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UNIT 2: A DISCUSSION ON FUNDAMENTALS OF LOGIC Introduction: Logic is being used as a tool in a number of situations for a variety of reasons.

Logic is found to be extremely useful in decision taking problems. In computer science and engineering, knowledge of logic is essential in in the following field: • • • Analysis of algorithms and implementation Development of algorithms into a structured program in a programming language. A material of logic theory forms a basis in theoretical computer science such as Artificial Intelligence, Fuzzy logic, functioning of expert systems etc. Many times while working on a project after the beginning steps, we always have a doubt regarding whether the direction followed is right or wrong? Are we doing the job correctly? Whether the decisions taken are correct or incorrect etc? It is here logic plays an important role; using which one can solve a problem with lot of confidence and satisfaction. remarks, the next sections introduce formal symbolic logic. Basic Terminologies of logic: A Proposition is a declarative sentence written in some language, usually English, which is either true or false, but not both (i.e. true and false) at the same time. It is also referred as a simple statement or primitive proposition or an atomic statement. A proposition is denoted by using lower case letters such as p, q, r, s etc. Every proposition has exactly one of the two truth values; either true or false. When it is true, the same is assigned a symbol “T” or “1”. If the primitive statement is false, it is assigned the symbol “F” or “0”. In view of this, a proposition may be defined as a pair either (p, T) or (p, F). This situation may be compared to what we discussed earlier in set theory. It is seen that with respect to a set A and an element x, there are only two options; either x is an element of A or x need not be an element of A. There too we used the numbers 1 and 0 to describe the situation. The following are examples of propositions: p: Dr. Manmohan Singh is the president of India. q: Mumbai is the financial capital of India r: Bangalore is the silicon valley of India. s: 3+3=5 With these few

t: Dr. Abdul Kalam was awarded Bharath Rathna What about the following? • • • • • x+3 is an integer. Please come in! Are u alright? Complete work today itself What are you doing? What a beautiful evening!

These are not considered as propositions. Because, x + 3 is an integer cannot be a proposition, as x is not specified. A statement of this kind is called an open statement. the statement gets a meaning only when x is assigned a value chosen from the universe of discourse of the problem considered. Others are either commands, or enquiries, or exclamatory sentences. These are not referred to as non-propositions. Discussion of various logical connectives Negation: Let p be a proposition. It is not the case that p is called as negation of the p.

Simply, it is NOT p . This is denoted by the symbol Øp . This situation can well be explained by using a truth table which is shown below:
p T F Øp F T p 1 0 Øp 0 1

Disjunction or logical OR: Let p and q be simple propositions. A proposition obtained by combining p and q using logical OR is called p disjunction q . It is denoted by p Ú q . The truth value of p Ú q is false only when both
p and q are false, otherwise, p Ú q is a true

proposition. This is explained in the truth table given below.
p q pÚq

T T F F

T F T F

T T T F

Note: Logical operator is similar to the union operator in the case of set theory. Conjunction or logical AND:

p q p® q T F T T T T F F Few examples: • • • • T F T F If 3+3=7. If 32 – 7 = 23. 1. conjunction and disjunction are examples of dual operators. p q pÙq T T F F T F T F T F F F Note: Logical operator is similar to the intersection operator in the case of set theory. It is denoted by p Ù q . The truth table is given below. A proposition obtained by combining p and q using logical AND is called p conjunction q . then 5 + 6 = 9. p ® q is a true statement.Let p and q be simple propositions. then yesterday was Saturday. A proposition obtained by combining p and q using logical connective. one sided IMPLICATION is called p implies q . The same is explained in the truth table given below. In all other instances. then sun raises in the east. Also. The truth value of p Ù q is true only when both p and q are true otherwise p Ù q is a false proposition. namely. If tomorrow is Monday. Thus. It is denoted by p ® q . logical OR and logical AND have dual characteristics. If 3+2 = 5. if p then q Note: p implies q can be explained in many ways. then Sunday is a Christmas is a holiday. One sided implication or logical IMPLICATION or IF THEN : Let p and q be simple propositions. The truth value of p ® q is false only when p is true but q is a false proposition. .

q is necessary for p 4. Exclusive logical OR: Consider two propositions. p is necessary and also sufficient for q. p and q .2. he truth value of p q is true only when both p and q are assigned the same truth value. denoted by Ø ( p Ù q) or by p . its truth value is false. p only if q Bi-conditional or two sided implication OR IF AND ONLY IF or IFF: Let p and q be two simple propositions. p bi-conditional q is to be read as p if and only if q. the truth value is true. p q p q T T F F T F T F T F T F Note: Here. p q pÚq F T T F T T F F T F T F Note: This logical operator is similar to the symmetric difference operation for sets. say. denoted by the symbol p p Bi-conditional q is a compound proposition q . p is sufficient for q 3. Otherwise. The truth table is given below. Then p exclusive or q is a compound proposition whose true value is false when both p and q have the same truth values. NOR logical connective: . It is denoted by pÚq . • NAND logical connective: This is defined as negation of p and q . otherwise.q .

Note: It may be noted each logical variable has two possible truth value assignments. p q Ø ( p Ù q) : p . On the other hand. propositions when not specified) using a number of logical connectives. Thus. denoted by Ø ( p Ú q) or by Ø ( p ¯ q) . Suppose. . or universally invalid formula. Illustrative examples: By constructing the truth table of the following. Ø) . say .This is defined as negation of pÙq p or q . then there are 2 n choices. p3.q F T T T pÚq Ø ( p Ú q) : p . p2. if a statement formula contains “n” logical variables. Hence. or contradiction. . then it said to be a tautology. . or as universally accepted formula. What is meant by Tautology? A : A( p1. pk . and. then it is called contingency. if the truth value of A is some times true and at others false. ® . containing proper parentheses is called a statement formula or simply a statement. Contradiction and Contingency A proposition obtained by combining many logical variables (i. then it is called an absurdity.Ú. True or False. . if a statement formula A is always true. If for each of the 2 k options. For example. Tautology.e.q : F F F T T T F F T F T F T F F F T T T F Note: NAND and NOR are examples of dual logical operators. the truth value of A is always false. then A is called a tautology.Ù. the truth table of the formula will contain 2 n rows. or as universally valid formula. truth value of A turns out to be true. A discussion on statement formula. Consider a statement. determine which one is a tautology? Which one is a contradiction? Which is one a contingency? . Thus. the following are statement formulas: • • • p Ù [(q ® r ) Ú Øq ] ( p Ù q ) ® [(q ® r ) Ú (Øq Ù Øs )] (( p ® Øq) Ù( Øp Ú)) ® r ) is not a valid formula.

p ® q and Øq ® Øp are logically equivalent to each other. (p ® q ) 3. ( p ® q) « (Øp Ú q) is a Tautology (p ® q ) Øp Solution to problem number: 2. [p Ù (p ® q)] ® q ((p ® q ) Ù Øq ) ® Øp (( p ® q) Ù(q ® r)) ® ( p ® r) (Øp Ú q ) Øp Solution to problem number 1 ( p ® q ) p q A: p ® q B : Øp Ú q A B T T F F T F T F T F T T F F T T T F T T T T T T Therefore. therefore. ( p ® q) (Øp Ú q ) (Øq ® Øp) 2. if a situation demands. Solution to problem number 4: p® q . 4. (Øq ® Øp) Øq p q A: p ® q B : Øq ® Øp A B T T F F T F T F T F T T F F T T F T F T T F T T T T T T As A : p ® q and B : Øq ® Øp have same set of truth values. 5. the formula may well be replaced by Øq ® Øp .1. Therefore.

q ) and (Øp ¯ Øq ) 4. Consider the following truth table showing truth values of both the formulas p q pÚq F T T F Øp Øq F T F T A : p Ù Øq B : Øp Ù q AÚ B F T T F T T F F T F T F F F T T F T F F F F T F . determine whether the following are logically equivalent? 1. pÚq and [( p Ù Øq ) Ú (Øp Ù q )] . 2. ((p ® q ) Ù Øq ) ® Øp is a tautology. (Øp Ú q ) Ù ( p Ù ( p Ú q )) and p Ù q 3. By constructing truth table. 1. p ® (q Ú r )) and ( p Ù Øq ) ® r ) Solution of Problem No. and Thus. Ø( p . whenever A B is a tautology. ((p ® q ) Ù Øq ) ® Øp is a tautology. Equivalently. We denote this by A Û B . Logically equivalent statements Two statement formulas A and B are said to be logically equivalent.p q p® q T F T T Øq F T F T A: ( p ® q) ÙØq F F F T Øp A ® Øp T T F F T F T F F F T T T T T T Since. if A and B have same set of truth values for each of the truth value assignments to the components of A and B.

I shall play tennis this afternoon. (c) Low humidity and sunshine are sufficient for me to play this tennis this afternoon. . it follows that Ø( p . . Rewrite the following statements as an implication in the form if . (b) Finishing the writing of my computer program before lunch is necessary for my playing tennis this afternoon. it is clear that pÚq and [( p Ù Øq ) Ú (Øp Ù q )] are logically equivalent.q ) and (Øp ¯ Øq ) are logically equivalent.q ) Øp Øq F T F T Øp Ú Øq Ø(Øp ÚØq) : Øp ¯ Øq T T F F T F T F T F F F F T T T T F F F F F T T F T T T T F F F From the above table. r .q ) Ø( p . Tutorial on fundamentals of logic Let p. . (False) If George Bush was the third president of USA. (True) If 3 + 3 = 6. Determine the truth value of each of the following: (i) (ii) (iii) If 3 + 4 = 12.From the table. s denote the following statements p : I finish writing my computer program before lunch q : I shall play tennis this afternoon r : The sun is shining s : The humidity is low Write the following statements in symbolic form: (a) If the sun is shining. Solution of Problem Number 3: Consider the following truth table p q pÙq Ø( p Ù q ) : ( p . then 2 + 3 = 5. . Then. form. q . then 3 + 2 = 6. Solution: (a ) r ® q (b) p ® q (c) ( s Ù r) ® q 2. (True) 3. then 3 + 4 = 9.

the implication becomes false. s. which is not true actually. t that make each of the following statements false.(a) For practicing her serve daily is a sufficient condition for Ms. then she must wear her helmet Determine all truth value assignment. q. truth values of these primitive statements are: Primitive statements Truth values p q r s F t T T T F (b) The implication is given to be a false. r . Note that we are given that A Ù B is true (i. then she will have a good chance of winning the tennis tournament. Sania Mirza practices her serve daily. (c) If Manavi is to be allowed on Mohan’s motor bike. B :[Øs ® (Ør Ù q )] . truth values of these primitive statements are: Primitive statements Truth values p q r s T F t T T T T T T T F If statement q has the truth value 1. Thus. for the primitive statements p. Solution: We shall setup A : (q ® [(Øp Ú r ) Ù Øs ]). we must have ( p Ù q ) Ù r as true and sÚt as false. determine all truth value assignments for the primitive statements p. From this we infer that Øp Ú r and Øs . (b) Fix my air-conditioner or I won’t pay the rent. 1). Solution :( a) If Ms. therefore. therefore. It is given that q has the truth value 1. and s Ú t as false. (c) Manavi will be allowed to sit on Mohan’s motor bike only if she wears her helmet. and s for which the truth value of (q ® [(Øp Ú r ) Ù Øs ]) Ù [Øs ® (Ør Ù q )] is 1. otherwise. (a) [( p Ù q) Ù r ] ® ( s Ú t ) (b) [( p Ù q) Ù r ] ® ( sÚt ) Solution: For (a). if any. the implication is given to be a false one. Thus. Sania Mirza to have a good chance of winning the Australian Open tennis tournament.e. then I shall not pay the rent. we must have ( p Ù q ) Ù r as true. r. it follows that both A and B are true statements. it is clear that truth value of (Øp Ú r ) Ù Øs is 1. (b) If you do not fix my air-conditioner.

(b) For m = 20. m. print statement will be executed only for 380 times. q. and n are integer variables. then he will graduate at the end of semester. B :[Øs ® (Ør Ù q )] is true. n = 10 Solution: (a) For m = 10. Solution: let us set up p: Harold passes C++ course. n = 10 (b) m = 20. for i := 1 to m do for j := 1 to n do if i ¹ j then pr int i * j How many times the print statement in the segment is executed when (a ) m = 10. The negation of this statement is . A : (q ® [(Øp Ú r ) Ù Øs ]). q: Harold finishes his data structures project. the given statement may be written as ( p Ù q) ® r . n = 20 (d ) m = 20. n = 20 (c ) m = 10. n = 10. n = 20. n = 10. With Øp Ú r conclusion is that if as false.are true statements. (c) For m = 10. j. so it follows that being true. Symbolically. and s are: Primitive statements Truth values p q r s F F T F In the following program segment. n = 20. and so truth value of have p is false. Thus. Hence. print statement will be executed only for 180 times Negate and express the following statements in smooth English. truth value of is true. r: Harold becomes a graduate at the end of semester. We do have that B :[Øs ® (Ør Ù q )] r Ør is true. r. then we truth value assignments of p. The values of m and n are supplied by the user earlier in the execution of the total program. print statement will be executed only for 190 times. w must s is true. (d) For m = 20. (c) If Harold passes his C++ course and finishes his data structures project. print statement will be executed only for 90 times. I.

since A ® B Û ØA Ú B Applying De-Morgan laws. its dual is Øq Ù p . If the formula contains special symbols like T or F. Û ( Øp Ú q) Ù( Øq Ú p) . the negated statement in English is Harold passes C++ course and Harold finishes his data structures project but fails to graduate at the end of semester. (c) p « q Solution: Consider (a ) q ® p Û Øq Ú p . The contra-positive statement is “If tomorrow is not Tuesday. Øp ® Øq is called the inverse statement. therefore. inverse and contra positive statements: • • • For the statement p ® q . Write the dual of the following: (a ) q ® p. then today is not Labor Day • • • . For the statement p ® q . Consider (c) p « q Û Thus. then tomorrow is Tuesday”. q ® p is called the converse statement. the dual is ( p ® q) Ù(q ® p) (Øp Ù q) Ú( Øq Ù p) . inverse and contra -positive of the statement “If today is a labor day.Ø (( p Ù q ) ® r ) Û ù Øé ëØ ( p Ù q) Ú r û . Concept of Duality in logic: Given a statement formula involving a number of primitive statements and several logical connectives. not disturbing other logical connectives. therefore. For the statement p ® q . we obtain ( p Ù q) ÙØr . Thus. Øq ® Øp is called the contra-positive statement Write the converse. The inverse statement is “If today is not Labor Day. then these are to be replaced by F and T respectively. then today is Labor Day “. Concept of converse. the respective dual is Øp Ù ( q Ú r ) . its dual may be obtained just by replacing conjunction (Ù) by disjunction (Ú) and vice – versa. Consider (b) p ® ( q Ù r ) Û Øp Ú ( q Ù r ) . (b) p ® ( q Ù r ) . then tomorrow is not Tuesday”. Solution: The converse statement is “If tomorrow is Tuesday.

Ú p Ú p Û p (idempotent law) p Ú q Û q Ú p (Commutative law) ( p Ú q) Ú r Û • p Ú ( q Ú r ) (Associative law) . one can claim that ( P . Ù) is another discrete structure where P denotes the set of all propositions. Ù) is a discrete structure Laws of logic: With respect to disjunction i. logical AND operator disjunction operator i. . Ù and Ø are combined then. state the law used in the derivation. Also. • • ( p Ù q) Ú r Û ( p Ú r ) Ù (q Ú r ) (Distributive law) ( p Ú q) Ù r Û ( p Ù r ) Ú (q Ù r ) (Distributive law) If the operators Ú. (logical OR). ( a set of propositions. we obtain Ø ( p Ú q) Û Øp ÙØq (De . we can generate distributive laws. p Ú F Û p(identity law) p Ú T Û T (universal law) p ÚØp Û Øp Ú p Û T Thus.e. logical AND). Ø) is a discrete structure. ( a set of propositions. ( P . logical OR (Ù) and (Ú) . Ú.Laws of logic: With respect to conjunction (i.e. Simplify Ø[Ø[( p Ú q) Ù r ] ÚØq] using laws of logic only.Morgan law) Ø ( Øp) Û p (double negation law) Therefore.e. Ú) is a discrete structure With respect to combination of conjunction operator i. Ù p Ù p Û p (idempotent law) p Ù q Û q Ù p (Commutative law) • ( p Ù q) Ù r Û p Ù ( q Ù r ) (Associative law) p Ù F Û F (identity law) p Ù T Û p(universal law) p ÙØp Û Øp Ù p Û F Thus.e.Morgan law) Ø ( p Ù q) Û Øp ÚØq (De . Ù. Thus. Ú.

. then you will be happy. . Now. Ù H k ) ® C is a tautology. q : You will become rich and r : You will be happy . If you invest in stock market.Solution: We shall use De-Morgan law. Ù H k ) Þ C and read it as C follows logically from all the k – premises or the k – premises C logically. Therefore. problem may be formulated symbolically as H 1 : p ® q. H 3 . consider a set of premises H 1 . Discussion on Methods of Proof: Note: A statement which is given to be true or just true is called as a premise. then you will be happy. Here. Solution: We shall set up: p : You invest in stock market. Let C be a conclusion of some argument. H 2 : q ® r therefore C : p ® r . . . Symbolically. p q r H1 : p ® q H2 : q ® r H1 Ù H 2 C:p® r (H 1 Ù H2 ) ® C T T T T T T T T F T F T T T F T F T T F F T F T . Then. Double negation law. . then you will get rich. the problem is to determine whether (H 1 Ù H 2 ) Þ C i. We say that k – premises implies the conclusion C whenever ( H1 Ù H 2 Ù H 3 Ù . H2: If you get rich. H k . Conclusion: Therefore. and Associative law and Consider Absorption law to simply the above expression. ù Ø[Ø[( p Ú q) Ù r ] ÚØq ] Û ØØ é ë ( p Ú q) Ù r Ù q û because ØØA Û A ù Û é ë ( p Ú q) Ù r Ù q û [By Double Negation Law] Û (By associative law) ( ) ( ) é p Ú q) Ù q Ù r ù ) û ë(( But (( p Ú q) Ù q) Û q by Absorption Law . H 2 . we describe it as ( H1 Ù H 2 Ù H 3 Ù . Ø[Ø[( p Ú q) Ù r ] ÚØq] Û q Ù r . .e. one can adopt truth table method. .( H 1 Ù H 2 ) ® C is a tautology? As 3 variables are involved. Determine whether the following argument is logically valid? H1: If you invest in stock market.

then I will become a musician. Determine whether the following argument is logically valid? H1: If I try hard and I have talent. p : I try hard . With this in view. . Therefore. q : I have talent . I have not become happy. This is not feasible. to find whether ( p Ù q) ® r .F T F F F Since T F T F F T F F T F T F T T T T T F T T T F F T T T F T T T T T T T T (H 1 Ù H 2 ) ® C is a tautology. it may be concluded that this is a valid argument. therefore. there is a necessity to develop alternate strategies. r : I become a musician and s : I became happy . a statement which is given to be true in the problem can be used at any stage during the argument. Then given premises may be written in symbolical form as H1 : Here. H3: hard or I do not have talent. H 3 : Øs and the conclusion as C : Øp ÚØq (H Ù H 2 Ù H 3 ) Þ C or whether ( H1 Ù H 2 Ù H 3 ) ® C a tautology? Observe that this problem involves 4 logical variables. thus. I did not try Solution: First we shall set up the following simple statements. • Rule 1: A given premise (i. we shall now introduce rules of inference theory. 1 H 2 : r ® s. namely.e. H2: If I become a musician then I will be happy. Therefore. truth table approach may not be proper as it is required to construct a table of 16 rows.

A is true. p ® q can be replaced as either by • Rule 3: In conditional proof.e. argument is logically H1 : 2 3 valid. then ù is true. H2: If she gets a raise. for example. it is given as Øq. then Øp is true.• Rule 2: An statement can be replaced by means of an equivalent statement. i. same can be written as é ë( p ® q) Ù ( q ® r ) û Þ p® r ( p ® r) . One can verify that éØq Ù ( p ® q) ù ® Øp is a tautology. is a tautology. H3: She has not purchased a new car. we shall use the rules of inference theory. This is permitted.e. Symbolically. For example the statement Øp Ú q or by Øq ® Øp . Symbolically it is given as p. then q is certainly true. we should get R2 : Ø ( p Ù q) . We can verify that ( p Ù p ® q) ® q • Rule 5: Modus Tollens: Whenever p ® q is true and Øq is true. Conclusion: Either Haripriya did not get the supervisor’s position or she did not work hard Solution: . p ® q Þ q . we obtain R1 : ( p Ù q) ® s . if a problem to determine whether A ® B and if nothing is told about the nature of A is given. But it is known that Ø ( p Ù q) Û Øp ÚØq . Hence. then she will buy a new car. Now consider R1 : ( p Ù q) ® s and H : Øs . p implying q is true. • Rule 4: Modus ponens: Whenever p is true. ( p Ù q) ® r and H : r ® s . • • Rule 7: Law of Conjunction – Rule 8: Law of Disjunction - ( p Ù q) Þ p p Þ ( p Ú q) . ë û • Rule 6: Law of Syllogism: Whenever p ® q is true and q ® r is true. Symbolically. Consider the premises H1 and H2. Applying the law of syllogism. Determine whether the following argument is valid? H1: If Haripriya gets the supervisor position and works hard. using the law of Modus Tollens. p ® q Þ Øp . then we can introduce an additional premise in the problem by H : A i. Now. then she gets a raise.

i. No refunds were made. we obtain the result R1: Ør . it follows that truth value of (Øp ÚØq ) is false. Here. we obtain that truth value of p and q as true. q: Haripriya works hard. H2 : r ® s and H3 : Øs . Then. then refunds would have had to be made. H2 : r ® t . this implication is true. H3 : Øs C : Øp ÚØq . r: She gets the raise. the band could play rock music. R1: Ør . s: She purchase a new car. s : Anitha has become angry . namely. It is well known that Ø ( p Ù q) Û Øp ÚØq . H2 : r ® t and H3 : Øt . Determine whether the following argument is valid? If the band could not play rock music or the refreshments were not delivered on time. Therefore. Now consider the premise H1 and the result just obtained R1.. given argument is logically valid. q : The refreshments were delivered on time r : New year party is cancelled. Determine whether the argument is valid? . we should get R2 : Ø ( p Ù q) . Applying the rule of Modus Tollens. Due to this. Hence. Hence. Consider the premises H3 and H2. Therefore. we will get the result that R1 : Ør . Thus. namely. then the New Year’s party would have been cancelled and Anita would have been angry. H1 : ( p Ù q) ® r . H3 : Øt and C : p . From here. viz. we must have that truth value of r as false. we shall use the rules of inference theory. If the party were cancelled. t : Refunds had to be made Then. H2 : r ® s. But this is possible only when both Øp and Øq are false. then given premises can be written in symbolic form as H1 : ( p Ù q) ® r . Using Modus Tollens here. But according to H 1 : (Øp ÚØq ) ® ( r Ù s ) . the given premises may be written in symbolic form as H1 : (Øp Ú Øq ) ® ( r Ù s ). Again using the rule of Modus Tollens. to determine whether ( H 1 Ù H 2 Ù H 3) ® p is a tautology? As 5 parameters are involved in this problem.First we shall set up p: Haripriya gets the supervisor’s position. Equivalently. the given argument is logically valid.e. we have got that negation of r is true. Consider the premises H3 and H2. Solution: First we shall form the following primitive statements: p : The band could play rock music. it is clear that truth value of r Ù s is false.

R2: u. we get the result R1 : ( u Ù s) .e. H4: Øt here. H2 : p ® q . we should get that p is a true proposition. Now using the result R2 and the premise H1.e. applying the rule of Modus Ponens. H3 : q ® ( r Ù s) . we get that the primitive is false. Determine whether the argument is valid? H 1 : u ® r . we have Already. and applying once again rule of Modus Pones. With p being a true proposition. Thus. we get the result R1 : p ® ( r Ù s) . Using this and we Using get ( p Ú t) H2 : ( r Ù s ) ® ( p Ú t ) is a true statement. both u and s are true statements. . H 2 : (r Ù s) ® ( p Ú t ). H2 : p ® q. q . H3 : q ® ( r Ù s) . namely. is false. H1 : u ® r and the rule of Modus Ponens. we shall introduce an additional premise namely. We know that p Ú t Û t Ú p Û Øt ® p .e. H 3 : q ® ( u Ù s) . we have obtained that (i) Øt is false and (ii) Ør Ør Ú ( Øt Ú u) is true. H 4 : Ør Ú ( Øt Ú u) . Equivalently. H 4 : Øt Imply the conclusion C : q ® p ? Solution: Note that this problem is based on conditional proof. Hence the given argument is logically valid. H5 : q i. truth value of both r and s are true.e. However. To consider H2 propositions p and t are both true. Hence. Using the law of conjunction we obtain R2: u and s i. Argument: Using law of conjunction. we obtain R2 : r Ù s as a true statement. nothing is given about the nature of the primitive proposition. we will get R3 : r . Thus. i. using the law of syllogism. the given argument is logically valid. As r and s are true propositions.e. i. the truth value of negation of r is false. so only option left for us to conclude is truth value of u is true. According to H4. r Ù s is a true statement. Consider the premises H3 and H5 i.H1 : p ® ( r Ù s) . q is a true proposition. Equivalently the truth value of Øt and H3. Ør is false. q and q ® ( u Ù s) . applying Modus Ponens. H 5 : p Ù t imply the conclusion C : u ? Consider H5 : pÙt .

Let n be an integer. To prove that n is an even integer. n must be an even integer. n 2 is odd . From this. On the other hand suppose that 31n +12 is even. n = 2k . Therefore. Hence our assumption that m is even is wrong and so m must be an odd integer. Also. Proof: Observe that 3m + 2 = 2k + 1. we have 3m an odd integer. We discussed various concepts such as logical connectives. we conclude that n is an odd integer. Thus. formation of compound proposition.1. Suppose on the contrary that let n be an even integer. Then we can write n = 2k + 1. . we discussed logical equivalence of statements. We shall prove this by giving an indirect proof. an even integer. an integer ( ) ( ) Thus. primitive propositions or compound statements only. Prove that n 2 is odd if and only if n is odd. where k is an integer. Hence. To prove the converse. this is impossible as it is given that 3m + 2 is an odd integer. therefore 3m = 2k . Prove that if 3m + 2 is an odd integer. let n 31n +12 = 31×( 2k +1) +12 = 62k + 43 = 62k + 42 +1 = 2(31k + 21) +1 = 2m +1 where m = 31k + 21 is an odd integer which is impossible as we ourselves had assumed that n is even. duality of a formula etc. Prove that n is even if and only if 31n +12 is even. 31n + 12 = 31×2k = 62k = 2 ×( 31×k ) is even. To prove that n is odd. Suppose be odd. Proof: It is known that an odd integer may be written as n = 2k + 1.Discussion of Direct Proof and Indirect Proof Let n be a positive integer. But 2 ( ) this is against our hypothesis that n 2 is odd. and contingency. we shall give an indirect proof. Hence. an odd integer . Now. Then we can write as n = 2k so that n2 = ( 2k ) = 4k 2 = 2 2k 2 an even integer. n 2 = ( 2k + 1) 2 = 4k 2 + 4k + 1 =2 2k 2 + 2k + 1 =2m + 1 where m = 2k 2 + 2k . Thus. where k is an integer. then m is an odd integer. A discussion on Predicates and Quantifiers So far study was confined to a set of simple. Proof: Suppose that n is an even integer. we must conclude that m is odd. To begin with let n 2 be an odd integer. where k Î Z squaring both sides. contradiction. on the contrary. otherwise 3m + 2 = 3 ( 2k ) + 2 = 6k + 2 = 2( 3k + 1) . tautologies.

a technique to joint it with a symbol representing an animal.Further. so to study these. consider the following statements. it is appropriate to develop a mechanism using which it must be possible represent all the common feature of the objects. then we are done as this single expression will speak about all the individuals which are animals. does not show the common property of the symbols. The following section is devoted to the same. Dog is an animal Cat is an animal Elephant is an animal Tiger is an animal Lion is an animal Deer is an animal Horse is an animal and the list go on Observe that all these statements are about individuals which are animals. Since only one variable is involved here. Therefore. Usually. A( x ) is said to be 1 place predicate function or as an open statement of a single variable. then certainly a large number of symbols are necessary. Thus. that each symbol denotes an animal. First we introduce a symbol to denote the phrase “is an animal” and secondly. it is clear that all the topics discussed under fundamentals of logic can be extended to predicates calculus. one may combine the open statements using the logical . A( x ) • • • • • • • the set of animals. Now we shall initiate a discussion on predicates and quantifiers. But even the usage of different symbols. rules of inference theory were introduced using which problems based on logical arguments were examined. . Here. Suppose if we want to describe all the animals of the universe. namely. a predicate is represented by using upper case letters and lower case letters are considered for the objects associated with a predicate. to be read as x is A or as object has the property stated in the predicate. the part “is an animal” is called as predicate. we require different symbols to denote these animals. let us consider A : is an animal then all objects which are animals may be expressed as A( x ) where x is a variable to be chosen from the universe of discourse. Similarly 2 – place. Thus. The study of predicate functions constitutes predicate calculus. To deal with a situation of this type. Before understanding these. 3 – place predicates can be introduced.

Consider the statement p( x ) : x is a holiday . Then U = {Sunday. Consider an open statement p( x ) which is true for all substitutions from a universe of discourse. thus. Tuesday. denoted by $ . There are some bad boys in a class room. A note on Quantifiers In a practical situation. 2. we come across a number of quantified statements like Live lectures through EDUSAT programme is open for all engineering college students in Karnataka A vehicle having Karnataka state permit is permitted to move on any road in the state. Existential Quantifier: There are statements which are true only under circumstances. this situation may be written as $ x p( x ) . namely. Saturday}. Please remember that the set of all objects is called as universe of discourse or just universe. There is at least one student in some engineering watching this programme coming live from VTU studio.e. Thursday. • • • • • • Statements shown in previous slides can be expressed symbolically using quantifiers. Bangalore. for every and for any etc. Consider an open statement of the form q ( x ) . one can extend the definitions like logical equivalence. It is known that there is a day in a week which is declared as a general holiday (i. Symbolically. Some students never follow Discrete Mathematics course whoever teaches this course. it is denoted as " . This is similar to the situation. then the same may be written in symbolic form as " x p( x ) . Sunday). for all. There are two types of quantifiers: 1.connectives. Universal quantifier: A statement which is universally valid may be explained using an universal quantifier. Note: An open statement of the form q ( x ) gets A meaning only when x is replaced by a proper value from the universe or universe of discourse. denoted by U . Friday. tautology etc to these. Monday. Wednesday. These statements may be symbolically expressed in terms of existential quantifier. Examples: Examples: Consider universe of discourse as the set of all days of a week. Suppose that this statement is true only for some values of x . This may be symbolically written as $ x q ( x ) . Pythagoras Theorem holds well for all right angled triangles and the list go on.

we have the result Ø [" x f ( x )] Û $ x Øf ( x ) . remarks regarding predicates and quantifiers. Hence. Similarly. Also. Take the universe as the set of all flowers and consider the statement. let p( x ). f ( x ) is false. only when for all values of x the statement q ( x ) is false. q ( x ). f ( x ) : x is a flower . p( x ) : x > 0 q ( x ) : x is even r ( x ) : x is a perfect square s ( x ) : x is exactly divisible by 4 t ( x ) : x is exactly divisible by 5 . Therefore. we shall set up . we have the following results to negate the statements with one quantifier: • • • • Ø [" x p( x )] Û $ x Øp( x ) Ø [$ x p( x )] Û " x Øp( x ) Ø [" x Øp( x )] Û $ x ØØp( x ) Û $ x p( x ) Ø [$ x Øp( x )] Û " x ØØp( x ) Û " x p( x ) Tutorial on Quantifiers: For the universe of integers. we obtain Ø [$ x q ( x )] Û " x Øq( x ) . then above may be written symbolically as " x f ( x ) . s ( x ). the statement $ q( x ) will take the truth value false. the following are some of important • • • • [ p( x) Ù q( x)] Û [$ x p( x) Ù$ x q( x)] $ x [ p( x ) Ú q( x )] Û [$ x p( x ) Ú$ x q( x )] " x [ p( x ) Ú q( x )] Û [" x p( x ) Ú" x q( x )] [" x p( x) Ú" x q( x)] Þ " x [ p( x) Ú q( x)] $x Also. To write this statement in symbolic form. r ( x ). t ( x ) be the following open statements. Some important remarks: The statement " x f ( x ) assumes the truth value false even if for one value of x .Another example. “Flowers are beautiful”.

determine the truth or falsity of each of the following statements. (iv) $ x s( x ) For the universe of all integers. (ii) $ x q ( x ). There exists a positive integer that is even. (e ) $ x [ r ( x ) ® p( x )] . If a statement is false. Some students are very serious.Write the following statements in symbolic form: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) At least one integer is even . If x is even and x is a perfect square. There exists an even integer divisible by 5. No even integer is divisible by 5. If x is even. s ( x ) : x is very intelligent. (b) " x [q( x) ® p( x)] . then x is not divisibly by 5. (c) $ x [q ( x ) ® p( x )] . q ( x ) : x is odd . Solution: i) $ x q( x ) (ii ) $ x (iv) " x [Øq ( x ) ® t ( x )] ( v) [ p( x) Ù q( x)] (iii) " x [q( x) ® Øt ( x)] ù $ x [q ( x ) ® t ( x )] ( vi) " x é ë( q ( x ) Ù r ( x )) ® s ( x ) û Translate each of these statements into logical expressions using predicates. r ( x ) : x can keep secret. (iii ) " x Ør ( x ). There is some in this class who is very intelligent Solution: Let us consider the universe as the set of all students of a college. (a ) " x d) [ p( x) ® q( x)] . Solution: (i ) $ x Øp( x ). give a counter example. quantifiers and logical connectives: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Some students do not follow the rules. q ( x ) : x is a very serious person. r ( x ) : x > 0. No student can keep a secret. then x is divisibly by 4. p( x ) : x 2 . First we shall set up the following primitive statements p( x ) : x follows the rules. ( f ) " $x x [ p( x) ® q( x)] é( p( x ) Ú q ( x )) ® r ( x ) ù ë û ù ( g) $ x é ë p( x ) ® ( q ( x ) Ù r ( x )) û .8 x + 15 = 0.

(c) The English version of this statement is that there is a solution of x 2 . As the roots are 3 and 5. This is a false statement. According to statement (b) if x is an odd integer. This is true because x = 3 a positive integer and is a root.5) = 0 . Statements (f) and (g) are both true.8 x + 15 = 0 . x = 5. for. there is a positive integer which is also a root of the quadratic equation x 2 . (c) and (d) are both true statements. which are odd. x = 1.3) ×( x . According to statement (e). an odd integer is not a root of the quadratic equation.8 x + 15 = 0 .8 x + 15 = 0 may be factorized as Thus.8 x + 15 = 0 which is odd. therefore. roots are ( x . it is clear that statement (a) is true. x = 3. then it is a solution of the quadratic equation x 2 .Solution: The quadratic equation x 2 . as both the roots are odd. .