.
2
Linz Center of Mechatronics, Bernd.winkler@lcm.at

Abstract: Hydraulic switching control operates via the switching of valves. Numerous principles
exist, some of which are already routinely applied, some others have been studied, but many more
are possible. A successful realization of many switching techniques requires fairly advanced
hydraulic components, foremost fast switching valves, fast check valves and compact
accumulators which can resist high load cycles, and a sound understanding of the relevant
processes by advanced modelling, simulation, and experimental analysis. Switching control can
bring the following advantages: lower costs, higher robustness, better standardization, easier
control due to better repeatability and less hysteresis; better energetic efficiency by the application
of energy saving converter principles; generation of very fast motion for relatively high loads. Some
elementary switching principles and switching converter principles are described in this paper. The
authors expect an early industrial application of novel switching techniques in heavy duty and in
agricultural machines.

Keywords: Hydraulic switching control, switching converters, buck converter, electric hydraulic
analogy.
1 Introduction
The idea to employ switching systems for realizing some sort of hydraulic transformers is an old
idea as the hydraulic ram of Montgolfier from 1796 and Pollard’s work on pulsating hydraulic power
transmission (1964) [1] show. The major motivation for the current attempts to realize hydraulic
switching control is the success of switching control in modern electric drive technology.
Hydraulic switching control is a sub-domain of digital hydraulics, which is characterized by
performing control only by the use of components with discrete states (see [2]). In hydraulic
switching control these discrete state components are switching valves. Control input parameters
are some timing characteristics of these valves which can be: the pulse-width of a pulse width
modulated valve switching, the duration of individual pulses, switching frequencies, or the phase
shifts of switching pulses of different valves, to mention just a few.
The basic motivations for switching control are:
• To use the simple component switching valve instead of the more complex servo or
proportional valves, to achieve one or several of the following goals: lower costs, higher
robustness, better standardization
• Easier control: better repeatability, less hysteresis
• Better energetic efficiency by the application of energy saving converter principles
• Generation of very fast motion for relatively high loads
Like in power electronics, the variety of possible switching concepts is very large and there is not
just one optimal solution for many applications but rather a few optimal for a small class of
applications. Some concepts evaluated so far are:
7

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics

• Non energy saving concepts: Elementary switching control concepts [3], the LCM ‘ Digi-
Actuator’ [4], combinations of pulse code and switching control concepts [5].
• Energy saving switching control principles: the Gall&Senn principle [6], buck- [7], resonance-
[8], wave- [9], motor-converters [10, 11].
Some hydraulic switching principles are routinely applied since decades in the following
applications: ABS break systems, variable valve timing for compressor valves [12], clutch actuation
of gears in passenger cars [13], on-line gap adjustment of continuous casting segments [14, 15].
All these drivers require relatively low power and flow rate, respectively. Fast switching valves for
such power ratings can be realized much easier than for higher flow rates and also pulsation and
noise excitation levels are relatively low. The application of switching control to high power drives is
facing the following main challenges:
• Appropriately powerful fast switching and check valves, and fast, compact, and reliable
accumulators.
• The sound understanding and the mastering of pulsating phenomena and of acoustic noise.
• Control algorithms for switching control, which not only provide a proper control of the
intended motions, force, or pressure but which also cope with the challenges of switching
control, in particular with pulsation.
Switching control is also a useful technology for other than mechanical actuation. Not only modern
diesel fuel injection, in particular common rail systems, apply switching principles but also the
cooling of rollers employs this technology to realize the so called thermal crown in steel and
aluminium rolling [16, 17].
There is no limitation of the application of such switching control concepts in principle. Currently,
the only reasonable question is which applications are best suited for an early application of these
technologies. This is not just a technical matter but depends even more on the disposition of end
users to take the front runner role. To convince potential end users a single advantage, like just
being more efficient, may be a too weak argument, there must rather be several advantages. In the
next chapter some switching control concepts are presented. In chapter 3 areas of early
applications of hydraulic switching control are discussed. An outlook on the further development of
switching control will be given in chapter 4.
2 Switching control concepts
2.1 Electric – hydraulic analogy and duality
Hydraulic and electric machines are power converters with one mechanical port, a shaft or a rod.
Electrical machines employ a dynamical principle for torque or force generation, respectively. This
corresponds to hydrodynamic machines, like turbines or centrifugal pumps. Hydrostatic machines,
however, employ a static principle which is dual to the dynamic principles. In the dynamic
principles machines, torque or force depend on the flow variable, i.e. on the electric current or on
the flow rate, respectively; in hydrostatic principles machines torque or force depend on the
pressure. We limit this investigation to hydrostatic machines. The duality of static and dynamic
machines has significant consequences for switching control.
A very elementary circuit for switching control of an electrical motor is shown in Figure 1a. The
current i of the electric motor which is driven by a PWM voltage signal has a small fluctuation due
to the flattening effect of the motor inductance. The angular speed’s (ω) fluctuation is even smaller,
because the inertia of the rotor and of attached moving mechanical parts have a flattening effect
too. Both flattening effects are very expressed due to the high switching frequencies of modern
drives, which are in the order of 10
4
Hz. That leads to a quite constant speed.

8

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics

U
E
L
R
M, J
ω
i
i~M
t
T
per
∆i
t
T
per
∆ω
a)
t
T
sw
∆U

t
T
sw
∆F
t
T
sw
∆v
F, v
p
S
m
b)

Figure 1: Elementary switching control circuits of a) an electrical motor, b) a hydraulic actuator
Hydraulic elementary switching control, as shown in Figure 1b, intrinsically generates higher speed
fluctuations because the acceleration corresponds to the hydraulic force F which is approximately
a rectangular signal. This requires extra devices to get rid of the strong pressure pulsation due to
switching, particularly if the mechanical inertia of the system to be actuated is relatively small.
A further main difference between electrical and hydraulic switching systems is the high capacity of
hydraulic systems. In Figure 1b, for instance, that capacity stems from oil compressibility in the
chambers of the cylinder and in the connecting lines. One hardly can get rid of this capacity, which
causes energetic losses in combination with the resistance of the valve at higher switching
frequencies. There is some resonance effect resulting in an energy optimal switching frequency
(see [18]). In electrical switching systems parasitic capacities are a negligible problem unless
switching frequencies are extremely high.
On the components level a strong analogy exists between electrical and hydraulic switching
systems. This concerns mainly the key component valve, the performance of which is a limiting
factor for advancements in switching control. The availability of fast electric ‘valves’ is a major
reason why electrical engineering leads the way. The progress there, for instance with respect to
switching frequency or power range, was guided by advancements in power semiconductors
technology.
2.2 Elementary switching control principles
In elementary switching control just one or more valves are put in front of a hydraulic cylinder or
motor, respectively. There are no other components, like pulsation attenuation devices or
transmission lines, which exhibit a significant dynamics at the actual operating condition, between
valves and the actuator. The simplest circuit is shown in Figure 2, comprising just two 2-2 way
valves. Switching frequency is a major operation parameter for the performance of such a system
since high frequencies flatten pressure and velocity pulsation significantly.
u
P
t
t
u
T
t
u
T
one way
mode
two way
mode
Fload
V
P
V
T
p
S
p
T
p
s

u
P
t
T
sw
κ T
sw
max(s)
.
min(s)
.
1
p
max(p)
min(p)
s
.

Figure 2: Elementary switching control schematic (left) and typical signals in one way mode of operation (right)
9

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics

One way mode
In the so called one way mode of operation, only one switching valve is actuated. To lift the load
F
load
, valve V
P
is actuated, e.g. employing PWM control with a frequency ω /2π = 1/ T
SW
and a duty
cycle κ, to lower the load V
T
is activated. The one way mode switching cannot provide better
efficiency than resistance control with continuously operating valves. If there is no flow from the
tank line to the cylinder in a load lifting operation, continuous or switching control give the same
energetic efficiency η.

S S
load
p
p
A p
F
= = η
(1)
The fluctuation in chamber pressure p and in piston velocity s depends on several parameters. In
[19] the following approximate value for the nondimensional pressure fluctuation ψ
fl
= (max(p)-
min(p))/p
S
is derived under the assumptions of constant supply pressures p
S
, p
T
, a very fast
switching, and that the nonlinear state equation can be linearized around the mean values of
pressure and speed and at position x
0
= ξ
0
s
max
.

( ) ( )
ε
π
ξ
κ κ
ψ
ω
ω ω
2 1
0
c
a f c g
b
load
fl

+

=
(2)
The meaning of the nondimensional quantities in this result is given by the following set of relations

ω ω
ω ω ω
ω
ω ω
ω
ψ κ
ψ
ψ
ψ
ψ
ω ω
ω
ε
τ
ξ
ω τ ξ ψ
c
f
c
a f c g
v
a
a
a g
s m
F
f
p
p
s A
Q
a
s m
p
c
s A
V
b
E
p
d
d
v t
s
s
p p
load
m
load
m
m
m
m
m
load
load
N
S N
S S
S
=

=

=









+ − = = =
Α
= = = = = = =
; ;
1 2
1
1 ; ;
; ; ; ; / ; ;
2
max max
2
max max
0
max




(3)
The fluctuation of the nondimensional speed v around its mean value v
m
is of order O(1/ω
2
). ψ
m
is
the nondimensional pressure mean value. p
S
is the system pressure, s the piston position, s
max
the
cylinder stroke, t is the physical, τ the nondimensional time, V
0
is the dead volume of the cylinder
chamber at s = 0, m the moved mass, A the piston area, Q
N
the nominal flow rates of both valves
(at nominal pressure loss p
N
). An analysis of Eqs. (2), (3) shows that pressure fluctuation can be
reduced by a high switching frequency ω , by a valve with a low nominal flow rate Q
N
, and by a high
dead volume V
0
. Q
N
, however, is determined by the required speed of the system, higher V
0
limits
the stiffness of the system which may deteriorate the control performance of a closed loop drive.
Therefore, the only independent parameter to improve fluctuation is switching frequency.
Large drives which are running relatively low maximum speed require smaller ω to stay below a
certain pressure fluctuation level than high speed, short stroke drives.
Two way mode
In this mode pressure and tank valves are switched alternately. Under certain conditions this may
yield better or worse efficiency than the one way mode of operation. A better efficiency is obtained
if the oscillation of the load m are such that in phases when V
T
is switched on oil is sucked from the
tank line, a worse efficiency in opposite case.
10

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics

a)
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
τ
ψ η
v
b)
τ
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
-0.02
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.1
0.12
v
η

c)
τ
v
η
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
-0.1
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9

Figure 3: 1 Results of a numeric computation of an elementary switching system in dual mode; switching
frequency is: a) identical to natural frequency of the system; b) twenty times the ntaural frequency ; c) wobbled
between one tenth and five times the natural frequency; values of the other parameters: a
ω
= 1; c
ω
= 1; f
load
= 0.5; κ
= 0.5; (b+ξ
0
) = 1.
Figure 3 shows results of numerical simulations of an elementary switching system according to
Figure 2 in two way mode at different switching frequencies. High efficiency is obtained if this
frequency is below and up to the natural frequency of the hydraulic drive’s free oscillation,
determined by the load inertia m and the compliance of the hydraulic cylinder. Going much beyond
that frequency reduces fluctuation but efficiency drops and may even fall below that of resistance
control because part of the flow from the pressure line is transferred to the tank line. This can be
avoided with check valves as has been proposed in [6]. The major drawback of this type of
switching control is that a good efficiency is bound to high pressure fluctuation, because only if
pressure p reaches nearly system and tank levels in each switching cycle, a good efficiency can be
obtained. This requires the frequency not to go much beyond the natural frequency of the system
and, therefore, also the speed fluctuation will be high in many cases.
The considerations presented so far were based on the assumptions that
• the supply lines have constant pressure and are not disturbed by the strongly pulsating flows
going to or coming from the switching system
• the line between the valves and the actuator are ideal, thus do not exhibit significant
impedances.
Particularly for very high frequencies this requires adequate components, e.g. fast response
accumulators, and special care in the design of the hydraulic system.



11

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics

2.3 Switching converters
Converters use some intermediate system between the switching valves and the actuator to
resolve the trade-off problem of elementary switching control mentioned before. Figure 4 shows
schematics of four switching converters.
Wave Converter
This converter type was investigated in [9, 20]. By resonant switching standing waves are
generated in a properly designed pipe network. This network acts as a filter that annihilates lower
order pulsation (several low order Fourier Spectrum components) such that at the exit port only
very small pressure or flow rate oscillations occur. The output pressure is proportional to the pulse
width κ.
The resonance condition requires the length L of the first order twin pipe to have half wavelength.
For a switching frequency of 100 Hz L is approx. 6 m. This length condition is the main drawback
for a practical implementation unless switching frequencies >500 Hz are possible.
Resonance Converter
It employs an oscillating mass in form of some piston which is supported by a spring. By switching
the cylinder chamber alternately to pressure-, tank-, and exit-line the piston oscillates and hydraulic
fluid is transmitted to the consumer. The system operates close to the resonance frequency of the
spring mass system utilizing the frequency response characteristics close to the resonance point
for flow rate control. More information and results are given in [8, 21]. This system can be made
fairly compact for switching frequencies beyond 100 Hz. It is a step-down and step-up converter,
thus even output pressures exceeding the system pressure can be realized. The optimal timing of
the consecutive switching of the valves is critical for efficiency.
Buck Converter
This is a very simple system and corresponds directly to most electrical switching power supply
devices. More can be found in [7, 22]. It is a step-down converter but can also recuperate energy
from the hydraulic system. The inductance pipe’s length depends on the switching frequency, the
higher the shorter this pipe.
Motor Converter
It follows same principles as the buck converter, only the inductance element is not the fluid inertia
of a pipe but the rotary inertia of a pump-motor unit (see, e.g. [7, 8]). The advantage is that this
inertia can be controlled independently from the capacitance and resistance of the system. The
disadvantages of this concept are the costs and weight of the pump-motor unit and the hydraulic
capacitance in such units which is a source for losses at higher switching frequencies.
Wave Converter

Resonance Converter

Buck (Step-down) Converter Motor Converter
12

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics

pressure
line
tank
line
V
P
VT
V
CHKP
V
CHKT
inductance
pipe
Acc
exit
port

pressure
line
tank
line
V
P
VT
V
CHKP
V
CHKT
inductance
motor
Acc
exit
port

Figure 4: Four types of switching converters
2.4 Exemplary results of the hydraulic buck converter (HBC)
An extensive study of the HBC, its principles, modelling, components design, and control, can be
found in the thesis [22], some results concerning its application to mobile robots in [23, 24, 25], and
the application of several HBCs in parallel to avoid the accumulator (Acc in Figure 4) in [26]. Figure
5 presents some steady state performance results of a low power HBC prototype. This converter
can also recuperate energy which yields a substantial energy improvement over a resistance
control concept.



Figure 5: HBC prototype and its steady state efficiency results; (system data: inductance pipe: length: 1.2 m,
diameter 3 mm, oil: Shell Tellus 15 cSt @ 40°C; switching valves: LCM FSVi (QN=10 l/lin @ 5 bar); switching
frequency: 100 Hz; accumulators: piston accumulators, developed by the authors; find all data in [22] and [24]).

13

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics




Figure 6: HBC (as shown in Figure 5) in motion control, lifting an lowering a load (Cyl inder: 63 mm x 45 mm
piston/rod size, stroke xmax = 600 mm); applied control concept: flatness based controller (details in [22]).

Assessment of the HBC:
Pros: This is a simple system which can reduce energy consumption considerably; energy
recuperation is possible.
Cons: The size of the inductance pipe may be a problem, unless higher switching frequencies are
possible; winding of the inductance pipe to a coil deteriorates efficiency; the accumulator is a highly
loaded system and makes the system soft; this requires some sophisticated control to achieve a
good dynamical performance; arrangement of several HBCs in parallel and running them in a
phase shifted operation is a means to skip the accumulator and improves dynamical performance;
performance can become as good as with fast servo-valves, yet with much lower energy
consumption (see [26] for details). Such multiple converter concepts facilitate also a simple
standardization, since power rating can be easily adjusted by an appropriate number of converter
units. A schematic of such multiple converters is shown in Figure 7.
14

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics





Figure 7: Schematic of a multiple (N) HBC system driving one cylinder and computed performance comparison
with a servo drive for the case of a ramp like motion (for details see [26]), some data: The cylinder areas are 1.2
and 0.6 m² and the dead volume in the piston chamber is 150 l, which is sufficient for a good pressure
attenuation in case of a phase shifted HBC configuration. A typical velocity for positioning the piston is 4 mm/s,
which requires a flow rate of about 300 l/min in this case. Such large flow rates cannot be reasonabl y handled by
a single hydraulic buck converter with state of the art switching valves. Thus, the presented simulations
consider 6 HBCs in parallel, which operate at a switching frequency of 50 Hz. The pipe inductance of one
individual HBC is about 2.5 m with a hydraulic diameter of 10 mm.
3 Favourable domains of early applications of switching control
Practical implementation of hydraulic switching control is a challenging undertaking despite its long
history as a basic idea. It is a fairly new technology, if it has to meet today’s requirements on
hydraulic drives, since it needs also very advanced components and system understanding.
Implementation in advanced machinery or plants requires some risk taking. The question is, which
branches and areas of applications are most favourable for switching control. The authors see the
following domains:
15

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics

• Metal production systems: they require high forces, high dynamics and high precision,
the conditions are often very crude, the systems, particularly in steel production, very
extended. Servo-hydraulic drives show excellent performance in terms of dynamics and
precision; their drawbacks are: high oil cleanliness requirements, which puts high burden
on system installation and maintenance, wear of valve metering edges, drift problems
concerning valve zero position, and high energetic losses, for instance due to the leakage
of zero lap or under lapped servo valves, and high costs.
Digital hydraulics and switching hydraulics are a promising alternative, to avoid some of the
mentioned deficiencies of servo-drives. This requires switching valves with a fast dynamic
response, and appropriate control concepts.
Energy saving is not yet a topic of utmost importance. But there is a gradual increase of
awareness of customers and, may be, stronger legislative regulations in the one or other
field. In steel production, for instance, the political pressure to reduce CO
2
consumption and
the fact that the core processes, like blast furnaces or steel making by basic oxygen
furnaces are already highly optimized processes put some pressure on other energy
consuming processes, like the many mechanical drives and actuators, even though their
relative share of total energy consumption is very low.
• Agricultural machinery: there is an ongoing trend of mechatronization; this affects also
drives and actuators; in [27] the example automatic level control system of a pick-up
employing hydraulic actuation is presented; agricultural machines technologies must be low
cost, capable of standing the often hard operating conditions, and very service friendly.
Switching valves are definitely much more robust than servo or proportional valves and
cheaper. An important aspect is also standardization of components leading to a smaller
range of product variants which is a major condition for low cost production; this is highly
supported by switching control since impedance forming is done by other means but the
valve’s nominal flow rate or the spool position.
Energy saving is definitely an aspect of high relevance in future; firstly, to save fuel costs,
but secondly, to enable higher actuation functionality under the given power limitations of
the tractor’s engine or the power transmissions. Currently, there are initiatives (for instance,
[28]) to install high voltage power supply systems to overcome power limitations of
mechanical and hydraulic transmissions between tractors and implements and to improve
efficiency. This should be a strong motivation to think about new concepts for hydraulic
drives for such machinery.
• Tool machines: Hydraulic servo drives have been a dominant technology in tool machines
till the upcoming of modern speed variable electrical drives. Hydraulic drives have lost
ground and are mainly limited to such drives where either very high forces or high
compactness are required. There is a trend toward hybrid drives, combining speed variable
electrical motors with a hydrostatic transmission (see, e.g., [29, 30]) for high load
applications. The hydrostatic transmission provides force amplification but can also provide,
for instance, gear shift, load holding, and fast emergency stop. In such symbiotic drives
switching, if needed, fast switching, are basic operations. Particularly in the latter case,
typical components and hydraulic processes of hydraulic switching control become
relevant. In [31] a hydraulic micro positioning drive for tool machine applications is
mentioned. Even though this particular case employs servo valve technology for control,
switching control is an interesting alterative in terms of cost, compactness, and robustness.
In particular compact actuators will gain more importance for increasing the functionality of
tool machines under the condition of already very complex systems which leave little room
for additional components. For the success of hydraulic actuation in this field new solutions
for the complete hydraulic system must be found. The objectives are to get an overall
compact and modular actuation system for functions with high forces, little room space,
ultimate response, and high robustness. Hyrid combinations with electrical drives are also a
direction of novel advantageous drive solutions which would benefit from advanced digital
hydraulic components.

16

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics

4 Conclusions
Hydraulic switching control is an alternative to existing analog control techniques with several
advantages. In contrast to many other hydraulic innovations it requires a whole bunch of
innovations for a successful realization: principles, components, and a new system design
approach which considers the coupling between dynamical processes, hydraulic pulsation,
mechanical oscillation acoustic noise and the design of the system. If a critical mass of such
innovative elements exists and can be obtained from several vendors, a rush of digital hydraulic
systems will occur. This and the energy saving options will enable new functionality for several
machine systems at fairly low cost and with adequate performance. Also electro-hydraulic hybrid
drives and actuators will benefit from advancements of hydraulic switching control, both on the
components and on the system level.
Acknowledgement
This work was sponsored by the Austrian Center of Competence in Mechatronics (ACCM) which is
a COMET K2 center and is funded by the Austrian Federal Government, the Federal State Upper
Austria, and its Scientific Partners.

REFERENCES
[1] F. H. Pollard, “Research Investigation of Hydraulic Pulsation Concepts”. First Quarterly Progress Report
(RAC-933-1), Republic Aviation Corporation, Farmingdal, L.I., N.Y., J une 1963.
[2] M. Linjama, “Digital Fluid Power – State of the Art.” Proc. of the Twelfth Scandinavian International
Conference on Fluid Power, Volume 2(4), SICFP'11, May 18-20, 2011, Tampere, Finland.
[3] R. Scheidl, G. Hametner, “The role of resonance in elementary hydraulic switching control”, Proc. Instn.
Mech. Engrs. Vol. 217 Part I: J . Systems and Control Engineering, 2003, pp. 469-480.
[4] A. Plöckinger, R. Scheidl, B. Winker, “Combined PWM- and Hysteresis Switching Control For A Digital
Hydraulic Actuator”, The Third Workshop on Digital Fluid Power, DFP’10, October 13-14, 2010,
Tampere, Finland.
[5] M. Huova, A. Plöckinger, “Improving resolution of digital hydraulic valve system by utilizing fast switching
valves”. The Third Workshop on Digital Fluid Power, DFP10, October, 2010, Tampere, Finland.
[6] H. Gall and K. Senn, „Freilaufventile - Ansteuerungskonzept zur Energieeinsparung bei hydraulischen
Linearantrieben“, Ölhydraulik und Pneumatik, 38/1994, Nr. 1-2.
[7] R. Scheidl, B. Manhartsgruber, H. Kogler, B. Winkler, M. Mairhofer, “The Hydraulic Buck Converter -
Concept and Experimental Results”. Proc. 6th IFK, 6. International Fluid Power Conference, Dresden,
31.3.-2.4. 2008.
[8] R. Scheidl, G. Riha, “Energy Efficient Switching Control by a Hydraulic ‘Resonance-Converter’”. In C.R.
Burrows, K., A. Edge (Eds.): Proc. Workshop on Power Transmission and Motion Control (PTMC’99),
Sept. 8-11, Bath, 1999, pp. 267-273.
[9] R. Scheidl, D. Schindler, G. Riha, W. Leitner, “Basics for the Energy-Efficient Control of Hydraulic Drives
by Switching Techniques”. In J . Lückel (ed.): Proc. 3rd Conference on Mechatronics and Robotics, Oct.
4-6, Paderborn, Teubner, Stuttgart, 1995.
[10] J . Dantlgraber. “Hydro-Transformer”. European patent application (PCT) Intern. Publication No. WO
00/08339, 2000.
[11] F. Wanga, L. Gua, Y. Chena, “A continuously variable hydraulic pressure converter based on high-speed
on–off valves”, Mechatronics, Vol. 21(8), 2011, pp. 1298–1308
[12] D. M.Deffenbaugh et al., “Advanced Reciprocating Compression Technology”. Final Report SwRI,
Project No. 18.11052, DOE Award No. DE-FC26-04NT4226, U.S. Department of Energy, December
2005.
[13] K. Murakami, T. Wakahara, I. Fukunaga, H. Sakai, “The Hydraulic Control System for a New Electronic
4WD System”. J SAE Review, Volume 17, Number 4, October 1996 , pp. 447-447.
[14] R. Brandstetter, „Untersuchung von Antriebskonzepten für die automatische Gießdickenverstellung bei
Stranggießanlegen mit segmentierter Strangführung", Master thesis, J ohannes Kepler University Linz,
J une 1996.
17

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics

[15] “SMART Segment & DynaGap SoftReduction”,
http://www.industry.siemens.com/datapool/industry/industrysolutions/metals/simetal/en/SMART-
Segment-Dyna-Gap-Soft-Reduction-en.pdf
[16] GRIP Engineering AG. Spray Bars for Steel Rolling Mills. Product brochure. 2006.
[17] N. Chakraborti, B. Siva Kuamr, V. Satish Babu, S. Moitra, A. Mukhopadhyay, “Optimizing Surface
Profiles during Hot Rolling: A Genetic Algorithms Based Multi-objective Optimization”. Dagstuhl Seminar
Proceedings 04461, Practical Approaches to Multi-Objective Optimization,
http://drops.dagstuhl.de/opus/volltexte/2005/245.
[18] R. Scheidl, G. Hametner, “The role of resonance in elementary hydraulic switching control”. Proc. Instn.
Mech. Engrs. Vol. 217 Part I: J . Systems and Control Engineering, 2003, pp. 469-480.
[19] M. Garstenauer, B. Manhartsgruber, R. Scheidl, “Switching Type Control of Hydraulic Drives - A
Promising Perspective for Advanced Actuation in Agricultural Machinery”, New Fluid Power Applications
and Components, Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, pp. 37-47, 9-2000.
[20] Schindler D., “Numerische und experimentelle Untersuchungen über pulsierende Strömungen in Rohren
und Ventilen als Grundlage für die Entwicklung energieeffizienter Schalttechniken in der Ölhydraulik“,
PhD thesis, J ohannes Kepler University Linz, 1995.
[21] G. Riha, „Beiträge zur Entwicklung eines energiesparenden hydraulischen Schaltkonverters“, PhD thesis
J ohannes Kepler University Linz, 1998.
[22] H. Kogler, “The Hydraulic Buck Converter - Conceptual Study and Experiments”, PhD thesis, J ohannes
Kepler University Linz, 2012.
[23] E. Guglielmino, C. Semini, H. Kogler, R. Scheidl, D.G. Caldwell, “Power Hydraulics - Switched Mode
Control of Hydraulic Actuation”, Proc. 2010 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and
Systems (IROS 2010), Oct. 18-22, 2010, Taipei, Taiwan.
[24] H. Kogler, R. Scheidl, M. Ehrentraut, E. Guglielmino, C. Semini, D.G. Caldwell, “A Compact Hydraulic
Switching Converter for Robotic Applications”, Proc. Bath/ ASME Symposium on Fluid Power and Motion
Control - FPMC2010,, Sept. 15-17 2010, Bath, UK, pp. 56-68.
[25] E. Guglielmino, C. Semini, Y. Yang, D.G. Caldwell, R. Scheidl, H. Kogler, “Energy Efficient Fluid Power
in Autonomous Legged Robots”, Proc. 2009 ASME Dynamic Systems and Control Conference,
Renaissance Hollywood Hotel, October 12-14, 2009, Hollywood, California.
[26] H. Kogler, R. Scheidl, “The hydraulic buck converter exploiting the load capacitance”. Proc. 8
th

International Fluid Power Conference (8. IFK), March 26 – 28, 2012, Dresden, Germany, Vol. 2(3), pp.
297 – 309.
[27] B. Winkler, R. Scheidl, “Automatic Level Control in Agricultural Machinery”. In Proceedings of the 2
nd

International FPNI PhD Symposium on Fluid Power, Modena, Italy, 2002.
[28] M. Geißler, Th. Herlitzius, “Mobile Working Machine With An Electrical 4-Wheel Drive”. Seminar
MobilTron 2011 - Mannheim, September 28 – 29, 2011.
[29] T. Neubert, „Drehzahlveränderbarer Verstellpumpenantrieb in Kunststoff – Spritzgießmaschinen“,
Ölhydraulik und Pneumatik Nr.45, 10/2001.
[30] P. Ladner, K. Ladner, R. Scheidl, H. Strasser, “Investigation of a closed electro-hydraulic hybrid drive”. In
Proceedings of the 11th Scandinavian International Conference on Fluid Power, SICFP’09, IJ une 2-4,
2009, Linköping, Sweden.
[31] B. Winkler, R. Haas, “A Hydraulic Micro-Positioning System for Industrial Mill Centers. Proceedings of
13
th
Mechatronics Forum International Conference”, September 17-19, 2012, Linz, Austria, pp. 855 –
862.




18

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics

IMPROVEMENTS IN HYDRAULIC IMPACT MECHANISMS CONTROLLED
BY ROTATABLE DISTRIBUTORS
Claudia KOZMA
1
, Liviu VAIDA
2

1
Technical University of Cluj Napoca, Caudia.Kozma@termo.utcluj.ro
2
Liviu.Vaida@termo.utcluj.ro

Abstract: Descriptions of two known hydraulic impact mechanism are realized. One of the impact
structures is to be patented. Improvements in the constructive structure and in the operating
hydraulic scheme of these impact mechanisms are analyzed. The aim is to simplify the hydraulic
scheme and the command and control structure, to minimize the hydraulic parasitic capacities and
to attain an adjustable impact frequency. In brief, the goals are to improve the constructive
structure of a hydraulic impact device or a hydraulic rotary percussive mechanism controlled by a
rotary distributor and the operating principle of the mechanism.
Keywords: impact mechanism, percussive device, rock drill, hydraulic hammer, control system,
control valve, rotary valve, rotatable distributor
1. Constructive structures for hydraulic impact mechanisms using rotary distributors
An older patented impact mechanism, Fig.1, comprises, according to [1], an impact piston, a
rotating distributor and a hydraulic turbine. The impact piston delimitates in the impact mechanism
housing two working chambers, C1 and C2. The hydraulic rotating distributor is a 3/2-ways control
valve and is used to feed with high-pressure fluid flow the working chamber C2 and alternately to
discharge it. The mobile element of the used hydraulic distributor is a rotating spool with
longitudinal grooves. For the rotation of the rotating spool it is chose a hydraulic turbine. The
working or drive chamber C2 is connected alternately through the longitudinal grooves of the

Fig.1. A constructive structure of a hydraulic drilling mechanism using a hydraulic rotary distributor,
according to [1], where:
PV1 – hydraulic pressure source (volumetric pump); AH1, AH2 – hydraulic accumulators; T2 –tank; C1,
C2 – work chambers; I – pressure line; II – discharge line.
19

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics

rotating spool with the line I and line II. The working chamber C1 communicates permanently with
the hydraulic pressure source PV1.
The line I is for supplying with hydraulic fluid under pressure by means of a hydraulic pressure
source PV1. A hydraulic accumulator AH1 is also mounted on the line I.
The line II is connected to the hydraulic rotary mechanism taken picked for the rotation of the
dislocation tool or of the drill steel. The rotary mechanism and the percussive mechanism use two
separate hydraulic pressure sources, necessary to realize the rotation of the dislocation tool and
the collision of the tool with the target material (rock, concrete, asphalt).
A recent impact mechanism [2] presented in [3] and [4] comprises, Fig.2, essentially, an impact
piston and a rotary distributor with a rotatable spool. The impact mechanism housing is formed by
two bodies, B1 and B2. The impact piston delimitates likewise two working chamber in the impact
mechanism housing, C1 and C2. The working chamber C1 is in permanent connection with the
hydraulic pressure source PV. The working chamber C2 communicates alternatively by means of
the rotatable spool with the hydraulic pressure source PV and with the tank T. The rotatable spool
forms with the piston body a 3/2-ways hydraulic rotary distributor. The rotary displacement of the
spool is provided by a hydraulic gear motor MRD2-212D.
The impact mechanism and the rotary mechanism can be mounted in series using the same
hydraulic pressure source or can function independently with separate hydraulic pressure sources.
Both cases are exemplified in the prior art. The mounting in series of the percussion mechanism
and the rotary mechanism appears earlier than the 80’s. It is affirmed in [5] that the said mounting
in series implies the need of a single hydraulic pressure source thus simplifying the pumping
station and the hydraulic scheme. Contrary, as the rotary hydraulic mechanism is supplied with
fluid flow from a separate pump and through a separate circuit, as in [6], the working of the rotary
mechanism is realized independently from the percussive mechanism but the resulted hydraulic
scheme is more complex with the other corresponding consequences.
The operation cycle of the impact mechanisms from Fig.1 and Fig.2 is controlled by feeding with
working liquid along the line I, respectively from the pump PV to the hydraulic linear motors. It is to
be underlined that for the second impact mechanism, Fig.2, it is needed additionally an external
separate element to rotate the rotatable spool in contrast with the first impact mechanism. The
hydraulic turbine, Fig.1, which rotates the rotatable spool, is incorporated in the impact mechanism
housing and is operated hydraulically by the fluid spent in the working chamber C2. The rotatable

Fig.2. A constructive structure of a hydraulic drilling mechanism using a hydraulic rotary distributor,
according to [2], where:
PV – hydraulic pressure source (volumetric pump); B1, B2 – bodies or housings of the impact mechanism;
T1 – tank; C1, C2 – work chambers; MRD2 – hydraulic gear motor.


20

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics

spool, Fig.2, is rotated by means of a rotary mechanism actuated in this case hydraulically, MRD2-
212D, and supplied with hydraulic fluid from a separate hydraulic pressure source (not illustrated).
2. Operating principles for hydraulic impact mechanisms using rotary distributors
The operation principle of the impact mechanism with the construction scheme in Fig.1 is
illustrated in Fig.3.
The liquid flow sent from the
hydraulic pressure source PV1 to
the hydraulic linear motor MHL is
divided into two flows. One liquid
flow is conveyed to the working
chamber C1 through an existing
permanent communication. The rest
of the liquid flow is sent through the
rotary distributor DHR to the working
chamber C2. The working liquid
spent to obtain a certain piston
stroke is farther sent to the return
line the destination being the tank
T3. Not all the working fluid arrives
in the tank T3 due to the non-return
valve NRV and the throttling valve.
The remained working fluid is
reflected. At this time the working
position of the rotary distributor is
switched and the connection with
the working chamber C2 through the
rotary distributor is blocked. In
consequence, the flow will charge
the hydraulic accumulator AH2 and
will start the hydraulic turbine. The
hydraulic turbine communicates
according to [1] through two
tangential holes with a discharge
line connected to the tank T2.
As long as the hydraulic pressure source PV1 is supplying with working fluid the impact
mechanism, the hydraulic turbine HT operates on the base of the liquid sent to the working
chamber C2. Moreover, the hydraulic accumulator AH2 tends to discharge and feed the hydraulic
turbine. In consequence the hydraulic turbine continues to rotate the fluid distributor at substantially
the same speed. The rotatable spool of the distributor DHR is rotated at the maximum rate
achieving the highest frequency of impacts delivered by the impact piston to the tool.
The main part of the fluid withdrawn by the rotary mechanism MHR through the 4/3-ways linear
hydraulic distributor DHL is used to rotate the fluid distributor when the supply with high-pressure
fluid flow from the hydraulic pressure source PV1 to the hydraulic percussive mechanism is cut off.
The said main part of the liquid is conveyed by mean of the flow governor through line II and to the
hydraulic turbine. The rest of liquid passes through the flow restrictor FR to the tank T3. The
achieved frequency is lower in this case and increases back when feeding with liquid to the
hydraulic percussive mechanism is resumed.
Another way to redistribute the liquid spent by the hydraulic rotary mechanism MHR to rotate the
drill tool is revealed through [7]. In [7], the flow governor misses and the fluid flow discharged from
the rotary mechanism is directed to the impact piston serving in increasing the impact piston
velocity.
Thereafter, as the rotation of the hydraulic turbine HT is started, the hydraulic turbine receives an
extra fluid flow only when the hydraulic percussive mechanism is supplied with high pressure fluid

Fig.3. The operating principle of the hydraulic impact mechanism
presented in [1], where:
T1, T2, T3, T4 – tanks; PV1, PV2 – hydraulic pressure sources;
AH1, AH2 – hydraulic accumulators; C1, C2 – work chambers;
DHR – hydraulic rotary distributor; DHL – hydraulic linear
distributor; MHL – hydraulic linear motor; MHR – hydraulic rotary
motor; HT – hydraulic turbine; RG – reduction gear; FG – flow
governor; NRV – non-return valve; TRV – throttling valve; FR –
flow restrictor.
21

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics

flow from PV1. The increase in fluid flow in the line II leads in closing of the non-return valve NRV
and in increasing of the rotational speed of the rotary distributor.
The flow restrictor FR can provide a pressure difference sufficient for opening the non return valve
NRV and the main part of the liquid from the hydraulic rotary motor MHR will flow through it to the
hydraulic turbine HT. The liquid that enters the hydraulic turbine actuates the turbine causing the
rotation of the rotatable spool of the rotary distributor DHR. The rest of liquid passes through the
flow restrictor FR to the discharge line.
When the feed of fluid in the impact mechanism is resumed, the entire fluid flow sent to the working
chamber C2 to advance the impact piston charges the hydraulic accumulator and rushes to the
hydraulic turbine at the retreating piston stroke. The rotational speed of the fluid distributor is
substantially increased now. The operating of the impact piston maintains the rotation of the rotary
distributor at maximum speed.

a)

b)
Fig.4. The hydraulic impact mechanism presented in [1], when:
a) both work chambers C1 and C2 are supplied with high pressure fluid flow;
b) the work chamber C2 is discharged and the high pressure fluid flow is directed to the line II.

22

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics


Fig.5. The operating principle of the hydraulic impact
mechanism presented in [2], where:
T1, T2 – tanks; PV – hydraulic pressure source; C1,
C2 – work chambers; DHR – hydraulic rotary
distributor; DHL – hydraulic linear distributor; MHL –
hydraulic linear motor; MHR – hydraulic rotary motor;
MRD – hydraulic gear motor; RG – reduction gear.
The Fig.4 b is uncertain and improper taking into account that the fluid flow discharged from the
work chamber C2 is adjustable according to [1] and in the line II a certain required pressure is
provided to cause the rotation of the hydraulic turbine.

Omitting the hydraulic rotary mechanism
MHR from the Fig.5, it can be said that the
liquid flow sent from the hydraulic pressure
source PV to the hydraulic linear motor
MHL is likewise divided into two flows. One
liquid flow is conveyed permanently to the
working chamber C1 through certain
communication channels. According to one
of the working positions of the rotary
distributor DHR, the rest of the liquid flow is
conveyed through it to the working chamber
C2. As the hydraulic rotary distributor
allows the communication of the working
chamber C2 with the hydraulic pressure
source PV through the pressure line, the
impact piston executes a work stroke and
delivers an impact on the drill tool (drill steel
or drill bit). The working liquid spent to
obtain a certain piston stroke – work stroke
– is farther sent to the return line through
the rotary distributor DHR back to the tank
T1, according to the other working position
of the distributor.
In addition it can be used also a rotary hydraulic motor operated by a 4/3-ways control valve. The
control valve serves to stop and reverse the rotation of the drill tool. By mounting the hydraulic
rotary mechanism in series with the hydraulic percussive mechanism, the liquid flow sent from the
hydraulic pressure source PV to the hydraulic linear motor MHL is divided into three flows, Fig.5.
The hydraulic fluid used by the rotary hydraulic motor MHR to rotate the drill tool is discharged to
the tank T2. To be capable of executing percussive action independently from the hydraulic rotary
motor MHR there can be chose two hydraulic pressure sources feeding the mechanism separately.
Examples of hydraulic rotary percussive mechanism with two hydraulic pressure sources are [6],
[7] and with one hydraulic pressure source are [2], [3].
According to the design structures of both impact mechanism, as the impact piston advances to
apply a strike the fluid flow from the working chamber C1 joins to the fluid flow sent to the working
chamber C2 resulting in increasing the velocity of the impact piston. By directing the fluid flow from
the working chamber C2 to the tank T1 through the rotary distributor DHR the impact piston is
forced to do a reverse stroke, as the working chamber C1 continuously communicates with the
hydraulic pressure source PV.
A representation of the high pressure liquid zones and low pressure liquid zones in the
mechanism’s structure for each working position of the hydraulic rotary distributor is presented in
Fig.6.
3. Similarities and dissimilarities
 Similarities in the described impact mechanisms
Both structures, Fig.1 and Fig.2, incorporate a rotary spool and a differential impact piston
delimitating two working chambers, C1 and C2. The drive chamber controlled by the hydraulic
rotary distributor is the largest one, C2. The rotary spool presents on the external cylindrical face
longitudinal grooves. The longitudinal grooves are disposed as opening through which the drive
chamber C2 communicates with the hydraulic pressure source of the impact mechanism and as
23

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics

openings through which the drive chamber C2 communicates with the tank. Both hydraulic rotary
distributors operate as 3/2-ways control valve.
 Dissimilarities in the described impact mechanisms
The rotary distributor from Fig.1 is mounted separately from the hydraulic linear motor. Conversely,
the rotary distributor from Fig.2 is mounted in the hydraulic linear motor. Moreover, the element
comprising the rotary spool of the rotary distributor is chose to be the impact piston itself. To be
mentioned, the impact piston does not act itself as a valve unlike the valveless impact devices.
The rotary spool from the Figl.1 is rotated by means of a hydraulic turbine. The rotary spool from
the Figl.2 is rotated by means of a hydraulic gear motor.
The hydraulic turbine uses the fluid directed to it from the spent fluid to advance the impact piston.

a)

b)
Fig.6. The hydraulic impact mechanism presented in [2], when:
a) both work chambers C1 and C2 are supplied with high pressure fluid flow;
b) the work chamber C2 is discharged and the high pressure fluid flow is directed to the tank.
24

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics


a) b)
Fig.7. The operating principle of the hydraulic impact mechanism presented in [2], modifying the actuating
method of the rotary distributor:
T1, T2, T3 – tanks; PV, PV1, PV2 – hydraulic pressure source; C1, C2 – work chambers; DHR – hydraulic
rotary distributor; DHL – hydraulic linear distributor; MHL – hydraulic linear motor; MHR – hydraulic rotary
motor; HT – hydraulic turbine; RG – reduction gear; FG – flow governor; NRV – non-return valve; TRV –
throttling valve.
a) with the hydraulic motor MHR connected to the pressure line;
b) with the hydraulic motor MHR connected to the discharge line;




With other words, the element rotating the rotatable spool is driven internally. The hydraulic gear
motor can use high pressure fluid flow from a separate hydraulic pressure source or item from the
hydraulic pressure source of the impact mechanism. In Fig.2 the method of feeding or acting the
hydraulic gear motor is undecided.
The longitudinal grooves are set for the structure from Fig.2 to eight equidistantly, alternatively and
reversely disposed. According to the description of the rotary spool from [2], as the spool is rotated
the longitudinal grooves communicate four by four with the work chamber C2 through radial orifices
drilled in the piston body. The arrangement for the longitudinal grooves of the rotary spool from
Fig.1 is not revealed.
4. Discussions
To opt for the method of rotating the spool with a hydraulic turbine (a reaction turbine) it is needed
to take into account the effect of the mounting a hydraulic accumulator at the relief of the fluid flow
from the impact mechanism. In Fig. it is illustrated the structure with the rotatable spool mounted in
the piston body and actuated by a hydraulic turbine without including in the impact mechanism
housing hydraulic accumulators.
When the hydraulic motor MHR is connected to the pressure line of the hydraulic pressure source
PV the hydraulic turbine does not rotate, Fig.7 a. Conversely, when the hydraulic motor MHR is
connected to the discharge line as in Fig.7 b the hydraulic turbine HT rotates but at low speed with
a stopped impact mechanism. Thus, the hydraulic turbine rotates continuously at low rotations per
minute until the impact mechanism is started. As the feeding of the impact mechanism starts, the
rotational speed of the hydraulic turbine increases.
A redistribution of the liquid sent to the tank T1 can be obtained by means of the flow governor.
Accordingly, the working liquid spent by the rotary mechanism to rotate the tool can be sent to the
hydraulic turbine through the non-return valve of the flow governor FG. Also, the working liquid
25

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics

spent by the percussive mechanism to strike the tool can be blocked and reflected and further
directed to the hydraulic turbine to rotate it.
The working liquid conveyed from the hydraulic percussive mechanism to the non-return valve
NRV acts to close it in each case presented in Fig.7.
The throttling valve TRV controls the fluid flow directed to the tank T1.
To modify the rotational speed of the rotary distributor the throttling valve TRV has to be adjusted.
In consequence, by controlling the throttling valve TRV of the flow governor FG it is attained an
adjustable rotational speed of the rotatable spool. More important it is attained an adjustable
impact frequency for the impact piston of the impact mechanism.
A fully open throttling valve reduces the fluid flow entering the hydraulic turbine and the rate of
rotation of the rotatable spool leading to a minimum frequency of impacts delivered by the impact
piston. A fully closed throttling valve increases the fluid flow entering the hydraulic turbine and the
rate of rotation of the rotatable spool leading to a maximum frequency of impacts delivered by the
impact piston.
The frequency of impacts delivered by the impact or strike piston is controlled by varying the
rotational speed of the rotary distributor by means of the flow throttling valve TRV.
By mounting a hydraulic accumulator on the discharge line similarly as in Fig. 3 the liquid is forced
from the working chamber C2 by the impact piston, the non return valve and the throttling valve to
the flow governor FG, the hydraulic accumulator AH2 and the hydraulic turbine HT. The hydraulic
accumulator AH2 discharges and feeds the hydraulic turbine to maintain a desired rotational speed
of the rotatable spool.
One simplification of the described construction from Fig.1 is the use of the hydraulic reaction
turbine fixed at the rotatable spool of the rotary distributor.
The arrangement of the flow governor in the manner of that illustrated in Fig.3 ensures that the
rotational speed of the hydraulic turbine can be controlled independently of the hydraulic motor
MHR. Moreover, the mentioned arrangement facilitates the conveying of the flow spent by the
impact mechanism to the hydraulic turbine and permits the adjustment of the rotational speed of
the hydraulic turbine and more of the impact frequency of the impact mechanism. The rotation
speed of the hydraulic turbine can be maintained by means of a hydraulic accumulator mounted as
illustrated in Fig.3 on the discharge line of the impact mechanism.
One simplification of the second described construction, Fig.2, is the mounting of the rotatable
spool of the hydraulic distributor in a cylindrical bore made in the piston body, more precisely in the
smaller piston rod. Channels are provided in the piston body and in the smaller piston rod to
assure a first communication of the working chamber C2 with the internal piston cavity (the
cylindrical bore) and a second communication of the internal piston cavity with the discharge line
through which the fluid flow is sent to the tank.
The said simplifications allow reduction in weight and size and furthermore simplify the pumping
station, reduce the rate of high pressure liquid consumed, increase the efficiency and improve the
reliability of the impact mechanism.
REFERENCES (Arial, 11pt, Bold)
[1] J .I. Neroznikov, N.N. Shvets, s.a., “Hydraulic drilling machine“, Patent Number(s): US 5064003, 1991
[2] L. Vaida, C. Kozma, Generator hidraulic de vibraţii pentru perforatoare hidraulice rotopercutante,
registered to OSIM: A/10018/2012
[3] C. Kozma, „A constructional and functional improvement in hydraulic rotary percussive drill”, Calimanesti-
Caciulata, Romania, 9-11 November, 2011, „Proceedings of 2011 International Salon of Hydraulics and
Pneumatics – Hervex”, ISSN: 1454-8003
[4] C. Kozma, L. Vaida, „Hydraulic schemes for impact devices. A control system for impact mechanisms
using a rotatable distribution valve – Part 2”, Calimanesti-Caciulata, Romania, 7-9 November, 2012,
„Proceedings of 2012 International Salon of Hydraulics and Pneumatics – Hervex”, ISSN: 1454-8003
[5] R.J . Perraud, “Rotary percussion hydraulic drilling machine“, Patent Number(s): 4291771, 1981
[6] V. Uitto, “Method and arrangement for controlling percussion rock drilling”, Assignee: Sandvik Tamrock
Oy, Pat. No.: US 2005/0006143 A1, 2005
[7] B. Cadet, “Device for hydraulic power supply of a rotary apparatus for percussive drilling”, Assignee:
Montabert S.A., Pat. No.: US 6883620 B1, 2005
26

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics


HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC CYLINDER FAILURES , THE EFFECT OF
FLUID CLEANLINESS ON COMPONENT LIFE
Patrick Adebisi Olusegun ADEGBUYI
1
, Ioan-Lucian MARCU
2


1
Faculty of Engineering, Lagos State University, Ojo. P.m.b 1087 Apapa –Lagos, Nigeria
e-mail: paorene011@yahoo.com, patrick.adegbuyi@lasu.edu.ng
2
Technical University of Cluj Napoca, e-mail: Lucian.Marcu@termo.utcluj.ro

Abstract:
This article reviews the situation of hydraulic and pneumatic failures of cylinders. It also identifies
the various component malfunctions that may lead to these failures. Furthermore, the effect of fluid
cleanliness on cylinder component life cycle was examined.
Keywords: Hydraulic, Pneumatic, Failures, Cleanliness Life

1. Introduction

The application of cylinders may allow fluids such as cutting fluids, wash down fluids, etc to come
in contact with the external area of the cylinder. These fluids may attack the piston rod wiper and or
the primary seal and this must be taken into account when selecting and specifying seal
components.
Dynamic seals will wear. The rate of wear will depend on many operating factors.
Wear can be rapid if a cylinder is miss-aligned or if a cylinder has been improperly serviced. Seal
wear is very important in the application of cylinders and could lead to failure.
Piston-rods: Possible consequences of piston-rod failure or separation of the piston rod from the
piston include but are not limited to.
- Piston rod or attached load thrown off at high speed
- High velocity fluid discharged
- Piston rod extending when pressure is applied on the piston retract mode
Piston rods or machine members attached to the piston may move suddenly and without warning
as a consequence of other conditions occurring to the machine such ass:
- Failure of the pressurized fluid delivery system ( hoses, fitting, valves, pomp, compressors)
which maintain cylinder position
- Catastrophic cylinder seal failure leading to sudden loss of pressurized fluid
The use of cushions should be considered for cylinder applications when the piston velocity is
expected to be over 4inches/second. These cushions are normally designed to absolve the energy
of a linear applied loud.
A rotating masse has considerably more energy than the same masse moving in a linear mode.
All these could lead to hydraulic and pneumatic cylinder failure.
Proper alignment of the cylinder piston rod and it’s matting components on the machine should be
cheeked-in both the extended and retracted positions.
Improper alignment will result in excessive rod stand and/or cylinder bore wear.
27

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics


Another source of failure is internal leakages. Piston seal leak (by-pass) 1-3 cubic inches per
minute is considered normal for piston ring construction. Virtually no static leak with lip seal seals
on piston should be expected. Piston seals wear is a usual course of piston seal leakage and
eventual cylinder failure.
Contamination in a hydraulic system can result in a pored cylinder bore, resulting in rapid seal
wear which may lead to cylinder failure.

2. Effect of fluid cleanliness on component life
This is an important factor for consideration in cylinders operating in an environment wear air
drayed materials are present such as : fast draying chemicals paint or weld splatter or other
hazardous conditions such as excessive heat should have shields installed to prevent damage to
the piston rod and piston rod seals.
Many factors can reduce the service life of hydraulic components. Contamination of hydraulic fluid
by insoluble particles is one of these factors. To prevent particle contamination from cutting short
component life, an appropriate fluid cleanliness level must first be defined and then maintained on
a continuous basis. [5]

Particle Contamination And Its Consequences

Particle contamination in hydraulic fluid accelerates wear of system components. The rate at which
damage occurs is dependent on the internal clearances of the components within the system, the
size and quantity of particles present in the fluid and system pressure. Typical internal clearances
of hydraulic components are shown in table 1.


Table 1.

COMPONENT TYPE
TYPICAL INTERNAL
CLEARANCE IN MICRONS
Gear pump 0.5 – 5.0
Vane pump 0.5 – 10
Piston pump 0.5 – 5.0
Servo valve 1.0 – 4.0
Control valve 0.5 – 40
Linear actuator 50 - 250


Particles larger than a component's internal clearances are not necessarily dangerous. Particles
the same size as the internal clearance cause damage through friction. But the most dangerous
particles in the long-term are those that are smaller than the component's internal clearances.
Particles smaller than 5 microns are highly abrasive. If present in sufficient quantities, these
invisible 'silt' particles cause rapid wear, destroying hydraulic components.


28

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics


Quantifying Particle Contamination

Some level of particle contamination is always present in hydraulic fluid, even in new fluid. It is the
size and quantity of these particles that we are concerned with. The level of contamination, or
conversely the level of cleanliness considered acceptable, depends on the type of hydraulic
system.[5] Typical fluid cleanliness levels for different types of hydraulic systems, defined
according to ISO, NAS and SAE standards, are shown in table 2.

Table 2.

TYPE OF HYDRAULIC
SYSTEM
MINIMUM
RECOMMENDED
CLEANLINESS
LEVEL
MINIMUM
RECOMMENDED
FILTRATION
LEVEL IN
MICRONS (βχ ≥ 75)
ISO 4406 NAS 1638 SAE 749
Silt sensitive 13/10 4 1 2
Servo 14/11 5 2 3-5
High pressure
(250–400 bar)
15/12 6 3 5-10
Normal pressure
(150-250 bar)
16/13 7 4 10-12
Medium pressure
(50 -150 bar)
18/15 9 6 12-15
Low pressure (<
50 bar)
19/16 10 - 15-25
Large clearance 21/18 12 - 25-40


ISO 4406 defines contamination levels using a somewhat complicated dual scale numbering
system. The first number refers to the quantity of particles larger than 5 microns per 100 milliliters
of fluid and the second number refers to the number of particles larger than 15 microns per 100
milliliters of fluid.
The complicated part is that the quantities of particles these numbers represent are expressed as
powers of the numeral 2. For example, a cleanliness level of 15/12 indicates that there are
between 214 (16,384) and 215 (32,768) particles larger than 5 microns and between 211 (2,048)
and 212 (4,096) particles larger than 15 microns, per 100 milliliters of fluid.

Defining A Target Cleanliness Level

As an example, let’s assume that we have a normal-pressure system and using table 1.2 we define
our target cleanliness level to be ISO 16/13. Having established the minimum fluid cleanliness level
required for acceptable component life in this type of system, the next step is to monitor the actual
cleanliness of the fluid to ensure that the target cleanliness level is maintained on a continuous
basis. This involves taking fluid samples from the system at regular intervals and testing them for
cleanliness.
Testing Fluid Cleanliness

There are two ways of testing fluid cleanliness. The first involves sending a fluid sample to a
laboratory for analysis. The lab results contain detailed information on the condition of the fluid.
The information normally included in a fluid condition report, along with typical targets or alarm
limits, are shown in table 3.

29

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics

Table 3.

CONDITION CATEGORY RECOMMENDED TARGETS
OR ALARM LIMITS
Fluid cleanliness level Within targeted range chosen for the
system or recommended by the
manufacturer (ISO 4406)
Wear debris level (Al) 5 ppm, (Cr) 9 ppm, (Cu) 12 ppm, (Fe)
26 ppm, (Si) 15 ppm
Viscosity ±10 % of new fluid
Water content <100 ppm
Total Acid Number (TAN) +25% of new fluid
Additive level − 10% of new fluid

The second way to test a fluid’s cleanliness level is to use a portable, electronic instrument
designed for this purpose. This method is convenient and results are almost instant, however it
shouldn’t be considered a total substitute for lab analysis because the results do not include wear
debris levels, viscosity, water content and other useful data. But when the two methods are used in
combination, the frequency of lab analysis can be reduced.
Whichever method is employed, it is important that the equipment used to capture and contain the
sample is absolutely clean. If you are taking multiple samples from different systems, take care not
to cross-contaminate one fluid sample with another, and never take samples from drain plugs or
other low lying penetrations in the system, otherwise the results will be unreliable. Ideally, samples
should be taken from the return line, upstream of the return filter, with the system working at
operating temperature.
3. Conclusion
Monitoring and maintaining fluid cleanliness involves a continuous cycle of testing and corrective
action in order to reduce component failure .Cleanliness is also an important factor hence cylinders
should be protected from contaminants entering the ports. Also before making connections to
cylinder ports, piping should be thoroughly cleaned to remove all chips or burns which might have
resulted from threading or flaring operations.

4.References
[1] Banyai, D., Vaida, L., (2009), Synoptic view of the latest trends in hydraulic actuation, Buletinul Institului
Politehnic din Iasi.
[2] Merkle et all, (1990), Hydraulics, Festo Didactic KG.
[3] Nekrasov, B., (1969), Hydraulics, Peace publishers, Moscow.
[4] Parker, (2005), Cylinder safety guide, Del plaines.
[5]Drumea P., Matache G., Lepadatu I. – Metode de crestere a fiabilitatii utilajelor prin ungerea cu doze
precise de lubrifiant – HERVEX 2001, pag.38-42,ISSN1454-8003
[6] Pop,I. et all, (1999) Conventional Hydraulics, U.T Pres, Cluj-Napoca.
[7] Pop, I., et all, (1999), Modern Hydraulics. Pneumatics, Ed. U.T Pres, Cluj-Napoca.


30

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics


PNEUMATIC PRESSURE SERVOREGULATOR WITH PIEZOELECTRIC
ACTUATION

PhD.Eng. Gabriela MATACHE
1
, PhD.St.Eng. Ioana ILIE
2
, PhD.Eng. Radu RADOI
3

1,2,3
Hydraulics and Pneumatics Research Institute, Bucharest Romania, fluidas@fluidas.ro



1. Introduction

For achieving a modern and competitive economy, it is required to create highly improved
automation equipments using some performant tehnological methods.
Until now the domain of regulation and control equipment has known a remarkable evolution,
reaching max.operational frequencies below 10 Hz. These kind of equipments have the following
advantages:
- are plain and compact;
- perform an easy and very accurate adjustment of the output pressure, as a result of the
precision of positioning of the electro pneumatic convertors used (couple motor, electromagnet or
piezoelectric motors)
- present a short and speedy feedback;
- low electric consumption at actuation;
- may perform the regulation of the output pressure from distance on a wide range;
- maintains constant the output pressure.

The firms which manufacture such devices are developing a new domain of mechatronics, that of
active and intelligent materials of the following type: piezoelectric, magnetostrictive, with shape
memory , integrated in the servoequipments elaborated[1].


2. Presentation of the pneumatic pressure servoregulator with piezoelectric actuation

The pneumatic pressure servoregulator with the functional role of adjusting the output pressure,
depending on the electric drive size (given tension U
c
, prescribed or softare processed), promoted
by the present Ph.D final thesis, use in the actuation level a bimorph lamella type piezoelectric
actuator, fig. 1.
In what regards its structure, the servoregulator proposed has a classic mechanical structure –
aimed objective, similar with that of the piloted pressure regulators at which the drive pressure was
installed manually, an electromechanical convertor (piezoelectric actuator) a pressure trnasducer
and an electronic drive system (SEC)- for generating and installing the drive tension U
c
.

The modern constructions of such regulators have the pressure transducer and the electronics
integrated (encapsulated) which allowed the achievemtn of some compact structures, with a low
electric consumption and high operational performance, which confers them the character of
mechatronic products (due to data processing and an adequate software for the intelligence level).

The operation of the pneumatic pressure servoregulator with piezoelectric lamella in relation with
the constructive and functional diagram from fig.1 is described below. The value of the regulated
output pressure may be monitored by means of a pressure transducer, whose signal is compared
with the input electric signal of reference.

31

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics





Fig. 1


If the value of the regulated output pressure is lower than the corresponding value of the signal of
reference, the electronic drive system SEC will generate a higher drive signal U
c
which determines
the approach of the flap or piezoelectric lamella and implicitly the increase of pressure in the
actuation chamber p
com
.

This increase leads to the opening of the circuit entry exit, by the displacement downward of the
main valve 3 which means a larger flow section, a higher flow which determines an increase of the
output pressure in the volumes from below the servoregulator. In the cases in which output
pressures are higher the direction of the moves and their effects are reverse.
The pneumatic pressure servoregulator consists of the body 4 which has two ports ‘’i’’and ‘’e’’(of
equal dyameters), corresponding to the entry and exit of the compressed air. In the body 4 is
mounted the main valve 3 which is maintained in normal position - U
c
=0 closed by the spring 2.

When is pressure supplied on port ‘’i’’ this enters both chamber ‘’a’’ and the port ‘’b’’ the crossing
track 9 , calibration nozzle 10, through the nozzle 17 reaching the piezoelectric flap- lamella 15. In
the same time a certain drive pressure p
com
corresponding to the input pressure is installed through
32

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics

port ‘’f’’and in the pilot chamber ‘’c’’ delimited by membrane 5 of the servoregulator. Subsequently
the mechanical subassembly from below the mebrane 5 is identical with those of the piloted
pressure regulators. In the moment when the piezoelectric lamella (flap)15, fixed on the body 6 of
the servoregulator by means of the support plate 12 with some clamping screws 14, is supplied
with a drive tension,it occurs a distortion of the lamella meaning an approach of the nozzle 17,
where according to the principle ‘’nozzle - flap”, is generated a proportional drive pressure - p
com

required for achieving the membrane imbalance 5.

Cause of this membrane imbalance 5, it is reached by means of the rod 18, the move away of the
main valve 3 from its seat enclosed in part 19. In this moment the section of the flowing circuit
between the chamber ‘’a’’ and port ‘’e’’ opens, obtaining an increasing output pressure. When it is
reached the desired value at the exit pressure, permanently present in chamber d’ ’of the body 4 by
means of port ‘’m’’ it takes place a displacement of the membrane 5 corresponding to a new
balance position of the forces on mebrane. This balance of foreces will have effect upon the
displacement of the main valve 3, leading to the installation of a flowing section between valve and
the seat 19 corresponding to the regulation of the output pressure at the necessary value, imposed
by U
C
.[3].

This is the operational mode involving pressure regulation. Additionally the servoregulator ensures
the maintaining of a constant value of the regulated pressure, irrespective of the air consumption
from down under. If at exit is connected a closed chamber of constant volume, case which is rare
in use, but is extreme for the regulation function, the output pressure increase tendency above the
regulated value, leads to the diminishing of the flowing section seat – chamber, even until its entire
closing. If downstream the consumption-flow of air in a chamber with variable volume is stabilized
when installing the regulated pressure, the flowing section is preserved. In the case when the air
consumption decreases, the flow from the stabilized mode becoming in excess, this leads to an
increase of the regulated pressure. This output pressure increase tendency permanently installed
in chamber ‘’d’’ will unbalance the membrane which produces the decrease of the flowing section,
meaning a subsequent flow decrease at a level equal with consumption followed by a preservation
of the regulated pressure value. In evolutions of reverse directions, when the consumed flow
increases appears a tendency of diminishing the regulated pressure, the drive pressure installed
by U
c
generates an increase of the flowing section, meaning a flow increase as well and its
accordance to the value of the consumed one.

3. The calculation of design of the main level and the equations afferent to the mathematical
model

Congruent with the structure from fig. 1 for the sizes which appear in the mathematical model, are
used the following symbols:

P
0
, T
0
– air pressure and temperature in normal conditions;
P
1
, T
1
– input pressure and temperature;
P
2
, T
2
– output pressure and temperature;
P
3
, T
3
, V
3
– pressure, temperature and volume from the drive chamber;
A
ij
– the geometric areas of the functional flowing sections;
α
ij
- the flow coefficients corresponding to the flowing sections;
j i
m


- the mass air flows through sections;
x – the opening variation of the flap, equal with the distortion of the piezoelectric lamella;
y , y , y
  
- position, speed and acceleration of the central mobile assembly (valve 3, rod 18,
membrane 5);
Farc=F
0
+k
.
y – the force of the compression spring 2;
m =m
1
+m
2
+m
3
– the mass of the mobile assembly valve +membrane; m
3
=1/3 spring s mass.

33

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics

All the status parameters like pressure P=p+1,013 temperature T =t[
0
C] +273,15[K] are at their
absolute values. Other notations will be defined in the calculation diagrams or during the
elaboration of the model.[3]

Are adopted the following simplifying hypothesis, unanimously accepted in pneumatics [1]:
- The instant massic flow through the flowing sections it is considered equal with that from the
stationary mode, for the same value of the relation between the downstream-upstream
pressures;
- The air flow through the ports takes place without any heat exchange with the outside
environment (adiabatic evolution n=k=1,4);
- The air evolution in the functional chambers in transitory mode occurs without any heat
exchange (adiabatic evolution);
- The influence of the temperature variations from chambers upon the dynamic parameters (flow,
pressure) is negligible, so that the temperatures are considered constant and equal with the
normal temperature (T=293,15 K; t =20
0
C );
- The pressure losses on internal circuits of the servoregulator are negligible, taking into account
their relatively short length and the low air viscosity;
- The elastic force of the nemetallic membrane is negligible (its distortion is stood by the
geometrical shape, not by the material), the active surfacxe is considered constant and equal
with the initial geometreic value;
- The flow coefficients are considered constant;
- The flowing forces are considered negligible in comparison with the forces developed by
pressures.

As functional parameters imposed by rule, according to the theme of design of a pneumatic
pressure servoregulator, are:
- presure regulated at output: (p
2
)
min
... (p
2
)
max
=(0,05....5,8) bar
- supply input pressure: (p
1
)
min
... (p
1
)
max
=(1...6) bar

a. The calculation of the nominal dyameter - D
n


Taking into account that the flow m

must be obtained in the most disadvantageous conditions of
flowing through the sections from the input ouput route of the servoregulator, are first used the flow
calculation relations:[1]
(
¸
(

¸

(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
| ⋅ ⋅ α
⋅ =
s
kg

P
P
P
P
T
P S
15545 , 0 m
2
1
7117 , 1
i
e
4235 , 1
i
e
i
i D

(1)
- for 1
P
P
528 , 0
i
e
≤ < (subsonic flowing mode);
(
¸
(

¸
⋅ ⋅ α
=
s
kg

T
P S
04046 , 0 m
i
i D

, (2)
- for 528 , 0
P
P
0
i
e
≤ < ( sonic flowing mode)
where: P
i
, P
e
(
¸
(

¸

2
m
N
are the input and namely the output pressures from the servoregulator
(corresponding to pressures P
1
, P
2
), S [m
2
] is the nominal flowing section, T
i
[K] air input
temperature T
i
=T
1
=293,15 [K], flow coefficient α
D
=0,6...0,8 depending on the total loss of
pressure on the input-output route, predominating the local pressure losses.
34

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics

On this route there are two sudden variations of section, a decrease from the nominal section
4
D
S
2
n
n
⋅ π
= at the flowing section
d
y d S ⋅ ⋅ =
3
π and an increase from S to S
n
. In the dame time
there are two changes in what regards the flowing direction with angles of 90
0
and three
transformations of section shape (of jet). Since P
1
[i T
1
are the same, it means that only the
function
|
|
.
|

\
|
1
2
P
P
F from the paranthesis of the subsosnic flow relation (1) remains in discussion. Its
value decreases at the increase of the P
2
/P
1
relationship value. The numeric coefficients of the
relations from the subsonic flowing mode (1) and from the sonic flowing mode (2), even if different,
the lowest flow it results to be that given by the relation (1). For the required massic flow: m , at
pressure p
i
in the most disadvantageous case of relation between pressures
i
e
p
p
, T
i
=T
1
=293,15 K
and α
D
=0,7, nominal section S
n
| |
2
m must have the value:
7117 , 1
1
2
4235 , 1
1
2
1
1
15545 , 0
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ ⋅ ⋅

=
P
P
P
P
P
T m
S
D
n
α



Knowing the nominal section it is calculated the nominal dyameter D
n
:

π
π
n
n
n
n
S
D
D
S

= ⇒

=
4
4
2


b. The calculation of the maximum opening stroke – y
d
.

the continuity of the flowing section ( fig. 2) imposes:[2]
d D
n
D
y d
D
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =


3 2
2
1
4
π α
π
α , or correspinding to the real flowing sections:
d n
y d D ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅
3
2
3 , 2 64 , 0 (3)
For the circular section as it is S
n
, α
D1
=0,815, and for the flowing section plane valve- seat S (the
lateral surface of a cylinder) α
D2
=0,732. Although the section from downstream of S is of a ring
shape, is affected by the rod dyameter – d
4
, generally it is adopted d
3
=D
n
.
With the relation 3 it is calculated y
d
:
3 2
2
1
4 d
D
y
D
n D
d
⋅ ⋅ ⋅
⋅ ⋅
=
π α
π α


c. The dimensioning of the main valve (fig. 2).

Being known the dyameter d
3
it is calculated from the condition of resistence at the contact
pressure of the non metallic sealing zone (from rubber) the dyameter d
22
.

The most detrimental situation is when the valve seals the seat and p
2
=0. In relation with the
distribution of pressure p
1
on the valve, the dimensioning relation becomes:
1 ac
ac
3 22
p p
p
d d

⋅ = (4)
Because it was ignored the force F
arc
of the spring, in reality reduced in relation with the force
developed by pressure p
1
it will be taken the admisible contact pressure: p
ac
=(15...18)
.
10
5
N/m
2
.
35

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics

Due to constructive considerations, for placing the rubber ring in the valve (by means of
vulcanization, pasting or crimping) the dyameter d
2
it is dimensioned at the size: d
2
=d
22
+(3...4)
mm.

The calculation of the dyameter d
1
it is made taking into account the balance of forces on the
valve. For diminishing the forces developed by the different pressures p
1
and p
2
the valve is
balanced (pressure p
2
is brought under the valve too), solution which imposes the sealing of this
chamber with a seal ring.For a more accurate evaluation of these forces it was stated the
hypothesis that the transition from pressure p
1
to p
2
it is not step but ramp type, with the
geometrical limits defined by the dyameters of the valve seat d
22
, namely d
3
[3]




Fig. 2



( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
) (
2 2 2 2
4 4 4 4 2 4
1 2
2
1
2
4 2
2
22
2 2
3
2 2
3
1 2
22
1
2
2
1 2
1
2
2
1 2
4
2
3
2 2
3
2
22
2 1 2
22
2
2 1
p p d d p d
p
d
p
d
p
d
p
p d
d d
p
d d
p
d d
p p
d d p
− ⋅ = ⋅ − ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ − ⋅ − ⇒

⋅ ⋅
+ − ⋅

= − ⋅ + − ⋅ ⋅
+
+ − ⋅
π π π π π

) 2 (
2
) (
2
) (
2
4
2
3
2
22
2 2
3
2
22
1
2 1
2
1
d d d
p
d d
p
p p d ⋅ − + − + ⋅ = − ⋅
36

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics

Knowing the numerical values of the dyameters d
22
, d
4
,d
2
,d
3
, it results the following dimensioning
formula:
2 1 2 1
2
1
46 50 ) ( p p p p d ⋅ − ⋅ = − ⋅ (5)

Generalized for any ∆p=p
i
-p
e
,the relation (5) becomes :
p p p
p p p
∆ − =
∆ = −
1 2
2 1


p p p p p p d ∆ ⋅ + ⋅ = ∆ − ⋅ − ⋅ = ∆ 46 4 ) ( 46 50
1 1 1
2
1
, meaning
p p p d ∆ ⋅ + ⋅ = ∆ 46 4
1
2
1
(6)

The friction force from the seal, input by this ring will have the value:
(7) ) (
2 1 1
p p b d F
e
− ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = π µ


d. The force developed by pressure on valve and the friction force from the seal

Considering the sense of force F
s
developed by the pressures that charge it (in bars), with preset
geometric elements (în cm), force F
s
(în daN) has the expression:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

4 4 4 4 2 4
2
1 2
2
1
2
2 1
2
4
2
3 2
2
3
2
22
1 2 2
22
2
2 1
d p d d p d d p d d
p p
d d p F
s
π π π π π
⋅ − − ⋅ − − ⋅ + − ⋅
+
+ − ⋅ =
(8)
e. The dimensioning of the valve rod.

The dyameter of the rod d
4
is chosen constructively. For having a domain of the regulated output
pressures close to the drive pressure values, the rod dyameter should be smaller.

f. The calculation of the force on the membrane of the pneumatic pressure servoregulator

In fig. 3 is shown the distribution of pressures on the elastic membrane of the servoregulator. Upon
the assembly membrane rod act two forces developed by pressure: on the upper part of the
membrane the drive pressure p
3
and on the lower part the output pressure (regulated) p
2
.



Fig. 3
37

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics


As a result the force generated on the membrane is :
F
m
=
( )
2
2
4
2
5
3
2
5
4 4
p
d d
p
d

− ⋅
− ⋅
⋅ π π


4. The study of the piloting-command level and the equations of the model

The force developed by the piezoelectric lamella, used as electro mechanic convertor was
calculated and checked experimentally.
From the relation (9), it results the equation of connection displacement lamella x – drive tension
U
c
of shape:
|
.
|

\
| ⋅
+ ⋅
⋅ ⋅ ⋅
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ −
=
3
2
2 4
11
2
31
h T
S I E
U b l d
x
l
E
z p
c
(9)

The equation force bimorph – drive tension:

l
h b U E d
F
c p
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ −
=
31
2
(10)





Fig. 4



38

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics



F
max
bore by the piezoelectric lamella, studied experimentally demonstrated that for the max.drive
pressure it is sufficient even at values of F/2, for balancing the forces given by these pressures:
p
F F ⋅ ≈ 2 (preliminarily imposed condition).[2] In the same time in relation with the
max.displacements of the bimorph –x the domain of the openings flap- lamella it was chosen as a
safety measure between 0 and x/2.

For the mode in which it was considered the distribution of pressure on lamella - fig 4, force F
p
for
x
0
=0, when p
3
=p
3max
≅p
1

2 2
max 3
10 0
4

⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = d p F
p
π
(11)

where: p
3max
[bar]; d
0
[mm]

The max.drive pressure in relation with the force F developed by the lamella (13) may be:
| | bar
x
F
x
F
x
F
d
F
p 592 , 1
2 ) 2 (
2
4 /
2 /
2
0
2
0
2
0
2
0
max 3
⋅ =
⋅ ⋅
=
⋅ ⋅

=

=
π π π
(12)

Where is maintained the condition that
p
F F ⋅ ≈ 2 , with F [N] and x
0
[mm].
The calcxulation relationships of the flow in sonic mode, respectively subsonic mode, for the
hypothesis of the adiabatic evolution k=1.4, are [1]:

For the nozzle – flap couple (flowing section A
30
) due to the flow of air right in the atmosphere in
most of cases the flowing mode is sonic (the result being obtained experimentally too):


1
1
30 3
30
1
2

+
|
.
|

\
|
+
⋅ ⋅

=
k
k
k
k
RT
A P
m (13)

The flowing mode through section A
13
(confirmed experimentally) proves to be constantly subsonic,
cause never 528 , 0 /
1 3
≤ P P (pressures in their absolute value) [3]


(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|




=
+
k
k
k
P
P
P
P
k
k
RT
A P
m
1
1
3
2
1
3 13 1
13
1
2
 (14)

From the continuity of flows, for d0 =0,8 mm in stabilized flowing mode:
30 13
m m   = (subsonic mode
– sonic mode) may be found x
l
for different absolute input and drive pressures P
1
and P
3
with the
relation:

7117 , 1
1
3
4235 , 1
1
3
3
1
8553 , 0
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ ⋅ =
P
P
P
P
P
P
x
l
(15)





39

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics


4. The mathematical model of the pneumatic pressure servoregulator

For structuring the mathematical model of the pneumatic pressure servoregulator, it is used the
schematic presentation from fig. 5 in which are configured the forces (previously determined)
interferring in the operation of the servoregulator. The balance of forces at the level of the central
mobile subassembly (valve - rod - membrane) has the following form:

0 ) y ( sign ) F F ( F G F F
i e arc max m s
= ⋅ + − − + +  (16)

For eliminating pressure p
3
from the equations of the mathematical model and their correlation with
U
c
– the drive-supply tension of the lamella:
2883 , 0
3
1
5765 , 0
3
1
c
3
0 0 l
P
P
P
P
8553 , 0 U 10 09 , 3 x x x x
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ − = − =

(17)





Fig.5

40

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics


5. Conclusions

The pneumatic pressure servoregulator differs from a classic proportional regulator, at which the
regulated pressures are installed due to a mechanic prompt, performed by hand.
In its structure it was introduced a piloting step, operationally based on the pneumatic circuit
nozzle-flap, which determine drive pressure p
3
depending on the position of the flap –x
l

materialized by a piezoelectric actuator with bimorph lamella. The study of this circuit, in relation
with the real flow modes of the air through its two sections of reference (A
13
[i A
30
) allowed the
determination of function p
3
=p
3
(x
l
), which by means of the force of distortion of the lamella: x =
x(U
c
) and its constructive connection : x
l
=x
0
-x, was brought to the form p
3
=p
3
(U
c
). The study of the
piloting step,has shown that after certain openings x
l
the drive pressure - p
3
does not decrease
below certain values. In this situation for tensions U
c
< 30 V have no regulation effect in the field U
c

=(30...60) V are obtained desired regulated pressure values.
The mathematical model set and its numerical simulation proves the theoretical possibility of
achieving a pneumatic pressure servoregulator with proportional regulation characteristic.
On the servoregulator obtained after design, the mathematical model allowed with an error caused
by approximations, the achievement in theory of a proportional characteristic of regulation, whose
validity will be subsequently studied on a physical model realized at the dimensions obtained in the
stage of design of the pneumatic piezoelectric pressure servoregulator.

REFERENCES
[1[ Radcenco, Vs., Alexandrescu, N. – Calculation and design of the pneumatic elements and diagrams of
automation, Technical Publishing house Bucuresti 1985
[2] Belforte, G., Gastaldi, L., Sorli, M. – Gli azionamenti piezoelettrici nel comando di valvole pneumatiche –
O+P, septembre1998
[3] Matache, G – The study and improvement of the equipement regulating pressure in the pneumatic
systems – Ph.D thesis



41

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics

MODELING OF A THREE WAY ROTATABLE FLUID DISTRIBUTOR USED
TO COMMAND AND CONTROL A HYDRAULIC ROCK DRILL

CLAUDIA KOZMA
1
, BANYAI DANIEL VASILE
2


1,2
.Tech.Univ. of Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Thermal Engineering,
3400 Cluj-Napoca, Romania; e-mail: claudia.kozma@termo.utcluj.ro

Abstract:
A hydraulic command system comprising a combination of two hydraulic half bridge elements of
type A and E is analyzed. The system can be used to command and control an impact mechanism
for hydraulic rock drills. The A+E half bridges combination reflects the presence of the active and
passive hydraulic resistances. Under the form of a three-way valve with angular command
displacement, the A+E circuit is used to control a hydraulic differential motor. Unlike a linear valve,
for this rotary valve, shock waves are reduced. Moreover, its positioning in a structure, as it is
proposed, leads to minimized parasitic hydraulic capacities. Two methods of calculus the circular
section area through which the flow crosses the rotary valve are developed. The characteristics of
the three way rotary valve are expressed mathematically and graphically. The hydraulic rotatable
distributor – linear hydraulic motor subassembly is mathematical analyzed.

Key words: hydraulic rotary valve, three ways valve, pressure-flow curves, half bridge, hydraulic
resistance, steady-state characteristics, valve coefficients, area


1. Introduction

A hydraulic impact mechanism presented in [1], [2] and [12], is analyzed. The percussion
piston of the impact mechanism is controlled by use of an innovative command and control
structure which is a rotatable distributor. The system formed by the rotatable distributor
and the hydraulic motor of the impact piston minimizes the parasitic hydraulic capacities,
the weight, and improves the dynamic behavior of the piston.
The present paper is a completion of the mathematical modeling from [3].

2. The hydraulic rotating distributor

A rotatable spool which is to be patented is
presented and analyzed in figure 1. The rotatable
spool presents axially slots, notated with P and T,
made circumferentially and positioned alternatively
and reversely. These slots operate as input and
return flow distribution slots.












Fig.1. A rotating spool 1 with: T and P –
slots; u – shoulder; s – shaft.

42

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics


The sleeve of the rotatable spool is
constituted by the prominence b
p
of the
piston 2, as suggested in figure 2. Thus, the
rotatable spool 1 is contained within the
impact piston 2 and the shaft s imparts a
rotation movement to the spool. The rotation
motion of the rotatable spool can be provided
by means of a hydraulic motor, an electric
motor or a hydraulic turbine, through the
shaft s.
The slots P and T communicate with the
working chamber C
2
of a hydraulic linear
motor MHL, as in figure 2 and figure 3, by
means of a number of orifices O
K3
realized
through the piston prominence b
p
. The circumferentially slots are brought alternatively in
communication through four orifices O
K3
with the chamber C
2
. Thus, the working chamber
C
2
is fed with hydraulic fluid through the orifices O
K3
and the evacuation of the fluid from
the chamber C
2
is realized through the same orifices O
K3
. Until the chamber C
2
is
connected to the return line through the slots T and the orifices O
T
, a shoulder u confines
the fluid fed through the orifices O
S
, the annular chamber delimitated by the shoulder u
and the spool head acts as an accumulator.
A hydraulic scheme of the subassembly rotary valve – linear hydraulic motor is illustrated
in figure 3. The subassembly is
proposed by [1] to be used in rock
drilling, with a proper rotary mechanism,
hydraulic accumulators and other hydro-
mechanical elements needed to perform
the drilling process.
By use of the four inlet slots P and four
return slots T of the rotatable distributor
DHR (figure 3), the working chamber C
2

is supplied intermittently with hydraulic
fluid from a hydraulic pressure source PV
and consecutively returned to the tank T.
By supplying fluid under pressure and
rotating the spool 1, the piston executes
a linear oscillatory motion. A safety valve
SS is mounted in the high pressure
circuit.
In figure 4, a hydraulic scheme of the
subassembly rotary valve – linear
hydraulic motor outlines the command
and control structure of the motor MHL.
The hydraulic resistances R
i
and R
e
of
the command half bridge have variable
flow cross areas but there can’t be made
displacement commands as for a linear
distributor. When a stepper motor is
used, working positions as illustrated in

Fig.3. The hydraulic scheme of the system
comprising: ME – electrical motor; CPV – pump
coupling; PV – volumetric pump; SS – safety valve;
T
1
, T
2
– tank; DHR – hydraulic rotary distributor; MHL
– linear hydraulic motor; C
2
, C
1
are the motor
chambers.



Fig.2. The rotating spool positioned in the body of
a motor piston, where: 2 – the impact piston; r –
piston rod; b
p
– piston prominence; O
K3
, O
S
, O
T

orifices.

43

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics

figure 5 can be obtained. Using other type of motor the opening and the closing of the
orifices O
K3
are realized continuously.
The command half bridges is of type A+E. The input resistances R
i
are formed by the slots
P and the piston prominence b
p
. In a similar manner, the discharge slots T form the output
resistance R
e
when the motor chamber C
2
is connected to the tank.


A type hydraulic bridge is represented by
two hydraulic resistances both with
variable sectional cross areas.
E type hydraulic bridge is always used
with hydraulic linear differential motors
[13].
This combination of half bridges A+E
can be studied with the rest of the
combinations (matrix of hydraulic
bridges) in [4], [5] where they are
symbolically and constructively
presented and analyzed.
In figure 5, a radial view of the spool-
piston assembly is presented
correspondingly to the two working
positions of the rotating distributor.















Fig.6. Radial view through the rotatable distributor
DHR,where:
θ
v
– the central angle of the rotary spool; r
v
– the
spool radius.

Fig.7. Top view of the spool slot, where: S
K3

the section of the orifice O
K3
; θ
K3-1
, θ
K32

central angles.

a) the feeding position; b) the exhaust position.
Fig.5. The working positions of the rotatable distributor with their corresponding sectional views
through the rotating spool and its sleeve.

Fig.4. The A+E half bridge and the hydraulic linear
motor MHL, where: Q
C1
, Q
C2
– supply/exhaust flow; Ri,
Re – hydraulic resistances; Q
DHR
– the distributor input
flow; Q
S
, p
S
– supply flow, respectively, supply
pressure.
44

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics


3. Equations and mathematics

The flow equations of the hydraulic rotating distributor are:
( ) ( )
( )
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
− − ≥ ≥ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
+ ≤ ≤ − ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
=
b r x p x A C
b r x p p x A C
Q
K v C v K d
K v C DHR v K d
C
3 2 3
3 2 3
2
2 0
2
2 0
2
ρ
ρ
(1)

Where: Q
C2
– the flow sent to the motor through the distributor DHR; C
d
– the discharge
coefficient; A
K3
– the flow passing area through an orifice O
K3
; x
v
– the spool
displacement; α is the piston area ratio; p
DHR
– the pressure of the fluid delivered to the
distributor DHR; p
C2
– the pressure of the fluid sent to the motor MHL; ρ – the fluid density;
b – the slot wide; r
K3
– the radius of the orifice O
K3
.
The notations that appear in the flow expressions (1) are presented also in figures 4, 6 and
7.
In figure 6 and figure 4 it is illustrated a radial view through the impact piston – rotating
spool subassembly, revealing four orifices O
K3
displayed circularly and eight grooves.
From the top view of one spool groove, figure 7, the parameters needed in cross area
computation are marked.

3.1 The calculus steps of the flow passing area

The spool displacement is an instant variable that can be calculated regarding the central
angle of the rotary spool, θ
v
, using the expression (2).
°
⋅ ⋅
=
180
v v
v
r
x
θ π
(2)
The parameter x
v
is used also to determinate the flow passing area A
K3
.
For x
v
varying between 0 and 2r
K3
+b, the effective passing area to motor chamber can be
calculated with the expressions (3), where central angles θ
K3-1
, θ
K32
are in radian.
The variation of the dimensionless flow passing area is presented in figure 8. This variation
begins with a full obstructed orifice O
K3
and by keeping rotating the spool in the same
direction the area function will have a peak when the orifice O
K3
is full opened.


Fig. 8. The variation of the passing area corresponding to one spool slot.

45

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics


( )
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
¦
´
¦
+ ≤ ≤ +
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
| − −
⋅ − ⋅
|
|
.
|

\
| − −

+ ≤ ≤
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
| + −

|
|
.
|

\
| + −
− ⋅
≤ ≤
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
| −

|
|
.
|

\
| −


|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
| + −

|
|
.
|

\
| + −


≤ ≤
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
| −

|
|
.
|

\
| −
− ⋅
≤ ≤
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
| −
⋅ − ⋅
|
|
.
|

\
| −

=
b r x b r
r
b r x
r
b r x
b r x r
r
b x r
r
b x r
r x b
r
r x
r
r x
r
b x r
r
b x r
b x r
r
r x
r
r x
r
r x
r
x r
r
x r
r
x A
K v K
K
K v
K
K v
K
K v K
K
v K
K
v K
K
K v
K
K v
K
K v
K
v K
K
v K
K
v K
K
K v
K
K v
K
K v
K
v K
K
v K
K
v K
3 3
3
3
3
3 2
3
3 3
3
3
3
3
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
2
3
3
3
3
3
3 2
3
3
2 , arccos 2 sin
2
1
2
1
arccos 2
2 ,
2
arccos 2 sin arccos 2
2 ,
2
arccos 2 sin arccos 2
2
arccos 2 sin arccos 2
,
2
arccos 2 sin arccos 2
0 , arccos 2 sin
2
1
2
1
arccos 2
π
π
π
(3)
By substituting in figure 7 the central angles θ
K3-1
, θ
K32
with 2θ
K3-1
, respectively θ
K32
, the
expression (3) can be rewritten as:

( )
( )
( ) ¦
¹
¦
´
¦
⋅ < < ⋅ + − ⋅
< ⋅ − ⋅
=
− − −
− − −
3 3 2 3 2 3 2 3
2
3
3 1 3 1 3 1 3
2
3
3
2 , cos sin
, cos sin
K v K K K K K
K v K K K K
v K
r x r r
r x r
x A
θ θ θ π
θ θ θ
(4)
The functions sine and cosine from the expression (4), for 0<x
v
<r
K3
are developed below:
3 3
3
1 3
2
1 cos
K
v
K
v K
K
d
x
r
x r ⋅
− =

=

θ
(5)
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
− ⋅

=
− −
=

3 3 3
2
3
2
3
1 3
1
4
sin
K
v
K
v
K
v K
K
K
d
x
d
x
r
x r r
θ
(6)
The functions sine and cosine from the expression (4), for r
K3
<x
v
<2r
K3
are developed
below:
1
2
cos
3
2 3


=

K
v
K
d
x
θ
(7)
|
|
.
|

\
|
− ⋅
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
− − ⋅ =
|
|
.
|

\
|

− ⋅

=

3 3 3 3
2 3
1 1 1 2
2
1
2
sin
K
v
K
v
K
v
K
v
K
d
x
d
x
r
x
r
x
θ
(8)
Where: d
K3
– the diameter of the orifice O
K3
.
To bring the area function A
K3
into a simpler and compact form, it can be used the steps
from [6], where the fluid passing area through a circular plan surface is theoretically
computed. In this manner, the function sine, cosine and arcos are developed using
binomial and Maclaurin (Taylor) theorems from [7].

46

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics


By expressing the functions (5), (6), (7), (8) as Binomial and Taylor series, the obtained
expressions depend on the number of binomial and maclaurin terms selected (usually the
first three or four terms, omitting the higher powers).
For a flow cross area variation from zero to full opening,
the calculus area expression is:
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ − ⋅
|
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ ⋅ =
3
2
3
3
2
3
3
10
3
1
3
4
K
v
K
v
K
K
d
x
d
x
d xv A


(9)


For a flow cross area variation from the full opening to a
complete obstruction, the calculus area expression is:
( )
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
− ⋅ − ⋅
|
|
.
|

\
|
− ⋅ − ⋅ =
3
2
3
3
2
3
3
1
8
3
1 1
3
4
4
K
v
K
v
K
v K
d
x
d
x
d x A
π
(10)
By applying binomial and Maclaurin theorem
approximations are made. To obtain a better accuracy
the error of the approximations can be adjusted by
modifying the number of series coefficients.
In figure 9, the resulting cross area variation from
the closed position to the full opening of a resistance is illustrated. The diameter is set of
80 mm.

3.2 The null operating point of the rotatable distributor


In figure 10, it can be observed that for a null
command displacement (x
v
), this is when the
spool is symmetrical positioned in the
distributor body, the flow sent to the motor is
zero. Thus, the null operating point of the
rotatable distributor is characterized by:
( ) 0 ,
2 2
= =
v C v C
x p x Q
(11)
Based on the figure 10 the statement written
referring to the expression (11) is valid for any
control pressure, the following condition must
be fulfilled:
S PSF C
p p ⋅ =

α
2
(12)
The condition (12) has to be disposed because
in a steady state analyze the pressures in the
linear hydraulic motor must set the piston in
equilibrium.









Fig.9. The cross area variation in
the rotating hydraulic distributor,
obtained with binomial theorems,
from zero to a full opening.



Fig.10. The pressure-flow curves for three
different command displacements of the
rotatable spool: x
v
/x
vmax
=-1; x
v
/x
vmax
= 0;
x
v
/x
vmax
=1.


47

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics


3.3 The pressure-flow curves of the rotatable distributor

In figure 11 it is illustrated the pressure-flow curves for different command displacements
of the rotary spool of the hydraulic rotatable distributor DHR which is used to command
and control the linear hydraulic motor MHR (figure 3). The pressure-flow curves of a linear
three way control valve are presented in figure 12 and are identical with those of the rotary
valve.
Similar pressure-flow curve plots are revealed and analyzed in many research labors as
[8], [9], [10].

3.4 The rotatable distributor coefficients and the linearized flow equation

Usually, the nonlinear algebraic equation (1) which describes the pressure-flow curves
illustrated in figure 10 can be seen as a Taylor series and expressed regarding to the valve
null operating point. The linear equation which is obtained by developing the equation (1)
as a Taylor polynomial of degree 1 is easier to analyze.
Similarly with the steps used in [8], the partial derivatives which appear in the Taylor
polynomial are obtained by differentiation or graphically from the pressure-flow curve plots
(figure 9 or 10). The rotatable distributor coefficients are defined by these partial
derivatives and the computed values are:
0 =
−xv Q
K (13)
0 =
−p Q
K
(14)
∞ =
p
K
(15)
The flow gain or the partial derivative of the load flow with respect to rotary spool
displacement, as is defined a valve flow-displacement coefficient, is the most important
parameter for a valve [5-9] but in the same time questionable [11]. The valve pressure
drop is always changing yielding to a variable flow gain [11]. As the pressure drop on
rotatable distributor changes, the system flow gain will not be constant.
Flow-displacement coefficient of a valve is proportional with system flow gain.
Based on the results (13) and (14), the general linearized flow equation is:
( ) 0 ,
2 2
= ∆
C v C
p x Q (16)


Fig.11. The pressure – flow curves of the rotatable
hydraulic distributor for different spool command
displacements.


Fig.12. The pressure – flow curves of a linear
hydraulic distributor for different spool command
displacements.

48

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics

The flow differentiation is determined for an
infinitesimal variation, in the vicinity of the
null operating point. In consequence, a
zero result (16) will show that for
infinitesimal variation of the rotating spool
displacement and for infinitesimal variation
of the control pressure in steady state
regime, theoretically, there will not be
changes in the load flow.

4. Mathematical modeling of the
percussion mechanism

In figure 13 it is created a hydraulic scheme
for the percussion mechanism where the
parameters used in the mathematical
modeling of the impact system are
presented.

4.1 The continuity equations for steady
one-dimensional flow

The continuity equations of the liquid fluid
in the linear motor chambers are:
( )
2 1 1
1 1 1 0
1 C C ip C ep
C C C
C
p p C p C
t
V
t
p
E
V
Q − ⋅ + ⋅ +


+


⋅ = (17)
( )
1 2
2 2 2 0
2 C C ip
C C C
C
p p C
t
V
t
p
E
V
Q − ⋅ +


+


⋅ = (18)
By summing the continuity equations (17) and (18), and by using the notations (20), (21),
(22) and (23) it gives:
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ + + ⋅ ⋅

⋅ =
Load pLoad p Load pLoad
p
Load
p C x A p C
E
x A
Q
2 _ 1 _
1
2
1
 
α (19)


Where:
2
1 2 C C
Load
Q Q
Q
+
=

(20)
1 2 C C Load
p p p − = (21)
1 2 1 _ C C Load pLoad
p p p C ⋅ + = ⋅ α
(22)
1 2 _ C ep Load pLoad
p C p C ⋅ = ⋅
(23)

Where: E – the liquid bulk modulus of elasticity; m
p
– the total inertial mass reduced to
impact piston mass; p
Load
– the pressure drop on the hydraulic linear motor; Q
Load
– the
average volumetric flow rate supplied to the motor chambers; x
pmax
– the maximum stroke
of the impact piston.




Fig.13. The symbolical hydraulic scheme of the
subsystem, where: A, αA – the piston areas with α
the ratio between them; C
ep
is the external leakage
coefficient; C
ip
is the internal leakage coefficient; p
C1

and p
C2
are the pressures in the supply, respectively
the discharge lines; x
p
is the impact piston
displacement.


49

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics

4.2 The equation of movement

The equation of impact piston movement is:
2 1 pC pC p p p
F F x x m = + ⋅ + ⋅
  
µ
(24)
Where: μ – the friction coefficient; F
pC1
, F
pC2
– the pressure forces acting on the impact
piston active surfaces.
The following notation is made:
1 2 3 _ C C Load pLoad
p p p C ⋅ − = ⋅ α
(25)
Using the notation (25), the equation (24) can be rewritten as:
p
pLoad
p
pLoad
p
Load
x
C A
x
C A
m
p
  


+ ⋅

=
3 _ 3 _
µ
(26)



4.3 The system characteristic equation

The system characteristic equation is:
( ) ( )
( )
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

+ ⋅ +
|
|
.
|

\
|

⋅ ⋅
+ ⋅

⋅ ⋅
+
+
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|


⋅ ⋅

+ ⋅

⋅ ⋅

⋅ = ⋅
α
µ
µ
1
2
3 _
2 _
3 _
2 _
3 _
1 _
max
2
3 _
1 _
max
A
C A
C C
s
C A
m C C
s
C A
C
E
x A
s
C A
m C
E
x A
s X s Q
s
pLoad
pLoad ep
pLoad
p pLoad ep
pLoad
pLoad
p
pLoad
p pLoad
p
p Load
(27)


The system characteristic equation gives a natural pulsation ω
n
in the presence of
damping and leakages defined as:
( ) ( )
p pLoad p
pLoad ep pLoad
m C x A
C C C A E
n
⋅ ⋅ ⋅
⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅
=
1 _ max
2 _ 3 _
2
1 µ α
ω
(28)
And a damping ratio δ defined as:
( ) ( ) µ α
µ
δ
⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅
⋅ ⋅ ⋅

|
|
.
|

\
|



+ ⋅ =
2 _ 3 _
2
1 _ max
1 _
2 _
max 1
2
1
pLoad ep pLoad
p pLoad p
pLoad
pLoad
p
ep
p C C C A E
m C x A
C
C
x A
C E
m

(29)
These two characteristic parameters describe the dynamic behavior of the analyzed
subassembly through the expressions (28) and (29).

5. Discussions and conclusions

An innovating command structure for a hydraulic impact mechanism used in industrial
applications such as rock, concrete or asphalt penetration is presented, described and a
mathematical modeling is developed.
The command structure is essentially a rotary spool with circular grooves and mounted in
a piston prominence. Cylindrical orifices are radial drilled in the piston prominence to allow
the fluid flow from the rotary spool grooves into a working motor chamber. The rotary
movement of the hydraulic rotary spool and the hydraulic feeding of the motor assure a
linear oscillatory movement for the impact piston.
Two methods of calculus the flow cross area through the hydraulic resistances of the
hydraulic rotating distributor are revealed.
50

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics

The pressure – flow curves of the hydraulic rotating distributor are computed.
The hydro mechanical impact mechanism is assumed to be a dynamic system with
constant parameters unlike the real situation according to which the coefficients are
determined by the impact mechanism position. Moreover, the liquid bulk modulus is
assumed to be constant in the present mathematical modeling.
The obtained linearized flow equation of the hydraulic rotating distributor equals zero. A
mathematical interpretation for this result is that for small deviation of the rotary spool from
its steady symmetrical position in the piston prominence, the hydraulic linear motor –
hydraulic rotary distributor subassembly behaves as a hydraulic linear motor.

6. Reference

[1] L. Vaida, C, Kozma, Generator hidraulic de vibraţii pentru perforatoare hidraulice rotopercutante,
registered to OSIM: A/10018/2012
[2] C. Kozma, L. Vaida, A constructional and functional improvement in hydraulic rotary percussive drill,
HERVEX ISSN 1454 – 8003 (2011)
[3] C. Kozma, Mathematical modelling of a hydraulic vibro percussive system, SIDOC Project – Doctoral
students’ session (2012)
[4] M. Ivantysynova, Design and Modeling of Fluid Power Systems, Purdue University (2012)
[5] L. Deacu, D. Banabic, M. M. Rădulescu, C. Raţiu, Tehnica hidraulicii proportionale, Ed. Dacia ISBN
973-35-0058-5 (1989)
[6] R. B. Walters, Hydraulic and electro-hydraulic systems, Publisher: Springer, ISBN-13: 978-
1851665563 (1991)
[7] V S. Gourley, Binomial expansion, power series, limits, approximations, Fourier series, University of
Surrey (2007)
[8] C. Kozma, The static and dynamic analysis of a hydraulic 3/2 valve with linear displacement.
Pressure-flow curves, HIDRAULICA ISSN 1453 – 7303 (2012)
[9] H. E. Merrit, Hydraulic control systems, Publisher: John Wiley & Sons Ltd, ISBN 0-471-59617-5
(1976)
[10] K. E. Rydberg, Hydraulic servo systems – Course, TMHP51, IEI, Linköpings Universitet, 2008
[11] J. L. Johnson, How to interpret valve specifications, http://hydraulicspneumatics.com (2005)
[12] C. Kozma, L. Vaida, Hydraulic schemes for impact devices. A control system for impact mechanisms
using a rotatable distribution valve – part2, HERVEX ISSN 1454 – 8003 (2012)
[13] Banyai D.V., Metode noi în sinteza maşinilor hidraulice, cu volum unitar variabil şi reglare electro-
hidraulică, thesis (2011)

Address for correspondence
1. Ing. Claudia Kozma, PhD.: Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering,
Department of Thermal Engineering, 3400 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Tel: ++40 264 401777
Fax: ++40 264 401777
e-mail: claudia.kozma@termo.utcluj.ro

51

ISSN 1453 - 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics


THE ANALYSIS OF FLOW LOSSES THROUGH DYNAMIC SEALS
OF HYDRAULIC CYLINDERS

Gabriela MATACHE
1
, Stefan ALEXANDRESCU
1
, Adrian PANTIRU
1
, Gheorghe SOVAIALA
1
, Mihai
PETRACHE
2
1
INOE 2000– IHP Bucharest, e-mail:fluidas@fluidas.ro
2
SC.LYRA SRL Bucharest, e-mail: office@lyra.ro
Abstract: To hydraulic actuators most commonly known as cylinders a feature seen in terms of
performance is the product availability depending on dynamic seals. This paper intends to clarify
the issue of losses through mobile sealing elements of parts in relative linear motion piston –
cylinder liner and rod – piston guide. In the second part of the paper there is presented a
comparison of these losses to those of other hydraulic equipment.


Keywords: hydraulic cylinders, piston seals, flow losses.
1. Introduction
As it is known, hydraulic cylinders also known as actuators or linear hydraulic motors convert the
pressure energy of oil supplied by a pump into mechanical energy capable of providing an active
energy of translational motion and thus mechanical work, [1]. From a constructive point of view
there is a variety of such hydraulic devices, in figure 1 being shown a double acting and unilateral
rod cylinder mounting with front flange.

Figure1. The components of a hydraulic cylinder
1 - cylinder liner, 2- piston, 3t - piston socket mounted near the rod, 3p - piston socket mounted
near the piston end, 4 - cylinder rod, 5 - fixed rod seal, 6 - piston guide ring, 7- nut, 8 - washer,10-
O ring, fixed lid seal, 11- lid, 12 - rod guide ring, 13 - tie bar, 14 - nut, 15 - washer, 16 - scraper, 17-
rod socket, 18 - mounting lid.
52

ISSN 1453 - 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics


When using hydraulic motors, components that wear out are sockets 3p, 3t, 17, guide rings 6,12,
rod 4 and scraper 16 as a result of friction towards the fixed parts. Elements that first wear are the
sockets and the negative effect materializes through loss of flow inside and outside of the product.
Size of these losses determines the acceptability criteria for mobile sealing gaskets and thus their
life span. The variety of sealing elements for rod and piston correlated to the criteria of the cylinder
working speed, maximum working pressure and dimensions determined the manufacturers to
avoid stipulating in booklets the acceptable flow loss amounts over the lifetime of these products
and thus the time for their replacing.
2. Sealing process
As it is known, until now, there has not been developed a general theory of sealing explaining all
aspects of this process. Seals are machine parts assemblies aimed at closing as tight as possible
a space containing a hydraulic environment under pressure. Sealing system, in the case of
hydraulic cylinders, must maintain pressure and avoid loss of fluid to the low pressure side, both
inside the cylinders, by isolating chambers Cp and Ct,- figure1- and outside the rod during its
movement outwards. In the case of hydraulic cylinders sealing is achieved due to pressing when
mounting against the contact surface and also due to the radial force resulting from the pressure of
the sealed environment itself. This way to achieve the pressing force from within the hydraulic
system is called the “self sealing”.
In Figures 2 and 3 are shown elements with self sealing (O ring and socket), [2]



Figure 2
Mobile sealing of the piston with O rings:
1- O ring, 2- guide ring, 3- anti-extrusion ring


Figure 3
Mobile sealing of the piston with
sockets
2-guide ring, 3- anti-extrusion ring,
5- sealing socket.

By installing the seal into its place with an elastic deformation by compression, there is created
locally an initial sealing pressing. When there occurs pressure of the sealed environment
automatically increases the force by which the cylinder socket presses against the cylinder liner.
As one can see, the initial pressing, when assembling, has less weight compared to pressing
resulting from hydraulic environment pressure. Uniformly distributed radial force [3] for sealing the
piston is calculated using the formula:
53

ISSN 1453 - 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics


F = πDpl
D – piston diameter;
p – pressure within the piston;
l – sealing length



Figure 4
1-initial pressing, at mounting, of the socket in the
absence of pressure
Figure 5
1- final pressing of the socket in the
presence of static pressure

Fluid losses during displacement of rod and piston are in fact leakages through the clearance
existing between the sealing and surrounding parts. In the specialty literature they are also known
as losses in flow of the cylinder as this amount of oil reaches the tank circuit.
Flow loss consists of the amount of oil which during the input stroke of the rod in the cylinder no
longer returns to the area under pressure. Size of these losses depends on several parameters: oil
viscosity, roughness, deviations in shape of the part that the socket is in contact with, materials,
state of wear of the seal, constructive solution, size etc. The sealing through contact process is
related to the presence of a clearance needing to be closed, characterized by the pressure
gradient dp/dl, parameter which determines the pressure p curve shape along the length l of the
socket.
54

ISSN 1453 - 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics




At piston displacement the socket is
deformed during the hydrodynamic
process of occurrence of a clearance.
During displacement the initial pressing
from the seal mounting does not
change. Socket deformation is minor
compared with the average size of the
clearance, the graphic of hydrodynamic
pressure variation within the clearance
along the sealing length of the piston
socket looking, hypothetically, as shown
in Figure 6, [4].
When switching from non-operative
mode to reciprocating motion mode in
the presence of viscous oil the two
areas are completely separate,
hydraulic film whose thickness changes
will result in increased oil loss. Fluid film
thickness on the work surface should be
as small, but sufficient to produce
lubrication of seal.


Figure 6
Variation of hydrodynamic pressure within the sealing
clearance of the socket

3. Quantifying flow losses (leakage) at hydraulic cylinders
Measurement of fluid loss in hydraulic cylinders is performed to assess the functional status of the
seal after installation but also after certain periods of working, at endurance test for determining the
lifetime of the product. This check is also performed periodically within the program of hydraulic
system maintenance and compulsorily after repairing of cylinders.
3.1. Quantifying flow losses at rod socket
In accordance to the provisions of STAS 8535-83, measurements are performed at a pressure of
1.25...1.5 rP (rP – rated pressure) after performing five double strokes - the testing diagram is
shown in Figure 7.



55

ISSN 1453 - 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics



The safety valve sV is adjusted at the
pressure of 1.25 ... 1.5 rP, and then there
are performed a minimum of five double
strokes by switching on and switching off
the electromagnet of distributor ED. Way
throttle valves WT are adjusted so as to
achieve the load opposite to cylinder
displacement. This operation aims to
achieve a maximum thickness of oil film on
the surfaces moving relative to the
stationary ones (piston - liner, rod – guide).
Measurement of losses at the rod is
performed during the external tightness
check on a certain amount of time,
permissible values being specified in
manufacturer standards and very rarely in
supplier catalogues. Measurements are
usually performed at an oil viscosity of 33±3
mm
2
/sec, corresponding to a temperature of
50±5ºC.
Measurement diagram of flow losses to the
rod is shown in Figure 8.
After pulling back the piston in position in
Figure 8, pressure adjusted by the stand
valve is maintained constant over a certain
period of time 10...15 min.
Figure 7
HC – hydraulic cylinder to be tested, HP- hydraulic
pump, sV- safety valve, M-manometer, ED-
electrically actuated distribuitor, WT – way throttel

Losses of fluid through the piston sealing
area reach the tank via distributor DE, while
losses through the rod sealing clearance,
which are of interest for these checks will
be collected in calibrated vessel cV.
Regarding fluid loss amounts there are
diverse opinions. According to some
authors, on the rod is allowed forming of a
film of oil without forming droplets. Another
opinion is that the volume of the film which
is formed should not exceed a volume of
0.5 cm
3
to 50 double strokes, a double
stroke having a length of 0.5m at the
maximum working pressure. There is
promulgated an even more tolerant amount
of fluid loss at a 30mm diameter rod: up to 5
drops / min (0..25 cm³/min) at the pressure
of 110 bar. This value is too large and
should not be taken into account.

Figure 8
HC – hydraulic cylinder in drawn back position, ED-
electrically actuated distribuitor, cV - calibrated
vessel

56

ISSN 1453 - 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics


On the other hand, the notion of admissible fluid loss is still insufficiently clarified. For example, in
the specialized literature they speak of zero losses, although these losses can mean a few cm ³/h,
without the occurrence of drops. An acceptable amount of flow losses to rod, measured as
illustrated in Figure 8, is up to 6.5 mg/min to seal in new condition. During operation of the cylinder
losses get larger and time when the product must be replaced is chosen by the user.
In conclusion, rod seal of a cylinder is chosen depending on the purpose, requirements and safety
that it must comply with inside the hydraulic system, e.g. at the cylinder rod from aircraft outside
losses are not allowed. An indicator of a seal performance is the number of kilometers covered
with a certain pressure not exceeding the amount of loss provided in manufacturer standards.
3.2. Quantifying flow losses at piston sockets
Internal flow losses through the piston sealed clearance are an important parameter which is
measured during type tests, on a regular basis but also during predictive maintenance program.
Checking, according to the standard in force, is performed in five fixed, intermediate, equally
spaced positions of the cylinder stroke at a pressure of 1.25...1.5 rP after performing minimum five
strokes on a stand, Figure 7. Measurement of internal flow losses is performed according to the
diagrams in Figures 8 and 9.

The amount of liquid that is collected in the
calibrated vessel cV relates to a minute, but for
more accurate measurement duration should be
about 10 ... 15 min. Usually this check is
performed at both ends of the stroke - Figures 9
and 10.

Figure 10

Figure 9
HC – hydraulic cylinder in advanced head
stroke position, ED- electrically actuated
distribuitor, cV - calibrated vessel, Man-
manometer

Measurement of internal losses in the other three fixed points of the rod complicates the stand
structure, for this reason the check is performed only at the end of the stroke. Currently, most
manufacturers of cylinders buy pipe for cylinder liner from specialized manufacturers, so that there
are guaranteed deviations from cylindricity, roundness, straightness and material. During the
experiments, due to the high safety coefficient, 3.5, no residual deformities were observed as
convex or concave shape. Moreover, in calculation formula of cylinder liner thickness the liner
length is not taken into consideration and thus checking in intermediate positions is not justified.
57

ISSN 1453 - 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics


Measurement of internal losses in several points is performed, usually, at cylinders on mining
machinery which have undergone hydraulic shocks and whose liner was deformed as a result of
massive rock fall.
In terms of internal losses, in this area also technical information are few and elusive, not being
indicated the sampling parameters: pressure, socket diameter, material, oil temperature, etc.
In figure 11 is shown a diagram of the internal losses depending on piston diameter at hydraulic
cylinders of 160 bar used in machinery – tools, [5]. Permissible values are higher compared to
those of rods, their growth is not visible outside the hydraulic system, and the negative effect is
quantified by lowering rod speed compared to initial adjustment. Mean value recommended by the
manufacturers of hydraulic cylinders, measured under the above conditions, is 6 mg/min in the
case of a socket in new condition.


It can be seen that the losses increase
proportionally with socket circumference and
they have the lower limit value 1 cm ³/min
which is still a high value. Flow losses
diminish the more dynamic viscosity is
higher, it being inversely proportional to
them. Theoretically, the variation of viscosity
is dependent on oil temperature and actually
it materializes in the amount of leakage.
Determination of fluid loss is based primarily
on the results of experimental tests, even
more as the friction regime of sealing
surfaces is most commonly semi-fluid and
exceptionally fluid.


Figure 11
Variation of flow losses depending on
the outside diameter of sockets
to a pressure of approximately 160 bar

4. Internal losses at other hydraulic devices
Permissible values of fluid losses at hydraulic cylinders are much smaller than at other devices.
For instance, in Figure 12 are shown permissible losses to hydraulic slide valve manifolds at a
pressure of 160 bar. Values are high because their operation is conditioned by the existence of
radial clearances, unlike mobile sealing elements where there is a pressing force at mounting
which increases in the presence of pressure inside the cylinder. Variation of losses on the levels of
dimensional parameters rD6, rD10, rD20, rD32 depends on hydraulic diagrams of manifolds and
the overlap between the slide valve and the body. For a cylinder that has a piston diameter of 90
mm and moves at 0.020 m / s is required a flow rate of 800 l / min, corresponding to a manifold rD
32. Comparing the graphs in Figures 11 and 12 it can be noted that permissible losses at the
mobile piston seal are of 6 cm³/min, while at the manifold they are of 600 cm
3
/min – that is 100
times higher.
58

ISSN 1453 - 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics



Figure 12
Flow losses at 160 bar at slide valve manifolds

At axial piston pumps permissible flow losses are caused by leakage through diametrical and
frontal clearances. In Figure 13 is presented the variation of flow losses related to flow. These
values increase during operation, the user choosing the moment when he/she considers the pump
should be replaced [6].

Figure 13
Flow losses at 160 bar at axial piston pumps



59

ISSN 1453 - 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics


5. Conclusions
Evaluation of flow losses in hydraulic equipment as accurate as possible is required for efficient
sizing of hydraulic electric pumps. Pump flow that is taken into account is the useful flow of
hydraulic system to which are added flow losses of the equipment, and in this sense, we can
calculate the volumetric efficiency of the hydraulic system. Also, increasing over time of oil losses
due to wear is an important parameter in determining the lifetime of hydraulic equipment, of sealing
elements and in establishing the maintenance program.

REFERENCES
[1] C. Cristescu, P.Drumea ,D I.Guta, C.Dumitrescu, P.Krevey ‚’’Theoretical and experimental research
regarding the dynamic behaviour of linear hydraulic motors’’, Journal : Hidraulica no. 1 - 2 / 2011, ISSN 1453
– 7303
[2] Assofluid, ’’Hydraulics in industrial and mobile application’’, Milano, September, 2007
[3] A.Fatu, et al., “Evaluation of the elastomer hyper elastic behavior a U-cup hydraulic rod seal” Hidraulica
no.3, October 2010, ISSN 1453-7303
[4] C. Cristescu, P.Drumea, “Mathematical modeling and numerical simulation of the tribologic behaviour of
mobile translation sealings subjected at high pressures”, Hidraulica no.2 (22) September 2008, ISSN 1453-
7303
[5] A.Oprean, “Hidraulica masinilor unelte”, Didactic and Pedagogical Publishing House, Bucharest,1965
[6] T.C. Popescu, I. Lepadatu, D.D. Ion Guta, Experimental research activies regarding the reduction of
energy compsuntion at endurance test stands of rotary voliumetric machines, Proceedings of
International Scientific Technical Conference Hydraulics and Pneumatics 2009, Wroclaw, 7-9 October,
ISBN 978-83-87982-34-8


60

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics


DOUBLY FEED INDUCTION GENERATOR FOR BIOMASS COMBINED
HEAT AND POWER SYSTEMS
Curac IOAN
1
, Craciun BOGDAN IONUT
2
Banyai DANIEL VASILE
3

1
Technical University Of Cluj Napoca, Department of Electrical Machines and Drives,
curac.ioan.jr@gmail.com
2
Aalborg University Department of Energy Technology, bic@et.aau.dk
3
Technical University Of Cluj Napoca, Department of Mechanical Engineering,
daniel.banyai@termo.utcluj.ro

Abstract: Due to concerns regarding environmental problems this paper present the potential of
biomass CHP (Combined Heat and Power) systems to improve ancillary services in distributed
generation systems. Thermal power SG (synchronous generator), advantages and disadvantages
comparison with DFIG (Doubly Feed Induction Generator) are also shortly described.

Keywords: biomass, combined heat and power, distributed generation, ancillary services, grid
codes, DFIG

1. Introduction
A lot of literature in Power Systems study cogeneration biomass power plant grid couplet
with SG and them grid his control. That why the aim of this paper is to propose to open a
detailed study of DFIG in state of SG for biomass power plant with steam turbine and
capacity between 1-5 MW
e
. This capacity is suitable with DG from rural area and for
sawmills.
International Council on Large Electricity Systems (CIGRE) defines DG unit as a
generation unit that is not centrally planned, not centrally dispatched, usually connected to
the distribution network and smaller than 50-100 MW [3], [4].
There are a wide variety of potential benefits to distributed energy systems both to the
consumer and the electrical supplier that allow for both greater electrical flexibility and
energy security [1], [2]. A system with appropriate levels of security and power quality is
not necessarily to run in an optimal manner. For example, reactive power injected at
terminals of a transmission line can increase the active power transit capacity. Similarly, if
some transmission capacities are reserved to allow the supply of ancillary services, less
power for energy can be transmitted. Moreover, the provision of ancillary services plays a
role in amount of losses and impacts the aging of infrastructures. More generally, the
consequences on the various resources of the power system have to be taken into
account while using ancillary services in order to use the resources of the system in an
optimal manner.[5].
Ancillary services are defined as services provided in addition to real power generation.
They include, amongst others, reactive power control, provision of spinning reserve,
frequency control, and power quality improvement.[6].

2. BIOMASS COMBINED HEAT AND POWER (CHP) PLANTS

2.1 Biomass cogeneration
Waste wood biomass conversion uses basic two categories of technologies, one is
thermochemical that use high temperatures to convert feedstock to energy However, the
technologies have potential to produce electricity, heat, bio products, and fuels. The other
61

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics

technologies are biochemical and use biological agents to convert biomass feedstock to
clean energy. In addition, this technology has the potential to produce electricity, heat, bio
products, and fuels [7]. Biomass combustion is the main technology route for bioenergy,
responsible for over 90 percent of the global contribution to bioenergy. The selection and
design of any biomass combustion system is mainly determined by the characteristics of
the fuel to be used, local environmental legislation, the costs and performance of the
equipment necessary or available as well as the energy and capacity needed (heat,
electricity)[9].
For example biomass cogeneration systems used in sawmills are indirect fired and
compound from biomass boiler condensing steam turbine with extraction and synchronous
generator as shown in Fig. 1.



Fig. 1. Combined Heat and Power Diagram – Indirect Fired [8]

Biomass used is a result from wood industrialization has humidity between 50-60% and is
burned in grate-fired or circulating boilers. Steam produced is expanding in turbine witch
produced mechanical power for synchronous generator, then pass in condenser and boiler
thru feed water pump. Low-pressure steam produced is used for drying chambers, space
heating or cooling systems.
62

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics

Fig. 2. Power-to-heat ratio function of the plant size of biomass-fuelled CHP plants in Finland and
Sweden with 1–20MW [9].
2. 2 St eam t ur bi ne
Steam turbines are the most common technology used in power plants and industries.
Depending upon the exit pressure of the steam, steam turbines fall into two types:
backpressure turbines and condensing turbines. Backpressure turbines operate with an
exit pressure at least equal to atmospheric pressure, and are suitable for some sites with a
steam demand of intermediate pressure. Condensing turbines have the advantage of
changing electrical and thermal power independently and they work with an exit pressure
lower than atmospheric pressure [10].
Governing systems for steam turbine is containing three basic functions: normal speed
load control, over speed control, and over speed trip. In addition, the turbine controls
include a number of other functions such as start-up/shutdown controls an auxiliary
pressure control [12]

2.3 Synchronous generator
In grid-tied operation the voltage characteristic is given by the mains grid. The SG has to
be synchronized to the grid’s voltage with regard to its voltage magnitude, frequency,
phase sequence, and phase shift by use of the above-described control capabilities. The
rotor is then forced by the stator field to rotate with the network frequency [11]

2. 4 Doubl y Fed I nduct i on Gener at or
The stator of a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) is connected to the grid directly,
while the rotor of the generator is connected to the grid by electronic converters through
slip rings, as shown in Fig. 3.The generator can deliver energy to the grid at both
supersynchronous and subsynchronous speeds. Thing that can help biomass
cogeneration power plants to compensate different humidity and low quality fuel[13].
63

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics


Fig. 3 Exempl ary of DFIG grid connection
3. Concl usi ons
Since Power Electronics develop powerful models of inverters for wind turbines new possibilities
and opportunities in research of cogeneration power plant for a large integration in DG has been
opened.

REFERENCES
[1] Benjamin Kroposki, Senior Member, IEEE, Christopher Pink, Member, IEEE, Richard DeBlasio, Senior
Member, IEEE, Holly Thomas, Member, IEEE, Marcelo Simoes, Senior Member, IEEE, and P.K. Sen,
Senior Member, IEEEE. , Benefits of Power Electronic Interfaces for Distributed Energy Systems., Power
Engineering Society General Meeting, 2006. IEEE
[2] G. Pepermans, J . Driesen, D. Haeseldonckx, R. Belmans, W. D’haeseleer, “Distributed generation:
definition, benefits and issues”, Energy Policy, vol. 33, pp. 787-798, 2005.
[3] [3] Angelo L'Abbate, Gianluca Fulli, Fred Starr, Stathis D. Peteves, Distributed Power Generation in
Europe:technical issues for further integration, EUR 23234 EN – 2007
[4] Conseil International des Grands Réseaux Electrique(CIGRE) WG 37-23, Impact of increasing
contribution of dispersed generation on the power system, Final Report, 2003
[5] Yann Rebours, "A Comprehensive Assessment of Markets for Frequency and Voltage Control Ancillary
Services," Ph.D. thesis, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences., University of Manchester, 2008
[6] J ohannes MORREN, "Grid support by power electronic converters of Distributed Generation units",
Ph.D. thesis, Technical University of Delft 2006
[7] Biomass Conversion Emerging technologies Feedstock and Products, EPA/600/R-07/144
[8] Curac IOAN, Craciun Bogdan Ionut Creta Ioan, State Of The Art Biomass Combined Heat And Power
Technology, Proceedings of 2012 International Conference of Hydraulics and Pneumatics, HERVEX, 7-9
November, Calimanesti-Caciulata, Romania, pp. 411-417
[9] Sjaak van Loo and J aap Koppejan, The Handbook of Biomass Combustion and Co-firing, UK and USA
in 2008.
[10] D.W. Wu, R.Z. Wang, Combined cooling, heating and power: A review, Progress in Energy and
Combustion Science 32 (2006) 459–495
[11] Martin Braun, Provision of Ancillary Services by Distributed Generators, Ph.D. thesis, Kassel university,
2009
[12] P . KUNDUR, Power Systems Contol and Stability,United States 1994


64

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics


A NEW MODEL OF PNEUMATIC TRANSDUCER USED IN THE DRYING
STAGE OF THE CERAMIC PRODUCTS OBTAINING

Murad Erol
1
, Dumitrescu Catalin
2
, Haraga Georgeta
1
, Dumitrescu Liliana
2

1
. Universitatea POLITEHNICA Bucuresti
2
. INOE 2000 -IHP


Abstract
For obtaining high-quality ceramic products, the final stage of the production process, the drying,
must be realised in good conditions, leading to very low final losses caused by the cracks and
cleaves which occur during the burning in the oven. An important parameter of the drying process
is the dimensional contraction of the bodies, during drying. For the online control of the drying
process and depending on the contraction evolution, it was created a pneumatic transducer, with
which can be measured the linear contraction, on a witness body, with a max error of 1%. The
transducer performs a conversion linear contraction → pressure, due to the fact that the air presure
is not influenced by temperature and the elastic element of the pneumatic cylinder is made from
steel, with a slight variation of the elastic properties up to 150
o
C. The measurement pressure is
linearly converted in a tension which is input signal in the PLC which controlls the drying
installation. In order to obtain a very low consumption of energy of the measurement system, the
transducer works in a sampled operational mode, which may provide a high measurement
precision.


Key words: drying, pneumatic transducer, contraction, ceramics

1. Introduction

Drying is a very important operation within the process of manufacture of ceramic products and
construction materials. A high quality drying leads to very low final losses caused by the cracks
and cleaves which occur during the burning in the oven, as last stage.
The drying time for the average size bricks are relatively high, 36 - 48 h. In all the drying
installations it is used a drying agent obtained by mixing combustion gases and atmospheric air.
The famous brands (Lingle, Ceric, Rietter, Keller, Fuschs, etc.) deliver technological installations
with automatic control systems, which use process models pre-selected depending on the type of
brick to be dried and the chemical, mineralogic and physic ceramic properties of the raw clayey
materials.
For optimizing the drying process, it must be compensated entirely the influence of the
perturbations caused by the composition and granulometry of the bodies subjected to the drying
process. The online measurement of the discharged water mass and of the linear contraction of
the bodies allows the achievement of high quality products, with minimum energetic consumption
and an increase of the real manufacture capacity.

In figure 1 is shown the graphic of the relative variation of humidity W and contraction C of the
bricks, during the the drying process.
65

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics


Fig. 1. The relative variation of humidity and contraction at drying of bricks

The relative linear contraction of the ceramic bodies, in the studied case of the bricks, during drying
is in the range 6...12% with typical values 6...8%. The measurement of the contraction is made by
measuring the variation of the distance between the two anchors introduced in the raw brick before
starting the drying process. The common values of the initial distance L
0
for the mechanical
measurement devices are L
0
∈{100, 150, 200}mm.
During the drying process the body contracts itself and it is measured a closeness of the anchors
with ∆L. The relative contraction coefficient ε is calculated with the relation:
(%) 100
0
L
L ∆
⋅ = ε (1)
Due to the fact that during the drying process temperature varies between 20 and 150 ºC, the
anchors and the support mechanism are made of invar. The mechanical devices in use is
ponderous and has no output signal for the modern automatic adjustment systems. There are also
used resistive displacement transducers with temperature compensation, which are expensive and
less reliable.[11]

2. Pneumatic transducer for measuring contraction

In figure 2 is shown the functional scheme of the pneumatic transducer for measuring the linear
contraction of the bricks during the drying process and in figure 3, the functional scheme of the
control block.

Fig. 2 Functional scheme of the pneumatic transducer for measuring contraction
66

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics


The absolute contraction is represented by the variation of the distance ∆L between the anchor (1)
fixed on the body (2) of the transducer and anchor (3) which is fixed on the rod (4) that slides in the
guide (5) on which is the pawl (6). The rod (4) is connected to the support (7) on which is jointed a
lever (9) which is pushed continuously by the spring (11) to the fix contact (8) which is at 2s
distance of the fix contact (10). The lever (9) is also in contact with the rod (12) of the pneumatic
cylinder with simple action (13) that has a membrane (16) which presses on the rigid centre (15)
that leans on the spiral spring (14). For having the center of gravity of the device between the 2
anchors, it is mounted a load (17) for balance.
For simplifying the construction it was adopted a scheme with 2 contacts K1 and K2 serially linked
to R1, with signal I
mas
in a current intensity on a single conductor connected by means of R2 at the
plus of the supply voltage stabilized U
st
. The command signal in tension U
cd
is compared on 2
comparators C1 and C2 with two tensions 0,25 Ust at C1 and 0,75Ust at C2.
The output signals of the comparators CS for writing and CR for deleting are applied to a bistable
BIST1 whose output u
1
commands the distributor D1 through which is introduced compressed air
in the cylinder (13) through the pneumatic resistance RP. For discharging the air from the cylinder
(13) it is commanded through the output command signals CRp and CSp the bistable BIST2 with
which is commanded the distributor D2.
The measurement pressure p
mas
is converted in tension signal with a convertor P/U from which
gets out the signal U
mas
.

Fig. 3 The scheme of the command block

Initially in the raw brick are plunged the anchors (1) and (3) positioned at the nominal distance L
0
. If
in the pneumatic cylinder (13) there is no pressure, the spring (14) retracts the rod (12) of the
piston and the spring (11) presses on the comparison lever (9) that will rely on the contact K1.
When the contact K1 is shut in the command block is generated a signal u
1
=1 of opening the
distributor D1; it starts the pressure growth p
mas
, the rigid centre (15) compresses the spring (14)
and displaces the rod (12) until it reaches the lever (9) that it will rotate around the joint until it
leans on the contact K2. The command block generates a shut signal u
1
=0 for D1 and p
mas

stabilizes at a new value p
mas0
that is the value from which is started the measurement. From the
converter p/U results U
mas0
memorized as origin for measuring contraction.
In the drying process cause of the brick contraction the anchor (3) and rod (4) will displace towards
the anchor (1), the spring (11) releases and under the action of the spring (11) the comparison
lever (9) rotates itself until the contact K1 shuts. It is generated the signal CS which applied at
BIST1 makes that u
1
=1 and D1 it opens. It starts the pressure p
mas
growth from the cylinder which
leads to the compression of the spring (14) and the displacement of the rod (12) that rotates the
67

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics

lever (9) until the contact K2 shuts, which leads to the generation of a signal CR which applied at
BIST1 makes u
1
=0 and shuts D1.
For a displacement with 2s between the contacts K1 and K2 the rod (12) displaces with Δh
arc
:


=
+
⋅ ⋅ = ∆
pg
arc
i
s
d d
d
s h
2
2
2 1
2
(2)
where i
pg
is the transfer factor of the lever 9.
The variation Δp
mas
of the measurement pressure for a sampling step is:

m ef
arc
pg m ef
arc arc
m as
S
K
i
s
S
K h
i p ⋅

=

= ∆
2
] [ (3)
Because the value of variation ΔL[i] of the absolute contraction for sampling is:
.
2
] [ const
i
s
i L
pg
=

= ∆ (4)
It results that:
. ] [ const
S
K
L
S
K h
i p
m ef
arc
m ef
arc arc
m as
= ⋅ ∆ =

= ∆ (5)
If it adopts constructively the value L
0
=100 mm and the max. contraction is ε
max
≤ 10%, it results
that the max. value of the displacement to be measured is ΔL
max
=10 mm.
For being efficient in controlling the drying process it is required that the device to belong to the
CP1 class of precision, meaning that the sampling error ΔL[i] is:
. 1 . 0 01 . 0 10 ] [
max
m m m m L i L
est
= ⋅ = ⋅ ∆ = ∆ ε (6)
For s =0,25 mm it results that the transfer factor i
pg
must have the value:

5
1 , 0
25 , 0 2
] [
2
=

=


=
i L
s
i
pg
(7)
For the measurement accuracy and for decreasing the weight of the pneumatic cylinder it is limited
the total variation of the measurement pressure at Δp
max
=0,4 bar, which leads to:

2
5
max
max
/
10 4
01 , 0
4000
m
m N
m
Pa
L
p
S
K
m ef
arc
⋅ =

=


= (8)
With the relation (8) may be dimensioned the pneumatic cylinder in constructive correlation with
the assembly of the measurement device.[11]
The transition from 20 to 150 ºC may generate dilatations of the cylinder (13), of the rigid centre
(14), as well as modifications of the elastic characteristic of the spring (14). These may influence
the precision in measuring the contraction of the brick, during the drying process. The material
from which will be made the cylinder, the rigid centre and the spring is superinvar type (58% Fe +
42% Ni) which has a dilatation coefficient of α
1
=4 · 10
-6
until 300 ºC and it maintains its elastic
characteristic until 150 ºC.
Therefore the effective average dyameter of the goffered membrane will have the real value of :

) 1 ( ) (
1 0
T D T D
m e f m e f
∆ + ⋅ = α
(9)
where: ΔT =T
mas
– 20 is the temperature difference
The error ε
D
caused by the temperature variation will have the value:

( ) ( )
5
2
6 2
max 1
2
0
max
027 , 4 1 130 4 1 1 1 1
) (
− −
= − ⋅ + = − ∆ + = −








= E E T
D
T D
m ef
m ef
D
α ε
(10)
From the relation (10) it results that the error ε
D
caused by the thermal dilatation of the pneumatic
cylinder is very low and it may be ignored in the measurement of the contraction.
68

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics


3. Conclusions

For measuring an important parameter of the drying process of the raw ceramic products, the
linear contraction, parameter that must be measured in an environment with a relatively high
temperature 120..150 ºC, it is proposed the use of an unconventional pneumatic transducer by
means of which may be performed precise measurements, which has a plain structure and is much
cheaper than the similar electronic variants.
The pneumatic transducer for measuring online the contraction of the raw bricks during drying has
more precision at measurement, more than 1% for an initial distance between the measurement
anchors of 100 mm.
It is conceived for a safe and easy use, it couples with the outside by means of a pneumatic pipe
made of teflon with the dyameter of 4 mm and an electric conductor of 1 mm
2
has at wires a PLC
compatible electric signal.
Were used the concepts specific for low cost automatisation – which led to the achievement of a
plain and precise device, much more cheaper than other variants in use.
The metallic materials used for the pneumatic cylinder, spring and membrane have the dilatation
coefficients very small which ensures a very slight variation of the effective average dyameter of
the goffered membranes below 4 · 10
-5
, which leads to a very high measurement precision.

References

[1]. Berling B., Heinrich B., Thrun W., Vogt W., Kaspers/Küfner Messen- Steuern- Regeln: Elemente
der Automatisierungstechnik, Springer DE, 2005
[2]. Douglas M. Considine, Process/Industrial Instruments and Controls Handbook, 4th Edition, ,
McGraw-Hill, 1993
[3]. Hasatani M., Itaya Y., Muroie K., Contraction Characteristics of molded ceramics during drying, I.J .
Drying Technology, Volume 11, Issue 4, 1993
[4]. Hitoshi Takeda, CIA - Low Cost Intelligent Automation: Produktivitätsvorteile durch
Einfachautomatisierung, Landsberg am Lech : Mi-Fachverl. Redline, 2006.
[5]. Murad E., The measurement of the parameters of the drying process of ceramic products with
unconventional pneumatic transducers, Simpozion HERVEX 2007, Călimăneşti, 14-16 noiembrie,
2007
[6]. Murad E., Chercheş T., Unconventional pneumatic transducers with low energetic consumption for
measuring the forces from the agricultural inbstallations and in food industry HERVEX 2008,
Călimăneşti 15-17 noiembrie 2008
[7]. Murad E., Dumitrescu C., Haraga G., Dumitrescu L., Pneumatic metering systems for amount of
water extracted in convectiv drying processes, International Scientific Conference Conference -
DTMM, Iaşi, 14 -16 mai 2010
[8]. Murad E., Dumitrescu C., Haraga G., Dumitrescu L. Force pneumatic transducers with low energy
consumption in stochastic measurement operations; Simpozion HERVEX, 2010, Călimăneşti, 10-
12 noiembrie 2010
[9]. Murad E., Dumitrescu C., Haraga G., Dumitrescu L., Pneumatic transducers for measuring the
speed of drying ceramic materials, SINUC 2010, Al XVI-a Simpozion National de Utilaje pentru
Construcţii, Bucureşti, 16-17 decembrie 2010
[10]. Radcenco V., Alexandrescu N., Ionescu E., Calculation and design of the pneumatic elements and
schemes, Editura Tehnică, Bucureşti. 1985
[11]. Comes M,Drumea A.,Mirea A., Matache G. – Intelligent servohydraulic device for the control of
motion – 24
th
International Spring Seminar on Electronics Technology: Concurrent engineering
electronic packaging, conferince proceedings ISSE 2001, 05-09 may 2001, pag.282-285
[12]. * * * Displacement Mesuremment, Linear and Angular, CRC Press LLC, 1999

69

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics


THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE MECHANISM
FOR ADJUSTING THE CAPACITY OF THE PUMS WITH RADIAL
PISTONS

Lepadatu Ioan
1
, Dumitrescu Catalin
1


1
INOE 2000 -IHP Bucuresti, e-mail: dumitrescu.ihp@fluidas.ro ; lepadatu.ihp@fluidas.ro

Abstract
The pumps with radial pistons -ppr- have been little studied in the scientific engineering
environment from Romania. Due to the fact that these pumps are very important for the field of
hydraulic and pneumatic drives, IHP has set as one of its objectives, the exhaustive study of this
issue and the finding of some innovative solutions which to lead to higher performances and a
diversification of the applications in which are used pumps with radial pistons.
This article presents the main theoretical elements of the dynamics of the mechanism for adjusting
the capacity of the pumps with radial pistons.

1. Introduction
The variation of the flow of the pumps with radial pistons is performed by a positioning
servomechanism which modifies the capacity (geometrical volume) of the pump [1], [4]. For
explaining explicitly its operation below is briefly described the construction and operation of the
pumps with radial pistons.
The pumps with radial pistons-fig.1 consist of the stator ring 1 in whose interior is wheeling the
rotor 2 that has, radially positioned, a certain number of cylindrical cavities 3 in which may displace
a corresponding number of small pistons 4. The fluid is aspired from the circuit by the aspiration C
a

in the aspiration chamber A from where by pumping is carried in the discharge chamber R,
respectively in the discharge circuit C
r.

During the wheeling of the rotor the piston heads press on the interior wall of the stator ring, due to
the centrifugal force and a guiding system. The axis I – I of the rotor is displaced with distance e
facing the axis II – II of the stator. At a complete rotation of the rotor each small piston makes a
displacement on a radial direction towards the exterior, during the crossing of the arc length aa and
a displacement towards the interior during crosssing the arc length a’a. The radial pistons make
during the rotor wheeling a relatively alternative rectilinear move to the rotor.
During the displacement towards the exterior the piston cylinders are in connection with the
aspiration chamber A, performing the aspiration.

70

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics



Fig. 1

During the displacement towards the interior the cylinders are in connection with the discharge
chamber R, performing the discharge. The pumping becomes possible due to the relatively
excentric position of the rotor towards the stator ring. The flow of the pumps with radial pistons is
proportional with a constructive constant C and with two variable parameters, eccentricity e and
turation n of the pump.
n e C Q ⋅ ⋅ =
The result „C · e” is called capacity or geometric vollume and it is expressed V
g
= C · e.
The variation of capacity it is obtained by the variation of eccentricity between the two set limits + e
şi – e.
By the eccentricity variation varies the relative position of the rotor to the stator ring and as a
consequence the displacement speed of the small pistons in the cylinders. At null eccentricity the
flow is also null.

2. The forces developed by the pistons of the pumps with radial pistons

The symbols used and their meaning
F
p
axial force given by the piston
F
M
the F
p
projection on the normal n at the sliding ring in the contact point
F
x
, F
y
the projections of force F
M
on the system of axis X O Y
ρ instant radius units the rotation center O
1
with the point of contact on the sliding ring; e the
eccentricity of the pump;
β the angle between the direction of the piston axis and the normal at the cirumference of the
sliding ring in the point of contact of the piston axis; R the radius of the sliding ring; d
p
the
dyameter of the piston; α the current angle of rotation of the piston K – 1; z the number of pistons;
71

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics

n
a
the number of active pistons in discharge; l
p
the length of the piston; m b the minimum contact
length rotor piston; L the hypothetical contact length sliding ring – case; j the gap case-sliding ring;
( ) α b the instant contact width sliding ring-case; b the average contact length rotor-piston; η
dynamic viscosity
|
.
|

\
|
⋅ s m
kg
032 , 0 ; a,b the halfaxis of the ellipse; 2 ϕ the angle between 2 pistons;
R
E
the exterior radius of the stator ring; R
M
the average radius of the stator ring; E elasticity
module
|
.
|

\
|


2
11
10 1 , 2
s m
kg
; x the halfwidth of the segment of intersection ellipse circle; F the
resultant of forces; f distortion from the circular shape under the action of the force (hypothesis
rigid case); t
H
, t
h
tolerances at adjustment corresponding to the dimension R
E
; m total mass; T
C

time constant of the mechanical system; K
E
the slope of the characteristic ( ) i f p = ∆ ; a
0
,
a
1
modules area mass; I inertial moment


Fig. 2


a) The kinematics of the system
ρ = = M O R M O
1 2
; ; It is applied the theorem of sinuses and it is obtained:
( ) α β π
ρ
α β − −
= =
sin sin sin
R e
; ( ) | | ( ) ( ) α β α β π α β π + = + − = + − sin sin cos sin
α β
α β
sin sin ;
sin sin R
e R e
= =
72

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics

At the axial components of the forces F
p
with which the pistons operate on the sliding ring of the
pump – force F
x
oposses force F
x
developed by the linear hydraulic motor – with piston of higher
diameter of the system, (fig. 7) force which positions the ring in any point of the eccentricity – e.
β = cos F F
p M
The force of one piston: ( ) ( ) β + α β = β + α = cos cos F cos F F
p M
1
x

where: ( ) α α α α β α β α β α sin sin
R
e
- sin
R
e
- 1 cos sin sin - cos cos cos
2
2
2
|
.
|

\
|
= = +
Developing in binominal series and taking into account that ( ) 1 sin
max
= α , and the relation
1
10


R
e
; α α α α
2
2
2
4
4
4
2
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
sin
2R
e
- 1 sin
R
e

8
1
- sin
e

2
1
- 1 sin
R
e
- 1 ≅ ⋅ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
R
; 0 10
4
4
4
≅ ≅

R
e

b) The precise formula of the unitary forces on the two directions x and y, is:
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
+ + =
+ = + =
=
β α β β α
β α β β α
β
sin cos sin
cos cos cos
cos
1
1
p M y
p M x
p M
F F F
F F F
F F
if , 0 ≅ β it results:
c) The approximate formula of the unitary forces of a piston become:
Axial force : α cos
1
p x
F F = (in opposition with the force of the positioning mechanism);
Normal force : α cos
1
p y
F F = (normal force which determines the friction of the sliding ring).
d) The force in the piston
The force developed by the pistons of the pump is given by the pressure of the hydraulic oil
from which is decreased the force caused by friction between the pistons and the rotor of the
pump:
;
2 4
2
|
|
.
|

\
|
− − = V
j
b
p
j
d p
d
F
p
p
p
η
π
π
α ω ρ α ρ sin : viteza cos : e V si e R Cu + = = − ≅ 

Fig. 3
73

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics


From fig. 3 it results:
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
+ = +
− + =
− + =
π ρ α ρ α
α ρ α
π ρ
min
min
b b
r b l
r b l
p
p

( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
¹
´
¦
− =
+ =
→ − + =
α α ρ
π ρ
α ρ π ρ α
cos
min
e R
e R
b b
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) α α
α α
cos
cos
min
min
e e b b
e R e R b b
+ + =
− − + + =

( ) ( ) ( ) | |
( ) | | e b b Deci e b e b
e e b d x b b
+ = + = + =
= + + =

=

min min
min
0 min
0
: ;
1
sin
1
0
1
π
π
α α
π
α
π
α
π
π


Replacing the expression of speed in the formula of the force developed by the pistons of the
pump it is obtained:
α
ω η π π
α ω
η π π π
sin
2 2
sin
2 4
2
j
d e b
p j
d d
F e
j
d b
p
d j
p
d
F
p p p
p
p p p
p
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
− = = + − ⋅ =
3. The force required at the positioning mechanism
The positioning mechanism must conquer the sum of the forces F
x
which represent the horizontal
components of the force of the active pistons (being under pressure in the discharge chamber) :
Noting with RF
x
this resultant su mis obtained:
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

− =
(
(
¸
(

¸

− − − =
=

¸

|
.
|

\
|
− − − = =
(
¸
(

¸

+ + = =
∑ ∑
∑ ∑ ∑
= =
= = =
α
π
π
α
π π
α
π
α
π
α
π
α
π
α α
sin
sin
cos
cos
2
cos
2
1 sin sin
2
1 cos cos
2
1 sin sin
2
1 cos cos
2
1 cos cos
1 1
1 1 1
z
z
z
F
z
K
z
K F
z
K
z
K F
z
k F F F R
p
na
K
na
K
p
na
K
p
na
K
na
K
p p x

a) The normal force which determines the friction of the slide
The unitary force on axis y has the value ( )
(
¸
(

¸

− + =
z
K F F
p y
π
α
2
1 sin :
1

The resultant of all pistons from the discharge chamber pressure chamber ÷ RF
y
is:
74

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics

( ) ( ) = |
.
|

\
| π
− α +
π
− α =

=
na
1 K
p y
z
2
1 K sin cos
z
2
1 K cos sin F F R
( ) ( ) ;
z
2
1 K sin cos
z
2
1 K cos sin F
na
1 K
na
1 K
p
|
.
|

\
| π
− α +
π
− α =
∑ ∑
= =
First and second sum, respectively S
1
and
S
2
being
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
α
π
π
+ α
π
=
π
π
=
π
= cos
z
sin
z
cos
sin
z
2
cos RF : final In
z
sin
z
cos
S ;
z
2
cos S
y 2 1

b) sliding ring - housing friction
In correspondence with the notations from fig. 4
If :
j
L b
K
v
2
η
= is coefficient of viscous friction,
Then existing two forces of the kind it results :
ring the of speed the is x where , x
j
L b
F
f
 
η
=

Fig. 4
c) The length of the contact surface: L
L is deduced from the distortion of the ring under the action of all forces by determining the points
of intersection between the initial circle and the ellipse resulting due to the charge with the
respective forces.
The equations of the ellipse and circle from fig. 5 are :
( ) ( )
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
= +
=

+
+
2 2 2
2
2
2
2
1
R y x
f R
y
f R
x
E E

As ;
z
2
2
π
= ϕ z-number of pistons
Deformation
(
¸
(

¸

ϕ
ϕ ϕ

ϕ

ϕ
− =
2
3
M
sin
cos
sin
1 2
EI 3
R F
f :
In which the resistence module:


Fig. 5
75

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics

|
|
.
|

\
|


+
= h
h R
h R
R R b I
M M
2
2
ln
2
with expressions
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
− =
+
=


R R h
2
R R
R
width b
E
E
M

The maximum force is the sum of the resultants:
( ) ( )
2
max
2
max max y x
RF RF F + =

For the position from fig. 6.7 may be written :

( )
( )
max max
max
max
max
sinα
α
F F
RF
RF
tg
y
y
=
=

z
π
ϕ =
It is solved the system (the intersection between circle
and ellipse) and are obtained :
¹
´
¦
− =
+ =
= +

− =
R b
R a
care in
b
y
a
y R
y R x 1 ;
2
2
2
2 2
2 2

2 2
2
2
1 1
1
a b
b
R
y


+ =
b a
R b
>
>


Fig. 6

It results that the length L is: y L 2 ≤
d) The gap: j corresponds to the average game of the fit
7
7
h
H

( )
2
h H
t t
j
− −
=
h H
t t ; tolerances at fit
May be calculated now:
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦

= η
η
=
s m
kg
0342 , 0
b
j , L
cu ,
j
L b
K
V

determined
the ring width
(dynamic viscosity)

In the end the equation of the friction force: x K F
V f
 ⋅ = , becomes definite entirely.

76

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics


4. The balance of the forces from the positioning mechanism
In the correspondence with the notations from fig. 7 may be written:
( ) p a p p A RF F F F
x e f i
− ∆ − = + + + , where "A" is the area of the bigger piston and a" of the
small piston,
p
∆ being the pressure drop on the valve :
The inertial force:
( ) x M m M F
i p p i
  ⋅ + + = , with
M
p
: the mass of the bigger
piston;
M
p
: the mass of the smaller
piston;
M
i
: the mass of the sliding ring
The elastic force:
F
e
= (K
1
– K
2
) x,
K
1
and K
2
– the rigidity of the
arcs
The viscous friction force:
F
f
= K
V
x

Fig. 7
The resultant of the axial forces RF
x
is:
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

− ⋅ ⋅ = α
π
π
α
π
ϕ
π
sin
sin
cos
cos
2
cos
2
z
z
z
p
d
F R
p
x
where: t ω α =
If it is noted : ( )
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

− = α
π
π
α
π
ϕ
π
sin
sin
cos
cos
2
cos
2
z
z
z
d
t f
p
, results: RF
x
= p f (t)
In the end the equation of balance has the following structure:
( ) ( ) ( ) | |
( ) ( )
¦
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
¦
´
¦
= ∆
= α = ∆
= =
∆ ⋅ − − − = − + +
p
4
1
p
slope stic characteri K ; K tg arc ; i K p
0 0 x 0 x
p A p t f a A x K K x K x m
E E E
2 1 V

  




77

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics


5. Remarks and conclusions
The determination of the constructive operational parameters and the dimensioning of the
servomechanism which adjusts the capacity of the pumps with radial pistons lead us to complex
mathematical relations and at non linear diferential equations whose solving is made using
numerical calculation systems.
The electrohydraulic adjustment systems [2] are very complex systems where take place
phenomena associated to the flowing of fluids from the field of volumetric hydraulic machines and
also phenomena specific for the processes of automatic adjustment. Due to the complexity of
these phenomena the finding of most adequate solutions in designing and realizing the mit is made
iteratively. Reaching such performances [3] implies the use of the methods of mathematical
modelling and numerical simulation of these systems.

Reference:
[1] T.C Popescu, D.D. Ion Guta, I. Lepadatu & P. Drumea, „Experimental Research on Servomechanisms
That Adjust Capacity of Radial Piston Pumps”, Proceedings of The 21th International Conference on
Hydraulics and Pneumatics, June 1-3, 2011, Ostrava, Czech Republic, ISBN 978-80-248-2430-7, 37-44 pp.
[2] T.C. Popescu, D.D. Ion Guţă, C. Calinoiu, “Modern instruments for analysis of hydrostatic transmissions“,
U.P.B. Sci. Bull., Series D, Vol 72, Iss 4, 2010, 201-210 pp.
[3] D.D. Ion Guta, T.C. Popescu, C. Dumitrescu, „Optimization of hydrostatic transmissions by means of
virtual instrumentation technique”, Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 7821, Advanced Topics in Optoelectronics,
Microelectronics, and Nanotechnologies V, 19 November 2010, DOI: 10.1117/12.881904
[4] I. Lepadatu, „Experimental Research focused the mechatroic positioning systems for regulating th
geometrical volume of the pumps with radial pistons”, UPB Scientific Bulletin, Series D, vol. 72, Iss. 4, 2010,
ISSN 1454 – 2358, 161 – 174 pp.

78

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics

CAVITATION EROSION RESISTANCE FOR A SET OF STAINLESS
STEELS HAVING 10 % NICKEL AND VARIABLE CHROMIUM
CONCENTRATIONS

Ilare BORDEAȘU
1
, Mircea Octavian POPOVICIU
2

1
„Polytechnic“ University of Timisoara, Mihai Viteazul No.1, 300222, Timisoara, Romania, E-mail:
ilarica59@gmail.com
2
Academy of Romanian Scientists, Timisoara Branch, Mihai Viteazul No.1, 300222 Timisoara, E-mail:
mpopoviciu@gmail.com

ABSTRACT: Regardless if the erosion phenomenon takes place in a laboratory facility or in an
industrial device cavitation erosion intensity depends on two different factors: the quality of the
steel and the intensity of the cavitation. Researches to obtain better materials are done every time
in laboratory devices in which the cavitation intensity is very great and the research time is
reduced. In most cases, the intensity of cavitation in industrial devices is smaller. The present
laboratory researches upon eight stainless steels with great content of austenite are important
because such materials are used to repair by welding the affected details. The chemical
compositions were established as follows: the Nickel content approximately the same 10%, two
contents of carbon 0.1% and 0.036% and eight different Chromium contents between 6 to 24 %.
The laboratory facility is a device with piezoelectric crystals respecting the ASTM G32-2010
Standard. The laboratory results show that all the tested steels have very good cavitation erosion
resistance; the best obtained result is for the steel having 6% Chromium and 0.1% Carbon with the
structure having 32% martensite and 68% austenite. It is interesting to note that this result is better
than that obtained for steels with greater content of martensite.

Key words: stainless steel, cavitation erosion, microstructure, vibratory test facility

1. Introduction

The great majority of the modern hydraulic machineries have the runners or the blades made from
stainless steels with reduced carbon content (under 0.1%; the reason is to have good weld ability,
without heat treatments), low nickel content (about 5%, the reason is the cost reduction) and a high
content of Chromium (about 13%). The material structure is composed mostly by martensite giving
high mechanical characteristics and also high cavitation erosion resistance. The repair works are
done using electrodes with austenitic or austenite-ferrite structure. The problem is to choose
electrodes depositing a material with higher cavitation erosion resistance than the genuine one.
The cost of the material has not great importance because the used quantity is relatively small.
The present research is directed towards such materials with improved cavitation erosion
resistance having high content of Chromium and Nickel and austenite structure. If such materials
will have also low costs, in the future, it will be possible to use them also for manufacturing the
whole runner.

2. Tested materials

The eight materials tested in the present research have a constant nickel content (approximately
10%), and variable chromium and carbon content. From the point of view of carbon content there
are divided in two groups: four of them have 0.1% C and the other four 0.036% C. The steels from
the first group have the following chromium content 6%, 10%, 18% and 24%. The steels from the
second group have the following chromium content 13%, 14%, 16% and 18%.
The cavitation erosion specimens were manufactured from small cast samples subjected to heat
treatments. The heat treatment consisted in: homogenization annealing and solution quenching
79

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics

(with air cooling for steels with martensite and ferrite structures or water cooling for steel with
austenite and ferrite structures).
In Table 1 are presented the mechanical characteristics and in Table 2 the micro structural
constitutions determined from the Schäffler diagram on the ground of Chromium (Cr
e
) and Nickel
(Ni
e
) equivalents [6]. Because the evaluation of the cavitation erosion resistance is done by
comparisons with the steel OH13NDL with martensitic structure [3], [7], (a steel largely used for
manufacturing hydraulic equipment in Romania) in both there are given also the characteristics of
this stainless steel.
For identification of the tested steels were utilized the principal chemical constituents (nickel,
chromium and carbon) and the figures representing the concentration of those three elements. The
content was symbolized as follows: for nickel Ni10; for chromium Cr6 to Cr24 (signifying 6 to 24%),
for carbon C1 (signifying 0.1% C) or C036 (signifying 0.036%).


Table 1 Mechanical properties [8]
Steel
Carbon
content
%
R
m
[N/mm
2
]
R
p0,2
[N/mm
2
]
HB
Ni10Cr6C1

≈ 0.1
1550 1120 489
Ni10Cr10C
1450 1020 447
Ni10Cr18C1
1335 934 372
Ni10Cr24C1
1280 901 307
OH12NDL 650 400 225
Ni10Cr13C036

≈ 0.036
856 618
276
Ni10Cr14C036
341 240 346
Ni10Cr16C036
996 700 309
Ni10Cr18C036
527 369 375


Table 2 Microstructural constitution [8]
Steel
Cr
e

[%]
Ni
e

[%]
Structural
Constituents
Ni10Cr6C1 11,924 15,173 32% M+68%A
Ni10Cr10C 14,919 14,854 100%A
Ni10Cr18C1 22,414 14,138 98% A+2%F
Ni10Cr24C1 30,362 15,101 81%A+19%F
Ni10Cr13C036 13,209 11,454 55% M+45%A
Ni10Cr14C036 15,022 11,4935 30% M+70%A
Ni10Cr16C036 17,824 11,515 100% A
Ni10Cr18C036 19,610 11,508 93% A+7%F
OH12NDL 13.2 4.45 88%M+12%F
A, austenite, M-martensite, F-feritte

3. Test facilities and testing method

The specimens were tested in a vibratory device with pieyoelectric crystals, realized in the
Cavitation Laboratory of Timisoara Polytechnic Univerisity [8]. The facility parameters are: the
generator power 500 W, the vibration frequency 20 kHz, the double amplitude 50 µm, the
specimen diameter 15.8 mm, all parameters respect the ASTM G32-2010 Standard [2]. As testing
80

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics

liquid was choosen the drinking water from the urban water-supply network and not the distilled
water commonly recommended [3]. The motive was the fact that this water has physico-chemical
properties closer to that of the river water where hydraulic machineries runns.




Test facility
1-Horn, 2-Electronic system, 3-Temperature
control system, liquid vessel and cooling coil, 5-
Ventilation system
Diagram of test facility
1-Piezoelectric transducer, 2-Ultrasonic
generator,
2- Cooling system, 3-Liquid temperature control
Fig. 1. Vibratory device

In conformity with the procedures apllied in our laboratory [8] the total cavitation exposure was 165
minutes, divided in 12 intervals (one of 5, one of 10 and the rest of 15 minutes).
To put into evidence the behavior in which the exposed area, respectively the material stucture,
resisted to cavitation, after the total exposure time (165 minutes) the attacked areas were
examined with optical microscopes (magnification x4, x10, x20, x40x and x80) and scaning
electron microscopes (magnification x500). For a better examination, the eroded areas were
attacked with nitromuratic acid (1/4 HNO
3
– 3/4 HCl and 1-2 glicerine droplets) and a compound
formed from 1/10 HNO
3
and 9/10 water. The metalographic analyzes were realized at Bucharest
Polytechnic University at the Center for Special Materials Survey (CEMS).

4. Test results. Discussions

In figure 2 are presented images of the eroded areas and their structure after 165 minutes of
cavitation exposure obtained with an „OPTICA” microscope and the electronic „Philips XL30
ESEM” microscope.
In order to analyze the cavitation structural degradations, fig.2, poz.1, the attacked specimens
were axial seectioned, metalographical prepared and studied with a SEM microscope. The
following conclusions were obtained:
1. Ni10Cr6C1 shows a mxit aspect with very fine caverns uniformly distributed on the
surface, with intergranular propagation of cracks. The fractures have fragile aspect.
2. Ni10Cr10C1 presents caverns with great dimensions, over 200 µm, inter-granular
cracks and cleavage planes. The fractures present a fragile character and are
propagated through slipping lines.
3. Ni10Cr18C1 and Ni10Cr24C1 show caverns with great dimensions, over 200 µm and
mix propagation of the fracturing front through inter-granular cracks and cleavage
planes. The fracture has a fragile character.
4. Ni10Cr13C036 and Ni10Cr14C036 present aspects of fragile rupture with fine and very
fine caverns. The fracture propagate through inter-granular cracks and cleavage plans.
81

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics

5. Ni10Cr16C036 has a mix aspect with very fine caverns, uniformly distributed on the
surface. There were observed cleavage zones and inter-granular cracks with radial
propagation. The fracture has a fragile character with intergranular propagation.
6. Ni10Cr18C036 shows great caverns. The fracture has a fragile character with
intergranular and cleavage propagation. There were observed secondary cracks,
cleavage planes and the fracture propagate along sliping lines.


a-Ni10Cr6C1

b-Ni10Cr10C

c-Ni10Cr18C1

d-Ni10Cr24C1

e-Ni10Cr13C036

f-Ni10Cr14C036

g-Ni10Cr16C036

h-Ni10Cr18C036
Fig.2 Images of the structures and the erosions produced on the exposed areas (after 165
minutes of cavitation exposure) (1 – eroded microstructure obtained with a scanning electronic
82

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics

microscope (SEM), (x500); 2- erosion in a cross section normal to the eroded area with the
maximum depth penetration erosion put into evidence, (x4); 3-steel microstructure before the
exposure (x500))

The quantitavive differences between the cavitation erosion resistance of various steels can be
apprecaited better by comparing MDER(t) (the mean depth erosions rate curves) of the researched
steels with the curve of the standard steel OH12NDL, fig.3, [3,4,7], on the ground of the MDE
(mean depth erosions), fig. 4 or the maximum measured depth of the erosion measured in the
axaial cross-section, fig. 5.


Fig. 3 Mean depth erosion rate against exposure time

The evolution of the curves in fig. 3 prezent zones of gradually increasing of MDER till 40 to 90
minutes of exposure. For the resistant steels this time is smaller than that for the weacker
materials. After reaching the maximum rate this value remains approximatelly constant. Such an
evolution characterises materials with high cavitation erosion resistance [3] [10]. With the exception
of Ni10Cr18C036, which is a little weaker, all the tested steels have better cavitation erosion
resistance than the standard steel OH12NDL. As a consequence, from the point of view of erosion
all the tested steels can be used either for manufacturing or for repair works of details subjected to
cavitation.

From the studied materials, Ni10Cr6C1 has the most favorable behavior.
The steels Ni10Cr10C1, Ni10Cr18C1, Ni10Cr24C1 even if are a little weaker than Ni10Cr6C1
remain steels with excellent cavitation erosion behavior. The differences between them appear in
the first period of exposure and are without importance [1], [3].
The superior behavior of Ni10Cr6C1 which has only 32% martensite in comparison with
Ni10Cr13C036 having 55% martensite can be explained by the increased percentage of carbon,
which increases the hardness of the material [9].
83

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics


Fig. 4 Cavitation resistance comparisons after the computed mean depth erosion with the
microstructure put into evidence


Fig. 5 Comparisons of different penetration depths: „EP
max
maximum measured erosion
penetration”, „MDE computed mean depth erosion” iar in ordonata „Penetration depth PD”

The hystogram in fig.4 show that after an exposure of 165 minutes all steels with 0.1%
C present mean depth erosions smaller than the steels with 0.036, regardless of the
microstructural constitution. We appreciate that this situation is principally determined by the
unstable austenite, wich under the bubble implosions impact is localy transformed into martensite.
The conclusion results from the comparisons of the excellent resistance steel Ni10Cr16C1 (100%
austeniitic structure, but unstable) with the lower cavitation erosion resistance steel Ni10Cr16C036
(100% austeniitic structure, but stable). This fact shows the beneficial effect of the increased
carbon content, even if the structure is the same. Our conclusion is that the carbon content must
be reduced but only to a value giving an acceptable weldability but maintaining the unstable
austenite. The future researches must be foccused on this condition.The increase of the ferrite
content for the steels with 0.1 C worsen the resitance to cavitation erosion but this decrease is not
in direct proportion with the ferrite increase.
84

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics

Interesting conclusions appear also for the comparisons between the excelent cavitation erosion
steel N10Cr24C1 (81% A and 19% F) and N10Cr18C036 (93% A and 7% F) steel with a wicker
cavitation erosion behavior, even if the last has a smaller content of ferrite but has not sufficient
carbon.
The hystogram in fig.5 show a great diffeence between the value of the mean depth erosion “MDE”
computed from the mass los of the specimen during the entire exposure (165 minutes) [5], and the
greatest depth of caverns “EP
max
” mesured in the axial cross section. We consider that the value
chose in ASTM G32 Sandard, namely “MDE” is the correct one because it take into account the
whole eroded mass. This value and must be compulsory adopted for the evaluation of the various
material resistance to cavitation erosion. We also note that the value “EP
max
” is relatively difficult to
appreciate, because it has great variation for different axial cross sections.

5. Conclusions
1. In comparison with the standard material OH12NDL all the researched steels present better
cavitation erosion resistance, so they can be used for repairing or even manufacturing blades and
runners for hydraulic machines
2. The best cavitation erosion resistance was obtained for the stainless steel having 0.1% C and
6% Cr and a structure with 32% martensite and 68% austenite.
3. From steels having 0.036% C the specimen with 13% Cr having the structure composed by 45%
austenite and 55% martensite present the most reduced cavitation erosion resistance.
4. The microstructure has a great influence upon the cavitation erosion resistance. Especially the
presence of martensite improves the cavitation resistance.
5. An increased content of carbon content also improves the behavior of the steels to cavitation
erosion. All researched steels with 0.036% have smaller cavitation erosion resistance than those
with 0.1% C.
6. The Chromium content has an important effect in establishing the proportion between the micro
structural constituents and in the same time upon the mechanical properties and the cavitation
erosion resistance. The increase of the Chromium content reduces the erosion resistance because
the ferrite zone is amplified.
7. The austenite increases the erosion resistance because during the cavitation attack the
hardness is increased, or even martensite is formed by bubble implosions.
8. The mean depth of erosion, computed in conformity with the G32-2010 Standard is an excellent
indicator for cavitation erosion comparisons between various materials.
10. The maximum penetration depth of the eroded area is not recommended for establishing the
cavitation erosion behavior of different materials.

REFERENCES
[1] Anton I., Cavitatia, Vol I, Editura Academiei RSR, Bucuresti, 1984.
[2] *** Standard method of vibratory cavitation erosion test, ASTM, Standard G32-2010
[3] BORDEASU, I.: Eroziunea cavitaţională a materialelor, Editura Politehnica Timişoara, 2006, 208p
[4] J URCHELA A.D., BORDEASU I., MITELEA I., KARABENCIOV A., Considerations on the Effects of Carbon Content
on the Cavitation Erosion Resistance of Stainless Steels with Controled Content of Chromium and Carbon, 21st
International Conference on Metallurgy and Materials- 25
th,
2012, Brno, Czech Republic, pp.718
[5] J URCHELA, A.D., BORDEAȘU I., MITELEA I., KARABENCIOV A., Considerations on the Effects of Carbon Content
on the Cavitation Erosion Resistance of Stainless Steels with Controled Content of Chromium and Carbon. METAL
2012, 21st International Conference on Metallurgy and Materials
,
May 23-25, 2012, Brno, Czech Republic, pp.718.
[6] BORDEASU I., MITELEA, I., KATONA, S.E. Considerations regarding the behavior of some austenitic stainless steels
to cavitation erosion, METAL 2012, 21th International Conference on Metallurgy and Materials, May 23-25, 2012,
Brno, Czech Republic, pp.730.
[7] BORDEASU I., MITELEA, I., POPOVICIU, M.O., CHIRITA, C. Method for classifying stainless steels upon cavitation
resistance, METAL 2012, 21th International Conference on Metallurgy and Materials, May 18-20, 2011, Brno, Czech
Republic, pp.626
[8] KARABENCIOV A., Cercetări asupra eroziunii produse prin cavitaţie vibratorie la oţelurile inoxidabile cu conţinut
constant în nichel şi variabil de crom, Teza de doctorat, Timișoara, 2013, pp.188
[9] Mitelea I., - Studiul metalelor, Litografia Institutului Politehnic”Traian Vuia” Timisoara, 1983
[10] FRANC, J .P., MICHEL, J .M. (2004) Fundamentals of Cavitation, Kluwer Academic Publishers, P.O.Box, 322, 3300
AH Dordrecht,The Netherlands
85

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics


VIRTUAL INSTRUMENT FOR PLOTTING SERVO-VALVES
CHARACTERISTICS AFTER SIGNIFICANT MAINTENANCE OPERATIONS
Radu RĂDOI
1
,

Iulian DUȚU
2

1
Hydraulics and Pneumatics Research Institute, radoi.ihp@fluidas.ro
2
Hydraulics and Pneumatics Research Institute, dutu.ihp@fluidas.ro

Abstract: Maintenance using virtual instrumentation for diagnosis has entered the field of servo-
hydraulics few years ago, offering new accurate methods and concepts. The authors have
developed a virtual instrument for plotting servo-valves characteristics, achieving larger flexibility
and versatility compared to classic methods, thus shortening the time allocated for reconfiguration
and recalibration of devices and equipments mounted on a specific test stand. Proposed virtual
instrument acquires, conditions, processes and stores data automatically, using structured
database model, thus reducing the intervention of the human operator, increasing overall accuracy.
The virtual instrument that the authors propose has large integration capabilities into informatics
systems and can be set to work with other types of hydraulic equipment besides servo-valves.

Keywords: servo-valve, virtual instrument, test stand
1. Introduction
In present, static and dynamic testing of servo-valves it’s done by using complex testing stands
and installations with large number of electro-hydraulic equipment connected together thus
maximizing the risk of being influenced by perturbations such as electromagnetic interferences,
noises, unwanted vibrations and electrostatic discharges in the measurement circuits, all
conducting to wrong results or damage of ESD sensitive equipment. The authors have developed
and tested in laboratory conditions a virtual instrument for plotting the functional characteristic of
servo-valves (hereinafter referred as VI) using a simplified hydraulic system.
Studying the basics of virtual instrumentation field, it can be seen that a VI has two main
components: hardware and software, comprising switches, software buttons, knobs, sliders, digital
indicators and so on, having a front panel that can be modified very easy. Virtual instrumentation
design implies having a personal computer with specialized extension boards (such as data
acquisition boards) and a software environment that together simulates the features and the
operation of one device or measurement system. Transducers, analog to digital converters and the
usage of data conditioning electronic circuits is mandatory. It can be said that one difference
between virtual instrumentation and classic testing is that all control functions are automated and
centralized using a personal computer with specific software.

2. Failure Causes in Servo-Valves
When a malfunction occurs in a hydraulic system and a servo-valve is the main cause of it, the
operator must unmount it from the installation and put it on a test stand using either classic testing
or modern technologies. For reducing downtime of the hydraulic system the operator can replace
the defective servo-valve with another one with same functional parameters - if available. After
mounting the defective servo-valve on the test stand the operator must perform certain tests in
order to identify the cause of failure. It has been documented that common symptoms of defective
servo-valves are:
- nozzles clogged, when the fluid flows only in one way, when applying an electric command;
- broken coil, when the servo-valve does not respond to any electric command;
- shifted null point, when there is flow without an electric command;
86

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics

- asymmetry, having unequal flow values at equal electrical command for both polarities;
- high wear of spool and sleeve, when high flow that cannot be canceled by adjustments
occurs in null point;
- large hysteresis when reversing electrical control because of the friction between the spool
and sleeve due to residues present in hydraulic oil.
Servo-valves must be diagnosed only by qualified personnel.



Fig. 1 – Electro-hydraulic stand for optimization of servo-valves

Maximum operating pressure of the test stand is 315 [bar] and the nominal flow is 50 [l/min].
The servo-valve that the authors used has the following characteristics:
- valve size: 04;
- nominal flow: 10 [l/min];
- nominal pressure: 315 [bar];
- electrical command current: ±20 [mA].
The VI described in this article is using a PC with two data acquisition boards and a control
program for testing stand’s functions along with automated data acquisition, numerical filtration and
storage of test data. It can be noticed that the human operator has a reduced interaction with the
stand having a positive impact on system’s repeatability and accuracy along with shortening time
needed for reconfiguration of physical connections between hydraulic and electronic devices. The
VI is flexible and supports fast recalibration and reconfiguration, having the possibility to define and
store certain test configurations.
The VI can perform different servo-valves tests; most important ones are step response and
sinusoidal signal characteristics. Key parameter values for plotting step response characteristic are
given by rise time, stabilization time and overshoot value. When plotting the sinusoidal signal
characteristic it is necessary to draw the dependencies between: amplitude and frequency, phase
and frequency and to plot Bode diagrams.
Another module of the VI generates test signals needed for both types of characteristics while
other module acquires experimental data, in count of 25000 samples per channel. Test signal’s
parameters and number of samples can be modified using VI’s configuration module. Experimental
data are processed automatically and then displayed on a graphical control placed on the front
panel of the VI.
Interacting with the VI is simple and intuitive: after displaying the main panel it will be initialized
the data acquisition boards – including proper calibration and scaling - followed by setting all
program constants. Selected type of test will begin when the human operator clicks on the START
button – running signal generation, data acquisition, numeric filtering, data processing and storage
on a column-separated values .DAT file, for later processing.
The VI will plot the tested servo-valve’s characteristic checking the following:
87

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics

- hysteresis, defined as the difference between the command size, usually a current within
±20 [mA] supplied by an electronic module with input signal of ±10 V, required to achieve a
flow rate variation in upwards with the input level , from minimum to maximum, and the
control level necessary to obtain same flow rate at a command size variation in downward
from maximum to minimum;
- linearity, determined by the maximum value of difference between command level from real
diagram and that obtained on theoretical diagram (drawn between extreme points from the
hysteresis diagram);
- repeatability, maximum difference between values obtained at the same level of electric
command value;
- sensitivity, defined by the ratio between output value variation and the corresponding
variation of input value, in case of a linear static characteristic;
- the characteristic of flow rate – command level from input (usually a current within ±20 [mA]
supplied by an electronic module with input signal of ±10 V) at a constant pressure drop;
- the pressure-flow characteristic given at a constant electric command;
- minimum operating pressure, which is the lowest value at which the flow can be adjusted
on the entire operating range.

3. DAQ Structure
Proposed data acquisition structure is simple and classical having simultaneous parameters
acquisition, comprising the following:
- specific sensors and transducers (force, flow, pressure);
- measurement amplifiers for system’s transducers;
- data acquisition board (technical characteristics are given below);
- virtual instrument;
- electric power source and voltage stabilizer.
During the test process, the data acquisition structure will perform the following:
- acquisition of parameters values;
- conditioning and processing acquired data;
- storage of data;
- graphical interface with human operator;
- graphical display of parameter variation or user defined characteristics.



Fig. 2 – VI’s main panel

The data acquisition board used is National Instruments USB-6218, with the following
technical features:
- 32 single-ended or 16 differential analog inputs;
- 16-bit resolution;
88

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics

- 2 x 16-bit analog outputs;
- sampling rate of 260kS/s;
- input voltage range: -10…10V;
- 8 TTL input channels and 8 TTL output channels;
- on-board sample memory: 4095 samples;
- digital trigger.
The human operator can perform specific static and dynamic tests on servo-valves - most
significant are step response and dynamic response at sinusoidal signal input.
The authors have developed the virtual instrument using LabView, because of its easy
integration with measurement and control processes.
The VI can perform static and dynamic tests with a minimum need of human operator
intervention. Experimental data for the selected test are acquired continuously after pressing the
START button on main panel of the VI. Data are displayed on a graphic control.


Fig. 3 – Adjustment characteristic of a servo-valve
4. Conclusions
The plotting of functional characteristics of servo-valves using presented VI allows operators to
evaluate the functioning state after maintenance operations. Due to its modularity, the VI is easy to
be interfaced with common electro-hydraulic systems.
Supply power for electronic modules can be taken from main electrical installation of the
hydraulic system or test stand, current consumption being low.
By combining electronic modules and informatics technologies it can be simplified the
implementation and reconfiguration of servo-hydraulic systems, using specific transducers, data
acquisition boards, and virtual instrumentation.

REFERENCES
[1] D.I. Guta, C. Dumitrescu, I.Lepadatu, C.Cristescu: Experimental identification of electrohydraulic
servomechanisms with virtual instruments technique, HIDRAULICA no.3/2010, pp.49-56.
[2] A. Drumea, P. Svasta, Microcontrolere pe 8 biti utilizabile în comanda şi controlul dispozitivelor
hidraulice, Salonul National de Hidraulică şi Pneumatică HERVEX2002, 13-16 noiembrie 2002,
Calimanesti-Caciulata, pp. 124-128.
[3] Guillon, M., Commande et asservissement hydrauliques et electrohydrauliques, Editions Lavoisier, Paris,
1996.
[4] P. Drumea, M. Blejan, A. Mirea, I. Ilie, G.Matache, Virtual Instrument Designed For Dynamic Tests Of
Electro-Hydraulic Devices, ISSE 2007, pp.293-297.
[5] Information on http://www.ni.com.

89

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics


THE INFLUENCE OF ANGLE OF TILT OF THE SEPARATORS AND THE
AIR COURSE VELOCITY ABOUT QUALITATIVE COEFFICIENT AND THE
EXPLOATATION AT THE CLEANING AND SORTING OF THE CORN
PULSES
Constantin POPA
1
, Mihaela-Florentina DUȚU
2
, Iulian DUŢU
3

1
UniversityPOLITEHNICA of Bucharest, Faculty of Biotechnical Engineering,
costel_popa_2004@yahoo.com
2
University

POLITEHNICA of Bucharest, Faculty of Biotechnical Engineering,
davidmihaela1978@yahoo.com
3
Hydraulics and Pneumatics Research Institute, dutu.ihp@fluidas.ro

Abstract: This work aims at supplying optimum ways of peeling (cleaning) and sorting the wheat
seeds. There has been used an experimental a stand made of two bodies out of which the higher
one having adjustable angle of tilt (1…8°), and the lower one having a fixed angle of slope (15°).
The machine also has a centrifugal ventilator which we have measured five values of the air-blast
velocity like: 2, 3; 3; 5; 6 and 7 m/s.

Keywords: tilt angle, air velocity, cleaning and sorting of corn

1. Introduction
The experimental stand used at the researches is destine to cleaning and sorting after the
geometrical size (width and depth) and after the aerodynamic proprieties of the cereals, technique
plants, obtained from the combines or threshers. The cleaning and the sorting are done until at the
condition degree foresee in the standards in vigor for the products – goods.
2. Material and method
The experimental researches are done for corn of autumn at the three debits of feeding for
the experimental stand, three air course velocity, regulate by the cooling machine and for four
values of the angle of tiltβ, of the inferior separators of the superior framework with separators. The
three air course velocities are: v
1
=5 m/s; v
2
=6 m/s; v
3
=7 m/s. The four values of the β angle are:
β
1
=2°; β
2
=4°; β
3
=6°; β
4
=8°.
At the experimental stand (fig.1) are used: the caliber, the measuring cord, the precision
balance, balance type suitcase, chronometer, dynamometer balance, cup anemometer.
2.1. The establishing of the separation degree of the big impurities p from the initial mass of pulses
in function of the inferior separator of superior framework
The separation degree of the big impurities and breaches p, represent the percentage of
pulses and the big impurities calculate in report with initial mass of pulses (%).
The determinations are done at the feeding debit q =1kg/s and 5
1
= = v v
a
m/s, for angle
of tilt α=4°of a superior framework separator and for the angle of tilt β of the inferior separator of
the same framework: 2, 4, 6, 8°.

Example:

α =4
0
and β =2
0

- are gathered the big impurities;
- are gathered in bags and then are weighed the quantity of the big impurities p;
- are calculated in percentage the medium values for p;
90

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics

- for β = 4, 6, 8
0
are proceeded similar;
- are marked the graph p = f(β), for α = 4° and Vair=5 m/s.
For each of the air course velocity values Vair are marked the adequate graphs.
Each of the previous determination presented are done for corn in three repetitions.

2.2. The establishing of the separation coefficient ε of the little pulses from the initial mass of
pulses in function of the inclination of the inferior separator of superior framework separators

The separation coefficient of little pulses ε from the initial mass of pulses, represent the
report between the quantity of the little pulses effective separate from the separator of the length L
and the quantity of pulses who are may separated through the separator (the last represented the
quantity of the little pulses who are find in the initial material) [2], [3], [5], [6].
At the each test are timed the necessary time for effectuate this, with a view of
determination of the work capacity.
Then are determinate the work capacity of the machine with the relation:
t
m
Q 3600 = (1)
where: Q – work capacity of the machine (kg/h);
m – quantity of the conditioned barley (kg);
t – necessary time for each experimental determination (s).
Then is determinate the separation coefficient of the little pulses ε from the initial mass of
pulses, with relation:
L
Q c b ⋅ ⋅
+
=
1
1
ε (2)
where: ε – separation coefficient of the little pulses from the initial mass of pulses (%);
b – separator width (mm);
c – content of the little pulses from initial mass, at each determination (kg);
L – separator length (mm).
Are marked the graphs ε = f (β).
Each from the previous presented determinations is done for corn in three repetitions.

2.3. The establishing of the separation degrees of the little impurities c and the big impurities p of
the separation coefficient of the little pulses from the initial mass of pulses ε in function of the air
course velocity at the three debits of feeding

The separation degree of the little impurities c, represent the pulses and the little impurities
percentage calculate in report with initial mass of pulses (%) [1], [4].
The determinations are done for each from the five air course velocity values. at each of the
three feeding debits considered. Are marked graphs: c=f(V
air
) (figures 7, 8, 9, 10 – superior
curves); p=f(V
air
) (figures 11, 12, 13, 14); ε=f(V
air
) (figures 7, 8, 9, 10 – inferior curves) for each of
three feeding debits for corn.
The separation coefficient of little pulses from initial mass ε is establish with relation (2)
after the established the separation degrees for the little impurities c and respectively for the big
impurities p and after the preliminary established the work capacity of machine Q with relation (2).
The angles of tilt values of the two separators, α and β are combine between them: α= 4°
and β = 2°, 4°, 6°, 8°. Also the determinations are done in three repetitions.






91

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics
















Fig.1.Correlation between the angle of tilt of an inferior separator of a superior framework β,
for a angle of tilt of a superior separator of this framework of the separation of the little
pulses from initial mass of pulses ε at 5 =
air
V m/s














Fig.2. Correlation between the angle of tilt of an inferior separator of a superior framework β,
for a angle of tilt of a superior separator of this framework of the separation of the little pulses
from initial mass of pulses ε at 6 =
air
V m/s











Fig.3. Correlation between the angle of tilt of an inferior separator of a superior framework β,
for a angle of tilt of a superior separator of this framework of the separation of the little pulses
from initial mass of pulses ε at 7 =
air
V m/s




y =- 0,0025 x
2
0,001 x + 0,99 +
R
2
0,9933 =
0,8
0,85
0,9
0,95
1
2 4 6 8
β (°)
ε(%)
y =- 0,0025 x
2
0,012 x + 0,975 +
R
2
0,9947 =
0,9
0,92
0,94
0,96
0,98
1
2 4 6 8
β (°)
ε(%)
y =- 0,0062 x
2
0,0305 x + 0,945 +
R
2
0,9341 =
0,75
0,8
0,85
0,9
0,95
1
2 4 6 8
β (°)
ε (%)
92

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics















Fig.4.Correlation between the angle of tilt of an inferior separator of a superior framework β,
for a angle of tilt of a superior separator of the same framework
0
4 = α and the separation
degree of the big impurities p at 5 =
air
V m/s













Fig.5.Correlation between the angle of tilt of an inferior separator of a superior framework β,
for a angle of tilt of a superior separator of this framework
0
4 = α and the separation degree
of the big impurities p at 6 =
air
V m/s














Fig.6.Correlation between the angle of tilt of an inferior separator of a superior framework β,
for a angle of tilt of a superior separator of this framework
0
4 = α and the separation degree
of the big impurities p at 7 =
air
V m/s


y =- 0,0006 x
2
1,4067 x + 3,6525 +
R
2
0,991 =
5
7,5
10
12,5
15
2 4 6 8
β (°)
p (%)
y = 0,01 x
2
1,108 x + 6,7 +
R
2
0,9892 =
5
10
15
20
2 4 6 8
β (°)
p (%)
y =- 0,0212 x
2
1,2635 x + 8,905 +
R
2
0,9997 =
10
12,5
15
17,5
20
2 4 6 8
β (°)
p (%)
93

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics














Fig.7.Correlation between air course velocity
air
V and separation degree of the little
impurities c, respectively the separation pulses from pulses initial mass ε for the debit of
1kg/s, the separation inclination
0
4 = α and inferior separator inclination
0
2 = β













Fig.8. Correlation between air course velocity
air
V and separation degree of the little
impurities c, respectively the separation pulses from pulses initial mass ε for the debit of
1kg/s, the separation inclination
0
4 = α and inferior separator inclination
0
4 = β














Fig.9. Correlation between air course velocity
air
V and separation degree of the little
impurities c, respectively the separation pulses from pulses initial mass ε for the debit of
1kg/s, the separation inclination
0
4 = α and inferior separator inclination
0
6 = β



y = 0,0018 x
2
0,02 x + 0,7647 +
R
2
0,988 =
y =- 0,0021 x
2
0,0035 x + 1,8493 -
R
2
0,8742 =
0,5
1,5
2,5
2 3 4 5 6 7
Vair (m/s)
c, ε (%)
y =- 0,0096 x
2
0,1329 x + 0,5297 +
R
2
0,9857 =
y = 0,0379 x
2
0,5039 x + 3,2985 -
R
2
0,9883 =
0
1
2
3
2 3 4 5 6 7
Vair (m/s)
c, ε (%)
y =- 0,0047 x
2
0,0687 x + 0,7416 +
R
2
0,957 =
y = 0,0034 x
2
0,0506 x + 1,8947 -
R
2
0,9572 =
0,5
1
1,5
2
2,5
2 3 4 5 6 7
Vair (m/s)
c, ε (%)
94

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics















Fig.10. Correlation between air course velocity
air
V and separation degree of the little
impurities c, respectively the separation pulses from pulses initial mass ε for the debit of
1kg/s, the separation inclination
0
4 = α and inferior separator inclination
0
8 = β














Fig.11. Correlation between air course velocity and the separation degree of big impurities
p for debit of 1 kg/s, the superior separator inclination of superior framework
0
4 = α and
inferior separator inclination of superior framework
0
2 = β












Fig.12. Correlation between air course velocity and the separation degree of big impurities p
for debit of 1 kg/s, the superior separator inclination of superior framework
0
4 = α and
inferior separator inclination of superior framework
0
4 = β



y = 0,0107 x
2
0,059 x + 0,8486 -
R
2
0,906 =
y =- 0,0151 x
2
0,0747 x + 1,8871 +
R
2
0,872 =
0
1
2
3
2 3 4 5 6 7
Vair (m/s)
c, ε (%)
y = 0,1974 x
2
0,0712 x + 1,034 +
R
2
0,9978 =
0
5
10
15
2 3 4 5 6 7
Vair (m/s)
p (%)
y =- 0,031 x
2
2,4758 x - 2,092 +
R
2
0,9989 =
3
6
9
12
15
2 3 4 5 6 7
Vair (m/s)
p (%)
95

ISSN 1453 – 7303 “ HIDRAULICA” (No. 1/2013)
Magazine of Hydraulics, Pneumatics, Tribology, Ecology, Sensorics, Mechatronics














Fig.13. Correlation between air course velocity and the separation degree of big impurities p
for debit of 1 kg/s, the superior separator inclination of superior framework
0
4 = α and
inferior separator inclination of superior framework
0
6 = β











Fig.14. Correlation between air course velocity and the separation degree of big impurities p
for debit of 1 kg/s, the superior separator inclination of superior framework
0
4 = α and
inferior separator inclination of superior framework
0
8 = β

3. Conclusions
1. Parameters p, c, ε vary with the separators inclination and the air course velocities
concordant the graphs from figures 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, but the variation
mode is better appreciate of the integral rational function of second degree of shape ax
2
+bx+c.
2. The correlation coefficient
2
R have the values very high, what demonstrate that the two
curve the real one, and the theoretic one are identically or very close.

REFERENCES
[1] Căsăndroiu T. - „Utilaje pentru prelucrarea primară şi păstrarea produselor agricole”, Curs – vol 1, U.P.
Bucureşti, 1993.
[2] Dinu I. - „Curs de mecanică”, Editura Printech, Bucureşti, 1999.
[3] Méchtcherski I.V. – „Recueil de problèmes de mécanique rationelle”; Editions Mir, Moscou, 1973.
[4] Scripnic V., Babiciu P. – „Maşini agricole”; Editura Ceres, Bucureşti, 1979.
[5] Targ S.M. - „Eléments de mécanique rationelle”; Editions Mir, Moscou, 1975.
[6] Voinea R., Stroe I. – „Technical Mechanics”; U.P. Bucharest, 2000.

y =- 0,0228 x
2
2,4896 x - 0,5583 +
R
2
0,9957 =
4
9
14
19
2 3 4 5 6 7
Vair (m/s)
p (%)
y =- 0,2741 x
2
5,0883 x - 4,3449 +
R
2
0,9846 =
5
10
15
20
2 3 4 5 6 7
Vair (m/s)
p (%)
96